Publications by authors named "Qiannan Wang"

43 Publications

Hyperemesis gravidarum induced refeeding syndrome causes blood cell destruction: a case report and literature review.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2021 May 9;21(1):366. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Obstetrics Gynecology, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Shandong, 250012, Jinan, China.

Background: Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is a common complication during pregnancy, however, HG associated simultaneous onset of blood cell destruction due to electrolyte abnormalities is rare. In this case, a woman with refeeding syndrome (RFS) secondary to electrolyte abnormalities caused by severe HG was diagnosed and managed in our hospital.

Case Presentation: A 29-year old woman was sent to the local hospitals because of severe HG with appetite loss, weight reduction, general fatigue, and she was identified to have severe electrolyte abnormalities. However, the electrolyte abnormalities were not corrected promptly, and then she had the symptoms of stillbirth, altered mental status, visual hallucination, hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia. After transferred to our hospital, we continued to correct the electrolyte abnormalities and the labor induction was performed as soon as possible. The symptoms of blood cell destruction were relieved obviously, and the patient discharged four days later. The electrolyte disturbances and physio-metabolic abnormalities caused by HG helped us diagnose this case as RFS.

Conclusions: This case emphasizes that patients with RFS should be diagnosed appropriately and intervened promptly in order to prevent electrolyte imbalance induced blood cell destruction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12884-021-03821-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8108454PMC
May 2021

Integrated Analysis of the Transcriptome and Metabolome Revealed Candidate Genes Involved in GA-Induced Dormancy Release in Seeds.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 17;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 17.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China.

is a perennial forage grass that has good palatability, high yield and high feed value, but seed dormancy is a major problem limiting the widespread cultivation of . Here, we performed transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis of hulled and de-hulled seeds of treated with or without GA to investigate the changes in gene and metabolites associated with dormancy release induced by GA. The germination test revealed that the optimum concentration of GA for disruption of seed dormancy was 577 μM. A total of 4327 and 11,919 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 871 and 650 differentially abundant metabolites were identified in de-hulled and hulled seeds treated with GA, respectively, compared with seeds soaked in sterile water. Most of the DEGs were associated with starch and sucrose metabolism, protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, endocytosis and ribosomes. Furthermore, isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis, tyrosine metabolism, starch and sucrose metabolism, arginine and proline metabolism, and amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism were significantly enriched pathways. Integrative analysis of the transcriptomic and metabolomic data revealed that starch and sucrose metabolism is one of the most important pathways that may play a key role in providing carbon skeletons and energy supply for the transition of seeds from a dormant state to germination by suppressing the expression of , , , , and , enhancing the expression of , , and , and inhibiting the synthesis of cellobiose, cellodextrin, and trehalose while promoting the hydrolysis of sucrose, starch, cellobiose, cellodextrin, and trehalose to glucose. This study identified several key genes and provided new insights into the molecular mechanism of seed dormancy release induced by GA in . These putative genes will be valuable resources for improving the seed germination rate in future breeding studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22084161DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8074249PMC
April 2021

Antifungal effects of lycorine on Botrytis cinerea and possible mechanisms.

Biotechnol Lett 2021 Jul 15;43(7):1503-1512. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Hainan Key Laboratory for Sustainable Utilization of Tropical Bioresources, College of Tropical Crops, Hainan University, Haikou, 570228, China.

Botrytis cinerea cause postharvest diseases on fruit and lead economic losses. Application of environment-friendly natural compounds is an alternative for synthetic fungicides to control postharvest disease. Lycorine is an indolizidine alkaloid which is widely used for human drug design, however, application of lycorine in controlling postharvest disease and the underlying mechanisms have not been reported. In this study, the effects of lycorine on mycelium growth, spore germination, disease development in apple fruit, cell viability, cell membrane integrity, cell wall deposition, and expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and GTPase of B. cinerea were investigated. Our results showed that lycorine was effective in controlling postharvest gray mold caused by B. cinerea on apple fruit. In the in vitro tests, lycorine strongly inhibited spore germination and mycelium spreading in culture medium. Investigation via fluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide staining suggested that lycorine could damage the membrane integrity and impair cell viability of B. cinerea. Furthermore, the expression levels of several MAPK and GTPase coding genes were reduced upon the lycorine treatment. Taken together, lycorine is an effective and promising way to control postharvest disease caused by B. cinerea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10529-021-03128-8DOI Listing
July 2021

Use of Graphene Oxide to Improve the Durability and Mechanical Properties of Mortar Immersed in Flowing River for Three Years.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2020 Nov 29;10(12). Epub 2020 Nov 29.

School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University of Science & Technology, Hangzhou 310023, China.

Nanomaterials have received increased concentration in the field of civil engineering, as their incorporation can effectively modify the mechanical and transport properties of cementitious composites. In this study, to understand the effect of graphene oxide (GO) nanoparticles on the durability and mechanical properties of cementitious composites serving underwater, mortars incorporated with GO were taken for study. To match the real circumstance, all specimens were immersed directly in a flowing river for three years, and their transport properties, mechanical properties and microstructure before, and after, river experience were studied separately. The results showed that the incorporation of GO could reduce both early-age permeation coefficient and later-age chloride migration coefficient of mortar specimens. The average porosities of mortars could be reduced by the range of 3.37-11% with GO incorporation. Moreover, through a novel dual-scan method, GO incorporation was confirmed effective in enhancing both the leaching and cracking resistance. Furthermore, the compressive strengths, flexural strengths and splitting tensile strengths could be improved by the range of 4.37-9.82%, 7.78-22.33%, 8.14-28.73%, respectively with GO incorporation, and the tested mechanical strengths for GO-incorporated mortar after three-year river experience could be retained to a higher extent. Finally, based on durability and mechanical properties, the optimum mix proportion of GO was determined to be 0.06 wt.% in this study. The work presented here is of high reference value for the designing of marine infrastructure and can help promote the application of nanomaterials in civil engineering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano10122385DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7760349PMC
November 2020

Curvature domains in V4 of macaque monkey.

Elife 2020 11 19;9. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Department of Neurology of the Second Affiliated Hospital, Interdisciplinary Institute of Neuroscience and Technology, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

An important aspect of visual object recognition is the ability to perceive object shape. Two basic components of complex shapes are straight and curved contours. A large body of evidence suggests a modular hierarchy for shape representation progressing from simple and complex orientation in early areas V1 and V2, to increasingly complex stages of curvature representation in V4, TEO, and TE. Here, we reinforce and extend the concept of modular representation. Using intrinsic signal optical imaging in Macaque area V4, we find sub-millimeter sized modules for curvature representation that are organized from low to high curvatures as well as domains with complex curvature preference. We propose a possible 'curvature hypercolumn' within V4. In combination with previous studies, we suggest that the key emergent functions at each stage of cortical processing are represented in systematic, modular maps.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.57261DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7707819PMC
November 2020

Gray matter atrophy patterns within the cerebellum-neostriatum-cortical network in SCA3.

Neurology 2020 12 6;95(22):e3036-e3044. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

From The Clinical Hospital of Chengdu Brain Science Institute, MOE Key Lab for Neuroinformation (J.G., B.B.B., X.G., H.Z., L.L., Y.F., S.H., Huafu Chen), School of Medicine (J.G.), and School of Life Science and Technology, Center for Information in Medicine (X.G., H.Z., L.L., Y.F., S.H.), University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu; Departments of Radiology (Hui Chen, Y.Z., J.L, J.W., C.L., Huafu Chen) and Laboratory Medicine (L.F.), Southwest Hospital, Department of Medical Genetics, College of Basic Medical Science (L.D.), and Department of Biomedical Engineering & Imaging Medicine (Q.W.), Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University), Chongqing, China; and Department of Biomedical Engineering (B.B.B.), New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark.

Objective: To investigate the spatial patterns and the probable sequences of gray matter atrophy in spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3).

Methods: A total of 47 patients with SCA3 and 49 age- and sex-matched healthy controls participated in the study. High-resolution T1-weighted MRI were examined in all participants. We used the causal network of structural covariance (CasCN) to identify the sequence of gray matter atrophy patterns. This was achieved by applying Granger causality analysis to a gray matter atrophy staging scheme performed by voxel-based morphometry from the network level.

Results: Participants in the premanifest stage of the disease showed the presence of focal gray matter atrophy in the vermis. As the disease duration increased, there was progressive gray matter atrophy in the cerebellar, neostriatum, frontal lobe, and parietal lobe. The patients with SCA3 also showed proximal and distal cortical atrophy sequences exerting from the vermis to the regions mainly located in the cerebellum-neostriatum-cortical network.

Conclusion: Our results, although preliminary in nature, indicate that the gray matter atrophy in SCA3 lies and extends to involve more regions according to distinct anatomical patterns, mainly in the cerebellum-neostriatum-cortical network. These findings advance our understanding on the natural history of structural damage in SCA3, while confirming known clinical features. This could provide unique insight into the ordered sequential process of regional brain atrophy that targets a particular network.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000010986DOI Listing
December 2020

Anti-twinning in nanoscale tungsten.

Sci Adv 2020 Jun 3;6(23):eaay2792. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA.

Nanomaterials often surprise us with unexpected phenomena. Here, we report a discovery of the anti-twinning deformation, previously thought impossible, in nanoscale body-centered cubic (BCC) tungsten crystals. By conducting in situ transmission electron microscopy nanomechanical testing, we observed the nucleation and growth of anti-twins in tungsten nanowires with diameters less than about 20 nm. During anti-twinning, a shear displacement of 1/3〈111〉 occurs on every successive {112} plane, in contrast to an opposite shear displacement of by ordinary twinning. This asymmetry in the atomic-scale shear pathway leads to a much higher resistance to anti-twinning than ordinary twinning. However, anti-twinning can become active in nanosized BCC crystals under ultrahigh stresses, due to the limited number of plastic shear carriers in small crystal volumes. Our finding of the anti-twinning phenomenon has implications for harnessing unconventional deformation mechanisms to achieve high mechanical preformation by nanomaterials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aay2792DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7269652PMC
June 2020

HbWRKY40 plays an important role in the regulation of pathogen resistance in Hevea brasiliensis.

Plant Cell Rep 2020 Aug 12;39(8):1095-1107. Epub 2020 May 12.

Hainan Key Laboratory for Sustainable Utilization of Tropical Bioresource, College of Tropical Crops, Hainan University, Haikou, 570228, Hainan, People's Republic of China.

Key Message: Overexpression of HbWRKY40 induces ROS burst in tobacco and increases disease resistance in Arabidopsis; RNA-seq and ChIP assays revealed the regulatory network of HbWRKY40 in plant defense. WRKY, a family of plant transcription factors, are involved in the regulation of numerous biological processes. In rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis, the roles of WRKYs remain poorly understood. In the present study, a total of 111 genes encoding putative HbWRKY proteins were identified in the H. brasiliensis genome. Among these genes, HbWRKY40 transcripts were significantly induced by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and salicylic acid. To assess its roles in plant defense, HbWRKY40 was over-expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis thaliana. The results showed that HbWRKY40 significantly induced reactive oxygen species burst in N. benthamiana and increased resistance of Arabidopsis against Botrytis cinerea. Transient expression in mesophyll cell protoplasts of H. brasiliensis showed that HbWRKY40 localizes at nuclei. In addition, transcripts of 145 genes were significantly up-regulated and 6 genes were down-regulated in the protoplasts over-expressing HbWRKY40 based on the RNA-seq analysis. Among these potential downstream targets, 12 genes contain potential WRKY-binding sites at the promoter regions. Further analysis through chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that 10 of these 12 genes were the downstream targets of HbWRKY40. Taken together, our findings indicate that HbWRKY40 plays an important role in the disease resistance by regulating defense-associated genes in H. brasiliensis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00299-020-02551-xDOI Listing
August 2020

Preparation and Characterization of Coating Based on Protein Nanofibers and Polyphenol and Application for Salted Duck Egg Yolks.

Foods 2020 Apr 7;9(4). Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Department of Applied Chemistry, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China.

Salted duck egg yolk (SDEY) is one of the traditional pickled egg products in Asian countries, which suffers from the weight loss and deterioration of texture characteristics during storage. To better maintain the texture of SDEY, an edible coating based on whey protein isolate nanofibers (WPNFs) with glycerol (Gly) as a plasticizer and incorporating carvacrol (CA) as an antimicrobial agent was developed. Whey protein isolate (WPI, 5%) was used to self-assemble into WPNFs at 80 °C for 10 h. The particle size, zeta-potential and microstructure of WPNFs-CA emulsion were investigated to evaluate the distribution. Results proved that WPNFs-CA emulsion had smaller particle size and better distribution than WPI-CA emulsion. WPNFs-CA/Gly edible coating was then prepared based on WPNFs-CA emulsion. The WPNFs-CA/Gly edible coating exhibited higher antibacterial activity while the WPNFs-CA/Gly film had smooth and continuous surfaces and better transmittance compared with other samples. Furthermore, weight losses and textural properties changes of SDEYs with WPNFs-CA/Gly coating were evaluated. Results proved that salted duck egg yolks with WPNFs-CA/Gly coating exhibited lower weight losses. Textural properties were significantly improved by the WPNFs-CA/Gly coating on SDEYs than those uncoated samples. It was noted that the egg yolks coated with the WPNFs-CA/Gly coating had the lowest hardness increase rate (18.22%). Hence, WPNF-based coatings may have a good development prospect in the food industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods9040449DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7230803PMC
April 2020

Label free proteomics and systematic analysis of secretome reveals effector candidates regulated by SGE1 and FTF1 in the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4.

BMC Genomics 2020 Apr 3;21(1):275. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Hainan Key Laboratory for Sustainable Utilization of Tropical Bioresource, College of Tropical Crops, Hainan University, Haikou, Hainan, 570228, People's Republic of China.

Background: Phytopathogens secreted effectors during host colonization to suppress or trigger plant immunity. Identification of new effectors is one of the research focuses in recent years. There is only a limited knowledge about effectors of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cubense tropical race 4 (Foc TR4), the causal agent of wilt disease in Cavendish banana.

Results: Two transcription factors, SGE1 and FTF1, were constitutively over-expressed in Foc TR4 to partially mimic the in-planta state. Secreted proteins with high purity were prepared through a two-round extraction method. Then the secretome were analyzed via label free proteomics method. A total of 919 non-redundant proteins were detected, of which 74 proteins were predicted to be effector candidates. Among these candidates, 29 were up-regulated and 13 down-regulated in the strain over-expressing SGE1 and FTF1, 8 were up-regulated and 4 down-regulated in either SGE1 or FTF1 over expression strain.

Conclusions: Through label free proteomics analysis, a series of effector candidates were identified in secretome of Foc TR4. Our work put a foundation for functional research of these effectors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-020-6695-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7119298PMC
April 2020

Chemokine Receptor 5, a Double-Edged Sword in Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Disease.

Front Pharmacol 2020 3;11:146. Epub 2020 Mar 3.

Department of Endocrinology, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, the First Hospital Affiliated with Shandong First Medical University, Jinan, China.

The key characteristic of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is endothelial dysfunction, which is likely the consequence of inflammation. It is well demonstrated that chemokines and their receptors play a crucial role in regulating inflammatory responses, and recently, much attention has been paid to chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) and its ligands. For example, CCR5 aggravates the inflammatory response in adipose tissue by regulating macrophage recruitment and M1/M2 phenotype switch, thus causing insulin resistance and obesity. Inhibition of CCR5 expression reduces the aggregation of pro-atherogenic cytokines to the site of arterial injury. However, targeting CCR5 is not always effective, and emerging evidence has shown that CCR5 facilitates progenitor cell recruitment and promotes vascular endothelial cell repair. In this paper, we provide recent insights into the role of CCR5 and its ligands in metabolic syndrome as related to cardiovascular disease and the opportunities and roadblocks in targeting CCR5 and its ligands.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.00146DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7063056PMC
March 2020

Visualization of Actin Organization and Quantification in Fixed Pollen Grains and Tubes.

Bio Protoc 2020 Jan 5;10(1):e3509. Epub 2020 Jan 5.

Center for Plant Biology, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

Although it is widely accepted that actin plays an important role in regulating pollen germination and pollen tube growth, how actin exactly performs functions remains incompletely understood. As the function of actin is dictated by its spatial organization, it is the key to reveal how exactly actin distributes in space in pollen cells. Here we describe the protocol of revealing and quantifying the spatial organization of actin using fluorescent phalloidin-staining in fixed pollen grains and pollen tubes. We also introduce the method of assessing the stability and/or turnover rate of actin filaments in pollen cells using the treatment of latrunculin B.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.3509DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7842701PMC
January 2020

AtKATANIN1 Modulates Microtubule Depolymerization and Reorganization in Response to Salt Stress in .

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Dec 24;21(1). Epub 2019 Dec 24.

Hainan Key Laboratory for Sustainable Utilization of Tropical Bioresource, College of Tropical Crops, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China.

The microtubule cytoskeleton is a dynamic system that plays vital roles in fundamental cellular processes and in responses to environmental stumili. Salt stress induced depolymerization and reorganization of microtubules are believed to function in the promotion of survival in . Microtubule-severing enzyme ATKATANIN1 (AtKTN1) is recognized as a MAP that help to maintain organized microtubule structure. To date, whether AtKTN1 is involved in response to salt stress in remains unknown. Here, our phenotypic analysis showed that the overexpression of decreased tolerance to salt stress, whereas the knock-out of increased salt tolerance in the early stage but decreased salt tolerance in the later stage. Microscopic analysis revealed that microtubule organization and dynamics are distorted in both overexpression and mutant cells which, in turn, resulted in an abnormal disassembly and reorganization under salt stress. Moreover, qRT analysis revealed that stress-responsive genes were down-regulated in overexpression and mutant cells compared to WT cells under salt stress. Taken together, our results indicated roles of AtKTN1 in modulating microtubule organization, salt-stress induced microtubule disruption and recovery, and its involvement in stress-related signaling pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010138DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6981882PMC
December 2019

ZUOTIN RELATED FACTOR1 Proteins Are Required for Proper Embryonic and Post-Embryonic Root Development.

Front Plant Sci 2019 22;10:1498. Epub 2019 Nov 22.

Institut de Biologie Moléculaire des Plantes (IBMP), UPR2357 CNRS, Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

The H2A/UBIQUITIN-binding proteins AtZRF1a/b have been reported as key regulators involved in multiple processes of plant growth and development. Yet, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the mutant phenotype remain largely elusive. Here we show that loss-of-function of causes defective root elongation and deformed root apical meristem organization in seedlings. The premature termination of the primary root in the double mutant is associated with an advanced onset of endoreduplication and subsequent consumption of reservoir stem cells. Cytological analyses using cell type-specific markers and florescent dyes indicate that are involved in maintenance of proper cell layer organization, determinacy of cell identity, and establishment of auxin gradient and maximum at the root tip. During embryogenesis act dominantly in regulating the maintenance of ground tissue initial cells and production of lateral root cap. Lastly, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis shows mis-expression of some key genes involved in regulating cell patterning, cell proliferation and/or hormone pathways. Our results provide important insight into function in cell fate determinacy and in establishment and maintenance of proper stem cell reservoir during embryonic and post-embryonic root development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2019.01498DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6882920PMC
November 2019

Factors influencing breath analysis results in patients with diabetes mellitus.

J Breath Res 2019 09 6;13(4):046012. Epub 2019 Sep 6.

Department of Endocrinology, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, the First Hospital Affiliated with Shandong First Medical University, Department of Cardiology, Shandong University Qilu Hospital, and School of Medicine of Shandong University, Jinan, 250012, Shandong, People's Republic of China.

Breath analysis is used to detect the composition of exhaled gas. As a quick and non-invasive detection method, breath analysis provides deep insights into the progression of various kinds of diseases, especially those with metabolism disorders. Abundant information on volatile compounds in diabetic patients has been studied in numerous articles in the literature. However, exhaled gas in diabetic patients can be altered by various complications. So far, little attention has been paid to this alteration. In our paper, we found that under air pollution conditions, diabetic patients exhale more nitric oxide. Diabetic patients with heart failure exhale more acetone than those without heart failure. After C-labeled glucose intake, patients infected with Helicobacter pylori exhaled more C and less O than those without infection. Exhalation with chronic kidney disease changes volatile organic compounds on a large scale. Diabetic patients with ketoacidosis exhale more acetone than those without ketoacidosis. Some specific volatile organic compounds also emanate from diabetic feet. By monitoring breath frequency, diabetic patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome exhibit a unique breath pattern and rhythm as compared with other diabetic patients, and sleep apnea is prevalent among diabetic patients. In addition to clinical findings, we analyzed the underlying mechanisms at the levels of molecules, cells and whole bodies, and provided suggestions for further studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1752-7163/ab285aDOI Listing
September 2019

The effector SIX8 is required for virulence of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense tropical race 4 to Cavendish banana.

Fungal Biol 2019 05 11;123(5):423-430. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Hainan Key Laboratory for Sustainable Utilization of Tropical Bioresources and College of Biology, Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Forestry, Hainan University, Haikou, 570228, China. Electronic address:

Plant pathogens employ effectors as molecular weapons to manipulate host immunity and facilitate colonization. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense is the agent of wilt disease in banana plantlets and four races of the pathogen have been identified based on the cultivar specificity. A total of 9 SIX genes have been detected in the genome of Foc TR4 and 6 genes detected in Foc1. Among these SIX genes, SIX2 and SIX8 are only detected in Foc TR4, not identified in Foc1. Expression profiles analysis revealed that SIX genes of Foc TR4 are highly induced after inoculation to Cavendish banana plantlets. Virulence analysis of the SIX2 and SIX8 knock-out mutants showed that SIX8 is required for the virulence of Foc TR4 while SIX2 has no obvious functions. Over expression of SIX8-FLAG proteins in the SIX8 knock-out mutant partly restored the virulence. Western blot analysis suggested that SIX8 could be secreted into the extracellular space and a signal peptide resided the N-terminal polypeptide sequence. This study provides some clues for further research on mechanism of SIX8 in regulating virulence of Foc TR4.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.funbio.2019.03.001DOI Listing
May 2019

Ultrasound-Targeted Microbubble Destruction (UTMD) Combined with Liposome Increases the Effectiveness of Suppressing Proliferation, Migration, Invasion, and Epithelial- Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) via Targeting Metadherin (MTDH) by ShRNA.

Med Sci Monit 2019 Apr 10;25:2640-2648. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Medical Imaging, Zhangqiu Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital, Jinan, Shandong, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND Reports show that ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) is a promising method of gene therapy, and metadherin (MTDH) is related to the development of breast cancer. Thus, we investigated the role of MTDH in breast cancer and compared the effect of suppressing MTDH by shRNA using liposome, UTMD, or the combination of these 2 methods. MATERIAL AND METHODS Graphing of survival curves of MTDH was analyzed by bioinformatics. UTMD was conducted using an ultrasonic therapeutic apparatus. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay was used to measure cell viability. Migration and invasion rates were measured by wound healing test and Transwell invasion assay, respectively. The expression of MTDH, E-cadherin, metastasis-associated protein-1 (MTA-1), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9 were measured by Western blot and qPCR. RESULTS The prognosis of breast cancer can be decreased by the high expression of MTDH, and elevated expression of MTDH was discovered in MCF-7, MCF-10A, and T47D cell lines. UTMD combined with liposome is most efficient in transfecting shRNA, clearly suppressing the expression of MTDH and thereby decreasing cell viability, migration, invasion rate, and epithelial- mesenchymal transition (EMT) processes in the MCF-7 cell line. CONCLUSIONS UTMD combined with liposome could be used as a more efficient way to transfect shRNA into cells to suppress the expression of MTDH and thus lead to the downregulation of proliferation, migration, and EMT processes of the MCF-7 cell line, showing the potential for use in gene therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.912955DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6474295PMC
April 2019

Quantitative Plasmodesmata Permeability Assay for Pavement Cells of Leaves.

Bio Protoc 2019 Apr 5;9(7):e3206. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Center for Plant Biology, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

Plasmodesmata (PD) are intercellular channels between walled plant cells that enable the transportation of materials between adjacent cells, which are important for plant growth and development. The permeability of PD must be tightly regulated. Assays to determine the permeability of PD are crucial for related studies on the regulation of PD development and permeability. Here we describe an assay for the determination of PD permeability via the observation and quantification of GFP diffusion and cell-to-cell transport of CMV MP-GFP in leaves.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.3206DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7854124PMC
April 2019

Effect of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Coating based on Whey Protein Nanofibrils with TiO₂ Nanotubes on the Quality and Shelf Life of Chilled Meat.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 8;20(5). Epub 2019 Mar 8.

College of Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China.

Whey protein nanofibrils (WPNFs) can be used in edible films and coatings (EFCs) because of its favorable functional properties, which rely on its well-ordered -sheet structures, high hydrophobicity, homogeneous structure, and antioxidant activity. In the present study, WPNF-based edible coatings with glycerol (Gly) as plastic and titanium dioxide nanotubes (TNTs) as antimicrobial agents were studied. TNTs not only showed greater antibacterial activity than titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TNPs), but also increased interactions with WPNFs. The WPNF/TNT film had a smooth and continuous surface and was homogeneous with good mechanical properties. WPNF/TNT edible coatings (ECs) can help improve lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activity, limit microbial growth, reduce weight loss, and extend the shelf life of chilled beef. Given that the WPNF/TNT film components are low cost and show high antioxidant and antimicrobial activity, these optimized films have potential applications for various food products, including raw and chilled meat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20051184DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6429285PMC
March 2019

The Exceptional Strong Face-centered Cubic Phase and Semi-coherent Phase Boundary in a Eutectic Dual-phase High Entropy Alloy AlCoCrFeNi.

Sci Rep 2018 Oct 8;8(1):14910. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

Center of Electron Microscopy and State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027, China.

Second phase strengthening has been applied to high entropy alloys (HEAs) for optimizing mechanical properties. In this study, by conducting mechanical testing of a eutectic dual-phase AlCoCrFeNi HEA with homogenous distribution of body-centered cubic (BCC) and face-centered cubic (FCC) lamellar phases inside a transmission electron microscope, we found that although BCC was truly the hard phase, decreasing the proportion of BCC phase in fact increased the strength due to the existence of chemically disordered semi-coherent phase boundaries, which acted as potent impediments to dislocation motion resulting in dense dislocation storage in FCC phases. Moreover, the difficulty in dislocation glide caused massive cross-slip, and the interaction between primary slip arrays and cross-slip systems during deformation increased the rate of dislocation accumulation by forming dislocation substructures, thus making the FCC phases exceptionally strong. Our findings not only revealed the underlying strengthening mechanism of eutectic dual-phase AlCoCrFeNi HEAs, but also shed light on new ways in further optimizing the mechanical properties of HEAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-33330-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6175879PMC
October 2018

formin 2 regulates cell-to-cell trafficking by capping and stabilizing actin filaments at plasmodesmata.

Elife 2018 08 16;7. Epub 2018 Aug 16.

Center for Plant Biology, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.

Here, we demonstrate that Formin 2 (AtFH2) localizes to plasmodesmata (PD) through its transmembrane domain and is required for normal intercellular trafficking. Although loss-of-function mutants have no overt developmental defect, PD's permeability and sensitivity to virus infection are increased in plants. Interestingly, AtFH2 functions in a partially redundant manner with its closest homolog AtFH1, which also contains a PD localization signal. Strikingly, targeting of Class I formins to PD was also confirmed in rice, suggesting that the involvement of Class I formins in regulating actin dynamics at PD may be evolutionarily conserved in plants. In vitro biochemical analysis showed that AtFH2 fails to nucleate actin assembly but caps and stabilizes actin filaments. We also demonstrate that the interaction between AtFH2 and actin filaments is crucial for its function in vivo. These data allow us to propose that AtFH2 regulates PD's permeability by anchoring actin filaments to PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.36316DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6126924PMC
August 2018

Chromatin modulation and gene regulation in plants: insight about PRC1 function.

Biochem Soc Trans 2018 08 31;46(4):957-966. Epub 2018 Jul 31.

Institut de Biologie Moléculaire des Plantes du CNRS, Université de Strasbourg, 12 rue du Général Zimmer, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France

In plant and metazoan, Polycomb Group (PcG) proteins play key roles in regulating developmental processes by repression of gene expression. PcG proteins function as multi-protein complexes; among them the best characterized ones are Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 (PRC1) and PRC2. PRC2 catalyzes histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3), and PRC1 can bind H3K27me3 and catalyzes H2A monoubiquitination. While the PRC2 components and molecular functions are evolutionarily conserved, varied PRC1 complexes are found and they show high divergences between animals and plants. In addition to the core subunits, an exponentially increasing number of PRC1-associated factors have been identified in Recent studies have also unraveled cross-component interactions and intertwined roles of PRC1 and PRC2 in chromatin modulation. In addition, complexities of interactions and functions between PcG and Trithorax Group proteins have been observed. This short review summarizes up current knowledge to provide insight about repressive functional mechanism of PRC1 and its interplay with other factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BST20170576DOI Listing
August 2018

Consecutive crystallographic reorientations and superplasticity in body-centered cubic niobium nanowires.

Sci Adv 2018 07 6;4(7):eaas8850. Epub 2018 Jul 6.

Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA.

Plasticity of metallic nanowires is often controlled by the activities of single deformation mode. It remains largely unclear whether multiple deformation modes can be activated in an individual metallic nanowire and how much plasticity they can contribute. In situ nanomechanical testing reveals a superior plastic deformation ability of body-centered cubic (BCC) niobium nanowires, in which a remarkable elongation of more than 269% is achieved before fracture. This superplastic deformation originates from a synergy of consecutively nucleated multiple reorientation processes that occur for more than five times via three distinct mechanisms, that is, stress-activated phase transformation, deformation twinning, and slip-induced crystal rotation. These three coupled mechanisms work concurrently, resulting in sequential reorientations and therefore superplastic deformation of Nb nanowires. Our findings reveal a superior mechanical property of BCC Nb nanowires through the close coordination of multiple deformation modes, which may have some implications in other metallic nanowire systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aas8850DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6035040PMC
July 2018

BAS2 Is Required for Conidiation and Pathogenicity of from .

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Jun 25;19(7). Epub 2018 Jun 25.

Hainan Key Laboratory for Sustainable Utilization of Tropical Bioresources, Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Forestry, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China.

The hemibiotrophic fungi can cause anthracnose in rubber trees. By searching the genome of the fungal pathogen, the encoding a biotrophy-associated secreted protein was identified. In the present study, the knockout mutants of were constructed and the functions of were investigated. The in vitro assays showed that BAS2 was not necessary for vegetative growth but was important for normal asexual reproduction in . Pathogenicity assays suggested that BAS2 was involved in the process of the pathogen penetrating into the host tissue. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that BAS2 showed secretional characteristics in the fungi, and BAS2 mainly function as a cytoplasmic protein after being secreted into the host cell. Extracellular proteomics analysis revealed that BAS2 was required for the secretion of a series of proteins, which were important for the pathogenicity of . These data lead to a better understanding of the biotrophy-associated secreted protein in regulating the pathogenesis of .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms19071860DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6073657PMC
June 2018

SGE1 is involved in conidiation and pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense.

Can J Microbiol 2018 May 8;64(5):349-357. Epub 2018 Feb 8.

Hainan Key Laboratory for Sustainable Utilization of Tropical Bioresources, College of Biology, Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Forestry, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, People's Republic of China.

The ascomycete fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense race 4 (Foc TR4) causes vascular wilt diseases in banana (Musa spp.). In the present study, the role of SGE1 in regulating growth, conidiation, and pathogenicity of Foc TR4 was investigated. Deletion of SGE1 did not influence vegetative growth but impaired the conidiation of Foc TR4. Besides, the SGE1 deletion mutant basically lost pathogenicity on banana plantlets. Observation under the microscope indicated that the penetration and colonization processes were severely impaired in the SGE1 deletion mutant. Proteomics analysis suggested that SGE1 regulated the production of a series of proteins of Foc TR4. Taken together, our results suggest that SGE1 plays an important role in regulating conidiation and pathogenicity in fungal pathogen Foc TR4.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjm-2017-0638DOI Listing
May 2018

Dicer-like Proteins Regulate the Growth, Conidiation, and Pathogenicity of from .

Front Microbiol 2017 4;8:2621. Epub 2018 Jan 4.

Hainan Key Laboratory for Sustainable Utilization of Tropical Bioresources and College of Biology, Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Forestry, Hainan University, Haikou, China.

from is the hemibiotrophic fungi which could cause anthracnose in rubber trees. Dicer like proteins (DCL) were the core enzymes for generation of small RNAs. In the present study, the knocking-out mutants of two dicer like proteins encoding genes of were constructed; and functions of two proteins were investigated. The results showed that DCL play important roles in regulating the growth, conidiation and pathogenicity of ; and there is a functional redundancy between DCL1 and DCL2. Microscopy analysis and DAB staining revealed that loss of penetration ability into the host cells, instead of the decreased growth rate, was the main cause for the impaired pathogenicity of the ΔDcl1ΔDcl2 double mutant. Proteomics analysis suggested that DCL proteins affected the expression of functional proteins to regulating multiple biological processes of . These data lead to a better understanding of the functions of DCL proteins in regulating the development and pathogenesis of .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2017.02621DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5777394PMC
January 2018

High Concentration of Melatonin Regulates Leaf Development by Suppressing Cell Proliferation and Endoreduplication in Arabidopsis.

Int J Mol Sci 2017 May 5;18(5). Epub 2017 May 5.

Hainan Key Laboratory for Sustainable Utilization of Tropical Bioresources and College of Biology, Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Forestry, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China.

-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine (Melatonin), as a crucial messenger in plants, functions in adjusting biological rhythms, stress tolerance, plant growth and development. Several studies have shown the retardation effect of exogenous melatonin treatment on plant growth and development. However, the in vivo role of melatonin in regulating plant leaf growth and the underlying mechanism are still unclear. In this study, we found that high concentration of melatonin suppressed leaf growth in by reducing both cell size and cell number. Further kinetic analysis of the fifth leaves showed that melatonin remarkably inhibited cell division rate. Additionally, flow cytometic analysis indicated that melatonin negatively regulated endoreduplication during leaf development. Consistently, the expression analysis revealed that melatonin regulated the transcriptional levels of key genes of cell cycle and ribosome. Taken together, this study suggests that high concentration of melatonin negatively regulated the leaf growth and development in , through modulation of endoreduplication and the transcripts of cell cycle and ribosomal key genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms18050991DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5454904PMC
May 2017

A non-viral CRISPR/Cas9 delivery system for therapeutically targeting HBV DNA and pcsk9 in vivo.

Cell Res 2017 03 24;27(3):440-443. Epub 2017 Jan 24.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Center for Infectious Disease Research, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Tsinghua-Peking Center for Life Sciences, Beijing 100084, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/cr.2017.16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5339835PMC
March 2017

Melatonin Regulates Root Meristem by Repressing Auxin Synthesis and Polar Auxin Transport in .

Front Plant Sci 2016 15;7:1882. Epub 2016 Dec 15.

Hainan Key Laboratory for Sustainable Utilization of Tropical Bioresources, College of Agriculture, Hainan University Haikou, China.

Melatonin (-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) plays important roles in regulating both biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, biological rhythms, plant growth and development. Sharing the same substrate (tryptophan) for the biosynthesis, melatonin and auxin also have similar effects in plant development. However, the specific function of melatonin in modulating plant root growth and the relationship between melatonin and auxin as well as underlying mechanisms are still unclear. In this study, we found high concentration of melatonin remarkably inhibited root growth in by reducing root meristem size. Further studies showed that melatonin negatively regulated auxin biosynthesis, the expression of PINFORMED (PIN) proteins as well as auxin response in . Moreover, the root growth of the triple mutant was more tolerant than that of wild-type in response to melatonin treatment, suggesting the essential role of PIN1/3/7 in melatonin-mediated root growth. Combination treatment of melatonin and 5-Triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) did not enhance melatonin-mediated reduction of root meristem size, indicating that polar auxin transport (PAT) may be necessary for the regulation of root meristem size by melatonin treatment. Taken together, this study indicates that melatonin regulates root growth in , through auxin synthesis and polar auxin transport, at least partially.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2016.01882DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5156734PMC
December 2016

Comprehensive transcriptional and functional analyses of melatonin synthesis genes in cassava reveal their novel role in hypersensitive-like cell death.

Sci Rep 2016 10 14;6:35029. Epub 2016 Oct 14.

Hainan Key Laboratory for Sustainable Utilization of Tropical Bioresources, College of Agriculture, Hainan University, Haikou, 570228, China.

Melatonin is a widely known hormone in animals. Since melatonin was discovered in plants, more and more studies highlight its involvement in a wide range of physiological processes including plant development and stress responses. Many advances have been made in the terms of melatonin-mediated abiotic stress resistance and innate immunity in plants, focusing on model plants such as rice and Arabidopsis. In this study, 7 melatonin synthesis genes were systematically analyzed in cassava. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that all these genes were commonly regulated by melatonin, flg22, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv manihotis (Xam) and hydrogen peroxide (HO). Transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana revealed the subcellular locations and possible roles of these melatonin synthesis genes. Notably, we highlight novel roles of these genes in hypersensitive-like cell death, as confirmed by the results of several physiological parameters. Moreover, transient expression of these genes had significant effects on the transcripts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and defense-related genes, and triggered the burst of callose depositions and papillae-associated plant defense, indicating the possible role of them in plant innate immunity. Taken together, this study reveals the comprehensive transcripts and putative roles of melatonin synthesis genes as well as melatonin in immune responses in cassava.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep35029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5064325PMC
October 2016