Publications by authors named "Qiang Yu"

581 Publications

Exosomal-mediated transfer of OIP5-AS1 enhanced cell chemoresistance to trastuzumab in breast cancer via up-regulating HMGB3 by sponging miR-381-3p.

Open Med (Wars) 2021 30;16(1):512-525. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Breast Surgery, The Central Hospital of Enshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture, No. 158 Wuyang Street, Enshi 445000, Hubei, China.

Background: Long noncoding RNA OPA-interacting protein 5 antisense transcript 1 (OIP5-AS1) was confirmed to involve in the malignancy of breast cancer. However, whether exosomal OIP5-AS1 is implicated in trastuzumab resistance remains unclear.

Methods: The IC value of cells to trastuzumab, cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis was analyzed by cell counting kit-8 assay, colony formation assay, transwell assay, or flow cytometry, respectively. The expression of OIP5-AS1 and microRNA (miR)-381-3p was detected using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Exosomes were isolated by ultracentrifugation and qualified by nanoparticle tracking analysis software. Western blot was used to detect the protein levels of tumor susceptibility gene 101 (TSG101), CD81, CD63, or high-mobility group protein B3 (HMGB3). The interaction between miR-381-3p and OIP5-AS1 or HMGB3 was confirmed by dual-luciferase reporter assay and pull-down assay. experiments were conducted using murine xenograft models.

Results: OIP5-AS1 was elevated in trastuzumab-resistant breast cancer cells, and OIP5-AS1 knockdown rescued trastuzumab sensitivity. Extracellular OIP5-AS1 was packaged into exosomes, which were secreted by trastuzumab-resistant cells, and could be absorbed by trastuzumab-sensitive cells in breast cancer. Importantly, intercellular transfer of OIP5-AS1 via exosomes enhanced trastuzumab resistance OIP5-AS1 was a sponge of miR-381-3p; besides, miR-381-3p targeted HMGB3. Murine xenograft analysis showed exosomal OIP5-AS1 induced trastuzumab resistance Exosomal OIP5-AS1 was dysregulated in the serum of breast cancer patients and might be a promising diagnostic biomarker in trastuzumab resistance.

Conclusion: Intercellular transfer of OIP5-AS1 by exosomes enhanced trastuzumab resistance in breast cancer via miR-381-3p/HMGB3 axis, indicating a potential therapeutic strategy to boost the effectiveness of trastuzumab in resistant breast cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/med-2021-0249DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8010158PMC
March 2021

Determining the optimal magnetic resonance imaging sequences for the efficient diagnosis of temporomandibular joint disorders.

Quant Imaging Med Surg 2021 Apr;11(4):1343-1353

Department of Oral Surgery, Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Key Lab of Stomatology, Shanghai, China.

Background: To compare and analyze nine MRI sequences of the TMJ and determine the optimum sequence for the rapid diagnosis of TMDs so as to develop new clinical guidelines.

Methods: Twenty young volunteers (a total of 40 joints) aged 22-26 years were recruited. Three basic sequences, T-weighted imaging (TWI), T-weighted imaging (TWI), and proton density-weighted imaging (PDWI), together with three positions, oblique sagittal (OSag) with closed mouth, oblique coronal (OCor) with closed mouth, and OSag with opened mouth, were selected in combination for testing. In the OCor position, four regions of interest (ROIs), the condyle (C), the disc (D), the disc outside (DO), and fat (F), were analyzed. For the OSag with closed mouth position and the OSag with opened mouth position sequences, the four ROIs were the condyle (C), the disc (D), the disc ahead (DA), and the disc rear (DR). The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and signal intensity ratio (SIR) were calculated and analyzed using independent sample -tests and one-way analysis of variance. Two senior radiologists scored the images of the nine MRI sequences subjectively and selected three optimal sequences. Using the three selected sequences, 1479 patients with anterior disc displacement with reduction (ADDwR) or anterior disk displacement without reduction (ADDwoR) were evaluated by comparing the preoperative TMJ MRI with the outcomes of the maxillofacial arthroscopy or open surgery.

Results: The TWI sequence showed the highest SNR while the TWI group had the lowest SNR. The ROIs of the TWI group had the highest CNR and SIR values in the OCor and OSag sequences. In the OCor sequence, the value for the SIR F/DO group was higher than the SIR C/D and SIR C/DO values. Using subjective analysis to evaluate the quality of the scans, the highest total scores were obtained for the OSag TWI with opened mouth and OSag PDWI with closed mouth sequences. From the objective and subjective analysis, the three optimal sequences selected were OSag PDWI, OCor TWI with closed mouth, and OSag TWI with opened mouth. In patients with anterior disc displacement, the comparisons of the surgery and the selected MRI sequences indicated that the total diagnostic accuracy of the MRI was 96.3% (1,425/1,479 cases). For patients with ADDwoR, the diagnostic accuracy was 98.5% (1,372/1,393 cases), and for those with ADDwR it was 61.6% (53/86 cases). There were significant differences between the ADDwoR and ADDwR groups (χ=312.92, P<0.01).

Conclusions: The three optimal MRI sequences for the rapid and efficient diagnosis of TMD were determined to be OSag PDWI, OCor TWI with closed mouth, and OSag TWI with opened mouth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/qims-20-67DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7930691PMC
April 2021

Acid/alkali shifting of Mesona chinensis polysaccharide-whey protein isolate gels: Characterization and formation mechanism.

Food Chem 2021 Mar 23;355:129650. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047, China. Electronic address:

In this study, structural characteristics and formation mechanism of Mesona chinensis polysaccharide (MCP)-whey protein isolate (WPI) gels including group and molecular changes, intermolecular forces, crystallinity, and moisture migration were investigated under pH shifting conditions. Results showed that MCP and WPI formed a stable gel at pH 10. The free sulfhydryl groups and surface hydrophobicity of the MCP-WPI gels increased with the increasing pH. Hydrophobic and hydrogen bond interactions were the main molecular forces involved in the MCP-WPI gels, and electrostatic interactions and disulfide bonds played a complementary role. The pH conditions evidently influenced the secondary conformational structure of MCP-WPI gels. Molecular weight and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated the formation of a hypocrystalline complex with molecular interaction. In addition, low-field magnetometry (LF-NMR) results showed that the T values decreased with increasing pH, indicating that water and gel matrix had the highest interactions at pH 10.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129650DOI Listing
March 2021

Sub-Band Gap Absorption and Optical Nonlinear Response of MnPSe Nanosheets for Pulse Generation in the L-Band.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Mar 12;13(11):13524-13533. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

College of Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073, China.

Two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted extensive attention for use in fiber lasers for pulse generation due to their unique nonlinear optical properties. While 2D materials with tunable band gaps hold promise as versatile saturable absorber materials, their L-band (long-band) pulse generation capability remains challenging. Metal phosphorus trichalcogenides (MPX) have recently attracted the attention of researchers and shown potential for sub-band gap saturable absorption in the L-band due to their high diversity of chemical components and band structural complexity. Herein, high-quality MnPSe is synthesized and exhibits broad-band linear and nonlinear absorption with the modulation depth and saturation intensity of 5.4% and 0.295 MW/cm, respectively. Moreover, a stable passive pulse generation in the L-band is demonstrated in a fiber laser. The wavelengths of the passively pulsed laser at different pump powers are recorded, featuring a fixed central wavelength located at around 1602 nm with a maximum output power of 19.54 mW. This research promotes the realization of L-band pulsed lasers based on 2D materials, inspiring further exploration of the unique properties of the MPX family.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c21411DOI Listing
March 2021

Review of the relationships among polysaccharides, gut microbiota, and human health.

Food Res Int 2021 Feb 2;140:109858. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047, China. Electronic address:

As a complex ecosystem of the human body, the intestinal flora maintains a dynamic balance with the host and plays an irreplaceable role in life activities such as nutritional metabolism and host immunity. The intestinal flora interacts with polysaccharides, the intestinal flora digests non-digestible polysaccharides, and polysaccharides can be used as an important energy source for intestinal microorganisms. Disturbance of the gut microbiota (GM) leads to the occurrence of diseases, polysaccharides as prebiotics can improve the disease by regulating the composition of GM. In this paper, we reviewed the current knowledge about the relationship between polysaccharides, gut microbiota, and and human health, described the microbial composition of the human, the relationship between intestinal flora disorders and disease occurrence, and summarized the interactions between polysaccharides and intestinal microorganisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109858DOI Listing
February 2021

Cyclocarya paliurus polysaccharide improves metabolic function of gut microbiota by regulating short-chain fatty acids and gut microbiota composition.

Food Res Int 2021 Mar 11;141:110119. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047, China. Electronic address:

The purpose of this paper was to investigate the effects of Cyclocarya paliurus polysaccharide (CP) on gut microbiota composition and predict metabolic function in healthy mice. Healthy Kunming mice were continuously gavaged with CP for 20 days, and mouse feces were collected for analysis. The results showed that CP could remarkably increase the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs; acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, and valeric acid) in the feces of healthy mice in a dose-dependent matter. 16S rRNA showed that 200 mg/kg body weight CP was effective in increasing diversity of the gut microbiota in healthy mice and affected the relative abundance of specific bacteria. Lachnospiraceae, Clostridiales, and Clostridia were identified as the phenotypic biomarkers of the CP-H group compared with the normal control group. In addition, PICRUSt2 showed that starch and sucrose metabolism, amino acid metabolism, glycerolipid metabolism, pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis, biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, and C5-branched dibasic acid metabolism are the primary enriched phenotypic KEGG pathways in the CP-H group. These findings suggested that early CP intervention could enhance the metabolic function of gut microbiota by increasing the release of SCFAs and altering the composition of gut microbiota.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2021.110119DOI Listing
March 2021

Diagnostic Value of Portal Vein Velocity for Portal Hypertension in Patients with Hepatitis B Virus-related Cirrhosis.

Curr Med Imaging 2021 Feb 24. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Radiology, First Center Hospital Clinic Institute, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300192. China.

Background: Portal vein velocity (PVV) has shown reasonable correlation with the presence of portal hypertension in patients with cirrhosis. This study aims to evaluate the value of PVV for diagnosing clinically significant portal hypertension (CSPH) and predicting the risk of variceal hemorrhage (VH) in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related cirrhosis.

Material And Methods: A cohort of 166 consecutive adult patients with HBV-related cirrhosis was recruited in this retrospective study from two high-volume liver centers in China between April 2015 and April 2017. The performance of PVV and other non-invasive parameters for diagnosing CSPH and predicting risk of VH were studied.

Results: PVV demonstrated the best performance for diagnosing CSPH (defined as an HVPG ≥10 mmHg) in patients with HBV-related cirrhosis among the included noninvasive predictors with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), specificity, and sensitivity of 0.745, 50%, and 93.5%, respectively. Other noninvasive markers, including APRI, AAR, LS, FIB-4, and diameter of portal vein, did not show sufficient performance with the AUCs of 0.565, 0.560, 0.544, 0.529, and 0.474, respectively. With regard to predicting the risk of VH (defined as an HVPG ≥12 mmHg), PPV also exhibited a moderate performance with an AUC of 0.762, which was superior to that of the aforementioned markers. By using two cutoff values of PVV to rule-out (11.65 cm/s) and rule-in (20.20 cm/s) CSPH, 30 (33.7%) patients showed definite results categories, with 23 (76.7%) patients were well classified and 7 (23.3%) were misclassified. Fifty-nine (66.3%) patients were with indeterminate results. By using PVV values of 13.10 cm/s and 21.40 cm/s to rule-out and rule-in HVPG ≥ 12mmHg, 34 (38.2%) patients has definite results, among whom 26 (76.5%) were well classified and 8 (23.5%) were misclassified. And 55 (61.8%) patients required further evaluation.

Conclusion: PPV is not good enough to serve as a non-invasive parameter for identifying CSPH and predicting risk of VH in patients with HBV-related cirrhosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1573405617666210225090948DOI Listing
February 2021

Fenofibrate Ameliorates Hepatic Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Mice: Involvements of Apoptosis, Autophagy, and PPAR- Activation.

PPAR Res 2021 1;2021:6658944. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200072, China.

Hepatic ischemia and reperfusion injury is characterized by hepatocyte apoptosis, impaired autophagy, and oxidative stress. Fenofibrate, a commonly used antilipidemic drug, has been verified to exert hepatic protective effects in other cells and animal models. The purpose of this study was to identify the function of fenofibrate on mouse hepatic IR injury and discuss the possible mechanisms. A segmental (70%) hepatic warm ischemia model was established in Balb/c mice. Serum and liver tissue samples were collected for detecting pathological changes at 2, 8, and 24 h after reperfusion, while fenofibrate (50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally 1 hour prior to surgery. Compared to the IR group, pretreatment of FF could reduce the inflammatory response and inhibit apoptosis and autophagy. Furthermore, fenofibrate can activate PPAR-, which is associated with the phosphorylation of AMPK.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6658944DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7870311PMC
February 2021

Apigenin Alleviates Liver Fibrosis by Inhibiting Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation and Autophagy via TGF-1/Smad3 and p38/PPAR Pathways.

PPAR Res 2021 28;2021:6651839. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200072, China.

Objective: The aim of this study is to confirm the hepatocellular protective functions of apigenin and the molecular mechanism on liver fibrosis in mice.

Methods: Carbon tetrachloride (CCl) and bile duct ligature (BDL) mouse fibrosis models were used to investigate the effects of apigenin on liver fibrosis. Sixty-six male C57 mice were randomly divided into eight groups, including the vehicle group, CCl group, CCl+L-apigenin (20 mg/kg) group, CCl+H-apigenin (40 mg/kg) group, sham group, BDL group, BDL+L-apigenin(20 mg/kg) group, and BDL+H-apigenin(40 mg/kg) group. Serum liver enzymes (ALT and AST), proteins associated with autophagy, and indicators linked with the TGF-1/Smad3 and p38/PPAR pathways were detected using qRT-PCR, immunohistochemical staining, and western blotting.

Results: Our findings confirmed that apigenin could decrease the levels of ALT and AST, suppress the generation of ECM, inhibit the activation of HSCs, regulate the balance of MMP2 and TIMP1, reduce the expression of autophagy-linked protein, and restrain the TGF-1/Smad3 and p38/PPAR pathways.

Conclusion: Apigenin could alleviate liver fibrosis by inhibiting hepatic stellate cell activation and autophagy via TGF-1/Smad3 and p38/PPAR pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6651839DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7861947PMC
January 2021

Micropore-Rich Yolk-Shell N-doped Carbon Spheres: An Ideal Electrode Material for High-Energy Capacitive Energy Storage.

ChemSusChem 2021 Apr 17;14(7):1756-1762. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Luoshi Road 122, Wuhan, 430070, P. R. China.

Increasing the energy density of electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs) can broaden their applications in energy storage but remains a formidable challenge. Herein, micropore-rich yolk-shell structured N-doped carbon spheres (YSNCSs) were constructed by a one-pot surfactant-free self-assembly method in aqueous solution. The resultant YSNCSs after activation possessed an ultrahigh surface area of 2536 m  g , among which 80 % was contributed from micropores. When applied in EDLCs, the activated YSNCSs demonstrated an unprecedentedly high capacitance (270 F g at 1 A g ) in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([EMIM][BF ]) ionic liquid, affording an ultrahigh energy density (133 Wh kg at 943 W kg ). The present contribution provides insight into engineering porous carbons for capacitive energy storage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cssc.202100113DOI Listing
April 2021

Temporal Encoding and Multispike Learning Framework for Efficient Recognition of Visual Patterns.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 Feb 2;PP. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Biological systems under a parallel and spike-based computation endow individuals with abilities to have prompt and reliable responses to different stimuli. Spiking neural networks (SNNs) have thus been developed to emulate their efficiency and to explore principles of spike-based processing. However, the design of a biologically plausible and efficient SNN for image classification still remains as a challenging task. Previous efforts can be generally clustered into two major categories in terms of coding schemes being employed: rate and temporal. The rate-based schemes suffer inefficiency, whereas the temporal-based ones typically end with a relatively poor performance in accuracy. It is intriguing and important to develop an SNN with both efficiency and efficacy being considered. In this article, we focus on the temporal-based approaches in a way to advance their accuracy performance by a great margin while keeping the efficiency on the other hand. A new temporal-based framework integrated with the multispike learning is developed for efficient recognition of visual patterns. Different approaches of encoding and learning under our framework are evaluated with the MNIST and Fashion-MNIST data sets. Experimental results demonstrate the efficient and effective performance of our temporal-based approaches across a variety of conditions, improving accuracies to higher levels that are even comparable to rate-based ones but importantly with a lighter network structure and far less number of spikes. This article attempts to extend the advanced multispike learning to the challenging task of image recognition and bring state of the arts in temporal-based approaches to a novel level. The experimental results could be potentially favorable to low-power and high-speed requirements in the field of artificial intelligence and contribute to attract more efforts toward brain-like computing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2021.3052804DOI Listing
February 2021

Crosstalk between PPARs and gut microbiota in NAFLD.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Apr 20;136:111255. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai Tenth People'sHospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200072, China. Electronic address:

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most common liver disorder in both China and worldwide. It ranges from simple steatosis and progresses over time to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), advanced liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, or hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC). Furthermore, NAFLD and its complications impose a huge health burden to society. The microbiota is widely connected and plays an active role in human physiology and pathology, and it is a hidden 'organ' in determining the state of the host, in terms of homeostasis, or disease. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear receptorsuperfamily and can regulate multiple pathways involved in metabolism, and serve as effective targets forthe treatment of many types of metabolic syndromes, including NAFLD. The purpose of this review is to integrate related articles on gut microbiota, PPARs and NAFLD, and present a balanced overview on how the microbiota can possibly influence the development of NAFLD through PPARs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111255DOI Listing
April 2021

Bioenergy research under climate change: a bibliometric analysis from a country perspective.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jan 23. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Chaoyang District, Beijing, China.

Development of bioenergy will be a key component for meeting increasing energy demands while mitigating global warming. With the intent of identifying current topics of major interest and development of research directions in the field of bioenergy under climate change, we conducted a bibliometric analysis and network analysis from a country perspective based on 3050 articles published since 1999 derived from the Scopus database. The results indicated that USA, UK, and Germany led other countries in terms of number of publications (1006, 366, and 280 articles, respectively) and h-index (greater than 50) in this research area. The USA has also produced a large number of articles in highly respected journals. Compared with developed countries, some developing countries (e.g., China, India, and Brazil) have a larger proportion of publications which are cited less than 10 times and researchers who have academic age of 1 year. The number of publications dealing with some of these research topics coming from developing countries has lagged behind the number of similar publications coming from developed countries. In spite of this, research on sustainable energy systems is still needed for developing countries to further establish feasible systems that can effectively promote global economic development and strengthen climate change mitigation efforts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12448-1DOI Listing
January 2021

Constructing Accurate and Efficient Deep Spiking Neural Networks With Double-Threshold and Augmented Schemes.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 Jan 20;PP. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Spiking neural networks (SNNs) are considered as a potential candidate to overcome current challenges, such as the high-power consumption encountered by artificial neural networks (ANNs); however, there is still a gap between them with respect to the recognition accuracy on various tasks. A conversion strategy was, thus, introduced recently to bridge this gap by mapping a trained ANN to an SNN. However, it is still unclear that to what extent this obtained SNN can benefit both the accuracy advantage from ANN and high efficiency from the spike-based paradigm of computation. In this article, we propose two new conversion methods, namely TerMapping and AugMapping. The TerMapping is a straightforward extension of a typical threshold-balancing method with a double-threshold scheme, while the AugMapping additionally incorporates a new scheme of augmented spike that employs a spike coefficient to carry the number of typical all-or-nothing spikes occurring at a time step. We examine the performance of our methods based on the MNIST, Fashion-MNIST, and CIFAR10 data sets. The results show that the proposed double-threshold scheme can effectively improve the accuracies of the converted SNNs. More importantly, the proposed AugMapping is more advantageous for constructing accurate, fast, and efficient deep SNNs compared with other state-of-the-art approaches. Our study, therefore, provides new approaches for further integration of advanced techniques in ANNs to improve the performance of SNNs, which could be of great merit to applied developments with spike-based neuromorphic computing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2020.3043415DOI Listing
January 2021

Synaptic Learning With Augmented Spikes.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 Jan 20;PP. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Traditional neuron models use analog values for information representation and computation, while all-or-nothing spikes are employed in the spiking ones. With a more brain-like processing paradigm, spiking neurons are more promising for improvements in efficiency and computational capability. They extend the computation of traditional neurons with an additional dimension of time carried by all-or-nothing spikes. Could one benefit from both the accuracy of analog values and the time-processing capability of spikes? In this article, we introduce a concept of augmented spikes to carry complementary information with spike coefficients in addition to spike latencies. New augmented spiking neuron model and synaptic learning rules are proposed to process and learn patterns of augmented spikes. We provide systematic insights into the properties and characteristics of our methods, including classification of augmented spike patterns, learning capacity, construction of causality, feature detection, robustness, and applicability to practical tasks, such as acoustic and visual pattern recognition. Our augmented approaches show several advanced learning properties and reliably outperform the baseline ones that use typical all-or-nothing spikes. Our approaches significantly improve the accuracies of a temporal-based approach on sound and MNIST recognition tasks to 99.38% and 97.90%, respectively, highlighting the effectiveness and potential merits of our methods. More importantly, our augmented approaches are versatile and can be easily generalized to other spike-based systems, contributing to a potential development for them, including neuromorphic computing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2020.3040969DOI Listing
January 2021

Surface Oxidation Layer-Mediated Conformal Carbon Coating on Si Nanoparticles for Enhanced Lithium Storage.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jan 13;13(3):3991-3998. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, China.

Si is a well-known high-capacity lithium-ion battery anode material; however, it suffers from conductivity and volume expansion issues. Herein, we develop a "surface oxidation" strategy to introduce a SiO layer on Si nanoparticles for subsequent carbon coating. It is found that the surface SiO layer could facilitate the conformal resin coating process through strong interactions with phenolic resin, and well-defined core@double-shell-structured Si@SiO@C can be obtained after further carbonization. Without the surface SiO layer, only a negligible fraction of Si nanoparticles can be encapsulated into the carbon matrix. With enhanced conductivity and confined volume change, Si@SiO@C demonstrates high reversible capacity as well as long-term durability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c19673DOI Listing
January 2021

PPARγ/NF-κB and TGF-β1/Smad pathway are involved in the anti-fibrotic effects of levo-tetrahydropalmatine on liver fibrosis.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 Feb 12;25(3):1645-1660. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Gastroenterology, Putuo People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Liver fibrosis is a necessary stage in the development of chronic liver diseases to liver cirrhosis. This study aims to investigate the anti-fibrotic effects of levo-tetrahydropalmatine (L-THP) on hepatic fibrosis in mice and cell models and its underlying mechanisms. Two mouse hepatic fibrosis models were generated in male C57 mice by intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) for 2 months and bile duct ligation (BDL) for 14 days. Levo-tetrahydropalmatine was administered orally at doses of 20 and 40 mg/kg. An activated LX2 cell model induced by TGF-β1 was also generated. The results showed that levo-tetrahydropalmatine alleviated liver fibrosis by inhibiting the formation of extracellular matrix (ECM) and regulating the balance between TIMP1 and MMP2 in the two mice liver fibrosis models and cell model. Levo-tetrahydropalmatine inhibited activation and autophagy of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) by modulating PPARγ/NF-κB and TGF-β1/Smad pathway in vivo and in vitro. In conclusion, levo-tetrahydropalmatine attenuated liver fibrosis by inhibiting ECM deposition and HSCs autophagy via modulation of PPARγ/NF-κB and TGF-β1/Smad pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.16267DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7875896PMC
February 2021

Atomic Oxygen-Resistant Polyimide Composite Films Containing Nanocaged Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane Components in Matrix and Fillers.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Jan 8;11(1). Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Materials Utilization of Nonmetallic Minerals and Solid Wastes, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083, China.

For the development of spacecraft with long-servicing life in low earth orbit (LEO), high-temperature resistant polymer films with long-term atomic oxygen (AO) resistant features are highly desired. The relatively poor AO resistance of standard polyimide (PI) films greatly limited their applications in LEO spacecraft. In this work, we successfully prepared a series of novel AO resistant PI composite films containing nanocaged polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) components in both the PI matrix and the fillers. The POSS-containing PI matrix film was prepared from a POSS-substituted aromatic diamine, -[(heptaisobutyl-POSS)propyl]-3,5-diaminobenzamide (DABA-POSS) and a common aromatic diamine, 4,4'-oxydianline (ODA) and the aromatic dianhydride, pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) by a two-step thermal imidization procedure. The POSS-containing filler, trisilanolphenyl POSS (TSP-POSS) was added with the fixed proportion of 20 wt% in the final films. Incorporation of TSP-POSS additive apparently improved the thermal stability, but decreased the high-temperature dimensional stable nature of the PI composite films. The 5% weight loss temperature () of POSS-PI-20 with 20 wt% of DABA-POSS is 564 °C, and its coefficient of linear thermal expansion (CTE) is 81.0 × 10/K. The former is 16 °C lower and the latter was 20.0 × 10/K higher than those of the POSS-PI-10 film ( = 580 °C, CTE = 61.0 × 10/K), respectively. POSS components endowed the PI composite films excellent AO resistance and self-healing characteristics in AO environments. POSS-PI-30 exhibits the lowest AO erosion yield () of 1.64 × 10 cm/atom under AO exposure with a flux of 2.51 × 10 atoms/cm, which is more than two orders of magnitude lower than the referenced PI (PMDA-ODA) film. Inert silica or silicate passivation layers were detected on the surface of the PI composite films exposed to AO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11010141DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7827213PMC
January 2021

The water-soluble non-starch polysaccharides from natural resources against excessive oxidative stress: A potential health-promoting effect and its mechanisms.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Feb 6;171:320-330. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047, China. Electronic address:

The water-soluble non-starch polysaccharides isolated from natural resources have become research hotpots in the field of food science and human health due to widely distributed in nature and low toxicity. It has indicated that the health-promoting effect of water-soluble non-starch polysaccharides were partly attributable to against excessive oxidative stress. Indeed, excessive oxidative stress in the body has been reported in occurrence of disease. The water-soluble non-starch polysaccharides from natural resources exhibit antioxidant activity to against oxidative stress via scavenging free radicals promoting antioxidant enzymes activity and/or regulating antioxidant signaling pathways. In this review, the water-soluble non-starch polysaccharides as medicine agent and the factor affecting antioxidant as well as the relationship between oxidative stress and disease are summarized, and the mechanisms of water-soluble non-starch polysaccharides therapy in disease are also discussed. It will provide a theoretical basis for natural polysaccharides used for the treatment of diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.01.022DOI Listing
February 2021

Is a drought a drought in grasslands? Productivity responses to different types of drought.

Oecologia 2021 Jan 8. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Graduate Degree Program in Ecology and Department of Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, 80523, USA.

Drought, defined as a marked deficiency of precipitation relative to normal, occurs as periods of below-average precipitation or complete failure of precipitation inputs, and can be limited to a single season or prolonged over multiple years. Grasslands are typically quite sensitive to drought, but there can be substantial variability in the magnitude of loss of ecosystem function. We hypothesized that differences in how drought occurs may contribute to this variability. In four native Great Plains grasslands (three C- and one C-dominated) spanning a ~ 500-mm precipitation gradient, we imposed drought for four consecutive years by (1) reducing each rainfall event by 66% during the growing season (chronic drought) or (2) completely excluding rainfall during a shorter portion of the growing season (intense drought). The drought treatments were similar in magnitude but differed in the following characteristics: event number, event size and length of dry periods. We observed consistent drought-induced reductions (28-37%) in aboveground net primary production (ANPP) only in the C-dominated grasslands. In general, intense drought reduced ANPP more than chronic drought, with little evidence that drought duration altered this pattern. Conversely, belowground net primary production (BNPP) was reduced by drought in all grasslands (32-64%), with BNPP reductions greater in intense vs. chronic drought treatments in the most mesic grassland. We conclude that grassland productivity responses to drought did not strongly differ between these two types of drought, but when differences existed, intense drought consistently reduced function more than chronic drought.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00442-020-04793-8DOI Listing
January 2021

Targeting the IRAK1-S100A9 Axis Overcomes Resistance to Paclitaxel in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.

Cancer Res 2021 Mar 5;81(5):1413-1425. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center of Cancer Medicine, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Diagnosis and Therapy, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, China.

Novel strategies to treat late-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma that often develop resistance to chemotherapy remains an unmet clinical demand. In this study, we identify the multi-kinase inhibitor pacritinib as capable of resensitizing the response to paclitaxel in an acquired resistance model. Transcriptome analysis of paclitaxel-sensitive and -resistant cell lines, as well as chemorefractory clinical samples, identified as the top candidate gene suppressed by pacritinib and whose overexpression was significantly associated with paclitaxel resistance and poor clinical outcome. Moreover, both paclitaxel-resistant nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells and relapsed/metastatic clinical samples exhibited increased IRAK1 phosphorylation and demonstrated that pacritinib could abolish the IRAK1 phosphorylation to suppress expression. Functional studies in both and models showed that genetic or pharmacologic blockade of IRAK1 overcame the resistance to paclitaxel, and combined treatment of pacritinib with paclitaxel exhibited superior antitumor effect. Together, these findings demonstrate an important role for the IRAK1-S100A9 axis in mediating resistance to paclitaxel. Furthermore, targeting of IRAK1 by pacritinib may provide a novel therapeutic strategy to overcome chemoresistance in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. SIGNIFICANCE: Deregulation of the IRAK1-S100A9 axis correlates with poor prognosis, contributes to chemoresistance in nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and can be targeted by pacritinib to overcome chemoresistance in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-20-2125DOI Listing
March 2021

The gut microbiome-bile acid axis in hepatocarcinogenesis.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jan 28;133:111036. Epub 2020 Nov 28.

Department of Gastroenterology, Putuo People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200060, China; Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200072, China. Electronic address:

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver malignancy and is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths globally, with few effective therapeutic options. Bile acids (BAs) are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver and can be modulated by farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and G-protein coupled BA receptor 1 (GPBAR1/TGR5). Alterations in BAs can affect hepatic metabolic homeostasis and contribute to the pathogenesis of liver cancer. Increasing evidence points to the key role of bacterial microbiota in the promotion and development of liver cancer. They are also involved in the regulation of BA synthesis and metabolism. The purpose of this review is to integrate related articles involving gut microbiota, BAs and HCC, and review how the gut microbiota-BA signaling axis can possibly influence the development of HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.111036DOI Listing
January 2021

Extracting Effective Image Attributes with Refined Universal Detection.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Dec 25;21(1). Epub 2020 Dec 25.

National Laboratory of Pattern Recognition, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China.

Recently, image attributes containing high-level semantic information have been widely used in computer vision tasks, including visual recognition and image captioning. Existing attribute extraction methods map visual concepts to the probabilities of frequently-used words by directly using Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). Typically, two main problems exist in those methods. First, words of different parts of speech (POSs) are handled in the same way, but non-nominal words can hardly be mapped to visual regions through CNNs only. Second, synonymous nominal words are treated as independent and different words, in which similarities are ignored. In this paper, a novel Refined Universal Detection (RUDet) method is proposed to solve these two problems. Specifically, a Refinement (RF) module is designed to extract refined attributes of non-nominal words based on the attributes of nominal words and visual features. In addition, a Word Tree (WT) module is constructed to integrate synonymous nouns, which ensures that similar words hold similar and more accurate probabilities. Moreover, a Feature Enhancement (FE) module is adopted to enhance the ability to mine different visual concepts in different scales. Experiments conducted on the large-scale Microsoft (MS) COCO dataset illustrate the effectiveness of our proposed method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21010095DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7795811PMC
December 2020

The protective effects of the Ganoderma atrum polysaccharide against acrylamide-induced inflammation and oxidative damage in rats.

Food Funct 2021 Jan 18;12(1):397-407. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047, China.

In this study, the protective effects of the Ganoderma atrum polysaccharide (PSG-1) on selected tissue (liver, spleen, kidneys and intestine) toxicity induced by acrylamide (AA) in SD rats were investigated. The results showed that pretreatment with PSG-1 could prevent AA-induced damage to liver and kidney functions by increasing the activities of ALT, AST and ALP and the levels of TG, BUN and CR in the serum of AA-treated rats. PSG-1 could also maintain the intestinal barrier function and permeability by preventing the reduction of the serum d-Lac and ET-1 levels in the intestine of AA-treated rats. In addition, AA-induced DNA damage, as indicated by an increase of the 8-OHdG level, was alleviated by pretreatment with PSG-1. Histological observations of the tissues confirmed the protective effects of different doses of PSG-1. Moreover, PSG-1 supplementation reduced oxidative stress and inflammation in rats by upregulating the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities and IL-10 levels, and preventing the overproduction of malondialdehyde (MDA), IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α. Thus, these findings suggest that PSG-1 effectively prevents AA-induced damage in the liver, spleen, kidneys, and intestine of rats, partially by alleviating the inflammatory response and oxidative stress and protecting the intestinal integrity and barrier function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0fo01873bDOI Listing
January 2021

Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Secreted Exosome Promotes Chemoresistance in Breast Cancer via Enhancing miR-21-5p-Mediated Expression.

Mol Ther Oncolytics 2020 Dec 20;19:283-293. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

The Fifth Department of Chemotherapy, Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning 530021, P.R. China.

Emerging evidence has shown the role of mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosome (MSC-exo) in inducing resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapy. However, it remains unclear whether the change of MSC-exo in response to chemotherapy also contributes to chemoresistance. In this study, we investigated the effect of a standard-of-care chemotherapeutic agent, doxorubicin (Dox), on MSC-exo and its contribution to the development of Dox resistance in breast cancer cells (BCs). We found that the exosome secreted by Dox-treated MSCs (Dt-MSC-exo) induced a higher degree of Dox resistance in BCs when compared with non-treated MSC-exo. By analysis of the MSC-exo-induced transcriptome change in BCs, we identified , a chemoresistant gene, as a top-ranked gene induced by MSC-exo in BCs, which was further enhanced by Dt-MSC-exo. Furthermore, we found that Dox induced the expression of miR-21-5p in MSCs and MSC-exo, which was required for the expression of S100A6 in BCs. Importantly, silencing of miR-21-5p expression in MSCs and MSC-exo abolished the resistance of BCs to Dox, indicating an exosomal miR-21-5p-regulated S100A6 in chemoresistance. Our study thus uncovered a novel mechanistic insight into the role of MSC-secreted exosome in the development of chemoresistance in the tumor microenvironment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.omto.2020.10.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7689030PMC
December 2020

A Ganoderma atrum polysaccharide alleviated DSS-induced ulcerative colitis by protecting the apoptosis/autophagy-regulated physical barrier and the DC-related immune barrier.

Food Funct 2020 Dec 21;11(12):10690-10699. Epub 2020 Nov 21.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, China-Canada Joint Lab of Food Science and Technology (Nanchang), Nanchang University, 235 Nanjing East Road, Nanchang, 330047, China.

Polysaccharides are one of the main active substances in Ganoderma atrum (G. atrum). The purpose of this study was to explore the protective effect of a G. atrum polysaccharide (PSG-1) on DSS-induced colitis and the underlying mechanism. The results showed that PSG-1 could maintain the integrity of the intestinal structure by promoting the expression of goblet cells and levels of tight junction proteins in the colon of DSS-induced colitis mice. Furthermore, PSG-1 relieved the inhibition of Bcl-2 and the overexpression of caspase-3 and caspase-9 caused by DSS. Simultaneously, PSG-1 restored the expression of Atg5, Atg7 and beclin-1 and inhibited the p-akt and p-mTOR levels, suggesting that PSG-1 promoted autophagy via the Akt/mTOR pathway. Moreover, PSG-1 inhibited the content of DCs in the colon and modulated the expression of IL-10 in DCs. In conclusion, PSG-1 alleviated DSS-induced ulcerative colitis by protecting the apoptosis/autophagy-regulated physical barrier and the DC-related immune barrier.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0fo02260hDOI Listing
December 2020

EZH2-mediated PP2A inactivation confers resistance to HER2-targeted breast cancer therapy.

Nat Commun 2020 11 18;11(1):5878. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Cancer Precision Medicine, Genome Institute of Singapore, Agency for Science, Technology, and Research, Biopolis, Singapore, 138672, Singapore.

HER2-targeted therapy has yielded a significant clinical benefit in patients with HER2+ breast cancer, yet disease relapse due to intrinsic or acquired resistance remains a significant challenge in the clinic. Here, we show that the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) regulatory subunit PPP2R2B is a crucial determinant of anti-HER2 response. PPP2R2B is downregulated in a substantial subset of HER2+ breast cancers, which correlates with poor clinical outcome and resistance to HER2-targeted therapies. EZH2-mediated histone modification accounts for the PPP2R2B downregulation, resulting in sustained phosphorylation of PP2A targets p70S6K and 4EBP1 which leads to resistance to inhibition by anti-HER2 treatments. Genetic depletion or inhibition of EZH2 by a clinically-available EZH2 inhibitor restores PPP2R2B expression, abolishes the residual phosphorylation of p70S6K and 4EBP1, and resensitizes HER2+ breast cancer cells to anti-HER2 treatments both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the same epigenetic mechanism also contributes to the development of acquired resistance through clonal selection. These findings identify EZH2-dependent PPP2R2B suppression as an epigenetic control of anti-HER2 resistance, potentially providing an opportunity to mitigate anti-HER2 resistance with EZH2 inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19704-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7674491PMC
November 2020

Gut Microbiota, Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors, and Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

J Hepatocell Carcinoma 2020 29;7:271-288. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Department of Gastroenterology, Putuo People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200060, People's Republic of China.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors in the world. HCC incidence rate is sixth and mortality is fourth worldwide. However, HCC pathogenesis and molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The incidence of HCC is associated with genetic, environmental, and metabolic factors. The role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of HCC has attracted researchers' attention because of anatomical and functional interactions between liver and intestine. Studies have demonstrated the involvement of gut microbiota in the development of HCC and chronic liver diseases, such as alcoholic liver disease (ALD), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and liver cirrhosis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a group of receptors with diverse biological functions. Natural and synthetic PPAR agonists show potential for treatment of NAFLD, liver fibrosis, and HCC. Recent studies have demonstrated that PPARs take part in gut microbiota inhabitation and adaptation. This manuscript reviews the role of gut microbiota in the development of HCC and precancerous diseases, the role of PPARs in modulation of gut microbiota and HCC, and potential of gut microbiota for HCC diagnosis and treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JHC.S277870DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7605923PMC
October 2020

Temporal variability in production is not consistently affected by global change drivers across herbaceous-dominated ecosystems.

Oecologia 2020 Dec 1;194(4):735-744. Epub 2020 Nov 1.

National Hulunber Grassland Ecosystem Observation and Research Station, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100081, China.

Understanding how global change drivers (GCDs) affect aboveground net primary production (ANPP) through time is essential to predicting the reliability and maintenance of ecosystem function and services in the future. While GCDs, such as drought, warming and elevated nutrients, are known to affect mean ANPP, less is known about how they affect inter-annual variability in ANPP. We examined 27 global change experiments located in 11 different herbaceous ecosystems that varied in both abiotic and biotic conditions, to investigate changes in the mean and temporal variability of ANPP (measured as the coefficient of variation) in response to different GCD manipulations, including resource additions, warming, and irrigation. From this comprehensive data synthesis, we found that GCD treatments increased mean ANPP. However, GCD manipulations both increased and decreased temporal variability of ANPP (24% of comparisons), with no net effect overall. These inconsistent effects on temporal variation in ANPP can, in part, be attributed to site characteristics, such as mean annual precipitation and temperature as well as plant community evenness. For example, decreases in temporal variability in ANPP with the GCD treatments occurred in wetter and warmer sites with lower plant community evenness. Further, the addition of several nutrients simultaneously increased the sensitivity of ANPP to interannual variation in precipitation. Based on this analysis, we expect that GCDs will likely affect the magnitude more than the reliability over time of ecosystem production in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00442-020-04787-6DOI Listing
December 2020

Small-molecule PD-L1 inhibitor BMS1166 abrogates the function of PD-L1 by blocking its ER export.

Oncoimmunology 2020 10 14;9(1):1831153. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Shanghai, China.

Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies against the PD-L1/PD-1 (programmed death ligand-1/programmed cell death protein-1) axis have achieved great successes in cancer treatments, but the development of small-molecule immunomodulators of the pathway has lagged far behind. We established a cellular coculture assay with two stable transfectant cell lines, a PD-L1-expressing tumor cell line PC9/PD-L1 and a PD-1-expressing T cell line Jurkat/PD-1. Western blotting analyses were used to monitor the PD-L1/PD-1 interaction and signaling. We analyzed PD-L1 glycosylation by lectin binding assay and glycosidase digestion, and examined subcellular localization of PD-L1 by immunocytochemical staining. Luciferase assay and real-time PCR were used to evaluate T cell activation in the coculture experiments. We found that coculturing of the PC9/PD-L1 cells with the Jurkat/PD-1 cells induced a lysosomal degradation of PD-1. A small-molecule PD-L1 inhibitor BMS1166 developed by Bristol-Myers Squibb inhibited the coculture-induced PD-1 degradation through a unique mechanism. BMS1166 specifically affected PD-L1 glycosylation and prevented transporting of the under-glycosylated form of PD-L1 from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to Golgi, leading to accumulation of PD-L1 in ER. In doing so, BMS1166 blocked PD-L1/PD-1 signaling. Coculturing PD-L1-expressing cells with PD-1-expressing cells induced degradation of PD-1, which could be used as a readout to identify inhibitors of PD-L1/PD-1 signaling. The small-molecule PD-L1 inhibitor BMS1166 abolished the glycosylation and maturation of PD-L1 by blocking its exporting from ER to Golgi. Our study discovered a new strategy to identify inhibitors of the PD-L1/PD-1 signaling pathway and to develop new drugs for the treatment of cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/2162402X.2020.1831153DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7567511PMC
October 2020