Publications by authors named "Qilin Wang"

188 Publications

Diastereoselective trifunctionalization of pyridinium salts to access structurally crowded azaheteropolycycles.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Sep 16;57(74):9402-9405. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004, China.

A highly diastereoselective dearomative trifunctionalization of pyridinium salts with multifunctional -hydroxyl aromatic azomethine ylides has been established, which not only provided a convenient and rapid method to assemble challenging and architecturally crowded chroman-pyrrolidine-hydrogenated pyridine fused pentacycles, but also represented a rare successful example of the higher-order multifunctionalization of pyridiniums.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc03478bDOI Listing
September 2021

Nonlinear pattern and algal dual-impact in NO emission with increasing trophic levels in shallow lakes.

Water Res 2021 Sep 3;203:117489. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo 184-8588, Japan.

Shallow lakes are considered important contributors to emissions of nitrous oxide (NO), a powerful greenhouse gas, in aquatic ecosystems. There is a large degree of uncertainty regarding the relationship between NO emissions and the progress of lake eutrophication, and the mechanisms underlying NO emissions are poorly understood. Here, NO emission fluxes and environmental variables in different lakes along a trophic state gradient in the Yangtze River basin were studied. NO emission fluxes were -1.0-53.0 μg m h and 0.4-102.9 μg m h in summer and winter, respectively, indicating that there was marked variation in NO emissions among lakes of different trophic state. The non-linear exponential model explained differences in NO emission fluxes by the degree of eutrophication (p < 0.01). TN and chl-a both predicted 86% of the NO emission fluxes in shallow lakes. The predicted NO emission fluxes based on the IPCC EF overestimated the observed fluxes, particularly those in hyper-eutrophic lakes. These findings demonstrated that nutrient-rich conditions and algal accumulation are key factors determining NO emission fluxes in shallow lakes. Furthermore, this study also revealed that temperature and algae accumulation-decomposition determine an NO emission flux in an intricate manner. A low temperature, i.e., winter, limits algae growth and low oxygen consumption for algae decomposition. The environment leaves a high dissolved oxygen concentration, slowing down NO consumption as the final step of denitrification. In summer, with the oxygen consumed by excess algal decomposition, the NO production is limited by the complete denitrification as well as the limited substrate supply of nitrate by nitrification in hypoxic or anoxic conditions. Such cascading events explained the higher NO emission fluxes from shallow lakes in winter compared with summer. This trend was amplified in hyper-eutrophic shallow lakes after algal disappearance. Collectively, algal accumulation played a dual role in stimulating and impeding NO emissions, especially in hyper-eutrophic lakes. This study expands our knowledge of NO emissions from shallow lakes in which eutrophication is underway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2021.117489DOI Listing
September 2021

Effect of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate on hydrogen production from dark fermentation of waste activated sludge.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 1;799:149383. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

Centre for Technology in Water and Wastewater, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2007, Australia.

Sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), a typical surfactant being widely used in various applications, was highly accumulated in waste activated sludge. To date, however, its effect on hydrogen production from dark fermentation of sludge has not been documented. The work therefore aimed to explore whether and how SDBS affects hydrogen production. Experimental results showed that with an increase of SDBS from 0 to 30 mg/g TSS, the maximal hydrogen yield increased from 2.47 to 10.73 mL/g VSS (without any treatment) and from 13.05 to 23.51 mL/g VSS (under free ammonia pretreatment). Mechanism exploration showed that SDBS lowered surface tension, facilitated organics transfer from solid to liquid. SDBS also destroyed hydrogen bonding networks of protein, promoted macromolecular organics degradation. Besides, SDBS improved the electric charge in organics, then weakened the mutual repulsion, improved adsorb, interact and promoted the availability of reaction sites between anaerobes and organic substances. Enzyme activity analysis showed that SDBS not only improved the activities of enzymes related to hydrolysis and acidification processes, but also inhibited the activities of homoacetogens and methanogens. SDBS presence lowered sludge ORP and created an environment which was helpful to the growth of butyric-type bacteria, thus enhanced butyric-type fermentation, which contributed hydrogen production largely. Microbial community analysis revealed that SDBS existence affected distributions of microbial populations, and increased the abundances of hydrogen producing microorganisms (e.g., unclassified_f_Synergistaceae). PICRUSt2 analysis showed that SDBS reduced hydrogenotrophic methanogens activity for its inhibitory effect on the biotransformation of 5,10-Methenyl-THMPT to 5-methyl-THMPT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.149383DOI Listing
August 2021

Semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of secondary sludge with free ammonia pretreatment: Focusing on volatile solids destruction, dewaterability, pathogen removal and its implications.

Water Res 2021 Sep 31;202:117481. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Centre for Technology in Water and Wastewater, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, NSW 2007, Australia. Electronic address:

Our previous work has reported the pretreatment of secondary sludge with free ammonia (NH, FA) enhanced the methane production in batch biochemical methane potential tests. However, the batch biochemical methane potential test could only provide conservative results compared to continuous/semi-continuous anaerobic digestion. Also, the impacts of FA pretreatment on the key anaerobic digestion parameters, including volatile solids (VS) destruction, sludge dewaterability and pathogen removal, are still unknown. This study for the first time investigated these impacts using semi-continuous anaerobic digestion systems for 130 days. Pretreatment of secondary sludge for 24 h at an FA concentration of 560 mg NH-N/L improved VS destruction by 26.4% (from 22.0 to 27.8%), supported by a similar increase of 28.6% in methane production (from 126.7 to 162.9 ml CH4/g VS). Model based analysis revealed that FA pretreatment improved the sludge degradability extent, which may be the reason for the enhanced VS destruction. Equally importantly, the dewaterability of the digested sludge with FA pretreatment was also enhanced by 9.2% (from 12.0 to 13.1% in solids content of the dewatered digested sludge), which could be partly attributed to the increased zeta potential from -16.7 to -14.5 mV. Anaerobic digestion with FA pretreatment enhanced the removals of Fecal Coliform and E. Coli by 1.3 and 1.4 log MPN/g TS (MPN: Most Probable Number; TS: Total Solids), indicating FA pretreatment was effective in enhancing pathogen removal. With inorganic solids representing 21% of the sludge used, the volume of dewatered sludge to be disposed of was reduced by 14.5% via FA pretreatment. This will substantially decrease the cost as evaluated by economic analysis. In brief, this study provides a promising strategy to enhance sludge reduction in anaerobic digestion and is of great significance in promoting the application of FA pretreatment strategy in the real world.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2021.117481DOI Listing
September 2021

Microplastics deteriorate the removal efficiency of antibiotic resistance genes during aerobic sludge digestion.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 30;798:149344. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Centre for Technology in Water and Wastewater, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, NSW 2007, Australia. Electronic address:

Sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is considered to be reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), which can be efficiently removed by sludge treatment processes, e.g., aerobic sludge digestion. However, recent studies report microplastics, which also accumulate in sludge, may serve as carriers for ARGs. In the presence of microplastics, whether ARGs can still be efficiently destroyed by aerobic sludge digestion remains to be urgently investigated. In this study, the fate of ARGs during aerobic digestion was investigated with and without the addition of three prevalent categories of (i.e., polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene (PE), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET)). Nine ARGs and class 1 integron-integrase gene (intI1) that represents the horizontal transfer potential of ARGs were tested in this study. Compared with the control, the ARGs removal efficiency decreased by 129.6%, 137.0%, and 227.6% with the presence of PVC, PE, and PET, respectively, although a negligible difference was observed with their solids reduction efficiencies. The abundance of potential bacterial hosts of ARGs and intI1 increased in the reactors with the addition of microplastics, suggesting that microplastics potentially selectively enriched bacterial hosts and promoted the horizontal transfer of ARGs during aerobic sludge digestion. These may have contributed to the deteriorated ARGs removal efficiency. This study demonstrated that microplastics in sludge would decrease the ARGs removal efficiency in aerobic digestion process, potentially leading to more ARGs entering the local environment during sludge disposal or utilization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.149344DOI Listing
July 2021

Factors governing microalgae harvesting efficiency by flocculation using cationic polymers.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Nov 27;340:125669. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Center for Technology in Water and Wastewater, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2007, Australia. Electronic address:

This study aims to elucidate the mechanisms governing the harvesting efficiency of Chlorella vulgaris by flocculation using a cationic polymer. Flocculation efficiency increased as microalgae culture matured (i.e. 35-45, 75, and > 97% efficiency at early, late exponential, and stationary phase, respectively. Unlike the negative impact of phosphate on flocculation in traditional wastewater treatment; here, phosphorous residue did not influence the flocculation efficiency of C. vulgaris. The observed dependency of flocculation efficiency on growth phase was driven by changes in microalgal cell properties. Microalgal extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in both bound and free forms at stationary phase were two and three times higher than those at late and early exponential phase, respectively. Microalgae cells also became more negatively charged as they matured. Negatively charged and high EPS content together with the addition of high molecular weight and positively charged polymer could facilitate effective flocculation via charge neutralisation and bridging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125669DOI Listing
November 2021

In-depth research on percarbonate expediting zero-valent iron corrosion for conditioning anaerobically digested sludge.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Oct 10;419:126389. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Centre for Technology in Water and Wastewater, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2007, Australia.

Anaerobically digested sludge (ADS) is commonly hard to dewater for the presence of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and the liberation of glutinous soluble microbic products during anaerobic digestion. Sodium percarbonate (SPC) expediting zero-valent iron (ZVI) corrosion (SPC/ZVI) process firstly conditioned ADS to amend its dewaterability. Results showed that SPC/ZVI conditioning decreased moisture content of dewatered cake from 90.5% (control) to 69.9% with addition of 0.10 g/g TS SPC and 0.20 g/g TS ZVI. Mechanistic research indicated that the enhanced ADS dewaterability mainly resulted from •OH and Fe(III)/iron polymers yielded in SPC/ZVI. •OH disrupted EPS, damaged cytoderm & cytomembrane, and lysed intracellular substances, unbinding the bound water. Meanwhile, the breakage and inactivation of microbe by •OH prompted the production of macro-pores in ADS. •OH adjusted the conformation of extracellular/intracellular proteins by intervening in the H-bonds and S-S bonds, availing the hydrophobicity and slight flocculation of ADS. •OH further facilitated the despiralization of α-helical to β-sheet structure in ADS pellets, benefiting cell-to-cell aggregation. Additionally, Fe(III)/iron polymers from ZVI corrosion accelerated to gather ADS and maintained its floc structure. Consequently, SPC/ZVI conditioning not only adjusted the natures of ADS and its EPS but also the features of residual pellets, which further induced the advancement of ADS dewaterability. In addition, SPC/ZVI conditioning possibly surmounts some limitations existing in ZVI/Peroxide or ZVI/Persulfate technique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126389DOI Listing
October 2021

Free ammonia pretreatment enhances the removal of antibiotic resistance genes in anaerobic sludge digestion.

Chemosphere 2021 Sep 19;279:130910. Epub 2021 May 19.

Centre for Technology in Water and Wastewater, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, NSW, 2007, Australia. Electronic address:

Sludge has been recognized as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the wastewater treatment plants. Our previous study has demonstrated that free ammonia (FA, i.e., NH-N) pretreatment is an effective method for enhancing anaerobic digestion of sludge. However, the effects of FA pretreatment on the removal of ARGs in the anaerobic sludge digestion is still unknown. In this study, several ARGs representing various antibiotic classes and integrase gene (intI1) which is crucial for horizontal transfer of ARGs were chosen. This study demonstrated that combined FA pretreatment (420 mg NH-N/L for 24 h, under which the highest anaerobic sludge biodegradability was achieved in our previous study) and anaerobic digestion could enhance the removal of aac(6')-Ib-cr, blaTEM, sul2, tetA, tetB and tetX from sludge by 17-74% compared with anaerobic digestion without FA pretreatment, resulting in a lower ARGs abundance in the anaerobically digested sludge. This is caused by the removal of tested ARGs during FA pretreatment and the reduced abundance of potential microbial hosts of ARGs due to FA pretreatment during anaerobic digestion. The removal of IntI1 was not significantly affected by FA pretreatment and intI1 did not play a large role in the fate of the tested ARGs in this study. This study indicated that FA pretreatment for anaerobic digestion could potentially reduce the spread of ARGs from the sludge to the natural environment during sludge disposal or reuse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130910DOI Listing
September 2021

Electrochemical activation of peroxides for treatment of contaminated water with landfill leachate: Efficacy, toxicity and biodegradability evaluation.

Chemosphere 2021 Sep 17;279:130610. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Environmental Engineering & Innovation and Development Center of Sustainable Agriculture & Research Center of Sustainable Energy and Nanotechnology, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Contaminated water with landfill leachate (CWLL) with high salinity and high organic content (total organic carbon (TOC) = 649 mg/L and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) = 1175 mg/L) is a toxic and non-biodegradable effluent. The present research aimed to assess the treatment effectiveness of CWLL by electrocoagulation (EC)/oxidant process. The ferrous ions generated during the process were employed as coagulant and catalyst for the activation of different oxidants such as peroxymonosulfate (PMS), peroxydisulfate (PDS), hydrogen peroxide (HP), and percarbonate (PC) to decrease TOC in CWLL. Removal of ammonia, color, phosphorous, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) from CWLL effluent was explored at various processes. EC/HP had the best performance (∼73%) in mineralization of organic pollutants compared to others under the condition of pH 6.8, applied current of 200 mA, oxidant dosage of 6 mM, and time of 80 min. The oxidation priority was to follow this order: EC/HP > EC/PMS > EC/PDS > EC/PC. These processes enhanced the biodegradability of CWLL based on the average oxidation state and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)/COD ratio. SUVA and E/E indices were also investigated on obtained effluents. The phytotoxicity evaluation was carried out based on the germination index, indicating that the electro-activated oxidant was an effective system to reduce the toxicity of polluted waters. EC/HP showed supremacy compared to others in terms of efficiency, cost, and detoxification. Therefore, the electro-activated oxidant system is a good means for removing organic pollutants from real wastewater.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130610DOI Listing
September 2021

Digestion liquid based alkaline pretreatment of waste activated sludge promotes methane production from anaerobic digestion.

Water Res 2021 Jul 29;199:117198. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Hunan Qing Zhi Yuan Environmental Protection Technology Co., Ltd, Changsha 410004, PR China.

This work proved an efficient method to significantly increase methane production from anaerobic digestion of WAS. This method is to reflux proper of digestion liquid into waste activated sludge pretreatment unit (pH 9.5 for 24 h). The yield of maximum methane improved between 174.2 ± 7.3 and 282.5 ± 14.1 mL/g VSS with the reflux ratio of digestion liquid increasing from 0% to 20%. It was observed that the biodegradable organics in the digestion liquid did not affect the biological processes related to anaerobic digestion but increased methane production through reutilization. The ammonium in the digestion liquid was the main contributor to the increase in methane production via promoting sludge solubilization, but refractory organics were the major inhibitors to anaerobic digestion. It should be emphasized that the metal ions present in the digestion liquid were beneficial rather than harmful to the biological processes in the anaerobic digestion, which may be connected with the fact that certain metal ions were involved in the expression and activation of key enzymes. In addition, it was found that anaerobes in digestion liquid were another potential contributor to the enhanced anaerobic digestion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2021.117198DOI Listing
July 2021

Construction of bridged polycycles through dearomatization strategies.

Org Biomol Chem 2021 May;19(18):3960-3982

College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004, China.

Bridged polycycles are privileged molecular skeletons with wide occurrence in bioactive natural products and pharmaceuticals. Therefore, they have been the pursing target molecules of numerous chemists. The rapid and convenient generation of sp3-rich complex three-dimensional molecular skeletons from simple and easily available aromatics has made dearomatization a highly valuable synthetic tool for the construction of rigid and challenging bridged rings. This review summarizes the-state-of-the-art advances of dearomatization strategies in the application of bridged ring formation, discusses their advantages and limitations and the in-depth mechanism, and highlights their synthetic value in the total synthesis of natural products. We wish this review will provide an important reference for medicinal and synthetic chemists and will inspire further development in this intriguing research area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1ob00096aDOI Listing
May 2021

Monitoring antibiotic resistance genes in wastewater treatment: Current strategies and future challenges.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 7;783:146964. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Centre for Technology in Water and Wastewater, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, NSW 2007, Australia; Institute of Environmental Sciences, Nguyen Tat Thanh University, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam. Electronic address:

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a growing threat to human and animal health. Progress in molecular biology has revealed new and significant challenges for AMR mitigation given the immense diversity of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), the complexity of ARG transfer, and the broad range of omnipresent factors contributing to AMR. Municipal, hospital and abattoir wastewater are collected and treated in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), where the presence of diverse selection pressures together with a highly concentrated consortium of pathogenic/commensal microbes create favourable conditions for the transfer of ARGs and proliferation of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB). The rapid emergence of antibiotic resistant pathogens of clinical and veterinary significance over the past 80 years has re-defined the role of WWTPs as a focal point in the fight against AMR. By reviewing the occurrence of ARGs in wastewater and sludge and the current technologies used to quantify ARGs and identify ARB, this paper provides a research roadmap to address existing challenges in AMR control via wastewater treatment. Wastewater treatment is a double-edged sword that can act as either a pathway for AMR spread or as a barrier to reduce the environmental release of anthropogenic AMR. State of the art ARB identification technologies, such as metagenomic sequencing and fluorescence-activated cell sorting, have enriched ARG/ARB databases, unveiled keystone species in AMR networks, and improved the resolution of AMR dissemination models. Data and information provided in this review highlight significant knowledge gaps. These include inconsistencies in ARG reporting units, lack of ARG/ARB monitoring surrogates, lack of a standardised protocol for determining ARG removal via wastewater treatments, and the inability to support appropriate risk assessment. This is due to a lack of standard monitoring targets and agreed threshold values, and paucity of information on the ARG-pathogen host relationship and risk management. These research gaps need to be addressed and research findings need to be transformed into practical guidance for WWTP operators to enable effective progress towards mitigating the evolution and spread of AMR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.146964DOI Listing
August 2021

Digital image processing technology under backpropagation neural network and K-Means Clustering algorithm on nitrogen utilization rate of Chinese cabbages.

PLoS One 2021 31;16(3):e0248923. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

College of Agricultural Science and Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing, China.

The purposes are to monitor the nitrogen utilization efficiency of crops and intelligently evaluate the absorption of nutrients by crops during the production process. The research object is Chinese cabbage. The Chinese cabbage population with different agricultural parameters is constructed through different densities and nitrogen fertilizer application rates based on digital image processing technology, and an estimation NC (Nitrogen Content) model is established. The population is classified through the K-Means Clustering algorithm using the feature extraction method, and the Chinese cabbage population quality BPNN (Backpropagation Neural Network) model is constructed. The nonlinear mapping relationship between different agricultural parameters and population quality, and the contribution rate of each indicator, are studied. The nitrogen utilization of Chinese cabbage is monitored effectively. Results demonstrate that the proposed NC estimation model has correlation coefficients above 0.70 in different growth stages. This model can accurately estimate the NC of the Chinese cabbage population. The results of the Chinese cabbage population quality BPNN model show that the population planting density based on the seedling number is reasonable. The constructed population quality evaluation model has a high R2 value and a comparatively low RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) value for the quality evaluation of Chinese cabbage in different periods, showing that it applies to evaluate the population quality of Chinese cabbage in different growth stages. The constructed nitrogen utilization model and quality evaluation model can monitor the nutrient utilization of crops in different growth stages, ascertain the agricultural characteristics of other yield groups in different growth stages, and clarify the performance of agricultural parameters in different growth stages. The above results can provide some ideas for crop growth intelligent detection.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0248923PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8011815PMC
March 2021

Long-Term Field Study on Fate, Transformation, and Vertical Transport of Tetrabromobisphenol A in Soil-Plant Systems.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 04 18;55(8):4607-4615. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Xianlin Avenue 163, Nanjing 210023, China.

Soil contamination with tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) has been an environmental concern for many years, but studies of the fate and potential risk of TBBPA are lacking. In this study, we investigated the dissipation, metabolism, strong alkali-hydrolytic (SAH-TBBPA), and vertical movement of TBBPA in the field with and without rice-wheat rotation and reed growth for 1225 days. After 342 days of incubation, 21.3% of the TBBPA remained in the surface soil accompanied by obvious leaching to deeper soil layers in the first 92 days. By day 1225, TBBPA was nearly absent from the surface soil layer. A very low amount of SAH-TBBPA (2.31-3.43 mg/kg) was detected during the first 342 days of incubation. In the surface soil, five metabolites were identified that represented four interconnected pathways: oxidative skeletal cleavage, -methylation, type II -substitution, and reductive debromination. Both rice-wheat rotation and monocultural reed growth accelerated TBBPA removal in the field by stimulating the anaerobic debromination and aerobic -methylation, especially the oxidative skeletal cleavage of TBBPA in the rhizosphere soil. Though far from comprehensive, our study investigated the natural attenuation and metabolism of TBBPA and the influence by crops to estimate the environmental risk of TBBPA in a field scale.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c04021DOI Listing
April 2021

Life-cycle cost analysis of a hybrid algae-based biological desalination - low pressure reverse osmosis system.

Water Res 2021 May 23;195:116957. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, 712100, China. Electronic address:

To fully understand the economic viability and implementation strategy of the emerging algae-based desalination technology, this study investigates the economic aspects of algae-based desalination system by comparing the life-cycle costs of three different scenarios: (1) a multi-stage microalgae based desalination system; (2) a hybrid desalination system based on the combination of microalgae and low pressure reverse osmosis (LPRO) system; and (3) a seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination system. It is identified that the capital expenditure (CAPEX) and operational expenditure (OPEX) of scenario 1 are significantly higher than those of scenarios 2 and 3, when algal biomass reuse is not taken into consideration. If the revenues obtained from the algal biomass reuse are taken into account, the OPEX of scenario 1 will decrease significantly, and scenarios 2 and 3 will have the highest and lowest OPEX, respectively. However, due to the high CAPEX of scenario 1, the total expenditure (TOTEX) of scenario 1 is still 27% and 33% higher than those of scenarios 2 and 3, respectively. A sensitivity study is undertaken to understand the effects of six key parameters on water total cost for different scenarios. It is suggested that the electricity unit price plays the most important role in determining the water total cost for different scenarios. An uncertainty analysis is also conducted to investigate the effects and limitations of the key assumptions made in this study. It is suggested that the assumption of total dissolved solids (TDS) removal efficiency of microalgae results in a high uncertainty of life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA). Additionally, it is estimated that 1.58 megaton and 0.30 megaton CO can be captured by the algae-based desalination process for scenarios 1 and 2, respectively, over 20 years service period, which could result in approximately AU $18 million and AU $3 million indirect financial benefits for scenarios 1 and 2, respectively. When algal biomass reuse, CO bio-fixation and land availability are all taken into account, scenario 2 with hybrid desalination system is considered as the most economical and environmentally friendly option.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2021.116957DOI Listing
May 2021

Refined mapping of stripe rust resistance gene YrP10090 within a desirable haplotype for wheat improvement on chromosome 6A.

Theor Appl Genet 2021 Jul 8;134(7):2005-2021. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, 712100, People's Republic of China.

Key Message: A large genomic region spanning over 300 Mb on chromosome 6A under intense artificial selection harbors multiple loci associated with favorable traits including stripe rust resistance in wheat. The development of resistance cultivars can be an optimal strategy for controlling wheat stripe rust disease. Although loci for stripe rust resistance have been identified on chromosome 6A in previous studies, it is unclear whether these loci span a common genetic interval, and few studies have attempted to analyze the haplotype changes that have accompanied wheat improvement over the period of modern breeding. In this study, we used F families and F recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between a resistant CIMMYT wheat accession P10090 and the susceptible landrace Mingxian 169 to improve the resolution of the QTL on chromosome 6A. The co-located QTL, designated as YrP10090, was flanked by SNP markers AX-94460938 and AX-110585473 with a genetic interval of 3.5 cM, however, corresponding to a large physical distance of over 300 Mb in RefSeq v.1.0 (positions 107.1-446.5 Mb). More than 1,300 SNP markers in this genetic region were extracted for haplotype analysis in a panel of 1,461 worldwide common wheat accessions, and three major haplotypes (Hap1, Hap2, and Hap3) were identified. The favorable haplotype Hap1 associated with stripe rust resistance exhibited a large degree of linkage disequilibrium. Selective sweep analyses were performed between different haplotype groups, revealing specific genomic regions with strong artificial selection signals. These regions harbored multiple desirable traits associated with resilience to environmental stress, different yield components, and quality characteristics. P10090 and its derivatives that carry the desirable haplotype can provide a concrete foundation for bread wheat improvement including the genomic selection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00122-021-03801-6DOI Listing
July 2021

Tough Interfacial Adhesion of Bilayer Hydrogels with Integrated Shape Memory and Elastic Properties for Controlled Shape Deformation.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Mar 22;13(8):10457-10466. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Wenzhou Institute, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wenzhou 352001, China.

The weak adhesion between two hydrogel layers may lead to the delamination of bilayer hydrogels or low force transfer efficiency during deformation. Here, tough interfacial adhesive bilayer hydrogels with rapid shape deformation and recovery were prepared by simple attachment-heating of two gel layers. The bilayer hydrogels, composed of a shape memory gel (S-gel) and an elastic gel (E-gel), exhibited extremely tough interfacial adhesion between two layers (Γ ∼ 2200 J/m). The shape deformation and shape recovery of the bilayer hydrogels, tuned by "heating-stretching" mode and "stretching-heating-stretching" mode, were rapid (<5 s) and no delamination between two gel layers was detected during shape deformation. Based on the fast shape deformation and recovery, the bilayer hydrogels could mimic the flower and hand, and a gel gripper could be fabricated to catch the object in the hot water. This work provides a simple method to prepare tough adhesive bilayer hydrogels with controlled shape deformation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c22484DOI Listing
March 2021

Robust adaptive boosted canonical correlation analysis for quality-relevant process monitoring of wastewater treatment.

ISA Trans 2021 Jan 25. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Centre for Technology in Water and Wastewater, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, NSW 2007, Australia. Electronic address:

Quality-relevant process monitoring has attracted much attention for its ability to assist in maintaining efficient plant operation. However, when the process suffers from non-stationary and over-complex (with noise, multiplicative faults, etc.) characteristics, the traditional methods usually cannot be effectively applied. To this end, a novel method, termed as Robust adaptive boosted canonical correlation analysis (Rab-CCA), is proposed to monitor the wastewater treatment processes. First, a robust decomposition method is proposed to mitigate the defects of standard CCA by decomposing the corrupted matrix into a low-matrix and a sparse matrix. Second, to further improve the performance of the standard process monitoring method, a novel criterion function and control charts are reconstructed accordingly. Moreover, an adaptive statistical control limit is proposed that can adjust the thresholds according to the state of a system and can effectively reduce the missed alarms and false alarms simultaneously. The superiority of Rab-CCA is verified by Benchmark Simulation Model 1 (BSM1) and a real full-scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isatra.2021.01.039DOI Listing
January 2021

Identification and phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial genome of BML (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae).

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2020 Jul 6;5(3):2655-2657. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

College of Life Sciences, Shaoxing University, Shaoxing, P. R. China.

The complete mitochondrial genome of BML (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) is 16,612 bases in length. It consists of 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 1 non-coding region. Its overall nucleotide composition is A: 29.85%, G: 17.07%, T: 25.86%, and C: 27.23%, respectively, with an A + T rich feature (55.71%). The gene arrangement and organization of the mitogenome from BML were very similar to other Cyprinidae fishes. The phylogenetic analysis showed that BML clustered in genus Hemibarbus. These results will contribute to the taxonomy and conservation biology studies of
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2020.1778570DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7782797PMC
July 2020

Assembly of functionalized π-extended indolizine polycycles through dearomative [3+2] cycloaddition/oxidative decarbonylation.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Jan;57(3):359-362

Institute of Functional Organic Molecular Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004, China.

Reported herein is an unexpected construction of functionalized π-extended indolizine polycycles through a one-pot two-step cascade process comprising the base-promoted dearomative [3+2] cycloaddition of quinilinium salts and 3-alkenyl oxindoles, followed by a DDQ-mediated oxidative decarbonylation. Moreover, we could achieve the substrate-controlled diverse synthesis of structurally strained cyclopropane spirooxindole by using pyridinium salts as starting materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cc07116aDOI Listing
January 2021

Hepsin Promotes Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Cell Invasion Through the miR-222/PPP2R2A/AKT Axis in Prostate Cancer.

Onco Targets Ther 2020 24;13:12141-12149. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Department of Urology, Third Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming City, Yunnan Province, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: To determine the role and underlying mechanism of hepsin in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell invasion in prostate cancer.

Methods: The expression of hepsin in prostate cancer tissue samples and cell lines was measured by immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting. The EMT and cell invasion abilities of prostate cancer cells were detected by Western blot and transwell assays. RNA transfection was used to inhibit or overexpress related genes. The expression of miR-222 was detected by RT-qPCR. A dual‑luciferase reporter gene assay was performed to determine the target of miR-222.

Results: Hepsin expression was upregulated in prostate cancer tissue samples and cell lines. Inhibition of hepsin attenuated EMT and cell invasion and downregulated the expression of miR-222. Decreased miR-222 expression enhanced the level of PPP2R2A, which in turn attenuated the AKT signaling. Activation of miR-222 or AKT could block the inhibitory effects on EMT and cell invasion induced by hepsin deficiency.

Conclusion: Hepsin promotes EMT and cell invasion through the miR-222/PPP2R2A/AKT axis in prostate cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S268025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7701367PMC
November 2020

Olaparib is effective for recurrent urothelial carcinoma with BRCA2 pathogenic germline mutation: first report on olaparib response in recurrent UC.

Ther Adv Med Oncol 2020 11;12:1758835920970845. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Department of Urology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Tumor Hospital of Yunnan Province, Kunming, Yunnan 650118, P.R. China.

Urothelial carcinoma (UC) is a common malignancy of the lower and upper urinary tract. Recurrent UC has poor prognosis due to delayed diagnosis and a lack of clinical management guidance, especially for upper urinary tract UC. Patients with germline or somatic BRCA1/2 mutations are a special population in UC. No evidence is available so far on the effectiveness of poly ADP-ribose polymerase inhibitor (PARPi) in this population. Here, we report a 60-year-old female patient diagnosed with left ureter high-grade UC. Recurrent lesions were found 20 months after radical surgery. Computed tomography (CT) examination showed a slightly high-density soft tissue mass (3.2 × 3.1 cm) on the left posterior wall of the abdomen (waist), soft tissue mass adjacent to the left inner wall of the pelvis (3.2 × 4.2 cm), and multiple enlarged lymph nodes to the left of abdominal aorta. A next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based 605-gene panel detected a novel BRCA2 pathogenic germline mutation c.1670T>A (p.L557*), and a series of somatic insertion and deletion (INDEL) mutations of BRCA1, RB1, and JAK2, and single nucleotide variation (SNV) mutations of TP53, KMT2D, MET, ROS1, and IL7R. The above lesions were reduced significantly or disappeared (partial response, PR) after a 3-month Olaparib treatment, and the patient's general condition remained well. In conclusion, this study proved for the first time that PARPi was effective for UC treatment in patients carrying germline BRCA2 pathogenic mutations, providing new treatment options for such patients. In addition, the circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) test can be used for drug selection and response monitoring in UC treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1758835920970845DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7675892PMC
November 2020

Mechanistic insights into the effect of poly ferric sulfate on anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge.

Water Res 2021 Feb 16;189:116645. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Centre for Technology in Water and Wastewater, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2007, Australia.

Poly ferric sulfate (PFS), one of the typical inorganic flocculants widely used in wastewater management and waste activated sludge (WAS) dewatering, could be accumulated in WAS and inevitably entered in anaerobic digestion system at high levels. However, knowledge about its impact on methane production is virtually absent. This study therefore aims to fill this gap and provide insights into the mechanisms involved through both batch and long-term tests using either real WAS or synthetic wastewaters as the digestion substrates. Experimental results showed that the maximum methane potential and production rate of WAS was respectively retarded by 39.0% and 66.4%, whereas the lag phase was extended by 237.0% at PFS of 40 g per kg of total solids. Mechanism explorations exhibited that PFS induced the physical enmeshment and disrupted the enzyme activity involved in anaerobic digestion, resulting in an inhibitory state of the bioprocess of hydrolysis, acidogenesis, and methanogenesis. Furthermore, PFS's inhibition to hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis was much severer than that to acetotrophic methanogenesis, which could be supported by the elevated abundances of Methanosaeta sp and the dropped abundances of Methanobacterium sp in PFS-present digester, and probably due to the severe mass transfer resistance of hydrogen between the syntrophic bacteria and methanogens, as well as the higher hydrogen appetency of PFS-induced sulfate reducing bacteria. Among the derivatives of PFS, "multinucleate and multichain-hydroxyl polymers" and sulfate were unveiled to be the major contributors to the decreased methane potential, while the "multinucleate and multichain-hydroxyl polymers" were identified to be the chief buster to the slowed methane-producing rate and the extended lag time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2020.116645DOI Listing
February 2021

Understanding the fate and impact of capsaicin in anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and waste activated sludge.

Water Res 2021 Jan 19;188:116539. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Centre for Technology in Water and Wastewater, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2007, Australia.

Anaerobic co-digestion is an attractive option to treat food waste and waste activated sludge, which is increasingly applied in real-world situations. As an active component in Capsicum species being substantially present in food waste in many areas, capsaicin has been recently demonstrated to inhibit the anaerobic co-digestion. However, the interaction between capsaicin and anaerobic co-digestion are still poorly understood. This work therefore aims to deeply understand the fate and impact of capsaicin in the anaerobic co-digestion. Experiment results showed that capsaicin was completely degraded in anaerobic co-digestion by hydroxylation, O-demethylation, dehydrogenation and doubly oxidization, respectively. Although methane was proven to be produced from capsaicin degradation, the increase in capsaicin concentration resulted in decrease in methane yield from the anaerobic co-digestion. With an increase of capsaicin from 2 ± 0.7 to 68 ± 4 mg/g volatile solids (VS), the maximal methane yield decreased from 274.6 ± 9.7 to 188.9 ± 8.4 mL/g VS. The mechanic investigations demonstrated that the presence of capsaicin induced apoptosis, probably by either altering key kinases or decreasing the intracellular NAD/NADH ratio, which led to significant inhibitions to hydrolysis, acidogenesis, and methanogenesis, especially acetotrophic methanogenesis. Illumina Miseq sequencing analysis exhibited that capsaicin promoted the populations of complex organic degradation microbes such as Escherichia-Shigella and Fonticella but decreased the numbers of anaerobes relevant to hydrolysis, acidogenesis, and methanogenesis such as Bacteroide and Methanobacterium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2020.116539DOI Listing
January 2021

VDAC upregulation and αTAT1‑mediated α‑tubulin acetylation contribute to tanespimycin‑induced apoptosis in Calu‑1 cells.

Oncol Rep 2020 Dec 5;44(6):2725-2734. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

School of Life Sciences, Shandong University, Qingdao, Shandong 266237, P.R. China.

Voltage‑dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) functions as a porin in the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) and plays important roles in mitochondria‑mediated cell apoptosis. VDAC1 interacts with a variety of proteins, such as Bcl‑2 family proteins, hexose kinase (HK), adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) and α‑tubulin. However, the association between VDAC1 and α‑tubulin, particularly between VDAC1 and acetylated α‑tubulin (Ac‑α‑tubulin), in apoptosis remains unclear. The present study revealed that the heat shock protein 90 inhibitor, tanespimycin, induced VDAC1 upregulation and α‑tubulin acetylation during Calu‑1 cell apoptosis in human lung cancer. Hsp90 mediated the expression level of VDAC1, and the acetylation of α‑tubulin was enhanced in an α‑tubulin acetyltransferase 1 (αTAT1)‑dependent manner following an increase in VDAC1 expression. Docetaxel, as an inhibitor of microtubules, augmented the expression of Ac‑α‑tubulin, VDAC1 and Bax induced by tanespimycin and increased the degree of caspase activation. Immunoprecipitation (IP) experiments revealed that Ac‑α‑tubulin, α‑tubulin and VDAC1 were co‑precipitated in the IP complex, in which α‑tubulin expression was decreased and VDAC1 proteins were oligomerized, and that the p‑AKT/glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) signalling pathway mediated the opening of VDAC1. Therefore, it can be asserted that the acetylation of α‑tubulin and VDAC1 upregulation or oligomerization induced by tanespimycin may lead to mitochondrial permeability and consequently induce the apoptosis of lung cancer cells. These findings provide evidence for the use of a combination of drugs that target VDAC1 and tubulin to induce tumour cell apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/or.2020.7789DOI Listing
December 2020

Enhancement of short-chain fatty acids production from microalgae by potassium ferrate addition: Feasibility, mechanisms and implications.

Bioresour Technol 2020 Dec 16;318:124266. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Key Laboratory of Water-Sediment Sciences and Water Disaster Prevention of Hunan Province, School of Hydraulic Engineering, Changsha University of Science & Technology, Changsha 410004, China.

Anaerobic fermentation of microalgae was always hindered by its rigid cell wall structure. This paper reports a novel technique, i.e., adding potassium ferrate (KFeO) into microalgae fermentation systems to enhance short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production. The results showed that the maximum SCFAs production and acetic acid proportion were 732.6 mg COD/g VS and 54.6% at a dosage of 112.8 mg Fe(VI)/g VS, which were 168% and 208% of those in the control, respectively. Mechanism studies revealed that KFeO effectively destroyed surface morphology and cell structure, and thus facilitated microalgae solubilization, providing a large number of biodegradable substrates for subsequent SCFA production. Although KFeO inhibited all the microbial activities relevant to hydrolysis, acidification and methanogenesis processes to some degree, its inhibition to methanogens was much severer than that to other microbes. Illumina MiSeq sequencing analyses revealed that KFeO addition increased the relative abundance (from 9.45% to 50.4%) of hydrolytic and SCFAs-forming bacteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2020.124266DOI Listing
December 2020

Genome-Wide Wheat 55K SNP-Based Mapping of Stripe Rust Resistance Loci in Wheat Cultivar Shaannong 33 and Their Alleles Frequencies in Current Chinese Wheat Cultivars and Breeding Lines.

Plant Dis 2021 Apr 23;105(4):1048-1056. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, P. R. China.

Wheat cultivar Shaannong 33 (SN33) has remained highly resistant to stripe rust in the field since its release in 2009. To unravel the genetic architecture of stripe rust resistance, seedlings of 161 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from the cross Avocet S × SN33 were evaluated with two isolates (PST-Lab.1 and PST-Lab.2) of the stripe rust pathogen ( f. sp. ) in the greenhouse, and the RILs were evaluated in naturally or artificially inoculated field sites during two cropping seasons. The RILs and parents were genotyped with the wheat 55K single-nucleotide polymorphism array. Three genomic regions conferring seedling resistance were mapped on chromosomes 1DS, 2AS, and 3DS, and four consistent quantitative trait loci (QTL) for adult-plant resistance (APR) were detected on 1BL, 2AS, 3DL, and 6BS. The 2AS locus conferring all-stage resistance was identified as the resistant gene located on 2NS translocation. The QTL identified on 1BL and 6BS likely correspond to and , respectively. An APR QTL on 3DL explaining 5.8 to 12.2% of the phenotypic variation is likely to be new. Molecular marker detection assays with the 2NS segment (), , , and on a panel of 420 current Chinese wheat cultivars and breeding lines indicated that these genes were present in 11.4, 7.6, 14.8, and 7.4% of entries, respectively. The interactions among these genes and QTL were additive, suggesting their potential value in enhancing stripe rust resistance breeding materials as observed in the resistant parent. In addition, we also identified two leaf necrosis genes, and ; however, the F plants from cross Avocet S × SN33 survived, indicating that SN33 probably has another allele of which allows seed to be harvested.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-07-20-1516-REDOI Listing
April 2021

The dual functions of α-tubulin acetylation in cellular apoptosis and autophage induced by tanespimycin in lung cancer cells.

Cancer Cell Int 2020 5;20:369. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Shandong University School of Life Sciences, 72 Binhai RD, Qingdao, 266237 People's Republic of China.

Background: Reversible acetylation of α-tubulin has been implicated in modulating microtuble structures and functions, which may subsequently involve in cellular apoptosis and autophage. But how to trigger apoptosis or autophage at what level of acetylated α-tubulin (Ac-α-tubulin) are not known. This study aims to demonstrate the dual functions and molecular mechanisms of α-tubulin acetylation in cellular apoptosis and autophage induced by tanespimycin in Calu-1 cells simultaneously.

Methods: Calu-1 cells were treated with tanespimycin alone or combined administrations of different agents (including TSA, Docetaxel, Rapamycin, 3-MA and Z-vad) respectively and cell lysates were prepared to detect the given proteins by Western Blot. The cell survival was observed by inverted phase contrast microscope and estimated by SRB assay. HDAC6, TAT1 and Hsp90α/β proteins were knocked down by siRNA technique.

Results: By combination administration of tanespimycin with TSA or Docetaxel, the expression of Ac-α-tubulin and cellular apoptosis were enhanced markedly. While combination of tanespimycin and Rapamycin, α-tubulin acetylation and apoptosis were inhibited, but LC3B-II expression was facilitated substantially. When tanespimycin was combined with autophage inhibitor 3-MA, α-tubulin acetylation elevation was apparently, but LC3B-II was attenuated. Apoptosis inhibitor Z-vad blocked partially Caspases activation induced by tanespimycin, but failed to hinder α-tubulin acetylation elevation. According to results of RNA interference, acetyltransferase TAT1, deacetylase HDAC6 and Hsp90 modulated the expression level of α-tubulin acetylation.

Conclusion: We have elucidated that acetylation of α-tubulin induced by tanespimycin has dual functions in cellular apoptosis and autophage and the level of α-tubulin acetylation reaches a degree Calu-1 cells undergo cell apoptosis rather than autophage, implying that the level of acetylated α-tubulin may determine cell fate for survival or apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12935-020-01453-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7409415PMC
August 2020

A large-scale genomic association analysis identifies the candidate causal genes conferring stripe rust resistance under multiple field environments.

Plant Biotechnol J 2021 01 3;19(1):177-191. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Plant Protection, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, China.

The incorporation of resistance genes into wheat commercial varieties is the ideal strategy to combat stripe or yellow rust (YR). In a search for novel resistance genes, we performed a large-scale genomic association analysis with high-density 660K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays to determine the genetic components of YR resistance in 411 spring wheat lines. Following quality control, 371 972 SNPs were screened, covering over 50% of the high-confidence annotated gene space. Nineteen stable genomic regions harbouring 292 significant SNPs were associated with adult-plant YR resistance across nine environments. Of these, 14 SNPs were localized in the proximity of known loci widely used in breeding. Obvious candidate SNP variants were identified in certain confidence intervals, such as the cloned gene Yr18 and the major locus on chromosome 2BL, despite a large extent of linkage disequilibrium. The number of causal SNP variants was refined using an independent validation panel and consideration of the estimated functional importance of each nucleotide polymorphism. Interestingly, four natural polymorphisms causing amino acid changes in the gene TraesCS2B01G513100 that encodes a serine/threonine protein kinase (STPK) were significantly involved in YR responses. Gene expression and mutation analysis confirmed that STPK played an important role in YR resistance. PCR markers were developed to identify the favourable TraesCS2B01G513100 haplotype for marker-assisted breeding. These results demonstrate that high-resolution SNP-based GWAS enables the rapid identification of putative resistance genes and can be used to improve the efficiency of marker-assisted selection in wheat disease resistance breeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pbi.13452DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7769225PMC
January 2021

Diazo Activation with Diazonium Salts: Synthesis of Indazole and 1,2,4-Triazole.

Org Lett 2020 Jun 28;22(11):4151-4155. Epub 2020 May 28.

The Department of Chemistry, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Avenue, Tampa, Florida 33620, United States.

A donor/acceptor diazo activation strategy, processing via condensation using diazonium salts without the addition of any other catalysts or reagents, is reported. The diazenium intermediate was found to undergo cyclization to give indazoles in excellent yields. Alternatively, in the presence of nitriles, substituted 1,2,4-triazoles were obtained in good to excellent yields. This interesting diazenium route provides a new approach to achieve complex heterocycle synthesis under mild conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.0c01232DOI Listing
June 2020
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