Publications by authors named "Qiang Wu"

987 Publications

Role of a multidisciplinary team (MDT) in the diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of inflammatory bowel disease: a single Chinese center's experience.

Biosci Trends 2021 Jun 13. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Department of Geriatric Surgery, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with a poor prognosis is increasing, and a single field is not capable of fully diagnosing and comprehensively treating IBD. The purpose of the current study was to explore the role of a multidisciplinary team (MDT) in the diagnosis and treatment of IBD. Subjects were 55 patients with IBD who underwent surgery at this hospital before the establishment of a MDT (before June 2016) and 276 patients who were discussed by a MDT; 72 of the latter patients underwent surgery. The preoperative rate of diagnosis, preoperative basic nutritional status, frequency of emergency surgery, and surgical complications in the two groups were compared to determine whether the MDT significantly affected the diagnosis and treatment of IBD and to explore trends in the types of patients with IBD and treatment decision-making since the establishment of MDT. Results revealed that the MDT significantly improved preoperative diagnostic accuracy for patients with IBD who underwent surgery (p < 0.005), and the frequency of elective surgery decreased significantly (p < 0.005). There were significant differences in the rate of clinical recurrence (p < 0.005) and the rate of additional surgery (p < 0.01) between the two groups, with higher rates in the control group. In terms of preoperative nutritional status, the proportion of decreased serum albumin and hemoglobin in the experimental group was significantly lower than that in the control group (p < 0.05). MDT plays a positive role in accurate preoperative diagnosis, improvement of preoperative preparations, and a reduction in postoperative adverse events for patients with IBD undergoing surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5582/bst.2021.01174DOI Listing
June 2021

Efficacy of Qingre Huayu Fang on atherosclerotic vulnerable plaque in apolipoprotein E knockout mice: proteasome pathway involvement.

J Tradit Chin Med 2021 Jun;41(3):432-437

Department of Cardiology, Guizhou Provincial People's Hospital, Guiyang 520000, China.

Objective: To investigate the efficacy and mechanism of the Qingre Huayu Fang () on atherosclerotic vulnerable plaque in apolipoprotein E (ApoE) knockout mice through the ubiquitin proteasome pathway.

Methods: Sixty 8-week-old C57BL/6J ApoE knockout mice were fed a high-fat for 12 weeks and randomly divided into four treatment groups (n = 15 each): high-fat control, bortezomib (a proteasome inhibitor), bortezomib combined with Qingre Huayu Fang, and Qingre Huayu Fang alone. Aortic sections were examined for plaque development, inflammatory cell infiltration, type Ⅰ/Ⅲ collagen expression and immunohistochemical staining of CD40L, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB)/P65 and ubiquitin.

Results: Mice in the high-fat control group had obvious atherosclerosis, with increased aortic plaque area. The degree of atherosclerosis of the atherosclerotic plaque was reduced in all of the treatment groups that received bortezomib and/or Duzhong (Cortex Eucommiae) Qingre Huayu. The expression of NF-?B, CD40L and ubiquitin were all reduced in the group that received combination bortezomib + Qingre Huayu Fang.

Conclusion: The Qingre Huayu Fang inhibited aortic atherosclerosis in mice through a mechanism that may involve inhibition of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19852/j.cnki.jtcm.2021.03.011DOI Listing
June 2021

Zn0.8Li0.1Sr-a biodegradable metal with high mechanical strength comparable to pure Ti for the treatment of osteoporotic bone fractures: In vitro and in vivo studies.

Biomaterials 2021 May 27;275:120905. Epub 2021 May 27.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, China. Electronic address:

The first in vivo investigation of Zn-based biodegradable metal aiming to treat osteoporotic bone fractures, a soaring threat to human health, is reported in this paper. Among the newly developed biodegradable metal system (ZnLiSr), Zn0.8Li0.1Sr exhibits excellent comprehensive mechanical properties, with an ultimate tensile strength (524.33 ± 18.01 MPa) comparable to pure Ti (the gold standard for orthopaedic implants), and a strength-ductility balance over 10 GPa%. The in vitro degradation tests using simulated body fluid (SBF) shows that Zn0.8Li0.1Sr manifests a uniform degradation morphology and smaller corrosion pits, with a degradation rate of 10.13 ± 1.52 μm year. Real-time PCR and western blotting illustrated that Zn0.8Li0.1Sr successfully stimulated the expression of critical osteogenesis-related genes (ALP, COL-1, OCN and Runx-2) and proteins. Twenty-four weeks' in vivo implantations within ovariectomized (OVX) rats were conducted to evaluate the osteoporotic-bone-fracture-treating effects of Zn0.8Li0.1Sr, with pure Ti as control group. Micro-CT, histological and immunohistochemical evaluations all revealed that Zn0.8Li0.1Sr possesses a similar biosafety level to, while significantly superior osteogenesis-inducing and osteoporotic-bone-fracture-treating effects than pure Ti. ZnLiSr biodegradable alloys manifest excellent comprehensive mechanical properties, good biosafety and osteoporotic-bone-fracture-treating effects, which would provide preferable choices for future medical applications, especially in load-bearing positions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2021.120905DOI Listing
May 2021

Improving Ammonia Detecting Performance of Polyaniline Decorated rGO Composite Membrane with GO Doping.

Materials (Basel) 2021 May 25;14(11). Epub 2021 May 25.

School of Microelectronics, School of Electronics and Information Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, China.

Gas-sensing performance of graphene-based material has been investigated widely in recent years. Polyaniline (PANI) has been reported as an effective method to improve ammonia gas sensors' response. A gas sensor based on a composite of rGO film and protic acid doped polyaniline (PA-PANI) with GO doping is reported in this work. GO mainly provides NH adsorption sites, and PA-PANI is responsible for charge transfer during the gas-sensing response process. The experimental results indicate that the NH gas response of rGO is enhanced significantly by decorating with PA-PANI. Moreover, a small amount of GO mixed with PA-PANI is beneficial to increase the gas response, which showed an improvement of 262.5% at 25 ppm comparing to no GO mixing in PA-PANI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14112829DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8198450PMC
May 2021

Raman Spectroscopy Study on Ternary Model Coal Mine Methane Hydrates.

ACS Omega 2021 Apr 14;6(16):10709-10714. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

School of Safety Engineering, Heilongjiang University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150022, China.

The microfeatures of coal mine methane (CMM) hydrates, synthesized with three gas samples (CH/CH/N, G1 = 43 : 47 : 10, G2 = 60 : 30 : 10, and G3 = 74 : 16 : 10) in a self-made transparent high-pressure cell at 275.15 K and 5 MPa were investigated using Raman spectroscopy. As a discriminator, the vibrational band frequencies in the C-C regions of the recorded hydrate Raman spectra for CH show that G1∼G3 hydrates are structure I. The three principal parameters used to study the microfeatures of the model CMM hydrates, including cavity occupancies, hydrate guest compositions, and hydration numbers, were calculated. The large cavity occupancies for CH constantly decrease from 85.12 to 79.32%, while the small cavity occupancies for CH have a continuous increase from 73.75 to 96.42%. However, CH competes with CH on entering the large cavities for their large cavity occupancies of 12.79-17.31%. The cavity occupancies of N are less than 1.2%. The hydrate composition calculations show that the molar fractions of CH are the maximum. The hydration numbers range from 6.221 to 6.00. Based on the hydrate guest compositions and hydration numbers, the molecular formulas of the three CMM hydrates are presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.1c00216DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8153790PMC
April 2021

[Design and application of Checklist for quality control in intensive care unit].

Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 2021 Apr;33(4):466-471

Department of Intensive Care Unit, the First Affiliated Hospital of Bengbu Medical College, Bengbu 233004, Anhui, China.

Objective: To design a Checklist for quality control in intensive care unit and observe the effect of clinical application.

Methods: By consulting guidelines and literature, such as Critical care medicine professional medical quality control index (2015 edition), the quality control Checklist of intensive care unit was designed. It included four parts: quality control data collection, medical record quality verification, special diagnosis and treatment, and hospital infection prevention and control supervision. Every month, a doctor with a senior professional title served as the quality control director, and was responsible for the quality control of the department's medical care, including collecting data of the past 24 hours during the morning handover, discussing and registering special diagnosis and treatment behaviors that would be performed on the day, and coordinating with the nursing team leader, controlling the quality of the whole department throughout the day, such as supervising each medical staff if they had unreasonable behaviors, checking the running and discharge medical records, and inspecting the status of the staff on duty. The data in 2018, 2019 (Checklist implemented) and 2017 (Checklist not implemented) were retrospectively analyzed, including the status of admitted patients, department management information, length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and the incidence of three-tube infection [ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI), catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI)], and standardized mortality, etc.

Results: From 2017 to 2019, the number of patients admitted was 373, 446, and 480, with annual growth of 19.57% and 7.62% in 2018 and 2019, respectively, and an increase of 28.69% in 2019 compared with 2017. There was no statistically significant difference in the average age and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) of patients in the three years. Compared with 2017, the length of ICU stay of patients in 2018 and 2019 were significantly shortened (days: 8.99±6.12, 9.14±7.02 vs. 10.20±7.21), and the incidence of VAP, CRBSI and CAUTI were significantly reduced [VAP (cases/1 000 ventilation days): 12.97±3.60, 9.62±3.14 vs. 17.48±4.89, CRBSI (cases/1 000 catheter days): 3.75±2.19, 3.87±1.87 vs. 6.19±3.13, CAUTI (cases/1 000 catheter days): 3.29±2.18, 3.28±1.87 vs. 5.61±3.18]. The standardized mortality were also significantly reduced [(77.27±7.24)%, (70.61±7.49)% vs. (84.41±9.05)%], the number of non-compliance with hospital infection prevention per month decreased significantly (person times: 54.00±6.30, 41.08±10.76 vs. 72.08±19.68), and the number of special diagnosis and treatment per month increased significantly (person times: 1 056.67±235.27, 1 361.75±278.48 vs. 722.25±145.96), the rate of etiology submission before antimicrobial treatment [(93.21±3.68)%, (96.59±2.49)% vs. (87.86±5.28)%] and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) prevention rate [(91.13±6.36)%, (96.23±2.99)% vs. (85.58±7.68)%] were significantly improved, and all the differences were statistically significant (all P < 0.05). All medical records in the three years were Grade A, but the average scores in 2018 and 2019 were higher than those in 2017 (96.82±2.84, 96.73±2.94 vs. 93.70±3.33, both P < 0.01). Compared with 2018, the incidence of VAP, the rate of etiology submission before antimicrobial treatment, the DVT prevention rate, and the standardized mortality rate in 2019 were further improved, and the number of non-compliance with hospital infection prevention per month decreased and the number of special diagnosis and treatment per month increased, and the differences were statistically significant (all P < 0.05).

Conclusions: The application of quality control Checklist in intensive care unit can build an effective quality control system, reduce the incidence of three-tube infection, standardized mortality and length of ICU stay, improve the quality control awareness and execution of medical staff, and promote the improvement of medical quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn121430-20210207-00225DOI Listing
April 2021

A deep learning system for detecting diabetic retinopathy across the disease spectrum.

Nat Commun 2021 05 28;12(1):3242. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai Diabetes Institute, Shanghai Clinical Center for Diabetes, Shanghai, 200233, China.

Retinal screening contributes to early detection of diabetic retinopathy and timely treatment. To facilitate the screening process, we develop a deep learning system, named DeepDR, that can detect early-to-late stages of diabetic retinopathy. DeepDR is trained for real-time image quality assessment, lesion detection and grading using 466,247 fundus images from 121,342 patients with diabetes. Evaluation is performed on a local dataset with 200,136 fundus images from 52,004 patients and three external datasets with a total of 209,322 images. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves for detecting microaneurysms, cotton-wool spots, hard exudates and hemorrhages are 0.901, 0.941, 0.954 and 0.967, respectively. The grading of diabetic retinopathy as mild, moderate, severe and proliferative achieves area under the curves of 0.943, 0.955, 0.960 and 0.972, respectively. In external validations, the area under the curves for grading range from 0.916 to 0.970, which further supports the system is efficient for diabetic retinopathy grading.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23458-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8163820PMC
May 2021

Biased agonists with less glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor-mediated endocytosis prolong hypoglycaemic effects.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 May 25:174203. Epub 2021 May 25.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Druggability of Biopharmaceuticals, State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, School of Life Science and Technology, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 211198, PR China. Electronic address:

Receptor endocytic trafficking entails targeting receptors and ligands to endocytic sites, followed by internalization and sorting to recycling or degradative compartments. Thus, membrane receptor-mediated signalling pathways not only contribute to the efficacy of the drugs but also play a crucial role in the metabolic elimination of peptide drugs. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor is the crucial target for type 2 diabetes mellitus. We mainly focused on the characteristics, early evaluation of GLP-1 receptor endocytosis and effects of optimization for endocytosis on druggability. The GLP-1 receptor endocytosis characteristics of agonists were analysed by a multifunction microplate reader, flow cytometer and confocal microscope. The intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) activation of agonists was analysed based on a reporter gene assay, and intracellular β-arrestin recruitment detection was detected based on a Tango assay. We established quantitative evaluation methods of endocytosis based on fluorescently labelled agonist and receptor trafficking and used them to screen agonists with less endocytosis. Sprague-Dawley rats were used for pharmacokinetic analyses, and the hypoglycaemic activity was evaluated by intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (IPGTT). Our results showed that GLP-1 receptor-mediated endocytosis, as a manner of elimination, was clathrin-dependent. More importantly, we found that agonists biased towards the G protein pathway were less endocytosed by GLP-1 receptor. We screened an analogue of Exendin-4 M4, which was biased toward the G protein pathway with less endocytosis by the GLP-1 receptor. M4, which shows prolonged hypoglycaemic activities and a long half-life, can be used as a lead compound for type 2 diabetes mellitus treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2021.174203DOI Listing
May 2021

Risk factors for patient selection in ambulatory laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A Single-centre experience.

J Minim Access Surg 2021 May 25. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chengdu Medical College, Chengdu, China.

Backgrounds: Ambulatory laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) reduces healthcare cost and increases hospital bed capacity. Currently, there is no consensus on patient selection for ambulatory LC. Evaluation of risk factors for ambulatory discharge is essential.

Materials And Methods: Consecutive patients who underwent LC in our centre throughout 2019 were collected. We evaluated the discharge fitness using the Post-Anaesthetic Discharge Scoring System at 8 h after the operation. The relations between pre-operative variables and dischargeable possibilities were analysed for screening risk factors. Furthermore, we performed a literature review to summarise all published information.

Results: Six hundred and forty-one cases were included in this study. American Society of Anaesthesiologist (ASA) grading (odds ratio OR = 0.415, P = 0.001) and leucocytes (OR = 0.80, P < 0.001) significantly predicted the fitness of discharge. ASA contributed to lower activity (P = 0.002) and intake/output (P = 0.006) scores. Leucocytes influence the vital sign (P < 0.001) and pain or post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) (P < 0.001) scores. The prolonged operation could predict the inabilities of discharge with a cut-off value of 55 min by dropping vital signs (P = 0.011), activity (P < 0.001) and pain or PONV (P = 0.012) scores. Male sex (OR: 1.702, P = 0.010), body mass index (BMI) (OR: 1.087, P = 0.008), leucocytes (OR: 1.075, P = 0.017) and C-reactive protein (CRP) (OR: 1.018, P = 0.003) were predictors for prolonged operation (>55 min).

Conclusions: We suggest that pre-operative ASA grading III and leucocytes are risk factors for the fitness of ambulatory discharge after LC and intraoperative time. Male, BMI and CRP predict complicated surgery, and they should be considered preoperatively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jmas.JMAS_25_21DOI Listing
May 2021

Giant enhancement of THz-frequency optical nonlinearity by phonon polariton in ionic crystals.

Nat Commun 2021 May 26;12(1):3183. Epub 2021 May 26.

MOE Key Laboratory of Weak-Light Nonlinear Photonics, TEDA Applied Physics Institute and School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300457, China.

The field of nonlinear optics has grown substantially in past decades, leading to tremendous progress in fundamental research and revolutionized applications. Traditionally, the optical nonlinearity for a light wave at frequencies beyond near-infrared is observed with very high peak intensity, as in most materials only the electronic nonlinearity dominates while ionic contribution is negligible. However, it was shown that the ionic contribution to nonlinearity can be much larger than the electronic one in microwave experiments. In the terahertz (THz) regime, phonon polariton may assist to substantially trigger the ionic nonlinearity of the crystals, so as to enhance even more the nonlinear optical susceptibility. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a giant second-order optical nonlinearity at THz frequency, orders of magnitude higher than that in the visible and microwave regimes. Different from previous work, the phonon-light coupling is achieved under a phase-matching setting, and the dynamic process of nonlinear THz generation is directly observed in a thin-film waveguide using a time-resolved imaging technique. Furthermore, a nonlinear modification to the Huang equations is proposed to explain the observed nonlinearity enhancement. This work brings about an effective approach to achieve high nonlinearity in ionic crystals, promising for applications in THz nonlinear technologies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23526-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8155090PMC
May 2021

Visualizing Nonlinear Phononics in Layered ReSe.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Jun 26;12(21):5178-5184. Epub 2021 May 26.

Laboratory for Shock Wave and Detonation Physics, Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, 621900, China.

Nonlinear phononics has recently been demonstrated as a viable approach for dynamically modifying materials' properties. Conventionally, nonlinearity in the lattice dynamics is introduced via the "ionic" Raman scattering, in which infrared-active phonons (i.e., coherent ionic vibrations) serve as the intermediate state for transferring energy to Raman-active phonons. Here we report that it is also possible to achieve phononic nonlinearity through the "electronic" route, a process that relies on excited electronic states to initiate energy exchange among Raman-active phonons. Taking layered ReSe as a model system, we use coherent phonon spectroscopy with a pump energy larger than the band gap to follow lattice dynamics and observe the nonlinear coupling between both Raman-active intralayer atomic oscillations and interlayer breathing modes. In addition, we show that such nonlinear phononic coupling is highly dependent on the environment temperature. This work, which demonstrates a different and novel mechanism, may enrich the toolkit for controlling material properties by means of nonlinear phononics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.1c01172DOI Listing
June 2021

Biodegradable ZnLiCa ternary alloys for critical-sized bone defect regeneration at load-bearing sites: and studies.

Bioact Mater 2021 Nov 20;6(11):3999-4013. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, China.

A novel biodegradable metal system, ZnLiCa ternary alloys, were systematically investigated both and . The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of Zn0.8Li0.1Ca alloy reached 567.60 ± 9.56 MPa, which is comparable to pure Ti, one of the most common material used in orthopedics. The elongation of Zn0.8Li0.1Ca is 27.82 ± 18.35%, which is the highest among the ZnLiCa alloys. The degradation rate of Zn0.8Li0.1Ca alloy in simulated body fluid (SBF) showed significant acceleration than that of pure Zn. CCK-8 tests and hemocompatibility tests manifested that ZnLiCa alloys exhibit good biocompatibility. Real-time PCR showed that Zn0.8Li0.1Ca alloy successfully stimulated the expressions of osteogenesis-related (ALP, COL-1, OCN and Runx-2), especially the OCN. An implantation was conducted in the radius of New Zealand rabbits for 24 weeks, aiming to treat the bone defects. The Micro-CT and histological evaluations proved that the regeneration of bone defect was faster within the Zn0.8Li0.1Ca alloy scaffold than the pure Ti scaffold. Zn0.8Li0.1Ca alloy showed great potential to be applied in orthopedics, especially in the load-bearing sites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioactmat.2021.03.045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8085902PMC
November 2021

A simple lectin-based biochip might display the potential clinical value of glycomics in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(7):544

Department of Pathology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.

Background: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a cerebrovascular disease with extremely high disability and mortality rates. Glycans play critical roles in biological processes. However, whether glycans can serve as potential biomarkers for determining clinical diagnosis and prognosis in ICH remains determined.

Methods: In this study, we established a lectin-biochip to measure serum glycans levels in ICH patients (n=48) and healthy controls (n=16). An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was carried out to determine serum levels of IL-10 and TNF-α in the patients. Correlation analyses of the serum glycan and cytokine levels and the clinicopathological parameters of patients were performed.

Results: The biochip-based data revealed that the serum levels of α-Man/α-Glc (ConA), Galβ3GalNAc (PNA), GalNAc (VVA), Fucα6GlcNAc (AAL), α-Fuc (LTL), and Galβ3GalNAc-Ser/Thr (AIL) significantly increased in the super-acute phase of ICH in comparison with healthy controls. Clinicopathological analysis indicated the serum levels of ConA, VVA, and LTL had significant associations with the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), and serum VVA levels had a significant association with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at day 90 after ICH. Correlation coefficient analysis revealed significant correlations between TNF-α and ConA (P<0.001) as well as between IL-10 and ConA (P<0.001), PNA (P=0.02), VVA (P<0.001), and MAL (P=0.04), respectively.

Conclusions: We established a proof-of-concept platform for detecting serum glycomics and highlighted their potential value in diagnosing and predicting ICH patients' outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-20-7315DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8105815PMC
April 2021

RNA mA reader YTHDF2 facilitates lung adenocarcinoma cell proliferation and metastasis by targeting the AXIN1/Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

Cell Death Dis 2021 May 13;12(5):479. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Jinan University, Guangzhou, P. R. China.

Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) remains a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. YTHDF2 is a reader of N-methyladenosine (mA) on RNA and plays a critical role in the initiation and propagation of myeloid leukemia; however, whether YTHDF2 controls the development of LUAD remains to be explored. Here, we found that YTHDF2 was significantly upregulated in LUAD compared with paracancerous normal tissues, and YTHDF2 knockdown drastically inhibited, while its overexpression promoted, cell growth, colony formation and migration of LUAD cells in vitro. In addition, YTHDF2 knockdown significantly inhibited tumorigenesis in a murine tumor xenograft model. Through the integrative analysis of RNA-seq, mA-seq, CLIP-seq, and RIP-seq datasets, we identified a set of potential direct targets of YTHDF2 in LUAD, among which we confirmed AXIN1, which encodes a negative regulator of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling, as a direct target of YTHDF2. YTHDF2 promoted AXIN1 mRNA decay and subsequently activated the Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Knockout of AXIN1 sufficiently rescued the inhibitory effect of YTHDF2 depletion on lung cancer cell proliferation, colony-formation, and migration. These results revealed YTHDF2 to be a contributor of LUAD development acting through the upregulation of the AXIN1/Wnt/β-catenin signaling, which can be a potential therapeutic target for LUAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03763-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8116339PMC
May 2021

Multi-Selenophene-Containing Narrow Bandgap Polymer Acceptors for All-Polymer Solar Cells with over 15 % Efficiency and High Reproducibility.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, 999077, Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

All-polymer solar cells (all-PSCs) progressed tremendously due to recent advances in polymerized small molecule acceptors (PSMAs), and their power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) have exceeded 15 %. However, the practical applications of all-PSCs are still restricted by a lack of PSMAs with a broad absorption, high electron mobility, low energy loss, and good batch-to-batch reproducibility. A multi-selenophene-containing PSMA, PFY-3Se, was developed based on a selenophene-fused SMA framework and a selenophene π-spacer. Compared to its thiophene analogue PFY-0Se, PFY-3Se shows a ≈30 nm red-shifted absorption, increased electron mobility, and improved intermolecular interaction. In all-PSCs, PFY-3Se achieved an impressive PCE of 15.1 % with both high short-circuit current density of 23.6 mA cm and high fill factor of 0.737, and a low energy loss, which are among the best values in all-PSCs reported to date and much better than PFY-0Se (PCE=13.0 %). Notably, PFY-3Se maintains similarly good batch-to-batch properties for realizing reproducible device performance, which is the first reported and also very rare for the PSMAs. Moreover, the PFY-3Se-based all-PSCs show low dependence of PCE on device area (0.045-1.0 cm ) and active layer thickness (110-250 nm), indicating the great potential toward practical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202101577DOI Listing
May 2021

First-Generation EGFR-TKI Plus Chemotherapy Versus EGFR-TKI Alone as First-Line Treatment in Advanced NSCLC With EGFR Activating Mutation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Front Oncol 2021 13;11:598265. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Lung Cancer Center & Institute, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Objective: The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate efficacy and toxicity of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) in combination with chemotherapy (CT) compared to EGFR-TKI monotherapy as first-line treatment in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring activating EGFR mutation.

Methods: A systematic literature search of randomized controlled trials using Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science, was performed up to Jan. 7th, 2020. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated as effect values for progress-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Risk ratio (RR) and Odds ratio (OR) were calculated as effect values for objective response rate (ORR) and toxicity, respectively.

Results: A total of eight randomized trials involving 1,349 advanced NSCLC patients with sensitive EGFR mutation were included in the meta-analysis. All patients in both groups received first-generation TKI as first-line treatment. The pooled HR of PFS and OS was 0.56 (95% CI = 0.50-0.64; P <0.00001) and 0.70 (95% CI = 0.54-0.90; P = 0.005), respectively. Subgroup analysis showed significantly higher OS advantages in patients receiving doublet CT (P = 0.02) and concurrent therapy (P = 0.002). The ORR in the EGFR-TKI plus CT group was significantly higher than in the EGFR-TKI monotherapy group (RR = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.10-1.26). The combination regimen showed a higher incidence of chemotherapy-induced toxicities. Subgroup analysis indicated that doublet chemotherapy rather than single-agent chemotherapy significantly increased incidence of grade 3 or higher leukopenia, neutropenia and anemia.

Conclusions: Compared with EGFR-TKI monotherapy, the combination of first-generation EGFR-TKI and CT, especially when applying concurrent delivery of platinum-based doublet chemotherapeutic drugs, significantly improve ORR and prolong PFS and OS in first-line treatment for advanced EGFR-mutated NSCLC. Although increasing incidence of chemotherapy-induced toxicities occurs in the combination group, it is well tolerated and clinically manageable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.598265DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8076535PMC
April 2021

An Effective Method for Preparation of Liquid Phosphoric Anhydride and Its Application in Flame Retardant Epoxy Resin.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Apr 25;14(9). Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Center for Renewable Carbon, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA.

A novel liquid phosphorous-containing flame retardant anhydride (LPFA) with low viscosity was synthesized from 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPO) and methyl tetrahydrophthalic anhydride (MeTHPA) and further cured with bisphenol-A epoxy resin E-51 for the preparation of the flame retardant epoxy resins. Both Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements revealed the successful incorporation of DOPO on the molecular chains of MeTHPA through chemical reaction. The oxygen index analysis showed that the LPFA-cured epoxy resin exhibited excellent flame retardant performance, and the corresponding limiting oxygen index (LOI) value could reach 31.2%. The UL-94V-0 rating was achieved for the flame retardant epoxy resin with the phosphorus content of 2.7%. With the addition of LPFA, the impact strength of the cured epoxy resins remained almost unchanged, but the flexural strength gradually increased. Meanwhile, all the epoxy resins showed good thermal stability. The glass transition temperature () and thermal decomposition temperature () of epoxy resin cured by LPFA decreased slightly compared with that of MeTHPA-cured epoxy resin. Based on such excellent flame retardancy, low viscosity at room temperature and ease of use, LPFA showed potential as an appropriate curing agent in the field of electrical insulation materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14092205DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8123301PMC
April 2021

Turbidity prediction of lake-type raw water using random forest model based on meteorological data: A case study of Tai lake, China.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jul 20;290:112657. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Drinking Water Safety and Distribution Technology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China. Electronic address:

Turbidity is an indication of water quality and enables the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. For drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs), violent fluctuations in turbidity are highly disruptive to operational performance due to the lag in process parameter adjustments. Such risks must be carefully managed to guarantee safe drinking water. Machine learning techniques have been proven to be effective for modeling complex nonlinear environmental systems, and this study adopted such a technique to develop a model for predicting source water turbidity for DWTPs to allow DWTPs to make proactive interventions in advance. A random forest (RF) model used preprocessed (empirical mode decomposition and quartile rejecting) meteorological factors (wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, and rainfall) as the input variables, to establish the turbidity prediction of a lake with significant turbidity in China's South Tai Lake. The modeling process included four main stages: (1) source data analysis, (2) raw data preprocessing, (3) modeling and tuning, and (4) model evaluation. The results of the RF model indicated that the correlation coefficient between the predicted and actual sequences is over 0.7, and more than 55% of the predicted values could control the errors within 20% compared to the actual measured values, suggesting that machine learning techniques are suitable for predicting the turbidity of raw source water. It was found that the RF model can provide a modest performance boost because of its stronger capacity to capture nonlinear interactions in the data. The findings of this study can inform the development of turbidity prediction models using readily available meteorological forecast data. The model can be applied to other DWTPs using similar shallow lakes as water sources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.112657DOI Listing
July 2021

Comparison of Two Spectral-domain Optical Coherence Tomography Scan Modes for Measuring Retinal Vessel Diameter.

Curr Eye Res 2021 Jul 30;46(7):1025-1030. Epub 2021 May 30.

Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai Sixth People's Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

: To assess the agreement between Line 3-5 raster scan mode and circular scan mode for measuring retinal vessel diameter, and to analyze the influence of scanning distance on retinal vessel diameter and agreement.: 79 healthy participants (79 eyes) were scanned with two modes. The scanning distance was defined as the distance from the center of the optic disc to the intersection of the blood vessel and the scan line on the raster image. The large superior temporal vessel was measured, with the distance between vascular wall hyperreflectivities measured to obtain vessel diameters. The degree of agreement between the line 3-5 raster scan and circular scan modes, and the effect of scanning distance on agreement and vascular diameter were assessed.: There was good agreement between line 3 subgroup and the circular scan for measuring venous and arterial diameter (venous: intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) = 0.87, < .001; arterial: ICCs = 0.84, < .001). Unexpectedly, diameters from the fourth raster scan were only comparable to the circular scan in measuring venous diameter (ICCs = 0.86, < .001), despite the same scanning distance between the fourth raster line and circular scan. Vessels with a scanning distance between 1400 μm - 1799 μm showed good agreement with the circular scan (venous and arterial: all ICCs ≥ 0.84, < .001). In addition, venous diameter and arterial diameter decreased with increasing distance from the optic disc center, with venous and arterial diameter decreasing by 0.02 μm/μm ( < .001) and 0.007 μm/μm ( = .02), respectively.: Arterial and venous diameter measured by the circular mode was comparable to only one scan line and two scan lines of the raster scan mode, respectively. Our study identified a difference between the two scan modes, with the difference not fully attributable to differences in scanning distance. Prospective studies reporting vascular diameter as a primary outcome should report the scan mode used.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02713683.2020.1862238DOI Listing
July 2021

3D-bioprinting ready-to-implant anisotropic menisci recapitulate healthy meniscus phenotype and prevent secondary joint degeneration.

Theranostics 2021 5;11(11):5160-5173. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Clinical and Translational Research Center for 3D Printing Technology, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200011, China.

Disruption of anisotropic phenotypes of the meniscus would contribute to OA progression. Exploring phenotype changes of the anisotropic meniscus in joint degeneration would help understand the biologic interaction between the meniscus and OA, and further facilitate the therapeutic strategies of meniscus injury-related joint degeneration. Meanwhile, engineering biomimetic meniscal tissue mimicking the anisotropy of the healthy meniscus remains a challenge. Meniscal disruption of phenotype anisotropy (PBV growth, cellular phenotype and ECM depositions) was confirmed in OA patient samples. To recapitulate healthy meniscus phenotypes, 3D-bioprinted anisotropic TCM meniscus constructs with PBV growth and regional differential cell and ECM depositions were generated. Transplanted 3D-bioprinted meniscus into rabbit knees recapitulated phenotypes of native healthy meniscus and conferred long-term protection against secondary joint degeneration. 3D-bioprinted TCM meniscus not only restored the anisotropy of native healthy meniscus with PBV infiltration and better shape retention, but better maintained joint function and prevented secondary joint degeneration, which provided a new strategy for the clinical treatment of meniscus injury-related joint degenerative diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/thno.54864DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8039947PMC
March 2021

Mechanism of REST/NRSF regulation of clustered protocadherin α genes.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 05;49(8):4506-4521

Center for Comparative Biomedicine, MOE Key Laboratory of Systems Biomedicine, State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, Joint International Research Laboratory of Metabolic & Developmental Sciences, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Institute of Systems Biomedicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China.

Repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor (REST) or neuron-restrictive silencer factor (NRSF) is a zinc-finger (ZF) containing transcriptional repressor that recognizes thousands of neuron-restrictive silencer elements (NRSEs) in mammalian genomes. How REST/NRSF regulates gene expression remains incompletely understood. Here, we investigate the binding pattern and regulation mechanism of REST/NRSF in the clustered protocadherin (PCDH) genes. We find that REST/NRSF directionally forms base-specific interactions with NRSEs via tandem ZFs in an anti-parallel manner but with striking conformational changes. In addition, REST/NRSF recruitment to the HS5-1 enhancer leads to the decrease of long-range enhancer-promoter interactions and downregulation of the clustered PCDHα genes. Thus, REST/NRSF represses PCDHα gene expression through directional binding to a repertoire of NRSEs within the distal enhancer and variable target genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkab248DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8096226PMC
May 2021

A meta-analysis of studies examining associations between resonance Raman spectroscopy-assessed skin carotenoids and plasma carotenoids among adults and children.

Nutr Rev 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

S.B. Jilcott Pitts, N.S. Johnson, and A.P. Kaur are with the Department of Public Health, Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina, USA. Q. Wu is with the Department of Biostatistics, East Carolina University, East Carolina Heart Institute, Greenville, North Carolina, USA. G. Cahoon Firnhaber is with the Nurse Anesthesia Program, East Carolina University College of Nursing, Greenville, North Carolina, USA. J. Obasohan is with the National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Context: No meta-analyses appeared to have been conducted to examine overall correlations between resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS)-assessed skin carotenoids and plasma/serum carotenoids.

Objective: To review the available literature and quantify the association between RRS-assessed skin carotenoids and plasma/serum carotenoids via a meta-analysis of observational studies.

Data Sources: To identify relevant publications, we searched the PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ProQuest, and Scopus databases in April 2020 for items combining 3 concepts: Raman spectroscopy, skin, and plasma or serum.

Data Extraction: Criteria for inclusion were publication in a peer-reviewed journal between 1990 and 2020, available in English language, and results reported as a baseline Pearson correlation coefficient. In teams of 2, the researchers independently reviewed titles and abstracts of 2212 nonduplicate papers with initial screening yielding 62 papers for full-text review, of which 15 were deemed eligible for inclusion.

Data Analysis: A random-effects model in R (version 4.0.0) "meta" package was used to analyze the correlation between RRS-assessed skin and plasma/serum carotenoids. A subgroup analysis was conducted for studies involving adults and children, respectively.

Conclusions: The 15 studies included 1155 individuals: 963 adults and 192 children. One study included children and adults. The random-effects model yielded an overall correlation of 0.68 (95%CI, 0.61-0.74; I2 = 74%; P < 0.01). The results were similar when grouped by adults and children. Among 963 adults, the correlation in the random-effects model was 0.69 (95%CI, 0.61-0.75; I2 = 78%; P < 0.01). Among 192 children, the correlation in the random-effects model was 0.66 (95%CI, 0.52- 0.77; I2 = 55%; P = 0.06). Overall, there was a positive, statistically significant correlation between RRS-assessed skin carotenoids and plasma/serum carotenoids in a pooled meta-analysis of 15 studies.

Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO (record number 178835).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nutrit/nuab016DOI Listing
April 2021

Investigation of the Acoustic Vaporization Threshold of Lipid-Coated Perfluorobutane Nanodroplets Using Both High-Speed Optical Imaging and Acoustic Methods.

Ultrasound Med Biol 2021 Jul 2;47(7):1826-1843. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Engineering Science, Old Road Campus Research Building, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

A combination of ultrahigh-speed optical imaging (5 × 10 frames/s), B-mode ultrasound and passive cavitation detection was used to study the vaporization process and determine both the acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) and inertial cavitation (IC) thresholds of phospholipid-coated perfluorobutane nanodroplets (PFB NDs, diameter = 237 ± 16 nm). PFB NDs have not previously been studied with ultrahigh-speed imaging and were observed to form individual microbubbles (1-10 μm) within two to three cycles and subsequently larger bubble clusters (10-50 μm). The ADV and IC thresholds did not statistically significantly differ and decreased with increasing pulse length (20-20,000 cycles), pulse repetition frequency (1-100 Hz), concentration (10-10 NDs/mL), temperature (20°C-45°C) and decreasing frequency (1.5-0.5 MHz). Overall, the results indicate that at frequencies of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 MHz, PFB NDs can be vaporized at moderate peak negative pressures (<2.0 MPa), pulse lengths and pulse repetition frequencies. This finding is encouraging for the use of PFB NDs as cavitation agents, as these conditions are comparable to those required to achieve therapeutic effects with microbubbles, unlike those reported for higher-boiling-point NDs. The differences between the optically and acoustically determined ADV thresholds, however, suggest that application-specific thresholds should be defined according to the biological/therapeutic effect of interest.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2021.02.019DOI Listing
July 2021

Extract (cichoric Acid) Exerts an Anti-inflammatory Effect on Yak PBMCs and Regulates the TLR4 Signalling Pathway.

J Vet Res 2021 Mar 9;65(1):109-115. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Qinghai University, Xining Qinghai Province 810016, People's Republic of China.

Introduction: Inflammation is one of the main causes of impaired health in livestock and some of its processes weaken animal productivity and impact human health. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of echinacea extract (cichoric acid - CA) on yak peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), inflammatory-related factors, and the toll-like receptor (TLR)4 signalling pathway induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in these PBMCs.

Material And Methods: Yak PBMCs were co-cultured with LPS and CA . The proliferative activity of cells was detected using the cell-counting kit-8 method, the optimal stimulation concentration of LPS was selected, the effect of CA on the content of inflammation-related factors was evaluated using an ELISA kit, and the mRNA expression of these factors was detected by RT-PCR.

Results: CA inhibited the inflammatory response of yak PBMCs induced by LPS. CA inhibited gene and protein expression of key nodes of the TLR4 signalling pathway in yak PBMCs.

Conclusion: It is suggested that CA has anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects on yak PBMCs the TLR4 pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/jvetres-2021-0016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8009576PMC
March 2021

Gait recognition using a few gait frames.

PeerJ Comput Sci 2021 1;7:e382. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

School of Electrical and Data Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

Gait has been deemed as an alternative biometric in video-based surveillance applications, since it can be used to recognize individuals from a far distance without their interaction and cooperation. Recently, many gait recognition methods have been proposed, aiming at reducing the influence caused by exterior factors. However, most of these methods are developed based on sufficient input gait frames, and their recognition performance will sharply decrease if the frame number drops. In the real-world scenario, it is impossible to always obtain a sufficient number of gait frames for each subject due to many reasons, e.g., occlusion and illumination. Therefore, it is necessary to improve the gait recognition performance when the available gait frames are limited. This paper starts with three different strategies, aiming at producing more input frames and eliminating the generalization error cause by insufficient input data. Meanwhile, a two-branch network is also proposed in this paper to formulate robust gait representations from the original and new generated input gait frames. According to our experiments, under the limited gait frames being used, it was verified that the proposed method can achieve a reliable performance for gait recognition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj-cs.382DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7959613PMC
March 2021

Flexible/Bendable Acoustofluidics Based on Thin-Film Surface Acoustic Waves on Thin Aluminum Sheets.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 4;13(14):16978-16986. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Faculty of Engineering and Environment, University of Northumbria, Tyne NE1 8ST, U.K.

In this paper, we explore the acoustofluidic performance of zinc oxide (ZnO) thin-film surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices fabricated on flexible and bendable thin aluminum (Al) foils/sheets with thicknesses from 50 to 1500 μm. Directional transport of fluids along these flexible/bendable surfaces offers potential applications for the next generation of microfluidic systems, wearable biosensors and soft robotic control. Theoretical calculations indicate that bending under strain levels up to 3000 με causes a small frequency shift and amplitude change (<0.3%) without degrading the acoustofluidic performance. Through systematic investigation of the effects of the Al sheet thickness on the microfluidic actuation performance for the bent devices, we identify the optimum thickness range to both maintain efficient microfluidic actuation and enable significant deformation of the substrate, providing a guide to design such devices. Finally, we demonstrate efficient liquid transportation across a wide range of substrate geometries including inclined, curved, vertical, inverted, and lateral positioned surfaces using a 200 μm thick Al sheet SAW device.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c22576DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8153544PMC
April 2021

Development of Aptamer-Based Molecular Tools for Rapid Intraoperative Diagnosis and Imaging of Serous Ovarian Cancer.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 31;13(14):16118-16126. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, College of Pharmacy, Nankai University, Tianjin 300350, P. R. China.

Diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cancer are based on intraoperative pathology and debulking surgery. The development of a novel molecular tool is significant for rapid intraoperative pathologic diagnosis, which instructs the decision-making on excision surgery and effective chemotherapy. In this work, we represent a DNA aptamer named mApoc46, which is generated from cell-SELEX by targeting patient-derived primary serous ovarian cancer (pSOC) cells. An average dissociation constant () was determined to be 0.15 ± 0.05 μM by flow cytometry. The mApoc46 aptamer displays a robust specificity to pSOC cells. Labeled with FAM, mApoc46 can selectively stain living pSOC cells in 30 min without staining commercial OC cell lines and cell lines associated with other cancers. Interestingly, FAM-mApoc46 displayed superb selectivity toward high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HG-SOC) tissues in frozen sections against low-grade SOC, ovarian borderline tumor, other nonepithelial ovarian tumors, and healthy ovarian tissue. These results lead to a potential application in the identification of OCs' histological subtypes during operation. In the patient-derived tumor xenograft NCG mice model, Cy5-labeled mApoc46 was found to accumulate at the tumor area and served as an imaging probe. The mApoc46 probe shows a robust and stable performance to visualize SOC tumors in the body. Therefore, aptamer mApoc46 holds great potential in rapid intraoperative detection, pathological diagnosis, fluorescence image-guided cancer surgery, and targeted drug delivery and therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c02072DOI Listing
April 2021

Subfoveal choroidal thickness changes after intravitreal ranibizumab injections in different patterns of diabetic macular edema using a deep learning-based auto-segmentation.

Int Ophthalmol 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, 600 Yishan Road, Xuhui District, Shanghai, 200233, China.

Purpose: To evaluate the effect of intravitreal injection of ranibizumab (IVR) on subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) and its relationship with central macular thickness (CMT) and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) changes in eyes with center-involving DME (CI-DME) using a deep learning-based auto-segmentation.

Methods: This prospective interventional case series included 68 eyes of 68 patients with CI-DME naive to treatment. Morphological optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings of DME were classified into three patterns of structural change: (i) diffuse retinal thickening (DRT), (ii) cystoid macular edema (CME), and (iii) serous retinal detachment (SRD). All patients underwent 3+prorenata IVR. The treated eyes underwent BCVA evaluation and OCT scanning at baseline and months 1, 3, and 6 after the first injection. Then, the choroid layer was measured using a deep learning-based auto-segmentation.

Results: At baseline, the mean SFCT and CMT for SRD, DRT, and CME groups were 324.68 ± 65.58 μm and 624.37 ± 77.92 μm, 348.91 ± 45.81 μm and 443.5 ± 78.33 μm, 361.4 ± 64.62 μm, and 536.5 ± 66.02 μm, respectively. After anti-VEGF treatment, the SFCT and CMT have decreased by varying degrees. At 3 and 6 months of treatment, there were no significant changes among these groups. There was no correlation between baseline SFCT and the resulting BCVA (P = 0.670, P = 0.584). There was also no correlation between changes in SFCT and BCVA, CMT (P = 0.344, P = 0.336).

Conclusion: After treating CI-DME with IVR, SFCT and CMT significantly decreased. However, there were no significant changes among the SRD, DRT, and CME groups.

Trial Registration: Trial registration: ChiCTR, ChiCTR-ROC-17013360. Registered 13 November 2017, http://www.chictr.org.cn/ChiCTR-ROC-17013360 .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10792-021-01806-0DOI Listing
March 2021

Quantitative laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for discriminating neoplastic tissues from non-neoplastic ones.

Opt Express 2021 Feb;29(3):4159-4173

In this paper, we present a method to distinguish neoplastic tissues from non-neoplastic ones using calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (CF-LIBS). For this propose, plasma emission was collected from neoplastic and non-neoplastic tissues taken from the ovarian cancer mice models. Results were obtained by utilizing the characteristic plasma emission lines of different elements that have been confirmed in the investigated samples. From the temporal evolution of plasma emission, the optimum temporal-observation-windows are identified for LIBS investigation. The concentrations of the detected elements in tissues were measured by a calibration-free approach based on data process of plasma parameters at the local thermodynamic equilibrium. The neoplastic specimens provided more energetic plasma than non-neoplastic ones that resulting in higher peaks intensities, electron density and electron temperature especially in the early windows (between 0.1 µs to 0.8 µs). Results demonstrated higher concentrations of major and trace elements such as Mg, Fe, Ca, Na, and K in the neoplastic tissues. Finally, the results using CF-LIBS method were found to be in good agreement with that of Inductive coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.410878DOI Listing
February 2021