Publications by authors named "Qin Wang"

2,225 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Water quality assessment of Lugu Lake based on Nemerow pollution index method.

Sci Rep 2022 Aug 10;12(1):13613. Epub 2022 Aug 10.

Department of Pollution Source and Emergency Monitoring, Sichuan Ecological Environment Monitoring Station, Chengdu, 610073, China.

In this paper, three monitoring sections were set up in Lugu Lake, and water samples were collected in 2019, 2020, and 2021 for the determination of physical and chemical properties such as permanganate index, chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and so on. By using the single factor pollution index method and the Nemerow pollution index method, the water quality of three monitoring sections and the whole Lugu Lake was assessed, and the temporal and spatial changes of water quality were analyzed. The findings demonstrate that Lugu Lake's overall water quality is excellent, and that it has not altered significantly in three years.The results of evaluating the water quality by the single factor pollution index method show that, in the past three years, the water quality of the three monitoring sections and the whole of Lugu Lake is Category I, which belongs to no pollution, and the measured indicators all meet the water quality standard of Category I. It can be seen from the evaluation results of the Nemerow index method that the water quality pollution index of Lugu Lake is between 0.22 and 0.34 in the past three years and the water quality evaluation of Changdao Bay, Lake center, Zhaojia Bay and the whole are Category I standards in 2019, 2020 and 2021. In terms of time changes, the water quality of Lugu Lake has remained stable between 2019 and 2021, and the water quality has been good. From the perspective of spatial changes, in 2019 and 2020, the water quality in Lake center is better than the monitoring sections of Changdao Bay and Zhaojia Bay.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-17874-wDOI Listing
August 2022

Differential requirement of DICER1 activity during development of mitral and tricuspid valves.

J Cell Sci 2022 Aug 10. Epub 2022 Aug 10.

Department of Genetics, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA.

Mitral and tricuspid valves are essential for unidirectional blood flow in the heart. They are derived from similar cell sources, and yet congenital dysplasia affecting both valves is clinically rare, suggesting the presence of differential regulatory mechanisms underlying their development. We specifically inactivated Dicer1 in the endocardium during cardiogenesis and found that Dicer1-deletion caused congenital mitral valve stenosis and regurgitation, while it had no impact on other valves. We showed that hyperplastic mitral valves were caused by abnormal condensation and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. Our single-cell RNA Sequencing analysis revealed impaired maturation of mesenchymal cells and abnormal expression of ECM genes in mutant mitral valves. Furthermore, expression of a set of miRNAs that target ECM genes was significantly lower in tricuspid valves compared to mitral valves, consistent with the idea that the miRNAs are differentially required for mitral and tricuspid valve development. We thus reveal miRNA-mediated gene regulation as a novel molecular mechanism that differentially regulates mitral and tricuspid valve development, thereby enhancing our understanding of the non-association of inborn mitral and tricuspid dysplasia observed clinically.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.259783DOI Listing
August 2022

The interaction between the soluble programmed death ligand-1 (sPD-L1) and PD-1 regulator B cells mediates immunosuppression in triple-negative breast cancer.

Front Immunol 2022 22;13:830606. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

School of Biology & Basic Medical Sciences, Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Accumulating evidence suggests that regulatory B cells (Bregs) play important roles in inhibiting the immune response in tumors. Programmed death 1 (PD-1) and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) are important molecules that maintain the balance of the immune response and immune tolerance. This study aims to evaluate the soluble form of PD-L1 and its function in inducing the differentiation of B lymphocytes, investigate the relationship between soluble PD-L1 (sPD-L1) and B-cell subsets, and explore the antitumor activity of T lymphocytes after PD-L1 blockade in coculture systems. In an effort to explore the role of sPD-L1 in human breast cancer etiology, we examined the levels of sPD-L1 and interleukin-10 (IL-10) in the serum of breast tumor patients and the proportions of B cells, PD-1 B cells, Bregs, and PD-1 Bregs in the peripheral blood of patients with breast tumors and assessed their relationship among sPD-L1, IL-10, and B-cell subsets. The levels of sPD-L1 and IL-10 in serum were found to be significantly higher in invasive breast cancer (IBCa) patients than in breast fibroadenoma (FIBma) patients. Meanwhile, the proportions and absolute numbers of Bregs and PD-1 Bregs in the peripheral blood of IBCa patients were significantly higher than those of FIBma patients. Notably, they were the highest in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) among other subtypes of IBCa. Positive correlations of sPD-L1 and IL-10, IL-10 and PD-1 Bregs, and also sPD-L1 and PD-1 Bregs were observed in IBCa. We further demonstrated that sPD-L1 could induce Breg differentiation, IL-10 secretion, and IL-10 mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner . Finally, the induction of regulatory T cells (T) by Bregs was further shown to suppress the antitumor response and that PD-L1 blockade therapies could promote the apoptosis of tumor cells. Together, these results indicated that sPD-L1 could mediate the differentiation of Bregs, expand CD4 T and weaken the antitumor activity of CD4 T cells. PD-L1/PD-1 blockade therapies might be a powerful therapeutic strategy for IBCa patients, particularly for TNBC patients with high level of PD-1 Bregs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2022.830606DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9354578PMC
August 2022

Hepatocyte-secreted Autotaxin Exacerbates Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Through Autocrine Inhibition of the PPARalpha/FGF21 axis.

Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol 2022 Aug 2. Epub 2022 Aug 2.

State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China; Department of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China; Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacy, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has reached epidemic proportions globally due to the rapid rise in obesity. However, there is no FDA-approved pharmacotherapy available for NAFLD. This study aims to investigate the role of autotaxin (ATX), a secreted enzyme that hydrolyzes lysophosphatidylcholine to produce lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and to explore whether genetic or pharmacological interventions targeting autotaxin ameliorate NAFLD.

Methods: Clinical association of autotaxin with the severity of NAFLD was analyzed in 125 liver biopsy-proven NAFLD patients. C57BL/6N mice or FGF21-null mice were fed with high-fat diet or choline-deficient diet to interrogate the roles of autotaxin-FGF21 axis in NAFLD development by hepatic knockdown and antibody neutralization. Huh7 cells were used to investigate the autocrine effects of autotaxin.

Results: Serum autotaxin levels were positively associated with histological scores and severity of NAFLD. Hepatocytes but not adipocytes were the major contributor to increased circulating autotaxin in both patients and mouse models with NAFLD. In mice, knocking-down hepatic autotaxin or treatment with a neutralizing antibody against autotaxin significantly reduced high-fat diet-induced NAFLD and high fat- and choline-deficient diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibrosis, accompanied by a marked elevation of serum FGF21. Mechanistically, autotaxin inhibited the transcriptional activity of PPARα through LPA-induced activation of ERK, thereby leading to suppression of hepatic FGF21 production. The therapeutic benefit of anti-autotaxin neutralizing antibody against NAFLD was abrogated in FGF21-null mice.

Conclusions: Liver-secreted autotaxin acts in an autocrine manner to exacerbate NAFLD through LPA-induced suppression of the PPARα-FGF21 axis and is a promising therapeutic target for NAFLD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcmgh.2022.07.012DOI Listing
August 2022

Corrigendum to "Improving in vitro biocompatibility on biomimetic mineralized collagen bone materials modified with hyaluronic acid oligosaccharide" [Mater. Sci. Eng. C 104 (2019) 110008].

Biomater Adv 2022 Apr 28;135:212747. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

National Glycoengineering Research Center, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Carbohydrate Chemistry and Glycobiology, Shandong University, Jinan 250100, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioadv.2022.212747DOI Listing
April 2022

[The Effect of Torsion of Blood Vessel after Stent Implantation on Mechanical State of Stent].

Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi 2022 Jul;46(4):388-394

Institute of Biomechanics, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200433.

Objective: In daily life, the movement of the neck will cause certain deformation of the blood vessel and the stent. This study explores the quantitative influence of the torsion deformation of the blood vessel on the mechanical properties of the stent.

Methods: In the finite element simulation software Abaqus, the numerical simulation of the crimping and releasing process of the stent, the numerical simulation of the torsion process of the blood vessel with the stent, and the numerical simulation of the pressure loading process of the outer wall of the blood vessel were carried out.

Results: After the stent was implanted, when a load was applied to the outer surface of the blood vessel wall, when the applied load did not change, as the torsion angle increased, the smallest cross-sectional area in the blood vessel decreased.

Conclusions: After the stent is placed, when the external load is fixed, the radial support capacity of the stent will decrease as the torsion angle increases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1671-7104.2022.04.008DOI Listing
July 2022

Bimetallic doping engineering of NiS nanosheets originating from NiFe layered double hydroxide for efficient overall water splitting.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2022 Aug 3. Epub 2022 Aug 3.

College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021, P. R. China.

Fe, Mo-doped NiS nanosheets that are derived from NiFe-LDH by structural transformation have been successfully developed. The obtained Fe, Mo-NiS exhibits a low overpotential of 67 mV to enable a current density of 10 mA cm for the HER and the overpotential for the OER is only 240 mV. Besides, the current density of 10 mA cm can be achieved with a voltage of 1.53 V in a two-electrode hydrolysis device.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2cc01711cDOI Listing
August 2022

Air Pollution Health Impact Monitoring and Health Risk Assessment Technology and Its Application - China, 2006-2019.

China CDC Wkly 2022 Jul;4(26):577-581

China CDC Key Laboratory of Environment and Population Health, National Institute of Environmental Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.

Air pollution is a significant risk factor contributing to the burden of disease in China. Health risk assessment and management are important to reduce the impact of air pollution on public health. To help formulate standardized health risk assessment techniques, a series of studies were conducted from 2006 to 2019. Through systematic review, study of molecular mechanisms, epidemiological investigation, and health effect monitoring, the overall project established a monitoring and evaluation indicator system, a comprehensive information platform, software for automatic data cleaning, and standardized health risk assessment techniques. Technical specifications have been issued by the National Health Commission for promoting health risk assessments across China. This paper introduces the project, the research approach, its main research accomplishments, innovations, and public health significance, and describes directions for further research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.46234/ccdcw2022.125DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9339357PMC
July 2022

Isolation, identification and characterization of taste peptides from fermented broad bean paste.

Food Funct 2022 Aug 2. Epub 2022 Aug 2.

School of Food and Bio-engineering, Xihua University, Chengdu 610039, China.

Pixian broad-bean paste (PBBP) is a famous fermented condiment in China, which may produce abundant flavor peptides during the fermentation process. Herein, the flavor peptides from fermented broad-bean (FB) were separated and identified ethanol precipitation, macroporous resin, and ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS) methods. The results showed that there were fifteen novel flavor peptides in FB. Among them, six peptides ( ALDELGT, AELTPEP, SAALQAG, SFEAVEAAPT, EQDNDGNNIFSGFKR, QTFNTEEDTAK, and DAPASGN) were perceived umami with threshold values ranging from 0.76 to 1.84 mmol L. And they had both salty-enhancing and umami-enhancing abilities. Meanwhile, novel peptides ( GGLRIINPEGQQ, SIITPPERQ, GGLSIITPPERQA, GGLRIINPEG, SIITPPER, RIINPEGQQ, DALNVNRHIV, and LPKILLLQLV) were perceived bitter with threshold values ranging from 0.56 to 2.89 mmol L. And the monosodium glutamate (MSG) solution had a certain masking effect on bitter peptides. GFSSEFLA showed a strong sweet taste. From peptide sequence analysis, it was found that and broad-bean were important taste-active sources of the flavor peptides in FB. Besides, the synthetic peptides showed a much better sensory taste than the mixtures of the corresponding amino acids. It indicated that peptides might play an important role in deciding the taste of FB. Significantly, it is the first time that the isolated flavor peptides were identified from FB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2fo01389dDOI Listing
August 2022

Clinical Application of Traditional Chinese Medicine Therapy for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: An Evidence Map.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2022 19;2022:2755332. Epub 2022 Jul 19.

Department of Medical Administration, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610000, China.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a common disease with a complex etiology in the world, is an important risk factor for severe cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, treatments of T2DM are mainly based on Western medicine, whose severe side effects make traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) therapy more appealing to patients and clinicians. The overall clinical evidence for different TCM therapies in the treatment of T2DM is still unclear. This study aimed to adopt the evidence-mapping method and integrate the evidence from various researches on this topic, to depict the whole picture of TCM therapies for T2DM. This review included searches of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and three major Chinese literature databases (CNKI, VIP, and Wanfang) from inception to November 18, 2021. Two independent reviewers screened the literature, extracted information, and evaluated the quality of all included studies. A systematic review was subsequently performed. In total, 47 studies were reviewed, of which 46 studies (97.9%) were from China and 1 (2.1%) was from Canada. The evidence map was conducted according to different TCM therapies, including herbs or herbal extracts, compounds, powders, decoctions, pills, external treatment, basic theories and treatment principles of TCM, proprietary Chinese medicines, and unspecified TCM integrated therapies. According to the AMSTAR-2 scoring results, 4 papers were rated as high quality, 11 were low quality, and 32 were very low quality. Outcome indicators mainly focused on FBG, HbA1c, 2-h PBG, TC, TG, LDL-C, etc. The results showed that different types of TCM treatment had different improvement effects on the outcome indicators of T2DM. More consistent benefits were observed in the improvement of FBG, HbA1c, and 2-h PBG with treatment regimens based on basic theories and treatment principles of TCM, decoctions and pills, and unspecified TCM integrated therapies. Among herbs, ginger and Coptis root showed more improvement in all outcomes. Compounds, powders, and external treatment showed relatively consistent beneficial effects on the improvement of FBG. No serious adverse events were reported. Overall, the current evidence map provided an intuitive overview of the beneficial effects of TCM therapies in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. This study can be used as a reference for the clinical application of traditional Chinese medicine in T2DM, but due to the low-quality level of the included studies, it should be treated with caution in clinical practices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/2755332DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9325645PMC
July 2022

Mechanism research and treatment progress of NAD pathway related molecules in tumor immune microenvironment.

Cancer Cell Int 2022 Jul 30;22(1):242. Epub 2022 Jul 30.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, The Second Hospital of Shandong University, 247 Beiyuan Street, 250033, Jinan, Shandong, China.

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is the core of cellular energy metabolism. NAMPT, Sirtuins, PARP, CD38, and other molecules in this classic metabolic pathway affect many key cellular functions and are closely related to the occurrence and development of many diseases. In recent years, several studies have found that these molecules can regulate cell energy metabolism, promote the release of related cytokines, induce the expression of neoantigens, change the tumor immune microenvironment (TIME), and then play an anticancer role. Drugs targeting these molecules are under development or approved for clinical use. Although there are some side effects and drug resistance, the discovery of novel drugs, the development of combination therapies, and the application of new technologies provide solutions to these challenges and improve efficacy. This review presents the mechanisms of action of NAD  pathway-related molecules in tumor immunity, advances in drug research, combination therapies, and some new technology-related therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12935-022-02664-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9338646PMC
July 2022

A systematic review of prognosis predictive role of radiomics in pancreatic cancer: heterogeneity markers or statistical tricks?

Eur Radiol 2022 Jul 29. Epub 2022 Jul 29.

Department of Radiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Shuaifuyuan No.1, Wangfujing Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing, 100730, China.

Objectives: We aimed to systematically evaluate the prognostic prediction accuracy of radiomics features extracted from pre-treatment imaging in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC).

Methods: Radiomics literature on overall survival (OS) prediction of PDAC were all included in this systematic review. A further meta-analysis was performed on the effect size of first-order entropy. Methodological quality and risk of bias of the included studies were assessed by the radiomics quality score (RQS) and prediction model risk of bias assessment tool (PROBAST).

Results: Twenty-three studies were finally identified in this review. Two (8.7%) studies compared prognosis prediction ability between radiomics model and TNM staging model by C-index, and both showed a better performance of the radiomics. Twenty-one (91.3%) studies reported significant predictive values of radiomics features. Nine (39.1%) studies were included in the meta-analysis, and it showed a significant correlation between first-order entropy and OS (HR 1.66, 95%CI 1.18-2.34). RQS assessment revealed validation was only performed in 5 (21.7%) studies on internal datasets and 2 (8.7%) studies on external datasets. PROBAST showed that 22 (95.7%) studies have a high risk of bias in participants because of the retrospective study design.

Conclusion: First-order entropy was significantly associated with OS and might improve the accuracy of PDAC prognosis prediction. Existing studies were poorly validated, and it should be noted in future studies. Modification of PROBAST for radiomics studies is necessary since the strict requirements of prospective study design may not be applicable to the demand for a large sample size in the model construction stage.

Key Points: • Radiomics based on the primary lesion holds great potential for prognosis prediction. First-order entropy was significantly associated with the overall survival of PDAC and might improve the accuracy of current PDAC prognosis prediction. • We strongly recommend that at least an internal validation should be conducted in any radiomics study. Attention should be paid to the complex relationships between radiomics features. • Due to the close relationship between radiomics and big data, the strict requirement of prospective study design in PROABST may not be appropriate for radiomics studies. A balance between study types and sample sizes for radiomics studies needs to be found in the model construction stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-022-08922-0DOI Listing
July 2022

Gadolinium-based ultra-small nanoparticles augment radiotherapy-induced T-cell response to synergize with checkpoint blockade immunotherapy.

Nanoscale 2022 Aug 11;14(31):11429-11442. Epub 2022 Aug 11.

Institute of Radiation Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin 300192, China.

Radiotherapy suffers from its high-dose radiation-induced systemic toxicity and radioresistance caused by the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Immunotherapy using checkpoint blocking in solid tumors shows limited anticancer efficacy due to insufficient T-cell infiltration and inadequate systemic immune responses. Activation and guiding of irradiation by X-ray (AGuIX) nanoparticles with sizes below 5 nm have entered a phase III clinical trial as efficient radiosensitizers. This study aimed to develop a unique synergistic strategy based on AGuIX-mediated radiotherapy and immune checkpoint blockade to further improve the efficiency for B16 tumor therapy. AGuIX exacerbated radiation-induced DNA damage, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis on B16 cells. More importantly, it could efficiently induce the immunogenic cell death of irradiated B16 tumor cells, and consequently trigger the maturation of dendritic cells and activation of systemic T-cell responses. Combining AGuIX-mediated radiotherapy with programmed cell death protein 1 blockade demonstrated excellent synergistic therapeutic effects in both bilateral and metastatic B16 tumor models, as indicated by a significant increase in the infiltration of effector CD8 T cells and effective alleviation of the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Our findings indicate that the synergy between radiosensitization and immunomodulation provides a new and powerful therapy regimen to achieve durable antitumor T-cell responses, which is promising for cancer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2nr02620aDOI Listing
August 2022

Post-tuberculosis tracheobronchial stenosis: long-term follow-up after self-expandable metallic stents placement and development of a prediction score-the Restenosis Score.

Eur J Med Res 2022 Jul 27;27(1):133. Epub 2022 Jul 27.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Shanghai Changhai Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital of Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 200433, China.

Background: The insertion of self-expandable metallic stents (SEMS) for post-tuberculosis tracheobronchial stenosis (PTTS) was controversial. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of SEMS for treating PTTS, and developed a scoring system for predicting the occurrence of restenosis after stenting in PTTS patients.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of 87 patients who were diagnosed with PTTS and experienced SEMS insertion between January 2000 and December 2017. All procedures were performed via flexible bronchoscopy under conscious sedation and local anesthesia.

Results: A total of 85 SEMS were successfully placed in 77 patients. Comparing with pre-stenting, there were significant improvements in the lumen diameters of the stenotic segment, mMRC scale and lung function after short-term SEMS placement. During the long-term (average 163.32 months) follow-up, 48 patients (62.3%) did not develop restenosis after stenting; the other 29 patients (37.7%) developed and eventually, 12 remained under interventional therapies and 11 had bronchial atresia. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that the difference value between SEMS length and the stenosis-segment length, stenosis type, and the number of pre-stenting thermal ablation were independently related to restenosis occurrence and were subsequently used to establish the Restenosis Score. The model's development group (0.83, 95% CI 0.74-0.92) and external validation set (0.94, 95% CI 0.77-1.00) showed excellent discrimination.

Conclusion: SEMS placement could serve as a safe and effective treatment option for most patients with PTTS. Further, we built a prediction model depending on the independent predictors of restenosis occurrence, the Restenosis Score. This validated tool might provide a decision support and a better management for PTTS patients who underwent SEMS implantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40001-022-00765-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9327164PMC
July 2022

Blue light-induced phosphorylation of Arabidopsis CRY1 is essential for its photosensitivity.

J Integr Plant Biol 2022 Jul 27. Epub 2022 Jul 27.

Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Genetics, Breeding and Multiple Utilization of Crops, College of Agriculture, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002, China.

Plants possess two cryptochrome photoreceptors, cryptochrome 1 (CRY1) and cryptochrome 2 (CRY2), that mediate overlapping and distinct physiological responses. Both CRY1 and CRY2 undergo blue light-induced phosphorylation, but the molecular details of CRY1 phosphorylation remain unclear. Here we identify 19 in vivo phosphorylation sites in CRY1 by mass spectrometry and systematically analyze the physiological and photobiochemical activities of CRY1 variants with phosphosite substitutions. We demonstrate that nonphosphorylatable CRY1 variants have impaired phosphorylation, degradation, and physiological functions, whereas phosphomimetic variants mimic the physiological functions of phosphorylated CRY1 to constitutively inhibit hypocotyl elongation. We further demonstrate that phosphomimetic CRY1 variants exhibit enhanced interaction with the E3 ubiquitin ligase COP1 (CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1). This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that phosphorylation of CRY1 is required for COP1-dependent signaling and regulation of CRY1. We also determine that PHOTOREGULATORY PROTEIN KINASEs (PPKs) phosphorylate CRY1 in a blue light-dependent manner and that this phosphorylation is critical for CRY1 signaling and regulation. These results indicate that, similar to CRY2, blue light-dependent phosphorylation of CRY1 determines its photosensitivity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jipb.13331DOI Listing
July 2022

Enhancing the Activity of Carboxymethyl Cellulase Enzyme Using Highly Stable Selenium Nanoparticles Biosynthesized by Y4.

Molecules 2022 Jul 18;27(14). Epub 2022 Jul 18.

National R&D Center for Se-Rich Agricultural Products Processing, School of Modern Industry for Selenium Science and Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan 430023, China.

The inorganic selenium is absorbed and utilized inefficiently, and the range between toxicity and demand is narrow, so the application is strictly limited. Selenium nanoparticles have higher bioactivity and biosafety properties, including increased antioxidant and anticancer properties. Thus, producing and applying eco-friendly, non-toxic selenium nanoparticles in feed additives is crucial. Y4 was investigated for its potential ability to produce selenium nanoparticles and the activity of carboxymethyl cellulases. The selenium nanoparticles were characterized using zeta potential analyses, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Additionally, evaluations of the anti-α-glucosidase activity and the antioxidant activity of the selenium nanoparticles and the ethyl acetate extracts of Y4 were conducted. Y4 exhibited high selenite tolerance of 400 mM and the selenium nanoparticles had an average particle size of 80 nm with a zeta potential value of -35.8 mV at a pH of 7.0, suggesting that the particles are relatively stable against aggregation. After 72 h of incubation with 5 mM selenite, Y4 was able to reduce it by 76.4%, yielding red spherical bio-derived selenium nanoparticles and increasing the carboxymethyl cellulase activity by 1.49 times to 8.96 U/mL. For the first time, this study reports that the carboxymethyl cellulase activity of was greatly enhanced by selenite. The results also indicated that Y4 could be capable of ecologically removing selenite from contaminated sites and has great potential for producing selenium nanoparticles as feed additives to enhance the added value of agricultural products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules27144585DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9324468PMC
July 2022

Uncovering the Contribution of Moderate-Penetrance Susceptibility Genes to Breast Cancer by Whole-Exome Sequencing and Targeted Enrichment Sequencing of Candidate Genes in Women of European Ancestry.

Cancers (Basel) 2022 Jul 11;14(14). Epub 2022 Jul 11.

Institute for Clinical Genetics, Faculty of Medicine Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, 01307 Dresden, Germany.

Rare variants in at least 10 genes, including , and , are associated with increased risk of breast cancer; however, these variants, in combination with common variants identified through genome-wide association studies, explain only a fraction of the familial aggregation of the disease. To identify further susceptibility genes, we performed a two-stage whole-exome sequencing study. In the discovery stage, samples from 1528 breast cancer cases enriched for breast cancer susceptibility and 3733 geographically matched unaffected controls were sequenced. Using five different filtering and gene prioritization strategies, 198 genes were selected for further validation. These genes, and a panel of 32 known or suspected breast cancer susceptibility genes, were assessed in a validation set of 6211 cases and 6019 controls for their association with risk of breast cancer overall, and by estrogen receptor (ER) disease subtypes, using gene burden tests applied to loss-of-function and rare missense variants. Twenty genes showed nominal evidence of association (-value < 0.05) with either overall or subtype-specific breast cancer. Our study had the statistical power to detect susceptibility genes with effect sizes similar to , and , however, it was underpowered to identify genes in which susceptibility variants are rarer or confer smaller effect sizes. Larger sample sizes would be required in order to identify such genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers14143363DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9317824PMC
July 2022

Comparison of computer-assisted navigated technology and conventional technology in high tibial osteotomy (HTO): a meta-analysis.

Comput Assist Surg (Abingdon) 2022 Dec;27(1):63-73

Department of Joint Surgery, Huangshan City People's Hospital, Huangshan, Anhui, China.

Background: Though some studies have reported navigated high tibial osteotomy (HTO) is a useful procedure to correct knee deformity. There is still great controversy whether navigated HTO can achieve better accuracy of limb alignment and greater clinical outcomes. Current meta-analysis was conducted to investigate whether better radiographic outcomes and clinical outcomes could be acquired in navigated HTO compared with the conventional procedure.

Method: We conducted a literature search in the electronic databases, including Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and Web of Science. We identified studies published before August 2020. We also checked the references of the related articles for any relevant studies. We strictly followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematics reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines in this review. This research was performed using Review Manager 5.4 software.

Results: Fourteen articles were included, involving 1399 knees. Our meta-analysis indicated that patients undergoing navigated HTO had significantly better outcomes in outliers of aimed limb alignment (RD=-0.24, 95% CI: =-0.34 to -0.13,  < 0.01), outliers of aimed tibial posterior slope (TPS) (RD=-0.41, 95% CI: -0.51 to -0.30,  < 0.01), Range of Motion (ROM) (MD = 6.37, 95%CI: 0.83-11.91,  = 0.02), and American knee society knee score (AKS knee score) (MD = 3.88, 95%CI: 1.37-6.39,  = 0.002). No significant differences were found in Lysholm score (MD = 1.30, 95%CI: -0.31 to 2.90,  = 0.11), American knee society function score (AKS function score) (RD = 1.42, 95%CI: -0.15 to 2.99,  = 0.08), complications (RD=-0.01, 95% CI: = -0.05 to 0.04,  = 0.77), delayed union (RD=-0.01, 95% CI: = -0.02 to 0.03,  = 0.59), and reoperation (RD = 0, 95% CI: -0.09 to 0.10,  = 0.98) between the two groups. The operation time in the navigated group was 15.46 min longer than in the conventional group.

Conclusion: Navigated HTO provided more accurate and reproducible radiographic outcomes in the correction of the malalignment than conventional techniques, and there is no difference in the risk of complications compared with conventional HTO. However, it is unclear whether navigation HTO can achieve better clinical results. More randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with high quality, large sample size, and sufficient follow-up period are required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/24699322.2022.2078739DOI Listing
December 2022

Using population-scale transcriptomic and genomic data to map 3' UTR alternative polyadenylation quantitative trait loci.

STAR Protoc 2022 09 19;3(3):101566. Epub 2022 Jul 19.

Institute of Systems and Physical Biology, Shenzhen Bay Laboratory, Shenzhen 518055, China.

3' UTR alternative polyadenylation (APA) quantitative trait loci (3'aQTL) can explain approximately 16.1% of trait-associated non-coding variants and is largely distinct from other molecular QTLs. Here, we describe a bioinformatic protocol for identifying 3'aQTLs through standard RNA-seq and matched genomic data. This protocol allows users to analyze dynamic APA events, identify common genetic variants associated with differential 3' UTR usage, and predict the potential causal variants that affect APA. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Li et al. (2021).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xpro.2022.101566DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9304671PMC
September 2022

EGCG exposure during pregnancy affects uterine histomorphology in F1 female mice and the underlying mechanisms.

Food Chem Toxicol 2022 Sep 19;167:113306. Epub 2022 Jul 19.

State Key Laboratory of Cellular Stress Biology, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, PR China. Electronic address:

Although epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenol in green tea, has been shown to have many benefits, the effect of EGCG exposure in utero on adult uterine development is unclear. In this study, pregnant C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 1 mg/kg body weight (bw) EGCG dissolved in drinking water from gestational days 0.5-16.5. A significant decrease in uterine weight was observed in the adult female mice, accompanied by uterine atrophy, inflammation, and fibrosis in the endometrium. Uterine atrophy was attributed to the thinning of the endometrial stromal layer and a significant reduction in endometrial cell proliferation. The expression levels of related proteins in the NF-κB and RAF/MEK/ERK signaling pathways were significantly increased, which might be responsible for the occurrence of inflammation. Activation of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1)/Smad signaling pathway might be involved in the development of endometrial fibrosis. The changes in the expression of estrogen receptor α, β (ERα, ERβ), progesterone receptor (PGR), and androgen receptor (AR) might lead to changes in the aforementioned signaling pathways. The promoter region methylation level of Esr2 was increased, and the expression of DNMT3A was evaluated. Our study indicates a risk of EGCG intake during pregnancy affecting uterine development in offspring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2022.113306DOI Listing
September 2022

[Down-regulation of HMGB1 expression ameliorates the progression of COPD in mice by inhibiting inflammatory response and epithelial mesenchymal transition].

Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi 2022 Aug;38(8):685-691

The Second Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University Geriatrics (cadre ward), Urumqi 830063, China. *Corresponding author, E-mail:

Objective To explore the effect of down-regulation of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) expression on inflammatory response and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the lung tissue of mice with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and its related mechanism. Methods The COPD model was induced by cigarette smoking, and HMGB1 expression in lung tissue of mice was down-regulated by small interfering RNA (siRNA). The mice were divided into negative control group (NC group), COPD group, si-NC intervention COPD group, si-HMGB1 intervention COPD group, and tiotropium bromide intervention COPD group (positive control group). After 4 weeks of cigarette smoking induction, the general condition of mice were observed, and the body mass changes of each group were recorded every week. HE staining was used to observe the pathological changes of lung tissue in each group. The expression of HMGB1 mRNA and protein in lung tissues of mice weredetected by real time quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis. The BALF of mice in each group was collected, and the levels of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β and TGF-β1 in BALF were detected by ELISA. The expressions of E-cadherin and α-SMA in lung tissues of mice were observed by immunohistochemical staining. The expression of RAGE, TLR4, TGF-β1 and the phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 in lung tissues were detected by Western blot analysis. Results COPD mouse model induced by cigarette smoking was successfully established. Compared with COPD group, down-regulation of HMGB1 expression in lung tissue significantly improved the general vital signs of mice, promoted the increase of body mass, and improved the pathological damage of lung tissue in mice. Compared with the control group, HMGB1 mRNA and protein expression levels increased significantly in COPD group, COPD combined with si-NC group and COPD combined with tiotropium group, while no significant HMGB1 expression was detected in COPD combined with si-HMGB1 group. Compared with the control group, the secretion levels of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, TGF-β1 in BALF, the expression levels of α-SMA, RAGE, TLR4, TGF-β1 and the phosphorylation level of NF-κB p65 in lung tissues were significantly increased in COPD model group, while the expression level of E-cadherin significantly decreased. Compared with the COPD group or the COPD combined with si-NC group, the changes of the above indexes in the lung tissue of mice in the COPD combined with si-HMGB1 group and the COPD combined with tiotropium group dropped markedly, and no significant difference between the latter two groups was found. Conclusion Downregulation of HMGB1 expression in lung tissue of mice can reduce pulmonary inflammatory response and EMT by inhibiting NF-κB pathway, thus ameliorating the progression of cigarette smoke-induced COPD disease.
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August 2022

Pentaploidization Enriches the Genetic Diversity of Wheat by Enhancing the Recombination of AB Genomes.

Front Plant Sci 2022 29;13:883868. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Triticeae Research Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.

Allohexaploidization and continuous introgression play a key role in the origin and evolution of bread wheat. The genetic bottleneck of bread wheat resulting from limited germplasms involved in the origin and modern breeding may be compensated by gene flow from tetraploid wheat through introgressive hybridization. The inter-ploidy hybridization between hexaploid and tetraploid wheat generates pentaploid hybrids first, which absorbed genetic variations both from hexaploid and tetraploid wheat and have great potential for re-evolution and improvement in bread wheat. Therefore, understanding the effects of the pentaploid hybrid is of apparent significance in our understanding of the historic introgression and in informing breeding. In the current study, two sets of F populations of synthetic pentaploid wheat (SPW1 and SPW2) and synthetic hexaploid wheat (SHW1 and SHW2) were created to analyze differences in recombination frequency (RF) of AB genomes and distorted segregation of polymorphic SNP markers through SNP genotyping. Results suggested that (1) the recombination of AB genomes in the SPW populations was about 3- to 4-fold higher than that in the SHW populations, resulting from the significantly ( < 0.01) increased RF between adjacent and linked SNP loci, especially the variations that occurred in a pericentromeric region which would further enrich genetic diversity; (2) the crosses of hexaploid × tetraploid wheat could be an efficient way to produce pentaploid derivatives than the crosses of tetraploid × hexaploid wheat according to the higher germination rate found in the former crosses; (3) the high proportion of distorted segregation loci that skewed in favor of the female parent genotype/allele in the SPW populations might associate with the fitness and survival of the offspring. Based on the presented data, we propose that pentaploid hybrids should increasingly be used in wheat breeding. In addition, the contribution of gene flow from tetraploid wheat to bread wheat mediated by pentaploid introgressive hybridization also was discussed in the re-evolution of bread wheat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.883868DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9281561PMC
June 2022

Inflammation-homing "living drug depot" for efficient arthritis treatment.

Acta Biomater 2022 Jul 15. Epub 2022 Jul 15.

Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, China. Electronic address:

Delivering therapeutic agents efficiently to inflamed joints remains an intractable problem in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment due to the complicated physiological barriers. Circulating monocytes could selectively migrate to inflamed sites and differentiate into resident macrophages to aggravate RA. Therefore, a drug carrier that can be specifically internalized by circulating monocytes and switch monocytes into anti-inflammatory phenotype when reaching inflamed sites, might bypass the in vivo physiological barriers and achieve efficient RA therapy. Herein, we design a dextran sulfate (DS) functionalized nanoparticle (ZDNP) to selectively deliver anti-inflammatory agent dexamethasone (Dex) to circulating monocytes via the scavenger receptors on monocytes. Monocytes engulfing drug-loaded ZDNP could subsequently home to arthritic joints and act as a "living drug depot" to combat RA. Results revealed that ZDNP could be preferentially internalized by circulating monocytes when intravenously administrated in vivo. In a rat arthritic model, we found that circulating monocytes remarkably facilitated drug distribution and retention in inflamed joints. Moreover, monocytes engulfing drug-loaded nanoparticles exhibited favorable anti-inflammatory ability and M2-biased differentiation. Our work offers a facile approach to achieve site-directed anti-inflammatory therapy by taking advantage of the inflammation-homing ability of circulating monocytes. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Circulating monocytes can migrate to inflamed sites and then differentiate into macrophages to aggravate arthritis. Therefore, a drug carrier that can be specifically internalized by circulating monocytes and switch monocytes into anti-inflammatory phenotype when reaching inflamed sites may achieve efficient arthritis therapy. Here, we designed a monocyte-targeting nanoparticle (ZDNP) to selectively deliver anti-inflammatory Dex to circulating monocytes. When injected intravenously, ZDNP was effectively internalized by circulating monocytes via a scavenger receptor and subsequently was transported to arthritic joints, where monocytes engulfing the drug-loaded nanoparticles could switch to an anti-inflammatory phenotype to inhibit arthritis progress. We provide detailed evidence about the in vivo fate of ZDNP and unravel how monocytes act as a "living drug depot" to achieve site-directed arthritis therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2022.07.013DOI Listing
July 2022

An Integrated Food Freshness Sensor Array System Augmented by a Metal-Organic Framework Mixed-Matrix Membrane and Deep Learning.

ACS Sens 2022 Jul 14;7(7):1847-1854. Epub 2022 Jul 14.

Department of Nutrition and Food Science, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States.

The static labels presently prevalent on the food market are confronted with challenges due to the assumption that a food product only undergoes a limited range of predefined conditions, which cause elevated safety risks or waste of perishable food products. Hence, integrated systems for measuring food freshness in real time have been developed for improving the reliability, safety, and sustainability of the food supply. However, these systems are limited by poor sensitivity and accuracy. Here, a metal-organic framework mixed-matrix membrane and deep learning technology were combined to tackle these challenges. UiO-66-OH and polyvinyl alcohol were impregnated with six chromogenic indicators to prepare sensor array composites. The sensors underwent color changes after being exposed to ammonia at different pH values. The limit of detection of 80 ppm for trimethylamine was obtained, which was practically acceptable in the food industry. Four state-of-the-art deep convolutional neural networks were applied to recognize the color change, endowing it with high-accuracy freshness estimation. The simulation test for chicken freshness estimation achieved accuracy up to 98.95% by the WISeR-50 algorithm. Moreover, 3D printing was applied to create a mold for possible scale-up production, and a portable food freshness detector platform was conceptually built. This approach has the potential to advance integrated and real-time food freshness estimation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acssensors.2c00255DOI Listing
July 2022

Effects of Collagen Hydrolysate From Large Hybrid Sturgeon on Mitigating Ultraviolet B-Induced Photodamage.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2022 27;10:908033. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China.

Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation leads to the excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which subsequently promote inflammation, degradation of the extracellular matrix, and photoaging in skin. Thus antioxidant activity is particularly important when screening for active substances to prevent or repair photodamage. Marine fish-derived bioactive peptides have become a trend in cosmetics and functional food industries owing to their potential dermatological benefits. In this study, 1-diphenyl- 2-pycryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity was selected to optimize the hydrolysis conditions of sturgeon skin collagen peptides with antioxidant activity. The optimal hydrolysis conditions for sturgeon skin collagen hydrolysate (SSCH) were determined by response surface methodology, which comprised an enzyme dosage of flavorzyme at 6,068.4 U/g, temperature of 35.5°C, pH of 7, and hydrolysis time of 6 h. SSCH showed good radical-scavenging capacities with a DPPH scavenging efficiency of 95%. Then, the effect of low-molecular-weight SSCH fraction (SSCH-L) on UVB irradiation-induced photodamage was evaluated in mouse fibroblast L929 cells and zebrafish. SSCH-L reduced intracellular ROS levels and the malondialdehyde content, thereby alleviating the oxidative damage caused by UVB radiation. Moreover SSCH-L inhibited the mRNA expression of genes encoding the pro-inflammatory cytokines , , , and . SSCH-L treatment further increased the collagen Ⅰα1 content and had a significant inhibitory effect on matrix metalloproteinase expression. The phosphorylation level of JNK and the expression of c-Jun protein were significantly reduced by SSCH-L. Additionally, SSCH-L increased the tail fin area at 0.125 and 0.25 mg/ml in a zebrafish UVB radiation model, which highlighted the potential of SSCH-L to repair UVB-irradiated zebrafish skin damage. Peptide sequences of SSCH-L were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Based on the 3D-QSAR modeling prediction, six total peptides were selected to test the UVB-protective activity. Among these peptides, DPFRHY showed good UVB-repair activity, ROS-scavenging activity, DNA damage-protective activity and apoptosis inhibition activity. These results suggested that DPFRHY has potential applications as a natural anti-photodamage material in cosmetic and functional food industries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2022.908033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9271680PMC
June 2022

Effects of general and central adiposity on circulating lipoprotein, lipid, and metabolite levels in UK Biobank: A multivariable Mendelian randomization study.

Lancet Reg Health Eur 2022 Oct 6;21:100457. Epub 2022 Jul 6.

MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit at the University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Background: The direct effects of general adiposity (body mass index (BMI)) and central adiposity (waist-to-hip-ratio (WHR)) on circulating lipoproteins, lipids, and metabolites are unknown.

Methods: We used new metabolic data from UK Biobank (=109,532, a five-fold higher N over previous studies). EDTA-plasma was used to quantify 249 traits with nuclear-magnetic-resonance spectroscopy including subclass-specific lipoprotein concentrations and lipid content, plus pre-glycemic and inflammatory metabolites. We used univariable and multivariable two-stage least-squares regression models with genetic risk scores for BMI and WHR as instruments to estimate total (unadjusted) and direct (mutually-adjusted) effects of BMI and WHR on metabolic traits; plus effects on statin use and interaction by sex, statin use, and age (proxy for medication use).

Findings: Higher BMI decreased apolipoprotein B and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) before and after WHR-adjustment, whilst BMI increased triglycerides only before WHR-adjustment. These effects of WHR were larger and BMI-independent. Direct effects differed markedly by sex, e.g., triglycerides increased only with BMI among men, and only with WHR among women. Adiposity measures increased statin use and showed metabolic effects which differed by statin use and age. Among the youngest (38-53y, statins-5%), BMI and WHR (per-SD) increased LDL-C (total effects: 0.04-SD, 95%CI=-0.01,0.08 and 0.10-SD, 95%CI=0.02,0.17 respectively), but only WHR directly. Among the oldest (63-73y, statins-29%), BMI and WHR directly lowered LDL-C (-0.19-SD, 95%CI=-0.27,-0.11 and -0.05-SD, 95%CI=-0.16,0.06 respectively).

Interpretation: Excess adiposity likely raises atherogenic lipid and metabolite levels exclusively via adiposity stored centrally, particularly among women. Apparent effects of adiposity on lowering LDL-C are likely explained by an effect of adiposity on statin use.

Funding: UK Medical Research Council; British Heart Foundation; Novo Nordisk; National Institute for Health Research; Wellcome Trust; Cancer Research UK.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lanepe.2022.100457DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9272390PMC
October 2022

SARS-CoV-2 Aerosol Transmission Through Vertical Sanitary Drains in High-Rise Buildings - Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, China, March 2022.

China CDC Wkly 2022 Jun;4(23):489-493

Key Laboratory of Environment and Population Health, National Institute of Environmental Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.

What Is Already Known About This Topic?: Aerosol transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) via sanitary pipelines in high-rise buildings is possible, however, there is a lack of experimental evidence.

What Is Added By This Report?: The field simulation experiment confirmed the existence of a vertical aerosol transmission pathway from toilet flush-soil stack-floor drains without water seal. This report provided experimental evidence for vertical aerosol transmission of clustered outbreaks on 18 floors of a 33-story residential building.

What Are The Implications For Public Health Practice?: The water seal on floor drains is a necessary barrier to prevent the risk of vertical aerosol transmission of infectious disease pathogens in buildings. It is necessary not only to have a U-shaped trap in the drainage pipe, but also to be filled with water regularly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.46234/ccdcw2022.108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9257235PMC
June 2022

Enhanced Reactivity and Compound Mechanism of Mg/B Composite Powders Prepared by Cryomilling.

Materials (Basel) 2022 Jun 30;15(13). Epub 2022 Jun 30.

State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, China.

Boron is one of the highest energy density materials. The heat of boron is difficult to carry out due to its poor combustion performance. Magnesium (10 wt.%), acting as combustion adjuvant, is added into boron powder to improve the combustion performance. In this study, two kinds of boron powder were used as raw material, boron powder with an average size of 40 μm is named B1, and B2 has an average powder size of 3 μm. Mg/B composite powder was prepared though a cryomilling method. Two compound mechanisms for Mg/B composite powder were applied. For Mg/B1 composite powder, an Mg-coating structure on the surface of B was generated. For Mg/B2, a structure that small particles were agglomerated with Mg in the interior or on the surface of B was generated. Compared with either B powder or blended Mg/B powder, the reactivity of Mg/B composite powder by cryomilling is enhanced. In addition, the atomic ratio of Mg to B and activity content of Mg on the surface of Mg/B composite powder have great impacts on the improvement of reactivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma15134618DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9267275PMC
June 2022

Glucosylated nanoparticles for the oral delivery of antibiotics to the proximal small intestine protect mice from gut dysbiosis.

Nat Biomed Eng 2022 Jul 7;6(7):867-881. Epub 2022 Jul 7.

Department of Digestive Disease and Intelligent Nanomedicine Institute, The First Affiliated Hospital of USTC, Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China.

Orally delivered antibiotics can reach the caecum and colon, and induce gut dysbiosis. Here we show that the encapsulation of antibiotics in orally administered positively charged polymeric nanoparticles with a glucosylated surface enhances absorption by the proximal small intestine through specific interactions of glucose and the abundantly expressed sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1. This improves bioavailability of the antibiotics, and limits their exposure to flora in the large intestine and their accumulation in caecal and faecal contents. Compared with the standard administration of the same antibiotics, the oral administration of nanoparticle-encapsulated ampicillin, chloramphenicol or vancomycin in mice with bacterial infections in the lungs effectively eliminated the infections, decreased adverse effects on the intestinal microbiota by protecting the animals from dysbiosis-associated metabolic syndromes and from opportunistic pathogen infections, and reduced the accumulation of known antibiotic-resistance genes in commensal bacteria. Glucosylated nanocarriers may be suitable for the oral delivery of other drugs causing gut dysbiosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41551-022-00903-4DOI Listing
July 2022
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