Publications by authors named "Qiaowei Pan"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

RADSex: A computational workflow to study sex determination using restriction site-associated DNA sequencing data.

Mol Ecol Resour 2021 Jul 9;21(5):1715-1731. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Physiological Chemistry, Biocenter, University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg, Germany.

The study of sex determination and sex chromosome organization in nonmodel species has long been technically challenging, but new sequencing methodologies now enable precise and high-throughput identification of sex-specific genomic sequences. In particular, restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-Seq) is being extensively applied to explore sex determination systems in many plant and animal species. However, software specifically designed to search for and visualize sex-biased markers using RAD-Seq data is lacking. Here, we present RADSex, a computational analysis workflow designed to study the genetic basis of sex determination using RAD-Seq data. RADSex is simple to use, requires few computational resources, makes no prior assumptions about the type of sex-determination system or structure of the sex locus, and offers convenient visualization through a dedicated R package. To demonstrate the functionality of RADSex, we re-analysed a published data set of Japanese medaka, Oryzias latipes, where we uncovered a previously unknown Y chromosome polymorphism. We then used RADSex to analyse new RAD-Seq data sets from 15 fish species spanning multiple taxonomic orders. We identified the sex determination system and sex-specific markers in six of these species, five of which had no known sex-markers prior to this study. We show that RADSex greatly facilitates the study of sex determination systems in nonmodel species thanks to its speed of analyses, low resource usage, ease of application and visualization options. Furthermore, our analysis of new data sets from 15 species provides new insights on sex determination in fish.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1755-0998.13360DOI Listing
July 2021

The rise and fall of the ancient northern pike master sex-determining gene.

Elife 2021 Jan 28;10. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

INRAE, Sigenae, Genotoul Bioinfo, Toulouse, France.

The understanding of the evolution of variable sex determination mechanisms across taxa requires comparative studies among closely related species. Following the fate of a known master sex-determining gene, we traced the evolution of sex determination in an entire teleost order (Esociformes). We discovered that the northern pike () master sex-determining gene originated from a 65 to 90 million-year-old gene duplication event and that it remained sex linked on undifferentiated sex chromosomes for at least 56 million years in multiple species. We identified several independent species- or population-specific sex determination transitions, including a recent loss of a Y chromosome. These findings highlight the diversity of evolutionary fates of master sex-determining genes and the importance of population demographic history in sex determination studies. We hypothesize that occasional sex reversals and genetic bottlenecks provide a non-adaptive explanation for sex determination transitions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.62858DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7870143PMC
January 2021

Sex chromosome and sex locus characterization in goldfish, Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758).

BMC Genomics 2020 Aug 11;21(1):552. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

INRAE, LPGP, 35000, Rennes, France.

Background: Goldfish is an important model for various areas of research, including neural development and behavior and a species of significant importance in aquaculture, especially as an ornamental species. It has a male heterogametic (XX/XY) sex determination system that relies on both genetic and environmental factors, with high temperatures being able to produce female-to-male sex reversal. Little, however, is currently known on the molecular basis of genetic sex determination in this important cyprinid model. Here we used sequencing approaches to better characterize sex determination and sex-chromosomes in an experimental strain of goldfish.

Results: Our results confirmed that sex determination in goldfish is a mix of environmental and genetic factors and that its sex determination system is male heterogametic (XX/XY). Using reduced representation (RAD-seq) and whole genome (pool-seq) approaches, we characterized sex-linked polymorphisms and developed male specific genetic markers. These male specific markers were used to distinguish sex-reversed XX neomales from XY males and to demonstrate that XX female-to-male sex reversal could even occur at a relatively low rearing temperature (18 °C), for which sex reversal has been previously shown to be close to zero. We also characterized a relatively large non-recombining region (~ 11.7 Mb) on goldfish linkage group 22 (LG22) that contained a high-density of male-biased genetic polymorphisms. This large LG22 region harbors 373 genes, including a single candidate as a potential master sex gene, i.e., the anti-Mullerian hormone gene (amh). However, no sex-linked polymorphisms were detected in the coding DNA sequence of the goldfish amh gene.

Conclusions: These results show that our goldfish strain has a relatively large sex locus on LG22, which is likely the Y chromosome of this experimental population. The presence of a few XX males even at low temperature also suggests that other environmental factors in addition to temperature could trigger female-to-male sex reversal. Finally, we also developed sex-linked genetic markers, which will be important tools for future research on sex determination in our experimental goldfish population. However, additional work would be needed to explore whether this sex locus is conserved in other populations of goldfish.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-020-06959-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7430817PMC
August 2020

Identification of the master sex determining gene in Northern pike (Esox lucius) reveals restricted sex chromosome differentiation.

PLoS Genet 2019 08 22;15(8):e1008013. Epub 2019 Aug 22.

INRA, UR1037 LPGP, Campus de Beaulieu, Rennes, France.

Teleost fishes, thanks to their rapid evolution of sex determination mechanisms, provide remarkable opportunities to study the formation of sex chromosomes and the mechanisms driving the birth of new master sex determining (MSD) genes. However, the evolutionary interplay between the sex chromosomes and the MSD genes they harbor is rather unexplored. We characterized a male-specific duplicate of the anti-Müllerian hormone (amh) as the MSD gene in Northern Pike (Esox lucius), using genomic and expression evidence as well as by loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments. Using RAD-Sequencing from a family panel, we identified Linkage Group (LG) 24 as the sex chromosome and positioned the sex locus in its sub-telomeric region. Furthermore, we demonstrated that this MSD originated from an ancient duplication of the autosomal amh gene, which was subsequently translocated to LG24. Using sex-specific pooled genome sequencing and a new male genome sequence assembled using Nanopore long reads, we also characterized the differentiation of the X and Y chromosomes, revealing a small male-specific insertion containing the MSD gene and a limited region with reduced recombination. Our study reveals an unexpectedly low level of differentiation between a pair of sex chromosomes harboring an old MSD gene in a wild teleost fish population, and highlights both the pivotal role of genes from the amh pathway in sex determination, as well as the importance of gene duplication as a mechanism driving the turnover of sex chromosomes in this clade.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1008013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6726246PMC
August 2019

Foxl2 and Its Relatives Are Evolutionary Conserved Players in Gonadal Sex Differentiation.

Sex Dev 2016 22;10(3):111-29. Epub 2016 Jul 22.

INRA, UR1037 Fish Physiology and Genomics, Rennes, France.

Foxl2 is a member of the large family of Forkhead Box (Fox) domain transcription factors. It emerged during the last 15 years as a key player in ovarian differentiation and oogenesis in vertebrates and especially mammals. This review focuses on Foxl2 genes in light of recent findings on their evolution, expression, and implication in sex differentiation in animals in general. Homologs of Foxl2 and its paralog Foxl3 are found in all metazoans, but their gene evolution is complex, with multiple gains and losses following successive whole genome duplication events in vertebrates. This review aims to decipher the evolutionary forces that drove Foxl2/3 gene specialization through sub- and neo-functionalization during evolution. Expression data in metazoans suggests that Foxl2/3 progressively acquired a role in both somatic and germ cell gonad differentiation and that a certain degree of sub-functionalization occurred after its duplication in vertebrates. This generated a scenario where Foxl2 is predominantly expressed in ovarian somatic cells and Foxl3 in male germ cells. To support this hypothesis, we provide original results showing that in the pea aphid (insects) foxl2/3 is predominantly expressed in sexual females and showing that in bovine ovaries FOXL2 is specifically expressed in granulosa cells. Overall, current results suggest that Foxl2 and Foxl3 are evolutionarily conserved players involved in somatic and germinal differentiation of gonadal sex.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000447611DOI Listing
November 2017

Vertebrate sex-determining genes play musical chairs.

C R Biol 2016 Jul-Aug;339(7-8):258-62. Epub 2016 Jun 10.

Inra, Fish Physiology and Genomics Laboratory, 35042 Rennes, France. Electronic address:

Sexual reproduction is one of the most highly conserved processes in evolution. However, the genetic and cellular mechanisms making the decision of whether the undifferentiated gonad of animal embryos develops either towards male or female are manifold and quite diverse. In vertebrates, sex-determining mechanisms range from environmental to simple or complex genetic mechanisms and different mechanisms have evolved repeatedly and independently. In species with simple genetic sex-determination, master sex-determining genes lying on sex chromosomes drive the gonadal differentiation process by switching on a developmental program, which ultimately leads to testicular or ovarian differentiation. So far, very few sex-determining genes have been identified in vertebrates and apart from mammals and birds, these genes are apparently not conserved over a larger number of related orders, families, genera, or even species. To fill this knowledge gap and to better explore genetic sex-determination, we propose a strategy (RAD-Sex) that makes use of next-generation sequencing technology to identify genetic markers that define sex-specific segments of the male or female genome.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.crvi.2016.05.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5393452PMC
February 2017