Publications by authors named "Qiang Xu"

1,351 Publications

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sp. nov., isolated from Arctic tundra soil, and emended descriptions of , and .

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2021 Nov;71(11)

China Center for Type Culture Collection (CCTCC), College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, PR China.

Strain Q3-56, isolated from Arctic tundra soil, was found to be a Gram-stain-negative, yellow-pigmented, oxidase- and catalase-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped and aerobic bacterium. Strain Q3-56 grew optimally at pH 7.0 and 28 °C. The strain could tolerate up to 1 % (w/v) NaCl with optimum growth in the absence of NaCl. The strain was not sensitive to oxacillin and ceftazidime. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain Q3-56 belonged to the genus . Strain Q3-56 showed the highest sequence similarities to T17 (96.58 %), Gsoil 043 (96.50 %), NS28 (96.43 %) and QTA69 (96.43 %). The predominant respiratory isoprenoid quinone was identified as MK-7, The polar lipid profile of strain Q3-56 was found to contain one phosphatidylethanolamine, three unidentified aminolipids, three unidentified lipids and one unidentified phospholipid. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was determined to be 49.1 mol%. The main fatty acids were summed feature 3 (comprising C 7/C 6), iso-C, C 5 and iso-C 3-OH. On the basis of the evidence presented in this study, a novel species of the genus , sp. nov., is proposed, with the type strain Q3-56 (=CCTCC AB 2019271=KCTC 72739). Emended descriptions of , and are also provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/ijsem.0.005103DOI Listing
November 2021

Changes in notifiable infectious disease incidence in China during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Nat Commun 2021 11 26;12(1):6923. Epub 2021 Nov 26.

State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing, P. R. China.

Nationwide nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) have been effective at mitigating the spread of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), but their broad impact on other diseases remains under-investigated. Here we report an ecological analysis comparing the incidence of 31 major notifiable infectious diseases in China in 2020 to the average level during 2014-2019, controlling for temporal phases defined by NPI intensity levels. Respiratory diseases and gastrointestinal or enteroviral diseases declined more than sexually transmitted or bloodborne diseases and vector-borne or zoonotic diseases. Early pandemic phases with more stringent NPIs were associated with greater reductions in disease incidence. Non-respiratory diseases, such as hand, foot and mouth disease, rebounded substantially towards the end of the year 2020 as the NPIs were relaxed. Statistical modeling analyses confirm that strong NPIs were associated with a broad mitigation effect on communicable diseases, but resurgence of non-respiratory diseases should be expected when the NPIs, especially restrictions of human movement and gathering, become less stringent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-27292-7DOI Listing
November 2021

Exome Sequencing from Bulked Segregant Analysis Identifies a Gene for All Stage Resistance to Stripe Rust on Chromosome 1AL in Chinese Wheat Landrace Xiaohemai.

Plant Dis 2021 Nov 24. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Triticeae Research Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang, Chengdu, Sichuan, P. R. China, Chengdu, Sichuan, China, 611130;

Stripe rust caused by f. sp. () is one of the most destructive diseases of wheat. Identifying novel resistance genes applicable for developing disease resistant cultivars is important for the sustainable control of wheat stripe rust. Chinese wheat landrace Xiaohemai (XHM) is an elite germplasm line with all-stage resistance (ASR) effective against predominant Chinese races. In this study, we performed a bulked segregant analysis coupled with exome capture sequencing (BSE-seq) to identify a candidate genomic region strongly associated with stripe rust resistance on chromosome 1AL in 173 F lines derived from cross XHM × Avocet S. The gene, designated as , was validated by a conventional quantitative trait locus analysis using newly developed Kompetitive allele-specific PCR (KASP) markers, explaining up to 48.50% of the phenotypic variance. By testing a secondary mapping population comprising 144 lines from the same cross at the seedling stage with prevalent race CYR34, was identified as a single Mendelian factor in a 1.5 cM interval flanked by KASP markers and 9. This region corresponded to a 5.76 Mb genomic interval on Chinese Spring chromosome 1AL. Furthermore, two co-segregating KASP markers showed high polymorphisms among 130 Chinese wheat cultivars and could be used for marker-assisted selection. Because no other genes for ASR that originated from common wheat have been detected on chromosome 1AL, is likely a novel gene that can be incorporated into modern breeding materials to develop wheat cultivars with enhanced stripe rust resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-08-21-1618-REDOI Listing
November 2021

Broad impacts of COVID-19 pandemic on acute respiratory infections in China: an observational study.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Nov 12. Epub 2021 Nov 12.

State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing, P. R. China.

Background: To combat the COVID-19 pandemic, nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPI) were implemented worldwide, which impacted a broad spectrum of acute respiratory infections (ARI).

Methods: Etiologically diagnostic data from 142 559 cases with ARIs, who were tested for eight viral pathogens (influenza virus, IFV; respiratory syncytial virus, RSV; human parainfluenza virus, HPIV; human adenovirus; human metapneumovirus; human coronavirus, HCoV; human bocavirus, HBoV, and human rhinovirus, HRV) between 2012 and 2021, were analyzed to assess the changes of respiratory infections in China during the first COVID-19 pandemic year compared to pre-pandemic years.

Results: Test positive rates of all respiratory viruses decreased during 2020, compared to the average levels during 2012-2019, with changes ranging from -17·2% for RSV to -87·6% for IFV. Sharp decreases mostly occurred between February and August when massive NPIs remained active, although HRV rebounded to the historical level during the summer. While IFV and HMPV were consistently suppressed year round, RSV, HPIV, HCoV, HRV HBov resurged and went beyond historical levels during September, 2020-January, 2021, after NPIs were largely relaxed and schools reopened. Resurgence was more prominent among children younger than 18 years and in Northern China. These observations remain valid after accounting for seasonality and long-term trend of each virus.

Conclusions: Activities of respiratory viral infections were reduced substantially in the early phases of the COVID-19 pandemic, and massive NPIs were likely the main driver. Lifting of NPIs can lead to resurgence of viral infections, particularly in children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciab942DOI Listing
November 2021

Feasibility of utilizing ultra-low-dose contrast medium for pancreatic artery depiction using the combination of advanced virtual monoenergetic imaging and high-concentration contrast medium: an intra-patient study.

Insights Imaging 2021 Nov 12;12(1):166. Epub 2021 Nov 12.

Department of Radiology, State Key Laboratory of Complex Severe and Rare Disease, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Objectives: The least amount of contrast medium (CM) should be used under the premise of adequate diagnosis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing ultra-low-dose (224 mgI/kg) CM for pancreatic artery depiction using the combination of advanced virtual monoenergetic imaging (VMI+) and high-concentration (400 mgI/mL) CM.

Materials And Methods: 41 patients who underwent both normal dose CM (ND-CM, 320 mgI/kg) and low dose CM (LD-CM, 224 mgI/kg) thoracoabdominal enhanced CT for tumor follow-up were prospectively included. The VMI+ at the energy level of 40-kev for LD-CM images was reconstructed. CT attenuation, signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) of the abdominal artery, celiac artery, and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and qualitative scores of pancreatic arteries depiction were recorded and compared among the three groups (ND-CM, LD-CM, and VMI+ LD-CM images). ANOVA and Friedman tests were used for statistical analysis.

Results: All quantitative and qualitative parameters on LD-CM images were lower than that on ND-CM images (all p < 0.01). There were no significant differences of all arteries' qualitative scores between ND-CM and VMI+ LD-CM images (all p > 0.05). VMI+ LD-CM images had the highest mean CT and CNR values of all arteries (all p < 0.0001). The CM volume was 52.6 ± 9.4 mL for the ND-CM group and 37.0 ± 6.7 mL for the LD-CM group.

Conclusion: Ultra-low-dose CM (224 mgI/kg) was feasible for depicting pancreatic arteries. Inferior angiographic image quality could be successfully compensated by VMI+ and high-concentration CM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13244-021-01079-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8589906PMC
November 2021

α- MSH plays anti-inflammatory and anti-fungal role in keratitis.

Curr Eye Res 2021 Nov 12. Epub 2021 Nov 12.

Department of Ophthalmology The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University Qingdao, China, 266003.

Purpose: To investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-fungal role of α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) in () keratitis.

Method: Corneas of C57BL/6 mice were infected with . α-MSH (5 ul, 1x10mmol/ml) was given by subconjunctival injection from day 1 to day 3 post infection (p.i.). After 3 days p.i., clinical score was recored and HE staining was tested. Fungal load in mice corneas was observed by plate counting. Pro-inflammatory mediators and pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) were detected. The numbers of neutrophils and macrophages were tested by immunofluorescence staining. The role of α-MSH in RAW264.7 cells after stimulation were evaluated by PCR and Western blot, and MPKA protein levels including total-JNK (T-JNK), phosphorylated-JNK (P-JNK), total-ERK (T-ERK) and phosphorylated-ERK (P-ERK) were tested via Western blot with or without α-MSH treatment.

Results: Compared with PBS control group, α-MSH treatment alleviated disease response and decreased clinical score at 3 days p.i. HE staining showed less infiltration in corneal tissue after α-MSH treatment. Plate counting experiment showed that number of viable fungus in corneas of α-MSH treated group was less than control group. mRNA levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, MIP-2, LOX-1, Dectin-1 and iNOS were decreased. Protein levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 and Dectin-1 were decreased. α-MSH treatment also decreased the infiltrating neutrophils and macrophages. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, Dectin-1 and LOX-1 stimulated by , were also suppressed by pretreatment of α-MSH in RAW264.7 cells. The ratio of P-JNK/T-JNK and P-ERK/T-ERK were down regulated in α-MSH group compared with PBS control group.

Conclusion: α-MSH alleviates the severity and decreases fungal load of keratitis in mice. Migration of neutrophils and macrophages are restrained. α-MSH downregulates the expression of dectin-1 and the ratio of P-JNK/T-JNK and P-ERK/T-ERK in infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02713683.2021.2006235DOI Listing
November 2021

Targeting chondrocytes for arresting bony fusion in ankylosing spondylitis.

Nat Commun 2021 11 11;12(1):6540. Epub 2021 Nov 11.

State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Department of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, 163 Xianlin Avenue, Nanjing, 210023, China.

Bony fusion caused by pathological new bone formation manifests the clinical feature of ankylosing spondylitis (AS). However, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here we discovered spontaneous kyphosis, arthritis and bony fusion in mature CD4-Cre;Ptpn11 mice, which present the pathophysiological features of AS. A population of CD4-Cre-expressing proliferating chondrocytes was SHP2 deficient, which could differentiate into pre-hypertrophic and hypertrophic chondrocytes. Functionally, SHP2 deficiency in chondrocytes impeded the fusion of epiphyseal plate and promoted chondrogenesis in joint cavity and enthesis. Mechanistically, aberrant chondrocytes promoted ectopic new bone formation through BMP6/pSmad1/5 signaling. It is worth emphasizing that such pathological thickness of growth plates was evident in adolescent humans with enthesitis-related arthritis, which could progress to AS in adulthood. Targeting dysfunctional chondrogenesis with Smo inhibitor sonidegib significantly alleviated the AS-like bone disease in mice. These findings suggest that blockade of chondrogenesis by sonidegib would be a drug repurposing strategy for AS treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-26750-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8585952PMC
November 2021

Triadimefon increases fetal Leydig cell proliferation but inhibits its differentiation of male fetuses after gestational exposure.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Oct 30;228:112942. Epub 2021 Oct 30.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, the Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325000, China; Department of Anesthesiology, the Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325000, China. Electronic address:

Triadimefon is a broad-spectrum fungicide widely applied in the agriculture. It is believed to be an endocrine disruptor. Whether triadimefon can inhibit the development of fetal Leydig cells and the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Thirty-two female pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into four groups and were dosed via gavage of triadimefon (0, 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg/day) for 9 days from gestational day (GD) 12-20. Triadimefon significantly reduced serum testosterone level in male fetuses at 100 mg/kg. The double immunofluorescence staining of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage (a biomarker for fetal Leydig cells) was used to measure PCNA-labeling in fetal Leydig cells. It markedly increased fetal Leydig cell number primarily via increasing single cell population and elevated the PCNA-labeling of fetal Leydig cells in male fetuses at 100 mg/kg while it induced abnormal aggregation of fetal Leydig cells. The expression levels of fetal Leydig cell genes, Lhcgr, Scarb1, Star, Cyp11a1, Hsd3b1, Cyp17a1, Hsd17b3, Insl3 and Nr5a1, were determined to explore its effects on fetal Leydig cell development. We found that triadimefon markedly down-regulated the expression of Leydig cell genes, Hsd17b3, Insl3, and Nr5a1 as low as 25 mg/kg and Scarb1 and Cyp11a1 at 100 mg/kg. It did not affect Sertoli cell number but markedly down-regulated the expression of Sertoli cell gene Amh at 50 and 100 mg/kg. Triadimefon significantly down-regulated the expression of antioxidant genes Sod1, Gpx1, and Cat at 25-100 mg/kg, suggesting that it can induce oxidative stress in fetal testis, and it reduced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and AKT2 at 100 mg/kg, indicating that it can inhibit the development of fetal Leydig cells. In conclusion, gestational exposure to triadimefon inhibits the development of fetal Leydig cells in male fetuses by inhibiting its differentiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112942DOI Listing
October 2021

Peroxymonosulfate activation using a composite of copper and nickel oxide coated on SBA-15 for the removal of sulfonamide antibiotics.

Environ Res 2021 Oct 29:112301. Epub 2021 Oct 29.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yangtze Normal University, Chongqing, 408100, China. Electronic address:

The sluggish Ni(II)/Ni(III) redox cycle does not benefit perxymonosulfate (PMS) activation for recalcitrant pollutant degradation. To solve this problem, a heterogeneous catalyst, CuNiO/SBA-15 (CNS), was constructed to activate PMS for decomposing two sulfonamide antibiotics, sulfachlorpyridazine (SACP) and sulfapyridine (SAP). SACP and SAP were completely degraded over CuNiO/SBA-15/PMS (CNSP) after 90 min. O was the dominant active species involved in the degradation of SACP and SAP. Structural analysis and elemental valence state observations indicated that Cu(Ⅰ) provided electrons through Cu-O-Ni bonds to realize the charge compensation for Ni(Ⅲ) in the CNSP system. Thus, the in situ Cu(I)/Cu(II) promoting the Ni(II)/Ni(III) cycle could accelerate the PMS activation. This work provides new insights into the electron transfer between transition metals and the charge compensation mechanism for PMS activation. The degradation mechanism was proposed based on the XPS results before and after the reaction, a radical quenching test, and an EPR test. Combined with the SACP and SAP degradation intermediates identified by LC-MS, we suggest that the choice of treatment process depends on the occurrence of a steric hindrance effect between the molecular structure of the degradation target and free radicals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.112301DOI Listing
October 2021

Tianma Gouteng Decoction regulates oxidative stress and inflammation in AngII-induced hypertensive mice via transcription factor EB to exert anti-hypertension effect.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Nov 1;145:112383. Epub 2021 Nov 1.

Second affiliated hospital of Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin 300193, China. Electronic address:

Hypertension is one of the important causes of cardiovascular diseases, and the imbalance of vascular homeostasis caused by oxidative stress and endothelial inflammation occurs throughout hypertension pathogenesis. Therefore, inhibiting oxidative stress and endothelial inflammation is important for treating hypertension. Tianma Gouteng Decoction (TGD) is a Chinese herbal medicine that is commonly used to treat hypertension in China, and demonstrates clinically effective antihypertensive effects. However, its blood pressure reduction mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we further determined the antihypertensive effects of TGD and revealed its underlying mechanism. We established an AngII-induced hypertension mice model, which was treated with TGD for six weeks. We monitored blood pressure, heart rate, and body weight every week. After six weeks, we detected changes in the structure and function of the heart, the structure of blood vessels, and vasomotor factors. We also detected the expression of oxidative stress and inflammation-related genes. We found that TGD can significantly reduce blood pressure, improve cardiac structure and function, and reverse vascular remodeling, which could be due to the inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammation. We also found that the effect of inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation could be related to the up-regulation of transcription factor EB (TFEB) expression by TGD. Therefore, we used AAV9 to knock down TFEB and observe the role of TFEB in TGD's antihypertensive and cardiovascular protection properties. We found that after TFEB knockdown, the protective effect of TGD on blood pressure and cardiovascular remodeling in AngII-induced hypertensive mice was inhibited, and that it was unable to inhibit oxidative stress and inflammation. Therefore, our study demonstrated for the first time that TGD could exert anti-oxidative stress and anti-inflammatory effects through TFEB and reverse the cardiovascular remodeling caused by hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.112383DOI Listing
November 2021

High Photoluminescence Quantum Yield Perovskite/Polymer Nanocomposites for High Contrast X-ray Imaging.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Nov 4;13(45):54348-54353. Epub 2021 Nov 4.

Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 211106, China.

A surface modified-CsPbBr/polybutylmethacrylate (PBMA) nanocomposite is reported to be a scintillator that enables us to provide a high contrast X-ray image using a common charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. Bis(2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl) phosphate (BMEP) was employed to alter the ratio of the original ligands on the CsPbBr nanocrystal (NC) surface for optimizing the optical performance of the CsPbBr/PBMA nanocomposites. The nanocomposites with a concentration of 0.02 wt % NCs exhibit more than 70% transmittance in the visible region and show a green emission at 515 nm, the fast decay time is 13 ns, while the photoluminescence quantum yield value is 99.2%. Under X-ray excitation, the emission peak wavelength is centered at 524 nm and shows a narrow full width at half-maximum of 26.6 nm; the result nicely matches with the peak quantum efficiency of most commercial CCD/complementary metal oxide semiconductor cameras. The high contrast X-ray image is recorded at a low dose rate of 4.6 μGy/s, which enables read out with software. Our results demonstrate that these CsPbBr/PBMA nanocomposites have promising application prospects for ionizing radiation detection, especially for X-ray imaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c15613DOI Listing
November 2021

Recycling diagnostic MRI for empowering brain morphometric research - Critical & practical assessment on learning-based image super-resolution.

Neuroimage 2021 Oct 31;245:118687. Epub 2021 Oct 31.

Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Affiliated Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, #305 East Zhongshan Rd, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210002, China; State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China. Electronic address:

Preliminary studies have shown the feasibility of deep learning (DL)-based super-resolution (SR) technique for reconstructing thick-slice/gap diagnostic MR images into high-resolution isotropic data, which would be of great significance for brain research field if the vast amount of diagnostic MRI data could be successively put into brain morphometric study. However, less evidence has addressed the practicability of the strategy, because lack of a large-sample available real data for constructing DL model. In this work, we employed a large cohort (n = 2052) of peculiar data with both low through-plane resolution diagnostic and high-resolution isotropic brain MR images from identical subjects. By leveraging a series of SR approaches, including a proposed novel DL algorithm of Structure Constrained Super Resolution Network (SCSRN), the diagnostic images were transformed to high-resolution isotropic data to meet the criteria of brain research in voxel-based and surface-based morphometric analyses. We comprehensively assessed image quality and the practicability of the reconstructed data in a variety of morphometric analysis scenarios. We further compared the performance of SR approaches to the ground truth high-resolution isotropic data. The results showed (i) DL-based SR algorithms generally improve the quality of diagnostic images and render morphometric analysis more accurate, especially, with the most superior performance of the novel approach of SCSRN. (ii) Accuracies vary across brain structures and methods, and (iii) performance increases were higher for voxel than for surface based approaches. This study supports that DL-based image super-resolution potentially recycle huge amount of routine diagnostic brain MRI deposited in sleeping state, and turning them into useful data for neurometric research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2021.118687DOI Listing
October 2021

MIL-96-Al for Li-S battery: shape or size?

Adv Mater 2021 Oct 31:e2107836. Epub 2021 Oct 31.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, 225009, P. R. China.

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with controllable shapes and sizes show a great potential in Li-S batteries. However, neither the relationship between shapes and specific capacity nor the influence of MOF particle size on cyclic stability have been fully established yet. Herein, MIL-96-Al with various shapes, forming hexagonal platelet crystals (HPC), hexagonal bipyramidal crystals (HBC), and hexagonal prismatic bipyramidal crystals (HPBC) were successfully prepared via co-solvent methods. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations demonstrate that the HBC shape with highly exposed (101) planes can effectively adsorb lithium polysulfides (LPS) during the charge/discharge process. By changing the relative proportion of the co-solvents, HBC samples with different particle sizes were prepared. When these MIL-96-Al crystals were used as sulfur host materials, it was found that those with the smaller size of HBC shape deliver the higher initial capacity. These investigations establish that different crystal planes have different adsorption abilities for LPS, and that the MOF particle size should be considered for a suitable sulfur host. More broadly, this work provides a strategy for designing sulfur hosts in Li-S batteries. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202107836DOI Listing
October 2021

Motor Network Reorganization After Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Early Stroke Patients: A Resting State fMRI Study.

Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2021 Oct 28:15459683211054184. Epub 2021 Oct 28.

Department of Neurology, Affiliated Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.

Objective: To compare the effects of high-frequency (10 Hz) versus low-frequency (1 Hz) repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) on motor recovery and functional reorganization of the cortical motor network during the early phase of stroke.

Methods: Forty-six hospitalized, first-ever ischemic stroke patients in early stage (within two weeks) with upper limb motor deficits were recruited. They were randomly allocated to three groups with 10 Hz ipsilesional rTMS, 1 Hz contralesional rTMS, and sham rTMS of five daily session. All patients underwent motor function (Upper Extremity Fugl-Meyer), neurophysiological and resting-state  functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) (rs-fMRI) assessments before and after rTMS intervention. Motor recovery (△Fugl-Meyer Assessment) was defined as motor function changes before and after rTMS intervention. Motor function assessment was reevaluated at time point of three month follow-up.

Results: The two real rTMS groups manifested greater motor improvements than the sham group. The effect sustained for at least 3 months after the end of the treatment sessions. Compared with the sham group, 10 Hz ipsilesional rTMS group presented increased resting-state functional connectivity (FC) between ipsilesional primary motor cortex (M1) and contralesional M1 (P = .007), whereas 1 Hz contralesional rTMS group presented increased FC between contralesional M1 and ipsilesional supplementary motor area (P = .010), which were positively correlated with motor recovery (P < .05).

Conclusion: Beneficial effect of rTMS on motor recovery might be underlaid by increased FC between stimulating site and the remote motor areas, highlighting the motor network reorganization mechanism of rTMS in early post-stroke phase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/15459683211054184DOI Listing
October 2021

Regeneration of Ganglion Cells for Vision Restoration in Mammalian Retinas.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 4;9:755544. Epub 2021 Oct 4.

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Glaucoma and other optic neuropathies affect millions of people worldwide, ultimately causing progressive and irreversible degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and blindness. Previous research into cell replacement therapy of these neurodegenerative diseases has been stalled due to the incapability for grafted RGCs to integrate into the retina and project properly along the long visual pathway. RGC regeneration would be a promising alternative approach but mammalian retinas lack regenerative capacity. It therefore has long been a great challenge to regenerate functional and properly projecting RGCs for vision restoration in mammals. Here we show that the transcription factors (TFs) Math5 and Brn3b together are able to reprogram mature mouse Müller glia (MG) into RGCs. The reprogrammed RGCs extend long axons that make appropriate intra-retinal and extra-retinal projections through the entire visual pathway to innervate both image-forming and non-image-forming brain targets. They exhibit typical neuronal electrophysiological properties and improve visual responses in RGC loss mouse models. Together, our data provide evidence that mammalian MG can be reprogrammed by defined TFs to achieve regeneration of functional RGCs as well as a promising new therapeutic approach to restore vision to patients with glaucoma and other optic neuropathies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.755544DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8520940PMC
October 2021

Characterization and fine mapping of a lesion mimic mutant (Lm5) with enhanced stripe rust and powdery mildew resistance in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

Theor Appl Genet 2021 Oct 18. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Gene Exploration and Utilization in Southwest China, Triticeae Research Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, 611130, China.

Key Message: A novel light intensity-dependent lesion mimic mutant with enhanced disease resistance was physiologically, biochemically, and genetically characterized, and the causative gene was fine mapped to a 1.28 Mbp interval containing 17 high-confidence genes. Lesion mimic mutants are ideal for studying disease resistance and programmed cell death photosynthesis in plants to improve crop yield. In this study, a novel light intensity-dependent lesion mimic mutant (MC21) was obtained from the wheat variety Chuannong16 (CN16) by ethyl methane sulfonate treatment. The mutant initially developed tiny lesion spots on the basal part of the leaves, which then gradually proceeded down to leaf sheaths, stems, shells, and awns at the flowering stage. The major agronomic traits were significantly altered in the mutant compared to that in the wild-type CN16. Furthermore, the mutant exhibited a lesion phenotype with degenerated chloroplast structure, decreased chlorophyll content, increased level of reactive oxygen species, and increased resistance to stripe rust and powdery mildew. Genetic analysis indicated that the lesion phenotype was controlled by a novel single semi-dominant nuclear gene. The target gene was mapped on chromosome arm 2AL located between Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (KASP) markers, KASP-4211 and KASP-5353, and tentatively termed as lesion mimic 5 (Lm5). The fine mapping suggested that Lm5 was located in a 1.28 Mbp interval between markers KASP-5825 and KASP-9366; 17 high-confidence candidate genes were included in this genomic region. This study provides an important foundational step for further cloning of Lm5 using a map-based approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00122-021-03973-1DOI Listing
October 2021

White Matter Abnormalities in Patients With Typhoon-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

Front Hum Neurosci 2021 29;15:665070. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

Department of Radiology, Hainan General Hospital (Hainan Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical University), Haikou, China.

Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) might have white matter abnormalities. However, less is known about white matter changes after exposing a specific traumatic event. The purpose of this study was to explore the abnormalities of diffusion in cerebral white matter and its relationship with the clinical symptoms in patients with PTSD by using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Diffusion-weighted imaging of the cerebrum was performed in typhoon survivors with ( = 27) and without PTSD ( = 33) and healthy controls (HCs) ( = 30). Differences in fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD) were calculated among groups using voxel-based analysis of the DTI data. Correlations between diffusion indices and clinical symptoms in patients with PTSD were also assessed. Both patients with PTSD and trauma-exposed control (TEC) group showed increased FA in the anterior limb of the internal capsule, forceps of the corpus callosum, and corona radiata relative to the HC group. Additionally, there was a negative correlation between FA values in the white matter and the clinical symptoms. Trauma exposure may result in disruption of cerebral white matter in individuals with or without PTSD, particularly in the frontal fibers. Aberrant white matter alterations may be associated with the severity of PTSD symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2021.665070DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8511510PMC
September 2021

Meisoindigo attenuates dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis via its inhibition of TAK1 in macrophages.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Oct 12;101(Pt B):108239. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China. Electronic address:

At present, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) seriously threatens human health, and its treatment is a huge challenge for people. In our studies, we found that meisoindigo, a derivative of indirubin, significantly ameliorated dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental colitis in mice. Meisoindigo treatment markedly elevated the level of glutathione, while suppressed the activities of alkaline phosphatase and myeloperoxidase in colonic tissues. Moreover, the mRNA expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, cyclooxygenase-2 which are important colitis-related molecules and the levels of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-18, IL-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were suppressed dose-dependently following treatment with meisoindigo. Immunofluorescence results indicated that meisoindigo inhibited macrophage infiltration and nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation in colons from DSS-treated mice. Therefore, mouse RAW264.7 and human THP-1 cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) alone or combined adenosine triphosphate to activate NF-κB pathway in vitro. It was shown that meisoindigo reduced the elevated levels of NO, IL-18, IL-1β and TNF-α after LPS treatment in both cells. In addition, meisoindigo showed inhibitory effects on NF-κB by using a luciferase reporter gene that depends on NF-κB. Through molecular docking, microscale thermophoresis and cellular thermal shift assay. It was further found that meisoindigo targeted transforming growth factor β activated kinase-1 (TAK1), which is an important regulator in the upstream of NF-κB pathway. In conclusion, our findings show that meisoindigo can alleviate IBD effectively at low doses, and negatively regulate proinflammatory responses by inhibiting the activation of TAK1, which provides new ideas for clinical anti-inflammatory therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108239DOI Listing
October 2021

Bisphosphonate-enoxacin inhibit osteoclast formation and function by abrogating RANKL-induced JNK signalling pathways during osteoporosis treatment.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 Nov 15;25(21):10126-10139. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

Department of Orthopedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Artificial Joints Engineering and Technology Research Center of Jiangxi Province, Nanchang, China.

Osteoporosis is an age-related disease characterized by low mineral density, compromised bone strength and increased risk of fragility fracture. Most agents for treating osteoporosis focus primarily on anti-resorption by inhibiting osteoclast activity. Bisphosphonate (BP) is a potent anti-resorptive agent that has been used clinically for decades and is proven to be effective. However, BP has a variety of side effects and is far from being an ideal anti-osteoporosis agent. BP selectively binds to calcium crystals, which are subsequently taken up or released by osteoclasts. Based on the action of BP, we previously demonstrated the inhibitory effect of a novel bone-targeting BP derivative, bisphosphonate-enoxacin (BE). In the current study, we used bone marrow-derived osteoclast cultures to further assess the inhibitory effect of BE on osteoclastogenesis and employed reverse transcription PCR and real-time PCR to examine expression of osteoclast-specific genes. Additionally, we used bone resorption and F-actin immunofluorescence assays to evaluate the effect of BE on osteoclast function and investigated the potential mechanisms affecting osteoclast differentiation and function in vitro. Furthermore, an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model was established to evaluate the therapeutic effects of BE on preventing bone loss. Results showed that BE exerted potent inhibitory effects on osteoclast formation and bone resorption by specifically abrogating RANKL-induced JNK signalling, and that it preserved OVX rat bone mass in vivo without any notable side effects. Collectively, these results indicated that the BP derivative BE may have significant potential as a treatment for osteoporosis and other osteolytic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.16949DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8572771PMC
November 2021

Architecture of the cancellous bone in human proximal tibia based on P45 sectional plastinated specimens.

Surg Radiol Anat 2021 Dec 12;43(12):2055-2069. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Department of Anatomy, College of Basic Medicine, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, 116044, Liaoning, China.

Purpose: To reveal differences in the pattern of trabecular architecture in the epiphysis and metaphysis of the proximal tibia.

Methods: The trabecular architecture of the proximal tibia was observed in 27 P45 plastinated knee specimens.

Results: In the medial and lateral condyles, under the articular cartilage surrounded by the medial or lateral meniscus, the cancellous bone is formed by thick and dense trabecular bands, which run longitudinally in the epiphysis and then pass through the epiphyseal line to terminate on the slanted cortex of the metaphysis. In the intercondylar eminence, the trabeculae are arranged basically in a network. In the central portion of the tibial metaphysis, cancellous bone consists of fine arcuate trabeculae, which extend to the anterior and posterior cortices, respectively. These trabeculae are intersected sparsely and form trusses over the medullary cavity. Near the areas of attachment of the iliotibial tract, tibial collateral ligament, anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments, and patellar ligament, the cancellous bone is locally reinforced with patchy trabeculae, dense radiating trabeculae, or two orthotropic trabecular bands.

Conclusion: This study provides further accurate anatomical information on the trabeculae of the proximal tibia. The soft structures of knee joint, including the articular cartilage, menisci, and ligaments, and the slanted cortices of the metaphysis are important landmarks for the location of different arrangements of the cancellous architecture. The present results are beneficial for clinical diagnosis and treatment of pathologies of the knee joint, or the establishment of a finite element analysis model of the knee joint.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00276-021-02826-2DOI Listing
December 2021

A Low-Producing Haplotype of Interleukin-6 Disrupting CTCF Binding Is Protective against Severe COVID-19.

mBio 2021 10 12;12(5):e0137221. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Department of Experimental Research, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, China.

Interleukin6 (IL-6) is a key driver of hyperinflammation in COVID-19, and its level strongly correlates with disease progression. To investigate whether variability in COVID-19 severity partially results from differential expression, functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of were determined in Chinese COVID-19 patients with mild or severe illness. An Asian-common haplotype defined by promoter SNP rs1800796 and intronic SNPs rs1524107 and rs2066992 correlated with COVID-19 severity. Homozygote carriers of variant haplotype were at lower risk of developing severe symptoms (odds ratio, 0.256; 95% confidence interval,  0.088 to 0.739; = 0.007). This protective haplotype was associated with lower levels of and its antisense long noncoding RNA by -expression quantitative trait loci analysis. The differences in expression resulted from the disturbance of stimulus-dependent bidirectional transcription of the / locus by the polymorphisms. The protective rs2066992- allele disrupted a conserved CTCF-binding locus at the enhancer elements of , which transcribed antisense to and induces expression in inflammatory responses. As a result, carriers of the protective allele had significantly reduced expression and attenuated induction in response to acute inflammatory stimuli and viral infection. Intriguingly, this low-producing variant that is endemic to present-day Asia was found in early humans who had inhabited mainland Asia since ∼40,000 years ago but not in other ancient humans, such as Neanderthals and Denisovans. The present study suggests that an individual's genotype underlies COVID-19 outcome and may be used to guide IL-6 blockade therapy in Asian patients. Overproduction of cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a hallmark of severe COVID-19 and is believed to play a critical role in exacerbating the excessive inflammatory response. Polymorphisms in account for the variability of IL-6 expression and disparities in infectious diseases, but its contribution to the clinical presentation of COVID-19 has not been reported. Here, we investigated polymorphisms in severe and mild cases of COVID-19 in a Chinese population. The variant haplotype , represented by rs1800796, rs1524107, and rs2066992 at the locus, was reduced in patients with severe illness; in contrast, carriers of the wild-type haplotype -- had higher risk of severe illness. Mechanistically, the protective variant haplotype lost CTCF binding at the intron and responded poorly to inflammatory stimuli, which may protect the carriers from hyperinflammation in response to acute SARS-CoV-2 infection. These results point out the possibility that genotypes underlie the differential viral virulence during the outbreak of COVID-19. The risk loci we identified may serve as a genetic marker to screen high-risk COVID-19 patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01372-21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8510538PMC
October 2021

Spacer Cation Alloying in Ruddlesden-Popper Perovskites for Efficient Red Light-Emitting Diodes with Precisely Tunable Wavelengths.

Adv Mater 2021 Oct 10:e2104381. Epub 2021 Oct 10.

Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, Linköping, SE-58183, Sweden.

Perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs) have recently shown significant progress with external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) exceeding 20%. However, PeLEDs with pure-red (620-660 nm) light emission, an essential part for full-color displays, remain a great challenge. Herein, a general approach of spacer cation alloying is employed in Ruddlesden-Popper perovskites (RPPs) for efficient red PeLEDs with precisely tunable wavelengths. By simply tuning the alloying ratio of dual spacer cations, the thickness distribution of quantum wells in the RPP films can be precisely modulated without deteriorating their charge-transport ability and energy funneling processes. Consequently, efficient PeLEDs with tunable emissions between pure red (626 nm) and deep red (671 nm) are achieved with peak EQEs up to 11.5%, representing the highest values among RPP-based pure-red PeLEDs. This work opens a new route for color tuning, which will spur future developments of pure-red or even pure-blue PeLEDs with high performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202104381DOI Listing
October 2021

Light output enhancement of scintillators by using mixed-scale microstructures.

Opt Express 2021 Aug;29(16):24792-24803

Scintillators play an important role in the field of nuclear radiation detection. However, the light output of the scintillators is often limited by total internal reflection due to the high refractive indices of the scintillators. Furthermore, the light emission from scintillators typically has an approximately Lambertian profile, which is detrimental to the collection of the light. In this paper, we demonstrate a promising method to achieve enhancement of the light output from scintillators through use of mixed-scale microstructures that are composed of a photonic crystal slab and a microlens array. Simulations and experimental results both show significant improvements in the scintillator light output. The X-ray imaging characteristics of scintillators are improved by the application of the mixed-scale microstructures. The results presented here suggest that the application of the proposed mixed-scale microstructures to scintillators will be beneficial in the nuclear radiation detection field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.432114DOI Listing
August 2021

Regulation of carotenoid and chlorophyll pools in hesperidia, anatomically unique fruits found only in Citrus.

Plant Physiol 2021 Oct;187(2):829-845

Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Biology of MOE (Ministry of Education), Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei 430070, China.

Domesticated citrus varieties are woody perennials and interspecific hybrid crops of global economic and nutritional importance. The citrus fruit "hesperidium" is a unique morphological innovation not found in any other plant lineage. Efforts to improve the nutritional quality of the fruit are predicated on understanding the underlying regulatory mechanisms responsible for fruit development, including temporal control of chlorophyll degradation and carotenoid biosynthesis. Here, we investigated the molecular basis of the navel orange (Citrus sinensis) brown flavedo mutation, which conditions flavedo that is brown instead of orange. To overcome the limitations of using traditional genetic approaches in citrus and other woody perennials, we developed a strategy to elucidate the underlying genetic lesion. We used a multi-omics approach to collect data from several genetic sources and plant chimeras to successfully decipher this mutation. The multi-omics strategy applied here will be valuable in driving future gene discovery efforts in citrus as well as in other woody perennial plants. The comparison of transcriptomic and genomic data from multiple genotypes and plant sectors revealed an underlying lesion in the gene encoding STAY-GREEN (SGR) protein, which simultaneously regulates carotenoid biosynthesis and chlorophyll degradation. However, unlike SGR of other plant species, we found that the carotenoid and chlorophyll regulatory activities could be uncoupled in the case of certain SGR alleles in citrus and thus we propose a model for the molecular mechanism underlying the brown flavedo phenotype. The economic and nutritional value of citrus makes these findings of wide interest. The strategy implemented, and the results obtained, constitute an advance for agro-industry by driving opportunities for citrus crop improvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/plphys/kiab291DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8491056PMC
October 2021

The Value of Ultrashort Echo Time MR in Depiction of the Eustachian Tube at 3 Tesla.

Authors:
Chao Wu Qiang Xu

Otol Neurotol 2021 Sep 30. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Department of Radiology, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, 164, Anshan Road, Tianjin, 300041, China.

Objectives: To investigate the feasibility of ultrashort echo time (UTE) imaging in the visualization of Eustachian tubes (ETs).

Methods: The local institutional review board approved the study protocol. Twenty volunteers were involved in this study. The scanning scheme consisted of T2-sampling perfection with application-optimized contrasts by using different flip angle evolutions (T2-SPACE) MR imaging with water excitation, a UTE scan with a prototype sequence and a CT scan. The UTE images were compared with both the T2-SPACE and CT images. The quality of the images was rated by two radiologists blindly. Interobserver agreement was assessed using the kappa statistic. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 17, SPSS Inc.). A value of p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: For all subjects, the T2-SPACE images successfully displayed the cartilaginous part of the ET (Fig. 1). The CT images fully showed the bony part of the ET for all the subjects (Fig. 2). The UTE images successfully displayed both the cartilaginous and bony parts of the ET (Fig. 3). However, the UTE images showed the cartilaginous and bony portions of the ET as a whole.

Conclusions: By analyzing the depiction of the ET from UTE images and comparing it with that from MR and CT images, we found that UTE images could display not only the cartilaginous structure of the ET that cannot be seen by conventional MR sequences, but also the bony structure that previously could only be seen on CT images. This imaging modality could help provide a convenient and new method to display the overall shape of the ET.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MAO.0000000000003363DOI Listing
September 2021

Retraction notice to "Low-expressed GAS5 injure myocardial cells and progression of chronic heart failure via regulation of miR-223-3P" [Experimental and Molecular Pathology 117C (2020) 104529].

Exp Mol Pathol 2021 10 30;122:104683. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Xian Children's Hospital, No. 69 Xijuyuan Land, Xian 710003, Shannxi, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yexmp.2021.104683DOI Listing
October 2021

The Establishment and Application of Mobile Electronic Surveillance System for Infectious Diseases with the Help of China - Sierra Leone, 2016-Present.

China CDC Wkly 2021 Sep;3(36):763-768

State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing, China.

Introduction: Infectious disease surveillance has long been a challenge for low-income countries like Sierra Leone. Traditional approaches based on paper and Short Message Service (SMS) were subject to severe delays in obtaining, transmitting, and analyzing information.

Methods: During the China aid operation for fighting Ebola since the end of 2014, a mobile electronic surveillance system for infectious diseases (MESSID) was developed in collaboration with the Republic of Sierra Leone Armed Forces (RSLAF), which comprised an Android-based reporting system and a complementary web-based program designed by Active Server Page.NET (ASP.NET) with the main functions including surveillance, real-time reporting, and risk assessment of infectious diseases.

Results: MESSID was successfully registered in June 2016 and had been used by all medical and health institutions in RSLAF. From June 1, 2016 to July 5, 2021, 34,419 cases were diagnosed with 47 infectious diseases of 5 categories, with a total of 42 clinical symptoms. Compared to traditional approaches based on paper and SMS, the MESSID showed flexibility, high efficiency, convenience, and acceptability.

Discussion: MESSID is an accessible tool for surveillance of infectious diseases in Sierra Leone and possibly in other African countries with similar needs, capable of improving timeliness of disease reporting, thus rendering a timely outbreak detection and response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.46234/ccdcw2021.189DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8427101PMC
September 2021

Modeling iron release from cast iron pipes in an urban water distribution system caused by source water switch.

J Environ Sci (China) 2021 Dec 31;110:73-83. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Key Laboratory of Drinking Water Science and Technology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

Significant iron release from cast iron pipes in water distribution systems (WDSs), which usually occurs during the source water switch period, is a great concern of water utilities because of the potential occurrence of "red water" and customer complaints. This study developed a new method which combined in-situ water stagnation experiments with mathematical models and numerical simulations to predict the iron release caused by source water switch. In-situ water stagnation experiments were conducted to determine the total iron accumulation in nine cast iron pipes in-service in Beijing when switching the local water to treated Danjiangkou Reservior water. Results showed that the difference in the concentration increment of total iron in 24 hr (ΔCI), i.e. short-term iron release, caused by source water switch was mainly dependent on the difference in the key quality parameters (pH, hardness, nitrate, Larson Ratio and dissolved oxygen (DO)) between the two source waters. The iron release rate (R) after switch, i.e. long-term iron release, was closely related to the pipe properties as well as the DO and total residual chlorine (TRC) concentrations. Mathematical models of ΔCI and R were developed to quantitatively reveal the relationship between iron release and the key quality parameters. The R model could successfully combine with EPANET-MSX, a numerical simulator of water quality for WDSs to extend the iron release modeling from pipe level to network level. The new method is applicable to predicting iron release during source water switch, thus facilitating water utilities to take preventive actions to avoid "red water".
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2021.03.016DOI Listing
December 2021

Interfacing with Fe-N-C Sites Boosts the Formic Acid Dehydrogenation of Palladium Nanoparticles.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Oct 28;13(39):46749-46755. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Research Institute of Electrochemical Energy, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577, Japan.

Hierarchical micro-/mesoporous carbons with abundant Fe-N-C sites were prepared through one-step carbonization of a metal-organic framework (MOF) with sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid [NaFe(III)EDTA], which can facilitate the nucleation and growth of ultrafine (∼1.4 nm) and highly dispersed palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs). Interfacing Pd NPs with Fe-N-C sites has been demonstrated for the first time to boost the heterogeneous catalysis of hydrogen production from formic acid, affording an ultrahigh turnover frequency (TOF) value of 7361 h at 323 K. The robust synergistic interactions between Pd NPs and Fe-N-C sites together with the small size effects of Pd NPs are responsible for the enhanced catalytic activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c14009DOI Listing
October 2021

SHP2 inhibition attenuates osteoarthritis by maintaining homeostasis of cartilage metabolism via the DOK1/UPP1/uridine cascade.

Arthritis Rheumatol 2021 Sep 27. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Chemistry and Biomedicine Innovation Center (ChemBIC), School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, 163 Xianlin Avenue, 210023, Jiangsu, China.

Objective: Protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) regulate osteoarthritis (OA) progression by activating a series of signal transduction pathways. However, the roles of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) in OA remain obscure.

Methods: The expression of 107 PTP genes in human OA cartilage was analyzed based on a single-cell sequencing dataset. The enzyme activity of the PTP SHP2 was detected in primary chondrocytes after interleukin (IL)-1β treatment and in human OA cartilage. Destabilized medial meniscus (DMM) model and IL-1β-stimulated primary mouse chondrocytes were treated with an SHP2 inhibitor and celecoxib (a clinical drug for the treatment of OA). The function of SHP2 in OA pathogenesis was further verified in Aggrecan-Cre ; SHP2 mice. The downstream protein expression profile and dephosphorylated substrate of SHP2 were examined by tandem mass tag (TMT) labeling-based global proteomic and stable isotope labeling using amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-labeled tyrosine phosphoproteomic analysis, respectively.

Results: SHP2 enzyme activity significantly increased in human OA samples with serious articular cartilage injury and in IL-1β-stimulated chondrocytes. Pharmacological inhibition or genetic deletion of SHP2 ameliorated OA progression. SHP2 inhibitors dramatically reduced the expression of cartilage degradation-related genes and simultaneously promoted the expression of cartilage synthesis-related genes. Mechanistically, SHP2 inhibition suppressed the dephosphorylation of DOK1 and subsequently reduced the expression of uridine phosphorylase 1 and increased uridine level, thereby contributing to the homeostasis of cartilage metabolism.

Conclusions: SHP2 is a novel accelerator of the imbalance in the cartilage homeostasis. Specific inhibition of SHP2 may ameliorate OA by maintaining the anabolic and catabolic balance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.41988DOI Listing
September 2021
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