Publications by authors named "Qiaoling Zhao"

53 Publications

Peptidoglycan recognition protein-S1 (PGRP-S1) from Diaphania pyloalis (Walker) is involved in the agglutination and prophenoloxidase activation pathway.

Gene 2021 Oct 11:146004. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Sericutural Biology and Biotechnology, School of Biotechnology, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212018, China; Key Laboratory of Silkworm and Mulberry Genetic Improvement, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Sericultural Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212018, China. Electronic address:

Recognition of invading foreign exogenous pathogen is the first step to initiate the innate immune response of insects, which accomplished by the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) serve as an important type of PRRs, which activate immune response by detecting peptidoglycan of microbial cell wall. In this study, we have cloned the full-length cDNA of PGRP gene called PGRP-S1 from the Diaphania pyloalis (Walker). The open reading frame (ORF) of D. pyloalis PGRP-S1 encodes 211 amino acids which containing a secretion signal peptide and a canonical PGRP domain. Multisequence alignment revealed that PGRP-S1 possess the amino acid residues responsible for zinc binding and amidase activity. D. pyloalis PGRP-S1 exhibited the highest transcript level in fat body and followed in head. The mRNA concentration dramatically increased after an injection of Escherichia coli or Micrococcus luteus. Purified recombinant PGRP-S1 exhibit binding ability to peptidoglycans from Staphylococcus aureus or Bacillus subtilis and cause intensive agglutination of E. coli , M. luteus or S. aureus in the presence of zinc ions. Furthermore, phenoloxidase activity significantly increased when the plasma from larvae was incubated with recombinant PGPR-S1 and peptidoglycans from B. subtilis or M. luteus simultaneously. These results implied that PGRP-S1 was a member involving the prophenoloxidase activation pathway. Overall, our results indicated that D. pyloalis PGRP-S1 serve as a PRR to participate in the recognition of foreign pathogen and prophenoloxidase pathway stimulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2021.146004DOI Listing
October 2021

Evaluation of the acute toxic effects of crude oil on intertidal mudskipper (Boleophthalmus pectinirostris) based on antioxidant enzyme activity and the integrated biomarker response.

Environ Pollut 2021 Oct 9;292(Pt A):118341. Epub 2021 Oct 9.

School of Marine Sciences, University of Maine, Orono, 04469, USA.

With the development of marine oil industry, oil spill accidents will inevitably occur, further polluting the intertidal zone and causing biological poisoning. The muddy intertidal zone and Boleophthalmus pectinirostris were selected as the research objects to conduct indoor acute exposure experiments within 48 h of crude oil pollution. Statistical analysis was used to reveal the activity changes of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in the gills and liver of mudskipper. Then, integrated biomarker response (IBR) indicators were established to comprehensively evaluate the biological toxicity. The results showed that the activities of SOD, CAT and GST in livers were higher than those in gills, and the maximum induction multipliers of SOD, CAT and GPx in livers appeared earlier than those in gills. Both SOD and GPx activities were induced at low pollutant concentrations and inhibited at high pollutant concentrations. For the dose-effect, the change trends of CAT and SOD were roughly inversed. There was substrate competition between GPx and CAT, with opposite trends over time. The activating mechanism of GST was similar to that of GPx, and the activation time was earlier than that of GPx. In terms of dose-effect trends, the IBR showed that the antioxidant enzymes activities in biological tissues were induced by low and inhibited by high pollutant concentrations. Overall, SOD and GPx in gills and CAT and GST in livers of the mudskippers were suitable as representative markers to comprehensively analyze and evaluate the biotoxicity effects of oil pollution in the intertidal zone. The star plots and IBR values obtained after data standardization were consistent with the enzyme activity differences, which can be used as valid supplementary indexes for biotoxicity evaluation. These research findings provide theoretical support for early indicators of biological toxicity after crude oil pollution in intertidal zones.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.118341DOI Listing
October 2021

Fast and Specific Screening of EPA/DHA-Enriched Phospholipids in Fish Oil Extracted from Different Species by HILIC-MS.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Jul 9;69(28):7997-8007. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Collaborative Innovation Center of Seafood Deep Processing, Zhejiang Province Joint Key Laboratory of Aquatic Products Processing, Institute of Seafood, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310012, China.

Eicosapentaenoic acid- and docosahexaenoic acid-enriched phospholipids (PL) have versatile health-beneficial functions and can be well absorbed in the intestine. Herein, a precursor ion scan-driven hydrophilic interaction chromatography mass spectrometry (PreIS-HILIC-MS) method with the fatty acyl moieties of / 301.6 and 327.6 locked was established to specifically and selectively screen PL in different fish oil samples, including saury, grass carp, hairtail, and yellow croaker. Taking saury oil as an example, a total of 24 PL were successfully identified and quantified, including 20 PC and 4 PE. Finally, this method was validated in terms of sensitivity (limit of detection ≤ 4.15 μg·mL), linearity (≥0.9979), precision (RSD ≤ 4.65%), and recovery (≥78.6%). The performance of the PreIS-HILIC-MS method was also compared with that of the traditional full-scan mode, and the former demonstrated its unique superiority in targeted screening of PL in fish oils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.1c01709DOI Listing
July 2021

Lipidomics phenotyping of clam (Corbicula fluminea) through graphene/fibrous silica nanohybrids based solid-phase extraction and HILIC-MS analysis.

Food Chem 2021 Aug 13;354:129565. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Collaborative Innovation Center of Seafood Deep Processing, Zhejiang Province Joint Key Laboratory of Aquatic Products Processing, Institute of Seafood, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Polyunsaturated phospholipids are abundant in clam (Corbicula fluminea) but difficult to be fully extracted. Herein, graphene/fibrous silica (G/KCC-1) nanohybrids were synthesized, characterized, and applied for solid-phase extraction (SPE) of phospholipids in clam. The effectiveness of G/KCC-1 SPE was verified by hydrophilic interaction chromatography mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS) based lipidomics and statistical analysis. The ions of PE 16:0/18:1 (m/z 716.4), PC 16:0/20:5 (m/z 824.6) and etc. were regarded as the main difference among the crude lipids, acetone washed extract, and eluate of G/KCC-1 SPE. Finally, this method was validated in terms of linearity (R 0.9965 to 0.9981), sensitivity (LOD 0.19-0.51 μg·mL and LOQ 0.48 - 1.47 μg·mL), and precision (RSD ≤ 7.16% and RSD ≤ 7.30%). In conclusion, the G/KCC-1 SPE and HILIC-MS method was shown to be accurate and efficient in selective extracting and phenotyping phospholipids in C. fluminea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129565DOI Listing
August 2021

Genetic analysis and transcriptome analysis of the mini mutant of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

Arch Insect Biochem Physiol 2021 May 10;107(1):e21774. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

School of Biotechnology, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, China.

The expression levels of some intrinsic genes, protease activity, and regulation of signaling pathways were distinct during different growth and development stages in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The silkworm mutant mini was discovered from the normal silkworm strain S8V, and the body-size of the mini mutant was smaller than the wild-type from the second-instar and the difference became more significant in the following stages. In this study, genetic analysis of mini mutant showed that mini mutant was controlled by a single recessive gene, manifested as homozygous lethal. Then, the transcriptome analysis of the mini mutant indicated that 2944 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified from the silkworm in the 48 h of the second-instar, of which 1638 genes in the mini mutants were upregulated and 1306 genes were downregulated. These DEGs were mainly distributed in the biological process, cellular component, and molecular function. The functional annotation based on the KEGG database showed that these genes were mainly clustered in metabolic pathways, fatty acid metabolism pathways, ribosome biogenesis in eukaryotes, and so on. Further analysis indicated that some genes involved in the growth and metabolism including enzyme genes, juvenile hormone, and ecdysone exhibited different transcriptional levels. These results provided new experimental evidence regarding the mechanism of the underlying formation of mini mutants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/arch.21774DOI Listing
May 2021

Comparative transcriptomic analysis of the l-4i silkworm (Lepidoptera: Bombyx mori) mutants and its wild-type strain P33 by RNA-Seq.

Comp Biochem Physiol Part D Genomics Proteomics 2021 06 6;38:100800. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

School of Biotechnology, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Nanxv Road, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212018, China; The Sericulture Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212018, China. Electronic address:

The silkworm (Bombyx mori) is a domesticated holometabolous insect, and more than 400 Mendelian mutations have been identified. Investigating the mechanism behind these silkworm mutants is essential for understanding the development of silkworms and other lepidopterans, and lethal genes could be used for pest control. The lethal silkworm mutant in the fourth instar (l-4i) has been recently found; however, the underlying mechanism is not yet clear. Herein, we studied the l-4i mutant and its wild-type strain P33 using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Our results revealed that 2013 genes were significantly downregulated, and 20 biological processes, including spliceosomal snRNP assembly, protein folding and protein catabolic process, were significantly enriched in these downregulated genes. Moreover, 2405 genes were significantly upregulated in the l-4i mutant, and 20 biological processes, including purine nucleobase metabolic process, nucleoside metabolic process and de novo IMP biosynthetic process, were significantly enriched in these upregulated genes. The study suggests that the imbalance of multiple biological processes and pathways and abnormal protein generation from RNA alternative splicing may cause the death of the l-4i mutant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbd.2021.100800DOI Listing
June 2021

A Pattern Recognition Receptor C-type Lectin-S6 (CTL-S6) is Involved in the Immune Response in the Silkworm (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae).

J Insect Sci 2021 Jan;21(1)

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Sericutural Biology and Biotechnology, School of Biotechnology, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, China.

Insect innate immunity is initiated by the special recognition and binding of the foreign pathogens, which is accomplished by the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). As an important type of PRRs, C-type lectins (CTLs) play various roles in insect innate immunity, including pathogen recognition, stimulation of prophenoloxidase, regulation of cellular immunity and so on. In this study, we have cloned the full-length cDNA of a CTL gene named CTL-S6 from the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The open reading frame (ORF) of B. mori CTL-S6 encodes 378 amino acids, which contain a secretion signal peptide. The mRNA of CTL-S6 exhibited the highest transcriptional level in the midgut. Its transcriptional level increased dramatically in fat body and hemocytes upon Escherichia coli or Micrococcus luteus challenge. Purified recombinant CTL-S6 could bind to bacterial cell wall components, including peptidoglycan (PGN, from Bacillus subtilis) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS, from E. coli 0111:B4), and recombinant CTL-S6 was involved in the encapsulation and melanization of hemocytes. Furthermore, the addition of recombinant CTL-S6 to the hemolymph of silkworm resulted in a significant increase in phenoloxidase activity. Overall, our results indicated that B. mori CTL-S6 may serve as a PRR for the recognition of foreign pathogens, prophenoloxidase pathway stimulation and involvement in the innate immunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jisesa/ieaa146DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7846087PMC
January 2021

Real-Time Screening of Omega-7 Phospholipids in Marine Biological Resources Using an iKnife-Rapid-Evaporative-Ionization-Mass-Spectrometry-Based Lipidomics Phenotype.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Aug 12;69(32):9004-9011. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Collaborative Innovation Center of Seafood Deep Processing, Zhejiang Province Joint Key Laboratory of Aquatic Products Processing, Institute of Seafood, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310012, People's Republic of China.

Omega-7 (n-7) phospholipids were bioactive substances in marine animals. In this study, a fast lipidomics phenotyping approach for real-time screening of n-7 phospholipids in five kinds of economic seafood, salmon, prawn, bluefin tuna, hairtail, and butterfish, was established using iKnife rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometry (REIMS). The n-7 phospholipids were structurally characterized and quantitatively analyzed, and the profiles were statistically analyzed by multivariate recognition analysis. It indicated that the difference of n-7 phospholipids in seafood samples was significant ( < 0.05), with (cum) and (cum) values of >0.9. The proportion of n-7 phospholipids in salmon was the highest (20.43%), followed by bluefin tuna, prawn, hairtail, and butterfish. The ions of / 742.54 (PC 16:1-18:1), 768.55 (PC 16:1-20:2), 697.48 (PE 16:1-18:1), and 699.48 (PE 16:1-18:0) were the main n-7 phospholipids. The effectiveness of iKnife REIMS was further verified by hydrophilic interaction chromatography mass spectrometry and gas chromatography. The results demonstrated that proposed iKnife REIMS was an excellent technique for front-line screening of n-7 phospholipids in a large variety of marine biological resources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c05442DOI Listing
August 2021

Untargeted Screening of EPA/DHA Structured Phospholipids in Krill Oil by Chain-Lock-Driven Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

J Agric Food Chem 2020 Dec 23;68(49):14652-14659. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Collaborative Innovation Center of Seafood Deep Processing, Zhejiang Province Joint Key Laboratory of Aquatic Products Processing, Institute of Seafood, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou, 310013, China.

Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids structured phospholipids (PL) have multiple biochemical and pharmacological effects on human health. In this study, EPA and DHA chains were locked under precursor ion scan (PreIS) mode for untargeted screening PL in krill oil using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS). The effect of collision energy and declustering potential on the fragmentation of EPA ( 301.2) and DHA ( 327.2) chains was studied. A total of 33 PL were characterized (sn-1/sn-2) and quantified using regression models, including 16 PC, 11 PE, and 6 PI. Afterward, this method was validated in terms of linearity (≥0.9978), sensitivity (LOD ≤ 4.02 μg·L), precision (RSD ≤ 4.71%), and recovery (≥78.9%). Finally, the performance of HILIC-PreIS-MS/MS was compared with those of conventional methods, and the results indicated its superiority in selective screening PL in krill oil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c06675DOI Listing
December 2020

Monodisperse microsphere-based immobilized metal affinity chromatography approach for preparing Antarctic krill phospholipids followed by HILIC-MS analysis.

Food Chem 2021 May 9;344:128585. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Anesthesiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China. Electronic address:

Phospholipids enriched krill is a functional food beneficial in cardiovascular diseases. Herein, monodisperse microsphere-based immobilized metal affinity chromatographic material (MM-IMAC) was synthesized with Ti incorporated to enrich phospholipids from krill by coordination with phosphate group. The extract was profiled by hydrophilic interaction chromatography-mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS) with 154 phospholipid molecular species detected. The parameters were loading solvent n-hexane/isopropanol (2:8, v/v), flow rate 0.8 mL·min, and eluting volume 1 mL. Besides, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids structured phospholipids were located, such as phosphatidylcholine (PC) 20:5/22:6, phosphatidylinositol (PI) 18:0/20:5, etc. Finally, this method was validated in linearity (R ≥ 0.9953), sensitivity (LOD ≤ 0.53 μg·mL and LOQ ≤ 1.66 μg·mL), precision (RSD ≤ 4.86% and RSD ≤ 6.25%), and recovery (58-83%). It indicated that the MM-Ti-IMAC-HILIC-MS was reliable and efficient in specific study of phospholipids in food matrix.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128585DOI Listing
May 2021

Colorimetric Detection of Class A Soybean Saponins by G-Quadruplex-Based Hybridization Chain Reaction.

J Anal Methods Chem 2020 5;2020:8813239. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

College of Agronomy, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu 030801, Shanxi, China.

Soybean saponin is one of the important secondary metabolites in seeds, which has various beneficial physiological functions to human health. gene is the key enzyme gene for synthesizing class A saponins. It is of great significance to realize the visual and rapid detection of class A saponins at the genetic level. The hybridization chain reaction (HCR) was employed to the visual detection of gene, which was implemented by changing the length of the target fragment to 92 bp and using the hairpin probes we designed to detect the and genes. The best condition of HCR reaction is hemin (1.2 M), Triton X-100 (0.002%), ABTS (3.8 M), and HO (1.5 mM). It was found that HCR has high specificity for gene and could be applied to the visual detection of different soybean cultivars containing Aa type, Ab type, and Aa/Ab type saponins, which could provide technical reference and theoretical basis for molecular breeding of soybean and development of functional soybean products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/8813239DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7661121PMC
November 2020

A Review of Pedal Peptide/Orcokinin-type Neuropeptides.

Curr Protein Pept Sci 2021 ;22(1):41-49

Guangxi Central Laboratory of Sericultural Genetic Improvement and Technological Innovation, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Research Academy of Sericultural Science, Guangxi Nanning 530007, China.

Neuropeptides are endogenous active substances that play important roles in a number of physiological processes and are ubiquitous in the nervous tissue in vivo. The gene encoding pedal peptide/orcokinin-type (PP/OK-type) neuropeptide is an important member of the neuropeptide gene family and is ubiquitous in invertebrates of Bilateria; orcokinin (OK) is mainly found in Arthropoda, while pedal peptide (PP) is mainly found in Mollusca. OK and PP are also present in other animals. PP/OK-type neuropeptides are a kind of multifunctional neuropeptides predominantly expressed in the nervous tissue and play important roles in the nerve regulation of movement. Moreover, OK has a number of other physiological functions. This review describes the distribution, expression, function and maturation of PP/OK-type neuropeptides to facilitate investigations of new functions and receptors of PP/OK-type neuropeptides, providing the theoretical foundation for the potential use of PP/OK-type neuropeptides in the prevention and control of agricultural and forestry pests, as an additive for skin care products and in the screening of drugs for the treatment of diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389203721666201109112758DOI Listing
May 2021

QuEChERS and 96-well plate solid phase extraction for determination of vancomycin and norvancomycin in fish meat by UPLC-MS/MS.

Food Chem 2021 Apr 10;342:128326. Epub 2020 Oct 10.

Zhoushan Institute for Food and Drug Control, Zhoushan 316000, China. Electronic address:

Vancomycin and norvancomycin are glycopeptide antibiotics for gram-positive bacteria infection, but indiscriminately used in aquaculture. In this study, a QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe)/96-well solid-phase extraction (SPE) plate method was used to extract vancomycin and norvancomycin in fish meat samples, and the drugs were further analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The parameters, such as the sorbent of cation exchange resin, the proportion of acetonitrile (15%) in extractant, the mobile phase of water (0.1% formic acid)/acetonitrile, were optimized. The method was validated in terms of linearity (0.9990-0.9994), LOD (0.51 μg·kg), LOQ (1.73 μg·kg), intra-dayprecision (<5.19%), inter-day precision (<6.30%), and recovery (86.7-98.6%). Finally, the method was successfully applied to contaminated and randomly collected samples. The results indicated that the proposed method meet the daily monitoring requirements for vancomycin and norvancomycin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128326DOI Listing
April 2021

Semaphorin-1a-like gene plays an important role in the embryonic development of silkworm, Bombyx mori.

PLoS One 2020 2;15(10):e0240193. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

The Sericultural and Apicultural Research Institute, Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Mengzi Yunnan, China.

Fuyin-lethal red egg (Fuyin-lre) is a red egg mutant discovered from the germplasm resource Fuyin of Bombyx mori. The embryo of Fuyin-lre stops developing at the late stage of gastrulation due to chromosome structural variation. In this work, precise mutation sites at both ends of the mutated region were determined, and two inserted sequences with lengths of 1232 bp and 1845 bp were obtained at both ends of the mutation region. Interestingly, a bmmar1 transposon was detected in the inserted 1845 bp sequence. Bmmar1 possesses features of the Tcl/mariner superfamily of transposable elements (TEs), which belongs to class II TEs that use a DNA-mediated "cut and paste" mechanism to transpose. This finding suggests that Fuyin-lre mutation might be related to the "cut and paste" action of bmmar1. The mutation resulted in the deletion of 9 genes in the mutation region, of which the red egg gene re (BMSK0002766) did not affect embryonic development of B. mori, and the BMSK0002765 gene was unexpressed during the early stage of embryonic development. The RNA interference results of the remaining 7 genes suggest that the semaphorin-1a-like gene (BMSK0002764) had a major contribution to the embryonic lethality of Fuyin-lre.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0240193PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7531805PMC
December 2020

Transcriptome analysis of the eggs of the silkworm pale red egg (rep-1) mutant at 36 hours after oviposition.

PLoS One 2020 7;15(8):e0237242. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

School of Biotechnology, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, China.

The egg stage is one of the most critical periods in the life history of silkworms, during which physiological processes such as sex determination, tissue organ formation and differentiation, diapause and pigmentation occur. In addition, egg color gradually emerges around 36h after oviposition. The red egg mutant rep-1, which was recently discovered in the C1(H) wild-type, C1(H) exhibits a brown egg color. In this study, the transcriptome of the eggs was analyzed 36h after oviposition. Between the rep-1 mutant and the C1(H) wild-type, 800 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, including 325 up-regulated genes and 475 down-regulated genes. These DEGs were mainly involved in biological processes (metabolic process, cellular process, biological regulation and regulation of biological process and localization), cellular components (membrane, membrane part, cell, cell part and organelle) and molecular functions (binding, catalytic activity, transporter activity, structural molecule activity and molecular transducer activity). The pathway enrichment of these DEGs was performed based on the KEGG database, and the results indicated that these DEGs were mainly involved in pathways in the following categories: metabolic pathways, longevity-regulating pathway-multiple species, protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, peroxisome, carbon metabolism and purine metabolism. Further analysis showed that a large number of silkworm growth- and development-related genes and ommochrome synthesis- and metabolism-related genes were differentially expressed, most of which were up-regulated in the mutant. Our research findings provide new experimental evidence for research on ommochrome pigmentation and lay the foundation for further research on the mechanism of the rep-1 mutant.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0237242PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7413551PMC
October 2020

Comprehensive analysis of volatile compounds in cold-pressed safflower seed oil from Xinjiang, China.

Food Sci Nutr 2020 Feb 27;8(2):903-914. Epub 2019 Dec 27.

School of Food Science and Technology/Key Laboratory of Xinjiang Phytomedicine Resource and Utilization Ministry of Education Shihezi University Shihezi China.

Three varieties of safflower seed oil (SSO) from Xinjiang Autonomous Region, China, were analyzed by headspace solid-phase micro-extraction gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) to reveal volatile components. Overall, 67 volatile components were determined and four compounds including isoamyl alcohol, caproic acid, n-pentanal, and heptanal were newly identified in SSO as aroma-active components. Meanwhile, 16 compounds were selected by relative odor activity value (ROAV) to evaluate contributions of single compounds to the overall odor (ROAV > 1), in which nonanal, (Z)-6-nonenal, and (E)-2,4-decadienal were the top three contributed substances (ROAV > 70). The sensory panel was described as eight definition terms (grassy, fruity, almond, mushroom, fatty, sweet, paddy, and overall fragrance). Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed a significant separation of three cultivars with the first principal component (PC-1) and the second principal component (PC-2) expressing 73.9% and 23.1%, respectively. Both PCA and ROAV allowed identifying the compounds positively correlated to sensory evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.1369DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7020304PMC
February 2020

The role of N6-methyladenosine modification on diapause in silkworm (Bombyx mori) strains that exhibit different voltinism.

Mol Reprod Dev 2019 12 14;86(12):1981-1992. Epub 2019 Oct 14.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Sericultural Biology and Biotechnology, School of Biotechnology, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, China.

N6-methyladenosine (m A) plays a key role in regulating gene expression in myriad organisms. Diapause is an important plastic phenotype that allows insects to survive under specific environmental conditions. However, the diapause molecular mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we analyzed the phylogenetics of genes related to the m A modification complex in the silkworm (Bombyx mori) based on identified sequences from other organisms. We detected the expression of these genes during different developmental phases from four strains with different voltinism. We also determined total m A content in cells treated with different diapause hormone concentrations or eggs exposed to hydrochloric acid. Our data revealed that m A-modification-related gene expression and m A content were greater in diapause-destinated compared to nondiapause-destined strains. Our findings suggest that m A modification may provide significant epigenetic regulation of diapause-related genes in the silkworm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrd.23283DOI Listing
December 2019

Characterization of microplastics in environment by thermal gravimetric analysis coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

Mar Pollut Bull 2019 Aug 24;145:153-160. Epub 2019 May 24.

College of Chemical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014, China; Research Center of Analysis and Measurement, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014, China; Environmental Microplastic Pollution Research Center, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014, China. Electronic address:

As a global pollutant, microplastics have attracted attention from the public and researchers. However, the lack of standard and time-saving methods for analysis has become one of the bottlenecks in microplastics research. Here, we demonstrate TGA coupled to FTIR to identify and quantify certain microplastics in environment. Samples were pyrolyzed in TGA and the pyrolysis gases were analyzed by FTIR. Combining TGA and FTIR data adds discriminatory power as temperature profiles and absorption spectra differ among several common plastics. To quantify on a mass basis, we calibrated on characteristic IR peaks at temperatures of maximum weight loss for individual polymers. The method can distinguish PVC, PS and was validated by spiking samples with known quantities of microplastics. The result of field sample experiments showed that TGA-FTIR can be used to identify and quantify PVC and PS in bivalves, seawater and soil. And the method may be applicable to environmental samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2019.05.037DOI Listing
August 2019

The silkworm (Bombyx mori) neuropeptide orcokinin is involved in the regulation of pigmentation.

Insect Biochem Mol Biol 2019 11 23;114:103229. Epub 2019 Aug 23.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Sericultural Biology and Biotechnology, School of Biotechnology, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, 212018, China; Key Laboratory of Silkworm and Mulberry Genetic Improvement, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Sericulture Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, 212018, China. Electronic address:

The natural colorful cuticles of insects play important roles in many physiological processes. Pigmentation is a physiological process with a complex regulatory network whose regulatory mechanism remains unclear. Bombyx mori pigmentation mutants are ideal materials for research on pigmentation mechanisms. The purple quail-like (q-l) and brown quail-like (q-l) mutants originated from plain silkworm breeds 932VR and 0223JH respectively exhibit similar cuticle pigmentation to that of the quail mutant. The q-l mutant also presents a developmental abnormality. In this study, genes controlling q-l and q-l mutants were located on chromosome 8 by positional cloning. Then the neuropeptide gene orcokinin (OK) was identified to be the major gene responsible for two quail-like mutants. The B. mori orcokinin gene (BommoOK) produces two transcripts, BommoOKA and BommoOKB, by alternative splicing. The CRISPR/Cas9 system and orcokinin peptides injection were used for further functional verification. We show a novel function of BommoOKA in inhibiting pigmentation, and one mature peptide of orcokinin A, OKA_type2, is the key factor in pigmentation inhibition. These results provide a reference for studying the function of orcokinin and are of theoretical importance for studying the regulatory mechanism of pigmentation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ibmb.2019.103229DOI Listing
November 2019

Collagen Extracted from Bigeye Tuna () Skin by Isoelectric Precipitation: Physicochemical Properties, Proliferation, and Migration Activities.

Mar Drugs 2019 May 1;17(5). Epub 2019 May 1.

Zhejiang Provincial Engineering Technology Research Center of Marine Biomedical Products, School of Food and Pharmacy, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan 316022, China.

Collagen was extracted from bigeye tuna () skins by salting-out (PSC-SO) and isoelectric precipitation (PSC-IP) methods. The yield of the PSC-IP product was approximately 17.17% (dry weight), which was greater than the yield obtained from PSC-SO (14.14% dry weight). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis indicated that collagen from bigeye tuna skin belongs to collagen type I. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry results indicate that the heavy metal abundance in PSC-IP was lower than the maximum acceptable amounts according to Chinese regulatory standards. In addition, results from a methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay and an in vitro scratch assay demonstrated that PSC-IP could promote the proliferation and migration of NIH-3T3 fibroblasts. Overall, results suggest PSC-IP could be used to rapidly extract collagen from marine by-products instead of traditional salting-out methods. Collagen from bigeye tuna skin may also have strong potential for cosmetic and biomedical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md17050261DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6562556PMC
May 2019

Expression profile of several genes on ecdysteroidogenic pathway related to diapause in pupal stage of Bombyx mori bivoltine strain.

Gene 2019 Jul 31;707:109-116. Epub 2019 Mar 31.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Sericutural Biology and Biotechnology, School of Biotechnology, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212018, China; Key Laboratory of Silkworm and Mulberry Genetic Improvement, Ministry of Agriculture, Sericultural Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212018, China. Electronic address:

Ecdysone is involved in regulation of embryonic diapause in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. However, its mechanism still remains unclear. To explore the role of ecdysteroidogenic pathway (EP) genes in diapause process of bivoltine B. mori, the eggs of "Qiufeng", a bivoltine strain, were used as the study materials and arranged into diapause eggs producers (DEPs) and non-diapause eggs producers (NDEPs), respectively. The differential expression of EP genes between two groups was analysed during the early pupal stage. The expression of Shadow was significantly increased in the NDEPs in day-3 pupae and reached the peak simultaneously, indicating that Shadow was in coincidence with diapause process. To validate this hypothesis, a repression of Shadow by RNA interference was performed in day-2 pupae of NDEPs. The expression of Shadow was downregulated by RNAi, and βFtz-F1, a downstream gene of EP, was also decreased. Furthermore, the genes encoding the kynurenine-synthetase were upregulated in the ovary, and Brown, AdenoK which link Shadow to the kynurenine-synthase gene were also upregulated in the fat body. The progeny eggs appeared a light purple colour at 48 h after oviposition, revealing a certain tendency to diapause. We speculate that inhibition of Shadow upregulates 3-hydroxy-kynurenine synthesis by increasing the expression of Brown and AdenoK. In addition, Shadow was cloned, and expressed in E. coli for further functional study of Shadow protein. Our study provided insight into the role of EP genes in the process of diapause of B. mori.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2019.03.054DOI Listing
July 2019

Label-free proteomic analysis of silkworm midgut infected by Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus.

J Proteomics 2019 05 20;200:40-50. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Institute of Sericulture and System Biology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400716, China.

Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV) is the most damaging virus for the production of silkworm cocoons. Antivirus research continues to be an important aspect of the silkworm industry. Two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry have been applied for analyzing the midgut proteome of BmNPV-infected silkworms. In recent years, the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) method has frequently been used when studying interaction between BmNPV and Bombyx mori, and useful information has been obtained. In this study, midgut proteins of BmNPV-infected silkworms were extracted from silkworm variety NIL·LVR with anti-BmNPV activity at 48 h, and proteome analysis was carried out using the label-free method. 2196 proteins were identified. Among them, there were 85 differentially expressed proteins, 45 upregulated proteins (immune-activated proteins), 28 downregulated proteins, and six proteins were specific for the BmNPV group and another six specific for control group. Many of the immune-activated proteins have been reported to have innate immune functions, and the downregulated proteins are involved in apoptosis or abnormal cell viability. In conclusion, this study provides evidence for host defense against BmNPV infection by both innate immunity and apoptosis, revealing the potential function of the midgut after oral infection of BmNPV in Bombyx mori. SIGNIFICANCE: Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV) has a great impact on the sericulture industry. However, the mechanism of resistance to BmNPV has not been fully elucidated. The silkworm midgut is not only the major organ for food digestion and nutrient absorption but also an immune organ serving as the first line of defense against microbial invasion and proliferation. Here we combined label-free quantitative proteomic, bioinformatics, quantitative real-time PCR and SDS-PAGE analyses and found that BmNPV invasion causes complex protein alterations in the larval midgut of NIL·LVR with anti-BmNPV activity. The results showed that many upregulated differentially expressed proteins have been reported to have innate immune functions and the downregulation proteins are involved in apoptosis or abnormal cell viability. These findings provide evidence for host defense against BmNPV infection by both innate immunity and apoptosis, and reveals the potential function of the midgut after infection of BmNPV in Bombyx mori.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2019.03.011DOI Listing
May 2019

Determination of lipophilic marine toxins in fresh and processed shellfish using modified QuEChERS and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

Food Chem 2019 Jan 18;272:427-433. Epub 2018 Aug 18.

Ningbo Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Ningbo 315040, PR China. Electronic address:

A simple QuEChERS method coupled with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was developed to improve the extraction efficiency of lipophilic marine toxins (yessotoxins, dinophysistoxins, okadaic acid, azazspiracids, and spirolides) in fresh and processed shellfish products. The proposed method included freezing and dispersive solid-phase extraction with graphene oxide as the sorbent to clean complex matrices containing lipids (e.g., free fatty acids) and pigments. Quantification was performed using matrix-matched calibration curves. Recoveries were 85%-117.4% and the relative standard deviation for precision was less than 10% for marine toxins in fresh and processed shellfish products. The limits of detection (signal-to-noise = 3) and quantification (signal-to-noise = 10) were 0.10-1.47 and 0.32-4.92 μg/kg, respectively. The validated QuEChERS method, coupled with UPLC-MS/MS, was applied successfully to determine lipophilic marine toxins in fresh and processed shellfish samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.08.071DOI Listing
January 2019

BmNPV-miR-415 up-regulates the expression of via Bmo-miR-5738.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2017 Nov 21;24(7):1614-1619. Epub 2015 Sep 21.

Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang City 212018, Jiangsu Province, PR China.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as key players in host-pathogen interaction and many virus-encoded miRNAs have been identified (computationally and/or experimentally) in a variety of organisms. A novel nucleopolyhedrosis virus (BmNPV)-encoded miRNA miR-415 was previously identified through high-throughput sequencing. In this study, a BmNPV-miR-415 expression vector was constructed and transfected into BmN cells. The differentially expressed protein target of rapamycin isoform 2 (TOR2) was observed through two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Results showed that TOR2 is not directly a target gene of BmNPV-miR-415, but its expression is up-regulated by BmNPV-miR-415 via Bmo-miR-5738, which could be induced by BmNPV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2015.09.020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6169442PMC
November 2017

TRIM14 promotes the migration and invasion of gastric cancer by regulating epithelial‑to‑mesenchymal transition via activation of AKT signaling regulated by miR‑195‑5p.

Oncol Rep 2018 Dec 28;40(6):3273-3284. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

Department of Ultrasound Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710061, P.R. China.

Tripartite motif-containing 14 (TRIM14) is a member of the TRIM protein family which has been implicated in several critical processes and is dysregulated in human cancers in a cancer‑specific trend. However, its expression and function in human gastric cancer (GC) are still largely unknown. In this study, we confirmed for the first time that TRIM14 mRNA and protein were upregulated in GC tissues and cell lines as determined by qRT‑PCR and western blot analysis. Clinical data disclosed that high TRIM14 expression was significantly associated with aggressive prognostic features, including advanced TNM stage and lymph node metastasis. In regards to 5‑year survival, TRIM14 served as a potential prognostic marker for GC. Notably, TRIM14 promoted migration, invasion as measured by Transwell and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as determined by western blot analysis and immunofluorescence (IF) in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, TRIM14 induced protein kinase B (AKT) pathway activation, and inhibition of AKT reversed the TRIM14‑induced promotive effects on cell migration, invasion and EMT progression. Furthermore, we demonstrated that TRIM14 expression was regulated by miR‑195‑5p. miR‑195‑5p exerted an inhibitory role in GC migration and invasion. Finally, we confirmed that alteration of TRIM14 expression abolished the effects of miR‑195‑5p on GC cells. Conclusively, our results demonstrated that TRIM14 functions as an oncogene in regulating EMT and metastasis of GC via activating AKT signaling, which was regulated by miR‑195‑5p, supporting its potential utility as a therapeutic target for GC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/or.2018.6750DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6196628PMC
December 2018

Inhibition of expression of BmNPV cg30 by bmo-miRNA-390 is a host response to baculovirus invasion.

Arch Virol 2018 Oct 13;163(10):2719-2725. Epub 2018 Jun 13.

Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang, 212018, Jiangsu, China.

Bombyx mori larvae exhibit in vivo defensive reactions immediately after invasion by a virus. One of these defense systems is to express appropriate microRNAs (miRNAs) to respond to the infection. A novel Bombyx mori-encoded miRNA, bmo-miR-390, was identified previously by high-throughput sequencing. Based on bioinformatic predictions, the Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus cg30 gene (BmNPV-cg30) is one of the target genes of bmo-miR-390. In this study, expression vectors with an enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) or a luciferase (luc) reporter gene together with bm-miR-390 or the cg30 3' UTR were constructed and used to co-transfect BmN cells. Using a dual luciferase reporter (DLR) assay, we found that bmo-miR-390 significantly downregulates the expression of BmNPV-cg30 (P < 0.05) in vitro. Moreover, artificially synthesized bmo-miR-390 mimics enhanced the regulatory effect of bmo-miR-390, while an inhibitor eliminated the inhibitory effect. These results show for the first time that bmo-miR-390 can effectively downregulate the expression of BmNPV-cg30 in BmNPV-infected BmN cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-018-3912-9DOI Listing
October 2018

Downregulation of aldose reductase is responsible for developmental abnormalities of the silkworm purple quail-like mutant (q-l).

Gene 2018 Jul 3;665:96-104. Epub 2018 May 3.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Sericultrual Biology and Biotechnology, School of Biotechnology, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212018, China; Key Laboratory of Silkworm and Mulberry Genetic Improvement, Ministry of Agriculture, Sericulture Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212018, China. Electronic address:

Aldose reductase (AR) is a rate-limiting enzyme in the polyol pathway and is also the key enzyme involved in diabetic complications. The silkworm purple quail-like mutant (q-l) exhibits pigmented dots on its epidermis. The q-l mutant also shows developmental abnormalities and decreased vitality. In this study, fat bodies from the q-l mutant and the wildtype 932VR strain were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis, and the Bombyx mori AR (BmAR) protein was found to be significantly downregulated in the q-l mutant. The expression of BmAR at the mRNA level was also significantly downregulated, as verified through quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Knockdown of the expression of BmAR via RNAi resulted in a reduction of silkworm weight. The sorbitol level in q-l was significantly lower than in the wildtype. These results suggested that the BmAR gene is closely related to the development of the q-l mutant. Investigation of the cause of BmAR downregulation in the q-l mutant could contribute to revealing the function of AR in insects and offers a new method of identifying AR inhibitors for the treatment of diabetic complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2018.05.010DOI Listing
July 2018

Differentially expressed genes in the head of the 2nd instar pre-molting larvae of the nm2 mutant of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

PLoS One 2017 20;12(7):e0180160. Epub 2017 Jul 20.

School of Biotechnology, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang Jiangsu, China.

Molting is an important physiological process in the larval stage of Bombyx mori and is controlled by various hormones and peptides. The silkworm mutant that exhibits the phenotype of non-molting in the 2nd instar (nm2) is incapable of molting in the 2nd instar and dies after seven or more days. The ecdysone titer in the nm2 mutant is lower than that in the wildtype, and the mutant can be rescued by feeding with 20E and cholesterol. The results of positional cloning indicated that structural alteration of BmCPG10 is responsible for the phenotype of the nm2 mutant. To explore the possible relationship between BmCPG10 and the ecdysone titer as well as the genes affected by BmCPG10, digital gene expression (DGE) profile analysis was conducted in the nm2 mutant, with the wildtype strain C603 serving as the control. The results revealed 1727 differentially expressed genes, among which 651 genes were upregulated and 1076 were downregulated in nm2. BLASTGO analysis showed that these differentially expressed genes were involved in various biological processes, cellular components and molecular functions. KEGG analysis indicated an enrichment of these differentially expressed genes in 240 pathways, including metabolic pathways, pancreatic secretion, protein digestion and absorption, fat digestion and absorption and glycerolipid metabolism. To verify the accuracy of the DGE results, quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed, focusing on key genes in several related pathways, and the results were highly consistent with the DGE results. Our findings indicated significant differences in cuticular protein genes, ecdysone biosynthesis genes and ecdysone-related nuclear receptors genes, but no significant difference in juvenile hormone and chitin biosynthesis genes was detected. Our research findings lay the foundation for further research on the formation mechanism of the nm2 mutant.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0180160PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5519023PMC
September 2017

Transcriptome analysis of the epidermis of the purple quail-like (q-lp) mutant of silkworm, Bombyx mori.

PLoS One 2017 17;12(4):e0175994. Epub 2017 Apr 17.

School of Biotechnology, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, China.

A new purple quail-like (q-lp) mutant found from the plain silkworm strain 932VR has pigment dots on the epidermis similar to the pigment mutant quail (q). In addition, q-lp mutant larvae are inactive, consume little and grow slowly, with a high death rate and other developmental abnormalities. Pigmentation of the silkworm epidermis consists of melanin, ommochrome and pteridine. Silkworm development is regulated by ecdysone and juvenile hormone. In this study, we performed RNA-Seq on the epidermis of the q-lp mutant in the 4th instar during molting, with 932VR serving as the control. The results showed 515 differentially expressed genes, of which 234 were upregulated and 281 downregulated in q-lp. BLASTGO analysis indicated that the downregulated genes mainly encode protein-binding proteins, membrane components, oxidation/reduction enzymes, and proteolytic enzymes, whereas the upregulated genes largely encode cuticle structural constituents, membrane components, transport related proteins, and protein-binding proteins. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR was used to verify the accuracy of the RNA-Seq data, focusing on key genes for biosynthesis of the three pigments and chitin as well as genes encoding cuticular proteins and several related nuclear receptors, which are thought to play key roles in the q-lp mutant. We drew three conclusions based on the results: 1) melanin, ommochrome and pteridine pigments are all increased in the q-lp mutant; 2) more cuticle proteins are expressed in q-lp than in 932VR, and the number of upregulated cuticular genes is significantly greater than downregulated genes; 3) the downstream pathway regulated by ecdysone is blocked in the q-lp mutant. Our research findings lay the foundation for further research on the developmental changes responsible for the q-lp mutant.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0175994PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5393886PMC
April 2017

Dynamic monitoring of menopause hormone therapy and defining the cut-off value of endometrial thickness during uterine bleeding.

J Biomed Res 2016 May 10;30(3):191-6. Epub 2016 Apr 10.

Center of Maternal and Child Health, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710061, China.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of low-dose tibolone therapy on ovarian area, uterine volume and endometrial thickness, and define the cut-off value of endometrial thickness for curettage during uterine bleeding. We followed 619 postmenopausal women, aged 40-60 years, for two years. There were 301 subjects in the low-dose tibolone treatment group and 318 subjects in the control group. The ovarian area, uterine volume and endometrial thickness in all participants were measured by transvaginal ultrasound prior to, one and two years post enrollment, respectively. Endometrial specimens were collected from all subjects with abnormal uterine bleeding during the follow-up period. We found that the uterine volume in the treatment group was greater than that in the control group, and the difference was significant (P<0.05), but there were no significant differences in ovarian area and endometrial thickness between the two groups (P>0.05). When the cut-off value for endometrial thickness was 7.35 mm, the sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 79.07%, respectively, and 85.71% and 93.02% when 7.55 mm was set as the cut-off during tibolone therapy. The results indicate that low-dose tibolone therapy may postpone uterine atrophy and the cut-off value of endometrial thickness may be appropriately adjusted for curettage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7555/JBR.30.20150147DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4885166PMC
May 2016
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