Publications by authors named "Qiang He"

1,027 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Genetically predicted adiponectin causally reduces the risk of chronic kidney disease, a bilateral and multivariable mendelian randomization study.

Front Genet 2022 26;13:920510. Epub 2022 Jul 26.

Department of Urology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

It is not clarified whether the elevation of adiponectin is the results of kidney damage, or the cause of kidney function injury. To explore the causal association of adiponectin on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and chronic kidney disease (CKD), this study was performed. The genetic association of adiponectin were retrieved from one genome-wide association studies with 39,883 participants. The summary-level statistics regarding the eGFR (133,413 participants) and CKD (12,385 CKD cases and 104,780 controls) were retrieved from the CKDGen consortium in the European ancestry. Single-variable Mendelian randomization (MR), bilateral and multivariable MR analyses were used to verify the causal association between adiponectin, eGFR, and CKD. Genetically predicted adiponectin reduces the risk of CKD (OR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.57-0.89, = 0.002) and increases the eGFR ( = 0.014, 95% CI = 0.001-0.026, = 0.034) by the inverse variance weighting (IVW) estimator. These findings remain consistent in the sensitivity analyses. No heterogeneity and pleiotropy were detected in this study ( for MR-Egger 0.617, for global test > 0.05, and for Cochran's Q statistics = 0.617). The bilateral MR identified no causal association of CKD on adiponectin (OR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.96-1.07, = 0.658), nor did it support the association of eGFR on adiponectin (OR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.68-1.09, = 0.207) by the IVW estimator. All the sensitivity analyses reported similar findings ( > 0.05). Additionally, after adjusting for cigarette consumption, alcohol consumption, body mass index, low density lipoprotein, and total cholesterol, the ORs for CKD are 0.70 (95% CI = 0.55-0.90, = 0.005), 0.75 (95% CI = 0.58-0.97, = 0.027), 0.82 (95% CI = 0.68-0.99, = 0.039), 0.74 (95% CI = 0.59-0.93, = 0.011), and 0.79 (95% CI = 0.61-0.95, = 0.018), respectively. : Using genetic data, this study provides novel causal evidence that adiponectin can protect the kidney function and further reduce the risk of CKD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2022.920510DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9360570PMC
July 2022

Clinical analysis of 99 children with Henoch-Schönlein purpura complicated with overt gastrointestinal bleeding.

Clin Rheumatol 2022 Aug 8. Epub 2022 Aug 8.

Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children's Health, China, Beijing, 100045, China.

Objective: To analyze and summarize the clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of children with Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) complicated by overt gastrointestinal bleeding (GI bleeding) for achieving early identification, prevention, and treatment in terms of severe GI bleeding.

Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted on children with HSP complicated by overt GI bleeding who were admitted to the Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine of Beijing Children's Hospital from January 2017 to December 2019. According to the severity of GI bleeding, the patients were divided into mild bleeding group (61 cases) and moderate and severe bleeding group (38 cases). Inflammatory parameters, coagulation function, GI ultrasound findings, and clinical features were compared. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the related variables affecting the severity of GI bleeding, and the ROC curve was used to determine the variable test efficacy.

Results: Onset in summer, wide distribution of skin rash with facial involvement, the elevation of D-dimer and high neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) had significant effects on the severity of GI bleeding. ROC curve analysis showed that the optimal cut-off points of NLR and D-dimer for predicting severe GI bleeding in children with HSP were 10.56 and 0.89 mg/L, respectively.

Conclusion: Facial rash may be a warning sign of GI bleeding. Enhanced monitoring of NLR and D-dimer is helpful for early recognition of GI bleeding as well as assessment of severity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10067-022-06323-8DOI Listing
August 2022

Case Report: Spontaneous Rupture of Hepatic Hemangioma.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2022 13;9:918748. Epub 2022 Jul 13.

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Hepatic hemangioma (HH) is a congenital vasal malformation that seemed like the most probable benign liver neoplasm, composed of masses of blood vessels, which are anomalous in arrangement and size. In most cases, HH is asymptomatic, and patients have an excellent prognosis. According to research, the location and size of the mass are correlated with the symptoms and complications. Reports of spontaneous rupture of HH have been less reported in the literature. In this emergency condition, dynamic contrast-enhanced CT scanning, especially triple-phase computed tomography (CT) with delayed imaging, is preferred.

Case Presentation: Here, we presented two middle-aged female patients with spontaneous rupture of HH in our hospital. Following an accurate diagnosis of enhanced CT and emergency surgery, patients recovered well and were discharged from the hospital.

Conclusion: Appropriate imaging studies, especially enhanced CT, and emergency surgery are indispensable for patients with spontaneous rupture of HH. As a surgeon, we need to pay attention to the asymptomatic patient with HH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2022.918748DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9325994PMC
July 2022

Liuwei Dihuang Pills Inhibit Podocyte Injury and Alleviate IgA Nephropathy by Directly Altering Mesangial Cell-Derived Exosome Function and Secretion.

Front Pharmacol 2022 11;13:889008. Epub 2022 Jul 11.

Urology and Nephrology Center, Department of Nephrology, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital (Affiliated People's Hospital, Hangzhou Medical College), Hangzhou, China.

Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common glomerular disease worldwide. Its pathological features include IgA immune complex deposition, accompanied by mesangial cell proliferation and mesangial matrix expansion. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Liuwei Dihuang pills (LWDHW) on IgAN in mice and human podocytes, as well as to determine their underlying mechanisms of action. For experiments, podocytes were exposed to the human mesangial cell culture medium supernatant of glomerular cells treated with aggregated IgA1 (aIgA1) and LWDHW-containing serum. Cell viability and the proportion of positive cells were evaluated using CCK-8 and flow apoptosis kits, respectively. The cells were collected for western blot analysis. Twenty-four mice with IgAN induced by oral bovine serum albumin administration combined with tail vein injection of staphylococcal enterotoxin B were randomly divided into four groups of six mice each: untreated model group, model + LWDHW group, model + rapamycin group, and model + LWDHW + rapamycin group. The normal control group contained six mice. The red blood cell count in the urine, urine protein, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and IgA deposition were determined, and TUNEL and western blotting were performed in the mouse kidney tissues. experiments showed that LWDHW promoted autophagy by regulating the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signalling pathway and improved the damage to podocytes caused by the aIgA1-treated mesangial cell supernatant. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of LWDHW for treating IgAN. In the animal experiments, LWDHW significantly reduced the urine red blood cell count, serum creatinine and urea nitrogen contents, and 24 h urinary protein function and improved IgA deposition in the kidney tissues, glomerular volume, glomerular cell proliferation and polysaccharide deposition, and glomerular cell apoptosis. The pills also reversed the changes in the LC3II/I ratio and p62 content in the kidney tissues. The combination of LWDHW and rapamycin showed stronger inhibitory effects compared to those of LWDHW or rapamycin alone. LWDHW may improve regulation of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway and inhibit autophagy in podocytes, as well as alleviate IgA nephropathy by directly altering mesangial cell exosomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2022.889008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9309816PMC
July 2022

The Role of Ferroptosis in Acute Kidney Injury.

Front Mol Biosci 2022 30;9:951275. Epub 2022 Jun 30.

Urology & Nephrology Center, Department of Nephrology, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital (Affiliated People's Hospital, Hangzhou Medical College), Hangzhou, China.

Ferroptosis is a novel cell death method discovered in recent years. It is usually accompanied by massive accumulations of iron and lipid peroxidation during cell death. Recent studies have shown that ferroptosis is closely associated with the pathophysiological processes of many diseases, such as tumors, neurological diseases, localized ischemia-reperfusion injury, kidney injury, and hematological diseases. How to intervene in the incidence and development of associated diseases by regulating the ferroptosis of cells has become a hot topic of research. This article provides a review of the role of ferroptosis in the pathogenesis and potential treatment of acute kidney injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmolb.2022.951275DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9291723PMC
June 2022

Spatiotemporal pattern of carbon productivity and carbon offset potential in Chinese counties.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Jul 13;846:157153. Epub 2022 Jul 13.

College of Economics, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China. Electronic address:

This study used panel data for 2166 county-level units in China between 2000 and 2017 to characterize carbon productivity's temporal and spatial evolution in Chinese counties. The "catch-up effect" of carbon offsets between counties was examined, and this was used to measure the carbon offset potential and analyze its spatial differences. The results indicated that: (1) China's carbon productivity increased from 2000 to 2017; carbon productivity in eastern China was the highest, and carbon productivity in northeast China was the lowest. A polarization to unipolarization evolutionary trend was evident. (2) Considering the spatial differences in carbon productivity, the overall difference in carbon productivity in China from 2000 to 2017 first decreased and then increased; the contribution rate of differences between cities and counties to the overall difference was relatively stable, at around 39.88 %. The contribution rate of the differences between zones to the overall difference was the lowest, remaining stable at around 2.49 %. (3) In terms of the spatial distribution of the carbon offset potential, the eastern region exhibited the highest average carbon offset potential. The carbon offset potential of China exhibited a "high in the north and low in the south; low in the west and high in the east" spatial pattern.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.157153DOI Listing
July 2022

Retention of thallium(I) on goethite, hematite, and manganite: Quantitative insights and mechanistic study.

Water Res 2022 Aug 8;221:118836. Epub 2022 Jul 8.

Key Laboratory of Eco-environments in Three Gorges Reservoir Region, Ministry of Education, College of Environment and Ecology, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, P.R. China.

The reversibility of monovalent thallium (Tl) absorption on widely distributed iron/manganese secondary minerals may affect environmental Tl migration and global cycling. Nevertheless, quantitative and mechanistic studies on the interfacial retention and release reactions involving Tl(I) are limited. In this study, batch and stirred-flow experiments, unified kinetics modeling, spectral detection, and theoretical calculations were used to elucidate the retention behaviors of Tl(I) on goethite, hematite, and manganite with different solution pH values and Tl loading concentrations. Sustained Tl(I) retention (k=0.005∼0.018 min) was induced by hydration of the surface hydroxyl groups. Rapid Tl(I) retention (k=1.232∼2.917 min) was enhanced by the abundant hydroxide ions and deprotonated hydroxyl groups, which increased the Tl(I) binding ability. Compared to the ambient Tl concentration, pH had a more substantial effect on the formation and distribution of surface Tl(I) binding species. In alkaline environments, the large adsorption energy for Tl(I) binding to surface species (E=-6.14 eV) induced fast Tl(I) binding response on the surfaces of iron/manganese secondary minerals. This study provides new insights into the heterogeneous surface complexation and retention behaviors of Tl(I) and contributes to an in-depth understanding of the environmental fate of Tl and the remediation of Tl contamination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2022.118836DOI Listing
August 2022

A paper-based assay for the colorimetric detection of SARS-CoV-2 variants at single-nucleotide resolution.

Nat Biomed Eng 2022 Jul 14. Epub 2022 Jul 14.

Department of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Bioorganic Phosphorus Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.

The evolution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has highlighted the need for versatile diagnostic assays that can discriminate among emerging variants of the virus. Here we report the development and performance benchmarking of an inexpensive (approximately US$0.30 per test) assay for the rapid (sample-to-answer time within 30 min) colorimetric detection of SARS-CoV-2 variants. The assay, which we integrated into foldable paper strips, leverages nucleic acid strand-displacement reactions, the thermodynamic energy penalty associated with single-base-pair mismatches and the metal-ion-controlled enzymatic cleavage of urea to amplify the recognition of viral RNAs for the colorimetric readout of changes in pH via a smartphone. For 50 throat swab samples, the assay simultaneously detected the presence of SARS-CoV-2 and mutations specific to the SARS-CoV-2 variants Alpha, Beta and Gamma, with 100% concordance with real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and RNA sequencing. Customizable and inexpensive paper-based assays for the detection of viruses and their variants may facilitate viral surveillance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41551-022-00907-0DOI Listing
July 2022

Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled phase I study of the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of KL130008, a novel oral JAK inhibitor, in healthy subjects.

Eur J Pharm Sci 2022 Sep 9;176:106257. Epub 2022 Jul 9.

Clinical Trial Center, National Medical Products Administration Key Laboratory for Clinical Research and Evaluation of Innovative Drugs, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, China. Electronic address:

Background And Objectives: KL130008 is a novel selective inhibitor of Janus kinase (JAK) 1/2 that may have therapeutic benefit against rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other autoimmune diseases. Here, we developed a first-in-human trial of KL130008 to evaluate its pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), and safety in healthy subjects.

Methods: Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled phase I study was designed. Healthy Chinese subjects received KL130008 in single-ascending doses (1-20 mg) or multiple-ascending doses (2-6 mg) once daily for seven days, and data on PK, PD, and safety data including QT interval were evaluated.

Results: A total of 79 subjects were enrolled, of whom 77 completed the study. After oral administration following at least a 10-h fast, KL130008 was rapidly absorbed and reached a maximum concentration (C) in 0.6-1.5 h. KL130008 exposure was approximately linear and dose-proportional. The drug showed exponential elimination with t = 14-18 h, and 8-20% of KL130008 was excreted in the urine. Dose-dependent inhibition of the phosphorylated signal transduction and transcriptional activator 3 (p-STAT3) was observed in subjects who received single KL130008 doses of 4-20 mg, while multiple dosing of KL130008 at 2, 4, or 6 mg once daily for seven consecutive days sustainably inhibited p-STAT3. The rates of treatment-emergent adverse events were 88.7% with KL130008 and 81.3% with placebo. All such events were grade 1 or 2 and disappeared or resolved by the end of the study. The most frequent such events were a decrease in neutrophil percentage, which occurred in 30.6% of subjects on KL130008; a decrease in neutrophil count, which occurred in 29.0% of subjects on KL130008; and an increase in lymphocyte percentage, which occurred in 25.8% of subjects on KL130008. None of these three events occurred while subjects were on placebo.

Conclusion: Our results support that KL130008 is a safe and well-tolerated oral JAK1/2 inhibitor. The present study may help optimize the KL130008 dosing regimen for a phase II study.

Clinical Trial Registration Number: ChiCTR1800018743 (chictr.org); registered on October 7, 2018.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejps.2022.106257DOI Listing
September 2022

Non-linear Associations Between Visceral Adiposity Index and Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Diseases: Results From the NHANES (1999-2018).

Front Cardiovasc Med 2022 24;9:908020. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

School of Public Health and Management, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Objective: To investigate associations between visceral adiposity index (VAI) and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases (CCDs) in the American population from 1999 to 2018.

Methods: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1998-2018) were analyzed in this study. Specifically, VAI scores were calculated using sex-specific equations that incorporate body mass index, waist circumference (WC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides (TG), and cholesterol. Weighted logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the relationship between VAI tertile and increased risk of CCDs. Restricted cubic splines were used to evaluate the non-linear relationship between VAI and CCDs, such as heart failure, angina, heart attack, stroke, hypertension, and coronary heart disease. Sensitivity analysis was conducted, using VAI quartiles as independent variables.

Results: A total of 22,622 subjects aged over 20 years were included. In the fully adjusted model after controlling for covariates, the third VAI tertile was more strongly associated with CCDs than the first VAI tertile, with odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) values for angina of 2.86, 1.68-4.85; heart attack, 1.75, 1.14-2.69; stroke, 2.01, 1.23-3.26; hypertension, 2.28, 1.86-2.78; and coronary heart disease, 1.78, 1.32-2.41; but there was no significant association with heart failure ( > 0.05). Restricted cubic splines revealed parabolic relationships between VAI score and angina ( for non-linear = 0.03), coronary heart disease ( for non-linear = 0.01), and hypertension ( for non-linear < 0.001). Sensitivity analysis indicated that the fourth VAI quartile was more strongly associated with an increased risk of angina (OR = 2.92, 95% CI, 1.49-5.69), hypertension (OR = 2.37, 95% CI, 1.90-2.97), heart attack (OR = 1.77, 95% CI, 1.09-2.88), and coronary heart disease (OR = 1.89, 95% CI, 1.24-2.86) than the first VAI quartile. VAI had superior predictive power for prevalent CCDs than other independent indicators ( < 0.05).

Conclusion: Visceral adiposity index score is positively correlated with angina, heart attack, stroke, hypertension, and coronary heart disease, but not heart failure, and the relationships between VAI score and angina, hypertension, and coronary heart disease are non-linear.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2022.908020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9263190PMC
June 2022

Multi-omics analyses of 398 foxtail millet accessions reveal genomic regions associated with domestication, metabolite traits, and anti-inflammatory effects.

Mol Plant 2022 08 8;15(8):1367-1383. Epub 2022 Jul 8.

Shanxi Key Laboratory of Minor Crop Germplasm Innovation and Molecular Breeding, College of Agriculture, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, China. Electronic address:

Foxtail millet (Setaria italica), which was domesticated from the wild species green foxtail (Setaria viridis), is a rich source of phytonutrients for humans. To evaluate how breeding changed the metabolome of foxtail millet grains, we generated and analyzed the datasets encompassing the genomes, transcriptomes, metabolomes, and anti-inflammatory indices from 398 foxtail millet accessions. We identified hundreds of common variants that influence numerous secondary metabolites. We observed tremendous differences in natural variations of the metabolites and their underlying genetic architectures between distinct sub-groups of foxtail millet. Furthermore, we found that the selection of the gene alleles associated with yellow grains led to altered profiles of metabolites such as carotenoids and endogenous phytohormones. Using CRISPR-mediated genome editing we validated the function of PHYTOENE SYNTHASE 1 (PSY1) gene in affecting millet grain color and quality. Interestingly, our in vitro cell inflammation assays showed that 83 metabolites in millet grains have anti-inflammatory effects. Taken together, our multi-omics study illustrates how the breeding history of foxtail millet has shaped its metabolite profile. The datasets we generated in this study also provide important resources for further understanding how millet grain quality is affected by different metabolites, laying the foundations for future millet genetic research and metabolome-assisted improvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molp.2022.07.003DOI Listing
August 2022

Longitudinal surveillance and comparative characterization of Escherichia albertii in wild raccoons in the United States.

Microbiol Res 2022 Sep 2;262:127109. Epub 2022 Jul 2.

Department of Animal Science, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA. Electronic address:

Escherichia albertii is an emerging enteric bacterial pathogen causing watery diarrhea, abdominal distension, vomiting and fever in humans. E. albertii has caused many foodborne outbreaks in Japan and was also reported in other countries worldwide. However, the important animal reservoirs of this pathogen are still largely unknown, impeding us to combat this emerging pathogen. Recently, we reported that wild raccoons (Procyon lotor) and broiler chickens are significant reservoirs of E. albertii in Japan and the U.S., respectively. Here, we performed a longitudinal surveillance to monitor prevalence of E. albertii in wild raccoons in the U.S. and conducted comprehensive comparative analyses of the E. albertii of different origins. A total of 289 fecal swab samples were collected from wild raccoons in Tennessee and Kentucky in the U.S. (2018-2020). Approximately 26% (74/289) of the raccoons examined were PCR-positive for E. albertii and eventually 22 E. albertii isolates were obtained. PFGE analysis showed the U.S. raccoon E. albertii were phylogenetically distant even though the corresponding raccoons were captured from a small area. Unlike the high prevalence of multidrug resistance (83%) observed in previous chicken E. albertii survey, antibiotic resistance was rarely observed in all the U.S. raccoon and 22 Japan raccoon strains with only one Japan strain displaying multidrug resistance (2%). Whole genome sequencing of 54 diverse E. albertii strains and subsequent comparative genomics analysis revealed unique clusters that displayed close evolutionary relationships and similar virulence gene profiles among the strains of different origins in terms of geographical locations (e.g., U.S. and Japan) and hosts (raccoon, chicken, swine, and human). Challenge experiment demonstrated raccoon E. albertii strains could successfully colonize in the chicken intestine at 3 and 8 days postinfection. A pilot environmental survey further showed all the four tested water samples from Tennessee river were E. albertii-positive; two different E. albertii strains, isolated from a single water sample, showed close relationships to those of human origin. Together, the findings from this study provide new insights into the ecology, evolution, and pathobiology of E. albertii, and underscore the need to control the emerging E. albertii in a complex ecosystem using One Health approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micres.2022.127109DOI Listing
September 2022

Porphyrin derivative-based tandem response nanochannels triggered by Zn and NO.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2022 Jul 21;58(59):8286-8289. Epub 2022 Jul 21.

Hubei Key Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials Science, Department of Chemistry and Materials Science, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074, P. R. China.

We describe tandem response solid nanochannels tailored with a porphyrin derivative that show Zn and NO gating behaviors with good selectivity, stability, and reversibility. EXAFS and fluorescence experiments showed that zinc coordinated with the porphyrin derivative as the ratio of 1 : 1 with the binding constant for 3.39 × 10 M. These studies are beneficial for simulating the physiological functions of ion/gas in organisms and have the potential for designing complicated logic circuits and fabricating novel biosensors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2cc02163cDOI Listing
July 2022

LASSO-derived nomogram predicting new-onset diabetes mellitus in patients with kidney disease receiving immunosuppressive drugs.

J Clin Pharm Ther 2022 Jul 5. Epub 2022 Jul 5.

Urology & Nephrology Center, Department of Nephrology, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital (Affiliated People's Hospital, Hangzhou Medical College), Hangzhou, China.

What Is Known And Objective: Patients with kidney disease receiving immunosuppressive drugs (ISDs) (tacrolimus, cyclosporine and glucocorticoids) have a high risk of developing new-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM). We aimed to establish a precise and convenient model for predicting NODM in patients receiving immunosuppressive drugs.

Methods: This retrospective study recruited 1883 patients receiving ISDs between January 2010 and October 2018. The occurrence of NODM was the primary endpoint. The patients were randomly divided into training (n = 1318) and validation cohorts (n = 565) at a 7:3 ratio. A nomogram was established based on a least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO)-derived logistic regression model. The nomogram's discrimination and calibration abilities were evaluated in both cohorts using the Hosmer-Lemeshow test and calibration curves. Decision curve analysis (DCA) was used to evaluate the net benefit of the predictive efficacy.

Results And Discussion: Amongst the 1883 patients with kidney disease receiving immunosuppressive drugs, 375 (28.5%) and 169 (29.9%) developed NODM in the training (n = 1318) and validation cohorts (n = 565), respectively. Nine clinic predictors were included in this LASSO-derived nomogram, which is easy to be operated clinically. The discriminative ability, determined by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), was 0.816 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.790-0.841) and 0.831 (95%CI 0.796-0.867) in the training and validation cohorts, respectively. Calibration was confirmed with the Hosmer-Lemeshow test in the training and validation cohorts (p = 0.238, p = 0.751, respectively).

What Is New And Conclusion: Nearly one-third of patients with kidney disease receiving immunosuppressive drugs developed NODM. The nomogram established in this study may aid in predicting the occurrence of NODM in patients with kidney disease receiving immunosuppressive drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcpt.13713DOI Listing
July 2022

Biosafety evaluation of dual-responsive neutrobots.

J Mater Chem B 2022 Jul 1. Epub 2022 Jul 1.

State Key Laboratory of Robotics and System, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001, China.

The toxicity effects of paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded magnetic neutrophil-hybrid swimming microrobots ("neutrobots") were assessed after intravenous administration to mice. The mice after 72 hours exhibited minimal immunotoxicity and liver and kidney toxicity at an administration dose of 3 × 10 PTX-loaded neutrobots. The minor toxicity of drug-loaded neutrobots holds considerable promise for biomedical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2tb00938bDOI Listing
July 2022

An Entropy Weighted Nonnegative Matrix Factorization Algorithm for Feature Representation.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2022 Jun 29;PP. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) has been widely used to learn low-dimensional representations of data. However, NMF pays the same attention to all attributes of a data point, which inevitably leads to inaccurate representations. For example, in a human-face dataset, if an image contains a hat on a head, the hat should be removed or the importance of its corresponding attributes should be decreased during matrix factorization. This article proposes a new type of NMF called entropy weighted NMF (EWNMF), which uses an optimizable weight for each attribute of each data point to emphasize their importance. This process is achieved by adding an entropy regularizer to the cost function and then using the Lagrange multiplier method to solve the problem. Experimental results with several datasets demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. The code developed in this study is available at https://github.com/Poisson-EM/Entropy-weighted-NMF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2022.3184286DOI Listing
June 2022

A Droplet-Manipulation Method Based on the Magnetic Particle-Stabilized Emulsion and Its Direct Numerical Simulation.

Langmuir 2022 Jul 28;38(27):8211-8221. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

School of Mechanical, Electronic and Control Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044, China.

Droplet manipulation has found broad applications in various engineering fields, such as microfluidic systems. This work reports a droplet-manipulation method based on particle-stabilized emulsions, where the magnetic particles adsorbed to the droplet surface serve as the actuator. The movement and the release of the droplet can be controlled by applying an external magnetic field. A lattice Boltzmann model for a three-phase system containing liquids and solid particles is adopted, which could provide a full coupling between fluids and particles. The effectiveness of the present droplet-manipulation method is validated through experiments and numerical simulations. Furthermore, the numerical simulation can provide insight into the interactions between the magnetic particles and the droplet during the droplet-driven process. To drive the droplet successfully, the magnetic particle needs to adhere to its surface and act as an "engine" to provide the driving force. As it is a surface-tension-dominant problem, the capillary effect can be considered as an "energy transfer station". The magnetic driving force on the particle is transmitted primarily to the droplet through interfacial capillary forces at the three-phase contact line, which assists the droplet in overcoming the viscous resistance and moving forward. A dimensionless number is proposed as a predictor of droplet transport and particle detachment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.2c00459DOI Listing
July 2022

Long-distance facilitation of coastal ecosystem structure and resilience.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2022 Jul 27;119(28):e2123274119. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China.

Biotic interactions that hierarchically organize ecosystems by driving ecological and evolutionary processes across spatial scales are ubiquitous in our biosphere. Biotic interactions have been extensively studied at local and global scales, but how long-distance, cross-ecosystem interactions at intermediate landscape scales influence the structure, function, and resilience of ecological systems remains poorly understood. We used remote sensing, modeling, and field data to test the hypothesis that the long-distance impact of an invasive species dramatically affects one of the largest tidal flat ecosystems in East Asia. We found that the invasion of exotic cordgrass can produce long-distance effects on native species up to 10 km away, driving decadal coastal ecosystem transitions. The invasive cordgrass at low elevations facilitated the expansion of the native reed at high elevations, leading to the massive loss and reduced resilience of the iconic "Red Beach" marshes at intermediate elevations, largely as a consequence of reduced soil salinity across the landscape. Our results illustrate the complex role that long-distance interactions can play in shaping landscape structure and ecosystem resilience and in bridging the gap between local and global biotic interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2123274119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9282383PMC
July 2022

Ammonia Recovery from Wastewater as a Fuel: Effects of Supporting Electrolyte on Ammonium Permeation through a Cation-Exchange Membrane.

ACS Omega 2022 Jun 7;7(24):20634-20643. Epub 2022 Jun 7.

Faculty of Environment and Ecology, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, People's Republic of China.

Electrodeionization (EDI) is used to recover ammonia from wastewater as a fuel, but how its performance for ammonia recovery is affected by the supporting electrolyte is not very clear. This study involved experimental tests and theoretical calculations on NH recovery, NH permeation, and NH and Na interacting with the functional groups in a cation exchange membrane (CEM) using NaSO as the supporting electrolyte. The results demonstrated that a low concentration (≤0.250 mol L of NaSO) was conducive to NH permeation, while the a concentration (0.750 mol L of NaSO) hindered NH permeation. A maximum recovery efficiency of ammonia of 80.00%, a current efficiency of 70.10%, and an energy balance ratio of 0.66 were obtained at 0.250 mol L of NaSO. Numerical results indicated that an increase in NaSO concentration caused severe concentration polarization that resisted NH migration in the CEM. The DFT results demonstrated that competitive adsorption of Na to the CEM hindered NH migration. The weaker interacting force between NH and the sulfonate functional group (-SOH) in comparison to that between Na and -SOH might be related to the geometric and orientation effects, which generated an additional energy barrier for NH transport. Therefore, this study suggests that the supporting electrolyte concentration should be matched with that of the desalted ions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.2c00700DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9219067PMC
June 2022

Ferric ion detection mechanism of a dicarboxylic cellulose nanocrystal and a 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin based fluorescent chemosensor.

RSC Adv 2022 Jun 7;12(26):16798-16804. Epub 2022 Jun 7.

College of Engineering, Northeast Agricultural University No. 600 Changjiang Street Harbin 150030 China

As one of Earth's most widely distributed and abundant elements, iron impacts the natural environment and biological systems. Therefore, developing a simple, rapid, and accurate Fe detection method is vital. Fluorescent dicarboxylic cellulose nanocrystals (FDCN) with selective quenching of Fe were synthesized using 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin (AMC), and dicarboxylic cellulose nanocrystals (DCN) prepared by sequential periodate-chlorite oxidation. The sensing characteristics and detection mechanism of FDCN for Fe were studied by fluorescence spectrophotometry, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), the Stern-Volmer equation, Job's plot method, and the Benesi-Hildebrand equation. The results showed that FDCN was highly selective for Fe, and other metal ions did not reduce the selectivity. High sensitivity with a detection limit of 0.26 μM and a Stern-Volmer quenching constant of 0.1229 were also achieved. The coordination between Fe and the carboxylic, hydroxyl, and amide groups on the surface of FDCN and the carbonyl of coumarin lactones to form FDCN/Fe complexes prevented the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) process and led to the fluorescence quenching of FDCN. EDTA restored the fluorescence emission of quenched FDCN. The complexation stoichiometry of Fe to FDCN was 1 : 1, and the association constant was 3.23 × 10 M. The high hydrophilicity, sensitivity, and selectivity of FDCN for Fe make the chemosensor suitable for Fe trace detection in drinking water and biology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2ra02303bDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9170515PMC
June 2022

Retard or exacerbate: Role of long non-coding RNA growth arrest-specific 5 in the fibrosis.

Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 2022 Jun 17. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, Hangzhou 310006, China. Electronic address:

Fibrosis is the endpoint of pathological remodeling involving different expressions of non-coding RNA(ncRNA) including long non-coding RNA growth arrest-specific 5 (lncRNA Gas5). Up to now, many studies have demonstrated that lncRNA Gas5 may play a vital regulatory role in the occurrence and development of organ fibrosis including liver, renal and cardiac fibrosis et al. Furthermore, Gas5 may also serve as a biomarker in diagnostic settings for fibrosis diseases. Structurally, IncRNA Gas5 impacts fibrosis via its distinct structural modules. In response to various external stresses, distinct functional complexes on different parts of Gas5 sequence influence cell proliferation and survival, thus affecting the inflammatory process and deposition of extracellular matrix(ECM) in organ fibrosis. However, there is no consensus on the role of Gas5 in fibrosis and its changed expression under various circumstances. In this review, we present an overview of what is known about the effect of Gas5 in organ fibrosis so far and for the first time explain its mechanism in the progression of fibrosis based on its unique structure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cytogfr.2022.06.001DOI Listing
June 2022

Plant pan-genomics: Recent advances, new challenges, and roads ahead.

J Genet Genomics 2022 Jun 21. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

School of Life Sciences, Institute of Life Sciences and Green Development, Hebei University, Baoding, Hebei 071000, China. Electronic address:

Pan-genomics can encompass most of the genetic diversity of a species or population and has proved to be a powerful tool for studying genomic evolution and the origin and domestication of species, and for providing information for plant improvement. Plant genomics has greatly progressed because of improvements in sequencing technologies and the rapid reduction of sequencing costs. Nevertheless, pan-genomics still presents many challenges, including computationally intensive assembly methods, high costs with large numbers of samples, ineffective integration of big data, and difficulty in applying it to downstream multi-omics analysis and breeding research. In this review, we summarize the definition and recent achievements of plant pan-genomics, computational technologies used for pan-genome construction, and the applications of pan-genomes in plant genomics and molecular breeding. We also discuss challenges and perspectives for future pan-genomics studies and provide a detailed pipeline for sample selection, genome assembly and annotation, structural variation identification, and construction and application of graph-based pan-genomes. The aim is to provide important guidance for plant pan-genome research and a better understanding of the genetic basis of genome evolution, crop domestication, and phenotypic diversity for future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgg.2022.06.004DOI Listing
June 2022

Effects of casein on the stability, antioxidant activity, and bioavailability of lotus anthocyanins.

J Food Biochem 2022 Jun 23:e14288. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Antioxidant Polyphenols Team, Department of Food Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, P.R. China.

Effects of casein on the stability, antioxidant activity, and bioavailability of lotus anthocyanins were investigated. Casein could inhibit the unsatisfactory pH-induced color change of lotus anthocyanins, and improved their photo, oxidation, and thermal stabilities. During the simulated digestion, the anthocyanin retention increased from 65.39 to 76.14 mg C3G/L with the protection of casein, while the DPPH and ABTS scavenging activities of lotus anthocyanins with casein increased to 62.33% and 46.58%, respectively. However, casein with lower concentration showed a better protective effect on lotus anthocyanins due to its self-aggregation tendency at high dose. The zebrafish model further verified that casein could enhance the bioavailability of lotus anthocyanins. Furthermore, molecular docking revealed that casein could interact with anthocyanin by hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interaction, which led to the stronger stability and bioavailability of lotus anthocyanins. The results conveyed that casein could be used as a wall material to protect anthocyanins. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Anthocyanins are natural colorants with multiple biological activities, but the poor stability during processing and digestion limits their application in food industry. In the present research, casein exhibited conspicuous ability to enhance the stability of lotus anthocyanins toward detrimental conditions. Additionally, casein could preserve anthocyanins from degradation during digestion and thus improve the bioavailability. These findings indicated that casein could serve as a potential carrier for encapsulating and delivering anthocyanins. The better stability and bioavailability would promote the application of anthocyanins in food products and human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.14288DOI Listing
June 2022

The Impact of Rural Population Mobility on Fertility Intention under the Comprehensive Two-Child Policy: Evidence from Rural China.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 06 16;19(12). Epub 2022 Jun 16.

College of Economics, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China.

Declining fertility rates pose challenges to global economic, social, cultural and political development. Low fertility rates among rural floating populations are exacerbating these challenges. However, it is not clear whether and to what extent rural population mobility (RPM) has reduced migrants' willingness to have children. At the same time, rural migration may represent a self-selection behavior (i.e., selection bias), and traditional measurement methods may be insufficient for effectively estimating the quantitative impacts of rural migration. Accordingly, the data from 1734 rural households from 28 provinces in mainland China were collected in the current study, and endogenous switching regression (ESR) models were used to correct the selection bias to quantitatively evaluate the impacts of RPM on fertility intention. The results revealed the following: (1) For rural residents who choose to move, if they chose not to move, their willingness to give birth would increase by 19.820%, their willingness to have female children would increase by 48.526%, and their willingness to have male children would drop by 26.711%. (2) For rural residents who choose not to move, if they chose to move, their willingness to give birth would drop by 55.982%, their willingness to have female children would drop by 18.294%, and their willingness to have male children would drop by 55.106%. (3) For eastern rural residents who choose to move, if they chose not to move, their willingness to give birth would decrease by 40.273%. For midwestern rural residents who choose to move, if they chose not to move, their willingness to give birth would increase by 24.786%. (4) For eastern rural residents who choose not to move, if they chose to move, their willingness to give birth would increase by 11.032%. (5) For midwestern rural residents who choose not to move, if they chose to move, their willingness to give birth would drop by 71.744%. The abovementioned findings can provide research support for other low-fertility countries or regions toward increasing fertility rates and addressing any imbalances in current gender ratios. They can also help to provide realistic strategies for alleviating the global population crisis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19127365DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9223699PMC
June 2022

The relationship analysis and reaction mechanism of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus metabolism in sewage treatment in plateau habitat.

Environ Monit Assess 2022 Jun 22;194(7):520. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Water Conservancy Project & Civil Engineering College, Tibet Agriculture & Animal Husbandry University, Linzhi, 860000, China.

The efficiency of pollutant removal in sewage is mainly determined by the structure and abundance of microbial flora, which is essentially represented by the type and abundance of genes and enzymes, and the reaction mechanism is the abundance and degree of reaction of metabolic pathways and metabolic modules. In order to study the mechanism of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus metabolism of activated sludge microflora in the AO process at high altitudes at different temperatures, so as to improve the removal rate of pollutants and reduce the discharge concentration of pollutants. Based on the research environment of high-altitude environmental research, the author used the AO system as the treatment process and put Illumina MiSeq high-through sequencing technology to comprehensively dissect the reaction relationship of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus metabolic pathways, and derived the main functional genes and enzymes of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus metabolism. It was demonstrated that the abundance of the most metabolic modules and functional genes tended to increase and then decrease with increasing temperature. In particular, the highest abundance and activity and the best pollutant removal efficiency were observed at 20 °C. This study will provide a valuable reference for the study of carbon metabolism, nitrogen metabolism, and phosphorus metabolism of microbial flora in sewage treatment under plateau habitats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-022-10151-3DOI Listing
June 2022

Deep Learning-Based Automated Detection of Arterial Vessel Wall and Plaque on Magnetic Resonance Vessel Wall Images.

Front Neurosci 2022 1;16:888814. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Paul C. Lauterbur Research Center for Biomedical Imaging, Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, China.

Purpose: To develop and evaluate an automatic segmentation method of arterial vessel walls and plaques, which is beneficial for facilitating the arterial morphological quantification in magnetic resonance vessel wall imaging (MRVWI).

Methods: MRVWI images acquired from 124 patients with atherosclerotic plaques were included. A convolutional neural network-based deep learning model, namely VWISegNet, was used to extract the features from MRVWI images and calculate the category of each pixel to facilitate the segmentation of vessel wall. Two-dimensional (2D) cross-sectional slices reconstructed from all plaques and 7 main arterial segments of 115 patients were used to build and optimize the deep learning model. The model performance was evaluated on the remaining nine-patient test set using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and average surface distance (ASD).

Results: The proposed automatic segmentation method demonstrated satisfactory agreement with the manual method, with DSCs of 93.8% for lumen contours and 86.0% for outer wall contours, which were higher than those obtained from the traditional U-Net, Attention U-Net, and Inception U-Net on the same nine-subject test set. And all the ASD values were less than 0.198 mm. The Bland-Altman plots and scatter plots also showed that there was a good agreement between the methods. All intraclass correlation coefficient values between the automatic method and manual method were greater than 0.780, and greater than that between two manual reads.

Conclusion: The proposed deep learning-based automatic segmentation method achieved good consistency with the manual methods in the segmentation of arterial vessel wall and plaque and is even more accurate than manual results, hence improved the convenience of arterial morphological quantification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2022.888814DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9198483PMC
June 2022

The Pyroptosis-Related Long Noncoding RNA Signature Predicts Prognosis and Indicates Immunotherapeutic Efficiency in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2022 26;10:779269. Epub 2022 May 26.

Department of Liver Surgery and Liver Transplantation Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Pyroptosis was recently demonstrated to be an inflammatory form of gasdermin-regulated programmed cell death characterized by cellular lysis and the release of several proinflammatory factors and participates in tumorigenesis. However, the effects of pyroptosis-related long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have not yet been completely elucidated. Based on the regression coefficients of ZFPM2-AS1, KDM4A-AS1, LUCAT1, NRAV, CRYZL2P-SEC16B, AL031985.3, SNHG4, AL049840.5, AC008549.1, MKLN1-AS, AC099850.3, and LINC01224, HCC patients were classified into a low- or high-risk group. The high-risk score according to pyroptosis-related lncRNA signature was significantly associated with poor overall survival even after adjusting for age and clinical stage. Receiver operating characteristic curves and principal component analysis further supported the accuracy of the model. Our study revealed that a higher pyroptosis-related lncRNA risk score was significantly associated with tumor staging, pathological grade, and tumor-node-metastasis stages. The nomogram incorporating the pyroptosis-related lncRNA risk score and clinicopathological factors demonstrated good accuracy. Furthermore, we observed distinct tumor microenvironment cell infiltration characteristics between high- and low-risk tumors. Notably, based on the risk model, we found that the risk score is closely related to the expression of immune checkpoint genes, immune subtypes of tumors, and the sensitivity of HCC to chemotherapy drugs and immunotherapy. In conclusion, our novel risk score of pyroptosis-related lncRNA can serve as a promising prognostic biomarker for HCC patients and provide help for HCC patients to guide precision drug treatment and immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2022.779269DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9195296PMC
May 2022

Regulating autogenic vegetation in the riparian zone reduces carbon emissions: Evidence from a microcosm study.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Sep 13;840:156715. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Key Laboratory of Eco-Environment of Three Gorges Region, Ministry of Education, College of Environment and Ecology, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045, PR China. Electronic address:

Riparian zones have been found to be hot spots of greenhouse gas (GHG) production and have attracted increasing attention in recent decades. The occurrence of autogenic vegetation in riparian zones is prevalent, but little information is available concerning the influence of the occurrence and decomposition of this vegetation on carbon mitigation. We conducted a 220-day (110 days for the dry season and 110 days for the flooded season) microcosm experiment to study the mitigation and transformation of carbon regulated by the vegetation. The results revealed that there was a carbon dioxide (CO) flux in the treatment with vegetation, and that without vegetation harvesting (835.58 mg/m/h) was close to that with vegetation harvesting (796.22 mg/m/h) under the simulated dry season conditions, but it was significantly higher than that without vegetation seedlings (411.55 mg/m/h). After being flooded, the decomposition of the vegetation residues increased the total organic carbon (TOC) content of the sediment, the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration of the water, and the dissolved CO and methane (CH) contents of the sediment. This effect was reversed by harvesting the vegetation biomass. During the flooded season, the CO flux reached 222.95 mg/m/h in the vegetation seeded treatment, but it decreased to -53.71 mg/m/h when the vegetation biomass was harvested before being submerged. This was due to the decrease in the substrate available for CO production, the altered microorganism communities, and the decrease in the abundance of carbon metabolizing related enzymes. As a result, vegetation harvesting reduced the net carbon emissions by 48 % compared to that without vegetation regulation during the 220-day incubation period. The results of this study are significant to implementing measures to reduce GHG emissions from the riparian zone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.156715DOI Listing
September 2022

The green paradox puzzle: fiscal decentralisation, environmental regulation, and agricultural carbon intensity in China.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 Jun 11. Epub 2022 Jun 11.

College of Economics, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, 611130, China.

China has the highest carbon dioxide emissions worldwide. Exploring the mechanism of fiscal decentralisation on agricultural carbon intensity can help China reach its carbon peak and become carbon neutral. This study used panel data for 30 provinces in Mainland China from 2000 to 2019 and constructed a spatial Durbin model to investigate the spatial-temporal patterns and internal relationships among fiscal decentralisation, environmental regulation, and agricultural carbon intensity. The results indicated that (1) from 2000 to 2019, the agricultural carbon intensity showed a downward trend and showed a spatial pattern of 'high in the north and low in the south'. The degree of fiscal decentralisation has gradually increased, and the spatial pattern of 'high in the north and low in the south' has also emerged. The intensity of environmental regulation continues to increase, and the intensity of environmental regulation in inland areas is higher than that in coastal areas. (2) From 2000 to 2019, the global Moran index of agricultural carbon intensity showed a development trend of first rising and then falling, and the spatial correlation changed from strong to weak. Agricultural carbon intensity tends to develop from polarisation to balanced development. (3) Both fiscal decentralisation and environmental regulation can reduce agricultural carbon intensity, and environmental regulation has a negative spatial spillover effect. (4) Under the influence of fiscal decentralisation, environmental regulation is not conducive to reducing agricultural carbon intensity due to the characteristics of 'race to the bottom', causing the 'green paradox' effect. (5) Environmental regulation and fiscal decentralisation in main grain producing areas have less impact on agricultural carbon intensity than in non-main grain producing areas. Therefore, the central government should focus on optimising the fiscal decentralisation system, formulating a differentiated agricultural carbon emission control system, regulating competition among local governments, and optimising a political performance evaluation system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-21149-2DOI Listing
June 2022

Metformin Promotes Mechanical Stretch-Induced Skin Regeneration by Improving the Proliferative Activity of Skin-Derived Stem Cells.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2022 24;9:813917. Epub 2022 May 24.

Department of Plastic Surgery, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China.

Background: Skin expansion by mechanical stretch is an essential and widely used treatment for tissue defects in plastic and reconstructive surgery; however, the regenerative capacity of mechanically stretched skin limits clinical treatment results. Here, we propose a strategy to enhance the regenerative ability of mechanically stretched skin by topical application of metformin.

Methods: We established a mechanically stretched scalp model in male rats ( = 20), followed by their random division into two groups: metformin-treated ( = 10) and control ( = 10) groups. We measured skin thickness, collagen volume fraction, cell proliferation, and angiogenesis to analyze the effects of topical metformin on mechanically stretched skin, and immunofluorescence staining was performed to determine the contents of epidermal stem cells and hair follicle bulge stem cells in mechanically stretched skin. Western blot was performed to detect the protein expression of skin-derived stem cell markers.

Results: Compared with the control group, metformin treatment was beneficial to mechanical stretch-induced skin regeneration by increasing the thicknesses of epidermis (57.27 ± 10.24 vs. 31.07 ± 9.06 μm, < 0.01) and dermis (620.2 ± 86.17 vs. 402.1 ± 22.46 μm, < 0.01), number of blood vessels (38.30 ± 6.90 vs. 17.00 ± 3.10, < 0.01), dermal collagen volume fraction (60.48 ± 4.47% vs. 41.28 ± 4.14%, < 0.01), and number of PCNA+, Aurora B+, and pH3+ cells. Additionally, we observed significant elevations in the number of proliferating hair follicle bulge stem cells [cytokeratin (CK)15+/proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)+] (193.40 ± 35.31 vs. 98.25 ± 23.47, < 0.01) and epidermal stem cells (CK14+/PCNA+) (83.00 ± 2.38 vs. 36.38 ± 8.96, < 0.01) in the metformin-treated group, and western blot results confirmed significant increases in CK14 and CK15 expression following metformin treatment.

Conclusion: Topical application of metformin enhanced the regenerative capacity of mechanically stretched skin, with the underlying mechanism possibly attributed to improvements in the proliferative activity of skin-derived stem cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2022.813917DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9170926PMC
May 2022
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