Publications by authors named "Qiang Fu"

1,969 Publications

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Enzyme Encapsulation by Facile Self-Assembly Silica-Modified Magnetic Nanoparticles for Glucose Monitoring in Urine.

Pharmaceutics 2022 May 28;14(6). Epub 2022 May 28.

Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, School of Pharmacy, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710061, China.

Silica nanoparticles hold tremendous potential for the encapsulation of enzymes. However, aqueous alcohol solutions and catalysts are prerequisites for the production of silica nanoparticles, which are too harsh for maintaining the enzyme activity. Herein, a procedure without any organic solvents and catalysts (acidic or alkaline) is developed for the synthesis of silica-encapsulated glucose-oxidase-coated magnetic nanoparticles by a facile self-assembly route, avoiding damage of the enzyme structure in the reaction system. The encapsulated enzyme was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometry, and a vibrating sample magnetometer. Finally, a colorimetric sensing method was developed for the detection of glucose in urine samples based on the encapsulated glucose oxidase and a hydrogen peroxide test strip. The method exhibited a good linear performance in the concentration range of 20~160 μg mL and good recoveries ranging from 94.3 to 118.0%. This work proves that the self-assembly method could be employed to encapsulate glucose oxidase into silica-coated magnetic particles. The developed colorimetric sensing method shows high sensitivity, which will provide a promising tool for the detection of glucose and the monitoring of diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14061154DOI Listing
May 2022

Phylogenomic Analysis Reconstructed the Order Matoniales from Paleopolyploidy Veil.

Plants (Basel) 2022 Jun 7;11(12). Epub 2022 Jun 7.

Shenzhen Key Laboratory for Orchid Conservation and Utilization, and Key Laboratory of National Forestry and Grassland Administration for Orchid Conservation and Utilization, the National Orchid Conservation Center of China and the Orchid Conservation & Research Center of Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518114, China.

Phylogenetic conflicts limit our understanding of the evolution of terrestrial life under multiple whole genome duplication events, and the phylogeny of early terrestrial plants remains full of controversy. Although much incongruence has been solved with so-called robust topology based on single or lower copy genes, the evolutionary mechanisms behind phylogenetic conflicts such as polyploidization remain poorly understood. Here, through decreasing the effects of polyploidization and increasing the samples of species, which represent all four orders and eight families that comprise early leptosporangiate ferns, we have reconstructed a robust phylogenetic tree and network with 1125 1-to-1 orthologs based on both coalescent and concatenation methods. Our data consistently suggest that Matoniales, as a monophyletic lineage including Matoniaceae and Dipteridaceae, should be redefined as an ordinal rank. Furthermore, we have identified and located at least 11 whole-genome duplication events within the evolutionary history of four leptosporangiates lineages, and associated polyploidization with higher speciation rates and mass extinction events. We hypothesize that paleopolyploidization may have enabled leptosporangiate ferns to survive during mass extinction events at the end Permian period and then flourish throughout the Mesozoic era, which is supported by extensive fossil records. Our results highlight how ancient polyploidy can result in rapid species radiation, thus causing phylogenetic conflicts yet allowing plants to survive and thrive during mass extinction events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants11121529DOI Listing
June 2022

Low-temperature growth of ultrathin and epitaxial MoC nanosheets a vapor-liquid-solid process.

Nanoscale 2022 Jun 20. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

State Key Laboratory of Catalysis, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian, 116023, China.

Due to the unique physical and chemical properties, transition metal carbides (TMCs) have many potential applications in the fields of energy conversion and catalysis. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a promising method to synthesize TMCs. However, spatially inhomogeneous supply of transition metal precursor vapor in the normal CVD process generally leads to poor control of the morphology and uniformity of the products. Here, we report a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth process where non-volatile NaMoO is used to act as a liquid precursor for the growth of uniform ultrathin MoC nanosheets on AlO(0001). The morphology of the nanosheets can be controlled by tuning the precursor concentration, annealing time and growth temperature. The roles of Na and the liquid-solid interface in consolidating Mo atoms and promoting the epitaxial growth of MoC nanosheets are demonstrated. Furthermore, we show that the liquid-solid interface can cause the crystalline phase transition of MoC nanosheets through verification experiments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2nr02389jDOI Listing
June 2022

[Mechanism of Astragali Radix-Puerariae Lobatae Radix combination in regulating type 2 diabetes mellitus through AMPK signaling pathway: based on network pharmacology and experimental verification].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2022 May;47(10):2738-2749

Jiangxi University of Chinese Medicine Nanchang 330004, China.

This study aims to explore the mechanism of Astragali Radix-Puerariae Lobatae Radix(AP) combination in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2 DM) based on network pharmacology and experiment. The effective components and targets of the pair were retrieved from the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform(TCMSP) and targets of T2 DM from each disease database. On this basis, the common targets of the medicinals and the disease were screened out. The protein-protein interaction(PPI) network was established based on STRING. Then Cytoscape 3.7.1 was employed for visualization of the common targets and the network topology analysis of key targets, followed by Gene Ontology(GO) term enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) pathway enrichment of core targets by DAVID. Thereby, the possible molecular mechanism was unveiled. High-fat diet was combined with streptozotocin(STZ, injected into tail vein) for T2 DM rat modeling. Rats were classified into the normal group, model group, positive control group(metformin hydrochloride), AP high-dose, medium-dose, and low-dose groups. After 4 weeks of intragastric administration, serum fasting blood glucose(FBG), fasting insulin(FINS), aspartate aminotransferase(AST), alanine aminotransferase(ALT), triglyceride(TG), total cholesterol(TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C), interleukin(IL)-6, and tumor necrosis factor(TNF)-α of rats in each group were measured. The expression of insulin receptor substrate-2(IRS-2), adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase(AMPK), phosphorylated AMPK(p-AMPK), glucose 6 phosphatase(G6 Pase), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxy kinase(Pepck) in rat liver was detected by Western blot. A total of 131 core targets of the combination in the treatment of T2 DM were screened out, among which protein kinase B(AKT) 1, mitogen-activated protein kinase(MAPK) 1, TNF-α, IL-6 were more critical. KEGG enrichment analysis suggested that the combination decreased blood glucose mainly through PI3 K/AKT signaling pathway, AMPK signaling pathway, TNF signaling pathway, and MAPK signaling pathway. The levels of FBG and FINS were lower and the glycogen level was higher in the AP high-dose and medium-dose groups than in the model group. The levels of AST, ALT, TG, and LDL-C in the three AP groups and the level of TC in AP high-dose and low-dose groups decreased compared with those in the model group. Levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were lower in AP high-dose and medium-dose groups than in the model group. The expression of IRS-2, AMPK, and p-AMPK was higher and that of G6 Pase and Pepck was lower in AP high-dose group than in the model group. Thus, the combination had multi-component, multi-target, and multi-pathway characteristics in the treatment of T2 DM. It may regulate AMPK signaling pathway through IL-6 and TNF-α to influence insulin resistance, glycogen synthesis, gluconeogenesis, islet β cell transport, and inflammatory response, thereby exerting therapeutic effect on T2 DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20211216.703DOI Listing
May 2022

Knockdown of the chromatin remodeling ATPase gene Brahma impairs the reproductive potential of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens.

Pestic Biochem Physiol 2022 Jun 22;184:105106. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), is one of the most destructive pests in rice-growing regions of Asia. Extensive studies have suggested that SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling ATPase Brahma (BRM) plays multiple roles in the insect model Drosophila. Yet much less is known about the physiological properties for NlBRM. In the present study, the cloned full-length cDNA of NlBRM was 5637 bp and contained an ORF of 5292 bp encoding a 194.53 kD protein. The spatiotemporal dynamics of NlBRM was investigated by qPCR, which showed that it was abundantly expressed in the egg and ovary. Then significant downregulation of NlBRM by dsRNA injection had a relatively greater impact on female survival than male. Moreover, the number of oviposition marks of the NlBRM-RNAi females were declined by 61.11% - 73.33% compared with the controls during the subsequent 5 days after dsRNA injection. Meanwhile, the number of newly hatched BPH nymphs also decreased correspondingly by 93.56% - 100%. Phenotypic analysis revealed that none of normally banana-shaped eggs were discernable in the ovaries of NlBRM-deficient females, where mRNA expression of N. lugens vitellogenin gene was also reduced. Our results demonstrated that NlBRM played a crucial role in ovarian development and fecundity of BPH, likely by regulating the vitellogenin gene in vivo, which could be as a promising target for parental RNAi-based control of this serious rice pest.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2022.105106DOI Listing
June 2022

Effect of Plasticization on Stretching Stability of Poly(vinyl alcohol) Films: A Case Study Using Glycerol and Water.

Macromol Rapid Commun 2022 Jun 14:e2200296. Epub 2022 Jun 14.

College of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, State Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials Engineering, Chengdu, 610065, People's Republic of China.

Adding small molecular plasticizers is the most common route to tailor the stretchability of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). However, how the plasticization along with the nature of the plasticizer govern the structural homogeneity during stretching remains an open question to answer. Herein, two representative plasticizers, glycerol (GLY) and water, were chosen to endow the PVA films with ductility. We found that large strain cavitations caused obvious stress whitening in the PVA/H O films; on the contrary, most of the PVA/GLY films maintained transparent undergoing tensile deformation. Through a combination of experimental inspections and molecular dynamic simulation, it is revealed that partial water molecules that behave as free water will aggregate into microdomains, which serve as mechanical defects responsible for yielding voids. Whereas, the GLY plasticizer homogeneously disperses at a molecular level and interacts with PVA chains through strong hydrogen bonds. More interestingly, we illustrate the dispersion and bound states of plasticizers are closely related to the mechanical character of the plasticized PVA films. These findings offer new insight into the working mechanism of plasticization on the structural stability during stretching, and guide the design of PVA/plasticizer system to obtain excellent comprehensive mechanics. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/marc.202200296DOI Listing
June 2022

Fumonisin B promotes germ cells apoptosis associated with oxidative stress-related Nrf2 signaling in mice testes.

Chem Biol Interact 2022 Jun 11;363:110009. Epub 2022 Jun 11.

College of Life Science and Engineering, Foshan University, Foshan, Guangdong, 528231, China. Electronic address:

Fumonisins (FBs) are widespread Fusarium toxins commonly found in corn. This study aimed to establish the mechanism of oxidative stress via the Nrf2 signaling pathway associated with FB-induced toxicity in mice testis. Male mice were fed with 5 mg/kg FB diet for 21 or 42 days, the expression of inflammatory related genes, apoptosis related genes and Nrf2 pathway genes were detected by RT-qPCR, Western blot and immunohistochemical. Furthermore, Sertoli cell was treatment with FB. Cell viability was measured by CCK8 assay, ROS level and apoptosis related genes were detected by immunofluorescence staining. The results showed that FB had toxic effects on testis, which could increase the ROS level of Sertoli cells, affect the Keap1-Nrf2 pathway related factors, destroy the oxidative balance of testis, lead to the occurrence of inflammation and the initiation of apoptosis, and finally destroy the testicular tissue structure and affect the formation of sperm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2022.110009DOI Listing
June 2022

CC and CXC chemokines in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.): Identification, evolutionary analyses, and expression profiling after Aeromonas salmonicida infection.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2022 Jun 9;127:82-98. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

School of Marine Science and Engineering, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, 266109, China. Electronic address:

Chemokines are a superfamily of structurally related cytokines, which exert essential roles in guiding cell migration in development, homeostasis, and immunity. CC and CXC chemokines are the two major subfamilies in teleost species. In this study, a total of seventeen CC and CXC chemokines, with inclusion of twelve CC and five CXC chemokines, were systematically identified from the turbot genome, making turbot the teleost harboring the least number of CC and CXC chemokines among all teleost species ever reported. Phylogeny, synteny, and genomic organization analyses were performed to annotate these genes, and multiple chemokine genes were identified in the turbot genome, due to the tandem duplications (CCL19 and CCL20), the whole genome duplications (CCL20, CCL25, and CXCL12), and the teleost-specific members (CCL34-36, CCL44, and CXCL18). In addition, chemokines were ubiquitously expressed in nine examined healthy tissues, with high expression levels observed in liver, gill, and spleen. Moreover, most chemokines were significantly differentially expressed in gill and spleen after Aeromonas salmonicida infection, and exhibited tissue-specific and time-dependent manner. Finally, protein-protein interaction network (PPI) analysis indicated that turbot chemokines interacted with a few immune-related genes such as interleukins, cathepsins, stats, and TLRs. These results should be valuable for comparative immunological studies and provide insights for further functional characterization of chemokines in teleost.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2022.06.006DOI Listing
June 2022

A Lightweight Pose Sensing Scheme for Contactless Abnormal Gait Behavior Measurement.

Sensors (Basel) 2022 May 27;22(11). Epub 2022 May 27.

Shijiazhuang School, People Liberation Army Engineering University-Shijiazhuang, Shijiazhuang 050003, China.

The recognition of abnormal gait behavior is important in the field of motion assessment and disease diagnosis. Currently, abnormal gait behavior is primarily recognized by pressure and inertial data obtained from wearable sensors. However, the data drift and wearing difficulties for patients have impeded the application of these wearable sensors. Here, we propose a contactless abnormal gait behavior recognition method that captures human pose data using a monocular camera. A lightweight OpenPose (OP) model is generated with Depthwise Separable Convolution to recognize joint points and extract their coordinates during walking in real time. For the walking data errors extracted in the 2D plane, a 3D reconstruction is performed on the walking data, and a total of 11 types of abnormal gait features are extracted by the OP model. Finally, the XGBoost algorithm is used for feature screening. The final experimental results show that the Random Forest (RF) algorithm in combination with 3D features delivers the highest precision (92.13%) for abnormal gait behavior recognition. The proposed scheme overcomes the data drift of inertial sensors and sensor wearing challenges in the elderly while reducing the hardware requirements for model deployment. With excellent real-time and contactless capabilities, the scheme is expected to enjoy a wide range of applications in the field of abnormal gait measurement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s22114070DOI Listing
May 2022

The Predictive Values of Changes in Local and Remote Brain Functional Connectivity in Primary Angle-Closure Glaucoma Patients According to Support Vector Machine Analysis.

Front Hum Neurosci 2022 19;16:910669. Epub 2022 May 19.

Department of Ophthalmology, Jiangxi Provincial People's Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang Medical College, Nanchang, China.

Purpose: The primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) is an irreversible blinding eye disease in the world. Previous neuroimaging studies demonstrated that PACG patients were associated with cerebral changes. However, the effect of optic atrophy on local and remote brain functional connectivity in PACG patients remains unknown.

Materials And Methods: In total, 23 patients with PACG and 23 well-matched Health Controls (HCs) were enrolled in our study and underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) scanning. The regional homogeneity (ReHo) method and functional connectivity (FC) method were used to evaluate the local and remote brain functional connectivity. Moreover, support vector machine (SVM) method was applied to constructing PACG classification model.

Results: Compared with the HC, PACG patients showed increased ReHo values in right cerebellum (CER)_8, left CER_4-5, and right CER_8. In contrast, PACG patients showed decreased ReHo values in the bilateral lingual gyrus (LING)/calcarine (CAL)/superior occipital gyrus (SOG) and right postcentral gyrus (PostCG). The ReHo value exhibited an accuracy of 91.30% and area under curve (AUC) of 0.95 for distinguishing the PACG patients from HC.

Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that the PACG patients showed abnormal ReHo value in the cerebellum, visual cortex, and supplementary motor area, which might be reflect the neurological mechanisms underlying vision loss and eye pain in PACG patients. Moreover, the ReHo values can be used as a useful biomarker for distinguishing the PACG patients from HCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2022.910669DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9160336PMC
May 2022

Precisely synthesized segmented polyurethanes toward block sequence-controlled drug delivery.

Chem Sci 2022 May 5;13(18):5353-5362. Epub 2022 Apr 5.

College of Polymer Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials Engineering, Sichuan University Chengdu 610065 China

The construction of polyurethanes (PUs) with sequence-controlled block structures remains a serious challenge. Here, we report the precise synthesis of PUs with desirable molecular weight, narrow molecular weight distribution, and controlled block sequences from commercially available monomers. The synthetic procedure is derived from a liquid-phase synthetic methodology, which involves diisocyanate-based iterative protocols in combination with a convergent strategy. Furthermore, a pair of multifunctional PUs with different sequence orders of cationic and anion segments were prepared. We show that the sequence order of functional segments presents an impact on the self-assembly behavior and results in unexpected surface charges of assembled micelles, thereby affecting the protein absorption, cell internalization, biodistribution and antitumor effect of the nanocarriers and . This work provides a versatile platform for the development of precise multiblock PUs with structural complexity and functional diversity, and will greatly facilitate the clinical translation of PUs in biomedicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1sc06457fDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9093123PMC
May 2022

Mussel-inspired polyurethane coating for bio-surface functionalization to enhance substrate adhesion and cell biocompatibility.

J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 2022 Jun 8:1-17. Epub 2022 Jun 8.

College of Polymer Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Considerable implant materials are prone to cause a severe inflammatory reaction due to poor histocompatibility, which leads to various complications and implant failure. Surface coating modification of these implant materials is one of the most important techniques to settle this problem. However, fabricating a coating with both adequate adhesiveness and excellent biocompatibility remains a challenge. Inspired by the adhesion mechanism of mussels, a series of mussel-inspired polyurethanes (PU-LDAs) were synthysized through a step growth polymerization based on hexamethylene diisocyanate as a hard segment, polytetra-methylene-ether-glycol as a soft segment, lysine-dopamine (LDA) and butanediol as chain extenders with different mole ratios.The coatings of PU-LDAs were applied to various substrates, such as stainless steel, glass and PP using a facile one-step coating process. The introduction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) groups can greatly improve the adhesion ability of the coatings to the substrates demonstrated by a 180° peel test. The peel strength of the PU-LDA100 coating containing high LDA content was 76.3, 48.5 and 67.5 N/m, which was 106.2%, 246.4% and 192.2% higher than that of the PU-LDA00 coating without LDA on the surface of stainless steel, glass and PP, respectively. Meanwhile, this PU coating has a lower immune inflammatory response which provides a universal method for surface modification of implant materials. Moreover, the DOPA groups in PU-LDAs could combine with the amino and thiol groups on cell membrane surface, leading to the improvement of cell adhesion and growth. Therefore, it has great potential application in the field of biomedical implant materials for the clinic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09205063.2022.2085342DOI Listing
June 2022

A Universal Mechanochemistry Allows On-Demand Synthesis of Stable and Processable Liquid Metal Composites.

Small Methods 2022 May 26:e2200246. Epub 2022 May 26.

College of Polymer Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065, China.

Gallium-based liquid metal (LM) is regarded as one of the most promising candidates for the new-generation jigsaw of stretchable electronics. Nonetheless, the obstacle for the LM application lies in its high surface tension and easy fluidity which leads to great difficulty in handling and processing. Herein, a cross-mechanochemistry between liquid metal and inorganic solid, mediated via the coordination binding between the empty electronic orbits of the former and the lone electron pair of the latter is reported. The mechanism is validated via density functional theory calculation and electron energy loss spectroscopy, and experimentally proven to be universally applicable for various liquid metals and inorganic solids. With the unique mechanochemistry, simple ball milling allows on-demand transformation of the liquid metal into a low-surface-tension liquid, semi-solid paste, or even solid powder. The overcoming of the intrinsic high surface tension of the liquid metal with this approach unleashes the freedom to easily process the liquid metal composites into polymer composites or as direct molding processable paste and printable electronic ink.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smtd.202200246DOI Listing
May 2022

Selinexor combined with ibrutinib demonstrates tolerability and safety in advanced B-cell malignancies: A phase I study.

Clin Cancer Res 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, Ohio, United States.

Purpose: Dual blockade of Bruton's tyrosine kinase with ibrutinib and selinexor has potential to deepen responses for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).

Experimental Design: In this phase I study (clinicaltrials.gov:NCT02303392), adult patients with CLL/NHL, relapsed/refractory to {greater than or equal to}1 prior therapy were enrolled. Patients received weekly oral selinexor and daily oral ibrutinib in 28-day cycles until progression or intolerance. Primary objective was to determine maximum tolerated dose (MTD).

Results: Included patients had CLL (n=16) or NHL (n=18; 9 Richter's transformation, 6 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and 3 mantle cell lymphoma). Median prior therapies was 4 (range=1-14) and 59% previously received ibrutinib. The established MTD was 40mg of selinexor (Days 1, 8, 15) and 420mg daily ibrutinib. Common non-hematologic adverse events were fatigue (56%), nausea (53%), anorexia (41%), and diarrhea (41%) and were mostly low grade. Overall response rate was 32%. An additional 47% achieved stable disease (SD), some prolonged (up to 36 months). Median progression-free survival for patients with CLL and NHL was 8.9 [(95%CI:3.9-16.1] and 2.7 (95%CI:0.7-5.4) months, respectively. For CLL patients who did not receive prior ibrutinib, only 20% (1/5) progressed. Estimated 2-year overall survival was 73.7% (95%CI:44.1-89.2%) and 27.8% (95%CI:10.1-48.9%) for CLL and NHL patients, respectively.

Conclusion: The selinexor and ibrutinib combination has demonstrated tolerability in patients with relapsed/refractory CLL/NHL. Responses were durable. Notable responses were seen in CLL patients with minimal prior therapy. Future study of this combination will focus on efforts to deepen remissions in patients with CLL receiving ibrutinib therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-21-3867DOI Listing
May 2022

Structural Origin of Suppressed Voltage Decay in Single-Crystalline Li-Rich Layered Li[Li Ni Mn ]O Cathodes.

Small 2022 Jun 23;18(25):e2201522. Epub 2022 May 23.

School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, No.28, West Xianning Road, Xi'an, 710049, China.

Lithium- and manganese-rich layered oxides (LMLOs, ≥ 250 mAh g ) with polycrystalline morphology always suffer from severe voltage decay upon cycling because of the anisotropic lattice strain and oxygen release induced chemo-mechanical breakdown. Herein, a Co-free single-crystalline LMLO, that is, Li[Li Ni Mn ]O (LLNMO-SC), is prepared via a Li /Na ion-exchange reaction. In situ synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction (sXRD) results demonstrate that relatively small changes in lattice parameters and reduced average micro-strain are observed in LLNMO-SC compared to its polycrystalline counterpart (LLNMO-PC) during the charge-discharge process. Specifically, the as-synthesized LLNMO-SC exhibits a unit cell volume change as low as 1.1% during electrochemical cycling. Such low strain characteristics ensure a stable framework for Li-ion insertion/extraction, which considerably enhances the structural stability of LLNMO during long-term cycling. Due to these peculiar benefits, the average discharge voltage of LLNMO-SC decreases by only ≈0.2 V after 100 cycles at 28 mA g between 2.0 and 4.8 V, which is much lower than that of LLNMO-PC (≈0.5 V). Such a single-crystalline strategy offers a promising solution to constructing stable high-energy lithium-ion batteries (LIBs).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202201522DOI Listing
June 2022

Hydrogenated Molybdenum Oxide Overlayers Formed on Mo Nitride Nanosheets in Ambient-Pressure CO/H Gases.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2022 Jun 23;14(22):26194-26203. Epub 2022 May 23.

State Key Laboratory of Catalysis, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023, China.

Transition metal nitrides (TMN) often exhibit high catalytic activity in many important reactions. Due to their low stability in a reaction environment, it remains as a crucial issue to reveal surface active structures in catalytic reactions, particularly for the cases containing both oxidative and reductive gases. Herein, MoN and MoN nanosheets have been constructed on AlO(0001) and Au foil surfaces, and surface characterizations are performed on the model catalysts in ambient-pressure CO, H, and CO + H gases. Raman spectroscopy and quasi X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicate that MoO and defective MoO overlayers form on both MoN and MoN surfaces in CO, and the surface oxidation occurs under a milder condition on MoN than on MoN. Further, a hydrogenated Mo oxide (HMoO) overlayer forms in a CO + H atmosphere, as confirmed using quasi XPS and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy. The surface analysis over the model nitride catalysts suggests that O and/or H atoms may be incorporated into surface layers to form the active structure in many O and H-containing reactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.2c03626DOI Listing
June 2022

Dynamic transformation between bilayer islands and dinuclear clusters of Cr oxide on Au(111) through environment and interface effects.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2022 May 23;119(22):e2120716119. Epub 2022 May 23.

State Key Laboratory of Catalysis, iChEM, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023, China.

SignificanceFor oxide catalysts, it is important to elucidate and further control their atomic structures. In this work, well-defined CrO bilayer islands and CrO dinuclear clusters have been grown on Au(111) and unambiguously identified by scanning tunneling microscopy and theoretical calculations. Upon cycled redox treatments, the two kinds of oxide nanostructures can be reversibly transformed. It is interesting to note that both Cr oxides do not exist in bulk but need to be stabilized by the metal surface and the specific environment. Our results suggest that both redox atmosphere and interface confinement effects can be used to construct an oxide nanostructure with the specific chemical state and structure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2120716119DOI Listing
May 2022

Ionic Dopant-Free Polymer Alloy Hole Transport Materials for High-Performance Perovskite Solar Cells.

J Am Chem Soc 2022 Jun 20;144(21):9500-9509. Epub 2022 May 20.

The Centre of Nanoscale Science and Technology and Key Laboratory of Functional Polymer Materials, Institute of Polymer Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Renewable Energy Conversion and Storage Center (RECAST), Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China.

The dominated hole transport material (HTM) used in state-of-the-art perovskite solar cells (PSCs) is Spiro-OMeTAD, which needs to be doped to improve its conductivity and mobility. The inevitable instability induced by deliquescent dopants and the necessary oxidation process in air hinders the commercialization of this technology. Here, an alloy strategy using two conjugated polymers with highly similar structures but different crystallinities for dopant-free HTM and high-performance PSCs has been demonstrated. We found that the polymeric packing and crystallinity of a polymer alloy could be regulated finely by blending the polymer PM6 and our developed polymer PMSe, which exhibits a shorter π-π stacking distance due to the improved planarity of the polymer backbone with strong C═O···Se noncovalent interactions. The structure-property relationship of the polymer alloy is investigated by theoretical and experimental analyses. The optimized PSCs using the polymer alloy HTM without any ionic dopants feature an excellent power conversion efficiency of 24.53% and a high open circuit voltage () of 1.19 V with much improved stability. This efficiency is much higher than that of the control device using doped Spiro-OMeTAD HTM (PCE = 22.54%). Our work provides a very effective strategy to design and construct dopant-free hole transport materials for highly efficient perovskite solar cells and other applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.2c04029DOI Listing
June 2022

Performance of gravity-driven membrane systems for algal water treatment: Effects of temperature and membrane properties.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Sep 16;838(Pt 1):155963. Epub 2022 May 16.

Key Lab of Smart Prevention and Mitigation of Civil Engineering Disasters of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, China.

Gravity-driven membrane (GDM) systems are promising for algal water treatment. However, the algae-bacteria interaction in the biofilm on the membrane, which is highly dependent on temperature and membrane properties, is still unclear. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of temperature on the performance of GDM systems during the filtration of algae-rich water for 50 days using two types of membranes. The results suggested that the combined effect of the microbial growth (controlled by temperature) and organic rejection (related to membrane properties) determined the membrane biofilm structure and its hydraulic resistance. Increasing the temperature from 10 to 35 °C gradually improved the foulant removal by both polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membranes, corresponding to different microbial activities. The lowest removal observed at 10 °C was attributed to the algal cell rupture and limited bacteria growth. At 25 °C, the stimulated algae population was mainly responsible for nutrient removal, meanwhile the oxygenic environment encouraged the proliferation of heterotrophic bacteria for the organic removal. At a higher temperature of 35 °C, both the nutrient and organic removal were dominated by denitrification, accompanied by a strong increase in biological activity. Although PVDF membranes had 10 times higher initial fluxes than PVC membranes, they obtained comparable final fluxes. Unlike PVDF membranes exhibited the highest final flux at 10 °C (3.64 L/m/h), the PVC membrane permeability increased in the order: 10 °C (1.58 L/m/h) < 25 °C (2.20 L/m/h) < 35 °C (4.00 L/m/h). This is mainly because the PVDF membrane fouling was dominated by microbial biomass, while PVC membranes with smaller pores and higher hydrophilicity were more sensitive to changes in microbial metabolites. This study links temperature, membrane properties and biofilm physiology, with practical relevance for the hydraulic performance of GDM systems, hopefully leading to their wider application in algal water treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.155963DOI Listing
September 2022

Transcriptomic characterization of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) head kidney following administration of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. masoucida vaccine.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2022 Jul 14;126:150-163. Epub 2022 May 14.

School of Marine Science and Engineering, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, 266109, China. Electronic address:

Atlantic salmon is one of the most famous and economically important fish species globally. However, bacterial diseases constantly constrain salmon aquaculture. Thereinto, Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. masoucida (ASM), classified as atypical A. salmonicida, caused huge losses to salmonid industry in China. In this regard, we conducted transcriptome analysis in Atlantic salmon head kidney following the administration of ASM vaccination to reveal genes, their expression patterns, and pathways involved in immune responses. A total of 448.71 million clean reads were obtained, and 397.69 million reads were mapped onto the Atlantic salmon reference genome. In addition, 117, 1891, 741, 207, and 377 genes were significantly up-regulated, and 183, 1920, 695, 83, and 539 genes were significantly down-regulated post ASM vaccination at 12 h, 24 h, 1 m, 2 m, and 3 m, respectively. Furthermore, KEGG pathway analysis revealed that many differentially expressed genes (DEGs) following ASM vaccination were involved in cell adhesion molecules (H2-Aa-l and CD28-l),cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction (IL10, CXCL9, CXCL11, CXCR3, and CCL19), herpes simplex infection (IL1B, SOCS3-l, and C3-l), HTLV-I infection (Il1r2 and BCL2L1), influenza A (CXCL8 and Il12b), and PI3K-Akt signaling pathway (PIK3R3-l and Ddit4-l). Finally, the results of qRT-PCR showed a significant correlation with RNA-Seq results, suggesting the reliability of RNA-Seq for gene expression analysis. This study sets the foundation for further study on the vaccine protective mechanism in Atlantic salmon as well as other teleost species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2022.05.022DOI Listing
July 2022

Super-selective intra-arterial dissolution therapy for lingual artery occlusion resulting due to the use of hyaluronic acid for chin augmentation: The first reported case.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Senior Department of Burns and Plastic Surgery, The Fourth Medical Center of PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China.

As a consequence of the current trend of performing minimally invasive surgery, the use of injectable fillers has progressively increased in aesthetic surgery. Vascular complications resulting due to the filling of hyaluronic acid (HA) in the chin have been previously reported. However, clinical evidence regarding the results of treatment of lingual artery occlusion with super-selective intra-arterial dissolution is lacking. Herein, we reported a case of lingual artery occlusion resulting due to HA filling for which tongue arteriography and catheter-directed dissolution were implemented via femoral artery intubation for the first time in the literature. The aim of this paper was to discuss the rare complications arising due to chin augmentation and their treatment to provide a deeper understanding of the use and side effects of HA in this procedure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.15093DOI Listing
May 2022

Tanshinone Capsules Combined With Prednisone for Facial Seborrheic Dermatitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2022 29;9:816419. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Background: Facial seborrheic dermatitis (FSD), also called facial seborrheic eczema, is a common disease affecting both male and female patients worldwide. Tanshinone is the main bioactive component extracted from the Traditional Chinese Medicine , which is widely used in treating skin inflammatory diseases. It is necessary to evaluate the clinical evidence for tanshinone capsule treatment of FSD. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of tanshinone capsules combined with prednisone in the treatment of facial seborrheic dermatitis and to provide evidence for clinical practice.

Methods: Studies were searched in PubMed, the Cochrane Library, the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, the Chinese Scientific Journal Database, and WanFang Database before October 2021. We also searched for randomized controlled clinical trials (RCT) of tanshinone capsules combined with prednisone on facial seborrheic dermatitis. The meta-analysis was conducted according to the guidelines of the Cochrane Handbook. Two reviewers regulated the research selection, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment, respectively, and a third reviewer was used for consulting when necessary. Review Manager Software 5.3 was used for meta-analysis.

Results: A total of 10 RCTs with 916 participants were included. Nine studies reported total effectiveness, five studies reported symptom score, seven studies reported adverse events, and four studies reported recurrence rate. The duration of treatment was 4 to 8 weeks. Combination therapy showed better clinical effects compared to the prednisone (OR: 5.82; 95% CI: 3.53, 9.59; < 0.00001). Combination therapy could repair skin lesions (MD: -0.40; 95% CI: -0.51, -0.30; < 0.00001), reduce skin erythema (MD: -0.58, 95% CI: -0.67, -0.49; < 0.00001), relieve skin itch (MD: -0.70; 95% CI -0.77, -0.63; < 0.00001), and desquamation score (MD: -0.64; 95% CI: -0.71, -0.56; < 0.00001). Furthermore, combination therapy could reduce adverse events (OR: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.26, 0.84; = 0.01) and control recurrence rate (OR: 0.22; 95% CI: 0.13, 0.36; < 0.00001).

Conclusions: Compared with prednisone, tanshinone capsules combined with prednisone may be effective in the treatment of facial seborrheic dermatitis. However, due to the high risk and ambiguity of bias in the included trials, the conclusion of this study must be interpreted carefully.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2022.816419DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9106380PMC
April 2022

Acute Aluminum Sulfate Triggers Inflammation and Oxidative Stress, Inducing Tissue Damage in the Kidney of the Chick.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2022 May 13. Epub 2022 May 13.

College of Life Science and Engineering, Foshan University, Foshan, Guangdong, 528231, People's Republic of China.

In this study, a total of 20 7-day-old chicks were randomly divided into an experimental group and a control group. The experimental group was administered aluminum sulfate (Al(SO)) once by gavage, and the control group was sacrificed after 24 h of fasting with distilled water. Serum and kidney tissue samples from both groups were collected and compared using hematoxylin-eosin staining (H&E) and microscopy. The Paller scores increased (p < 0.01) for biochemical kidney function, redox-related indicators, and mRNA expression of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) downstream related genes. The results showed that in the kidneys of the experimental group, renal tubular epithelial cells appeared to swell, and there was necrosis and shedding; the blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and uric acid (UA) decreased, serum creatinine (CREA) increased; nitric oxide (NO), glutathione (GSH), and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents increased; NO synthase (NOS), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activities increased; tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNF-R1), tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNF -R2), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) mRNA expression levels increased (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01); Nrf2, glutathione S-transferase A3 (GSTA3), glutathione-S-transferase mu-1 (GSTM1), glutathione synthetase (GSS), glutamate cysteine ligase (GCLC and GCLM), quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), and Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) mRNA expression levels decreased (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) compared to the control group. Acute aluminum poisoning can cause obvious pathological changes in the structure of the kidney tissue of the chick, resulting in damage to the kidney function, as well as triggering inflammation and oxidative stress in the kidney.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-022-03260-0DOI Listing
May 2022

Preparation of molecularly imprinted foam for selective extraction of toxic monocrotaline from herbs.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2022 Jun 29;1200:123273. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

School of Pharmacy, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710061, China. Electronic address:

Monocrotaline (MCT), derived from most flowering plants, showed significant hepatotoxicity and carcinogenicity. Humans are easily exposed to MCT by eating traditional herbs or contaminated foods, posing a huge threat to human health. In order to selectively and conveniently separate and enrich MCT from these complex samples, we fabricated three-dimensional porous and homogeneous molecularly imprinted polymer foams (MIPFs) by using considerably inexpensive polyurethane foam (PU) as the carrier. The morphology, stability, adsorption properties and extraction parameters of MIPFs were investigated. The results indicated that an imprinted layer was coated on the surface of the carrier; the stability of MIPFs was excellent; In addition to hydrogen bonding and spatial complementarity, the electrostatic interactions were crucial for the recognition between MCT and MIPFs; MIPFs exhibited high adsorption capacity of 22.78 mg g, fast mass transfer rate, and satisfactory selectivity for MCT. Subsequently, MIPFs were applied as the solid phase extraction (SPE) absorbents and combined with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to enrich and detect MCT in herbal plants. The results showed that MCT could be efficiently enriched, and the impurities could be dramatically reduced. MIPFs hold great potential for selective separation and detection of MCT in complex matrices, such as traditional Chinese medicine samples and food samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchromb.2022.123273DOI Listing
June 2022

Nickel sulfide-oxide heterostructured electrocatalysts: Bi-functionality for overall water splitting and in-situ reconstruction.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2022 Sep 30;622:728-737. Epub 2022 Apr 30.

College of Chemistry and Materials Science, and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Supramolecular Coordination Materials and Applications, Jinan University Guangzhou 510632, PR China. Electronic address:

Bi-functional electrocatalysts are desired for both hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions (HER and OER). Herein, facile O-plasma activation is introduced to improve the bi-functionality via constructing nickel sulfide-oxide heterostructures. NiS-NiO supported by nickel foam delivers obviously elevated HER and OER activity in comparison with pristine NiS and recently reported NiS-based electrocatalysts, featured by the low overpotentials for HER (104 mV) and OER (241 mV) at ±10 mA cm in 1.0 M KOH, as well as a voltage of 1.52 V for overall water splitting. As revealed by in-situ Raman spectroscopy, on the one hand, Ni(OH) generated from NiS during alkaline HER accelerates water dissociation toward the gradually improved performance; on the other hand, this heterostructure undergoes extensive oxidation during OER, leading to excessive NiOOH covering on NiS and thereby declining activity. These changes are interpreted by the distinct thermodynamic relationship under specific electrochemical conditions via density functional theory calculations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2022.04.150DOI Listing
September 2022

High-Performance Zeolitic Hollow-Fiber Membranes by a Viscosity-Confined Dry Gel Conversion Process for Gas Separation.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2022 May 10:e202204265. Epub 2022 May 10.

School of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 311 Ferst Drive NW, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA.

Zeolite membranes show great potential for gas and hydrocarbon separations, but high manufacturing cost has been one of the main hurdles in their industrial application. Here we demonstrate a method termed viscosity-confined dry gel conversion (VCDGC) for zeolite hollow fiber membrane fabrication. We demonstrate in detail the VCDGC synthesis of small-pore CHA zeolite membranes. Extensive permeation measurements reveal that dry gel-processed CHA zeolite hollow fiber membranes have excellent gas and hydrocarbon separation characteristics well exceeding or comparable to current membranes. Medium-pore MFI membranes are also fabricated, and their favorable hydrocarbon separation characteristics indicate the versatility and reliability of the VCDGC method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202204265DOI Listing
May 2022

RNA Demethylase ALKBH5 Prevents Lung Cancer Progression by Regulating EMT and Stemness Regulating p53.

Front Oncol 2022 22;12:858694. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Background: Although N6-methyladenosine (mA) RNA methylation is the most abundant reversible methylation of mRNA, which plays a critical role in regulating cancer processing, few studies have examined the role of mA in nonsmall-cell lung cancer-derived cancer stem-like cells (CSCs).

Methods: CSCs were enriched by culturing NSCLC cells in a serum-free medium, and stem factors, including CD24, CD44, ALDH1, Nanog, Oct4, and Sox2 were detected by Western blot. ALKBH5 expression was measured by employing a tissue array. Global mA methylation was measured after ALKBH5 knockdown. Malignances of CSCs were detected by performing CCK-8 assay, invasion assay, cell cycle analysis, and tumor formation and .

Results: mA demethylase ALKBH5 is highly expressed in CSCs derived from NSCLC. Knockdown of ALKBH5 increased global mA level, and also increased E-cadherin, decreased stem hallmarkers, Nanog and Oct4, and inhibited stemness of CSCs. In lung carcinoma, ALKBH5 is found to be positively correlated with p53 by using Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA) online tool. P53 transcriptionally regulates ALKBH5 and subsequently regulates the global mA methylation level. Knockdown of p53 or inhibition of p53's transcriptional activity by addition of its specific inhibitor PFT-α decreased expression of ALKBH5 and CSCs' malignancies, including proliferation, invasion, and tumor formation ability, indicating that p53 may partially regulate CSC's malignancies ALKBH5. Furthermore, we also found p53 transcriptionally regulates PRRX1, which is consistent with our previous report.

Conclusion: Collectively, our findings indicate the pivotal role of ALKBH5 in CSCs derived from NSCLC and highlight the regulatory function of the p53/ALKBH5 axis in modulating CSC progression, which could be a promising therapeutic target for NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2022.858694DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9076132PMC
April 2022

Water-Triggered Stiffening of Shape-Memory Polyurethanes Composed of Hard Backbone Dangling PEG Soft Segments.

Adv Mater 2022 May 2:e2201914. Epub 2022 May 2.

College of Polymer Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials Engineering, Med-X Center of Materials, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065, China.

Shape-memory polymers (SMPs) induced by heat or water are commonly used candidates for biomedical applications. Shape recovery inevitably leads to a dramatic decrease of Young's modulus due to the enhanced flexibility of polymer chains at the transition temperature. Herein, the principle of phase-transition-induced stiffening of shape-memory metallic alloys (SMAs) is introduced to the design of molecular structures for shape-memory polyurethane (SMPUs), featuring all-hard segments composed of main chains that are attached with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) dangling side chains. Different from conventional SMPs, they achieve a soft-to-stiff transition when shape recovers. The stiffening process is driven by water-triggered segmental rearrangement due to the incompatibility between the hard segments and the soft PEG segments. Upon hydration, the extent of microphase separation is enhanced and the hard domains are transformed to a more continuous morphology to realize more effective stress transfer. Meanwhile, such segmental rearrangement facilitates the shape-recovery process in the hydrated state despite the final increased glass transition temperature (T ). This work represents a novel paradigm of simultaneously integrating balanced mechanics, shape-memory property, and biocompatibility for SMPUs as materials for minimally invasive surgery such as endoluminal stents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202201914DOI Listing
May 2022

Fabrication of SA/Gel/C scaffold with 3D bioprinting to generate micro-nano porosity structure for skin wound healing: a detailed animal in vivo study.

Cell Regen 2022 May 1;11(1):10. Epub 2022 May 1.

Novaprint Therapeutics Suzhou Co., Ltd, Suzhou, 215000, China.

Bioprinting has exhibited remarkable promises for the fabrication of functional skin substitutes. However, there are some significant challenges for the treatment of full-thickness skin defects in clinical practice. It is necessary to determine bioinks with suitable mechanical properties and desirable biocompatibilities. Additionally, the key for printing skin is to design the skin structure optimally, enabling the function of the skin. In this study, the full-thickness skin scaffolds were prepared with a gradient pore structure constructing the dense layer, epidermis, and dermis by different ratios of bioinks. We hypothesized that the dense layer protects the wound surface and maintains a moist environment on the wound surface. By developing a suitable hydrogel bioink formulation (sodium alginate/gelatin/collagen), to simulate the physiological structure of the skin via 3D printing, the proportion of hydrogels was optimized corresponding to each layer. These results reveal that the scaffold has interconnected macroscopic channels, and sodium alginate/gelatin/collagen scaffolds accelerated wound healing, reduced skin wound contraction, and re-epithelialization in vivo. It is expected to provide a rapid and economical production method of skin scaffolds for future clinical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13619-022-00113-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9056587PMC
May 2022

Characterization, evolution and expression analysis of Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.).

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2022 Jun 25;125:9-16. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

School of Marine Science and Engineering, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, 266109, China. Electronic address:

The pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) can recognize the conserved molecular structures of pathogens to active the innate immune responses, and subsequently induce the antigen-specific adaptive immune responses for the clearance of infected pathogen. Among the PRRs, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the first and best characterized PRRs across all the species. Among the TLR members, TLR7 showed significant conservation across the vertebrates, with the lowest rate of evolution for its LRR domains from primates to fishes. In the current study, one TLR7 (SmTLR7) gene was captured in turbot, with a 3144 bp open reading frame (ORF), that encoding 1047 amino acid residues. Following multiple sequence comparison, SmTLR7 was found to have the highest similarity and identity both to Paralichthys olivaceus with 91.9% and 85.9%, respectively. In phylogenetic analysis, SmTLR7 was firstly clustered with Japanese flounder, and then clustered with fugu, rainbow trout, and zebrafish. In addition, SmTLR7 was widely expressed in all the examined tissues with the highest expression level in spleen, followed by skin, while the lowest expression level was detected in blood. Following both Edwardsiella tarda and Vibrio anguillarum challenge, SmTLR7 was significantly down-regulated in gill and intestine, and up-regulated in skin. Moreover, SmTLR7 was significantly up-regulated in head kidney macrophages following LPS, LTA, PGN and polyI:C stimulation, as well as showed the strongest binding ability to LPS, followed by PGN, LTA, and polyI:C in a dose-dependent manner. Finally, following RNAi of SmTLR7, MyD88 and IL-1β were slightly up-regulated, while TRAF6 and IL-8 were significantly down-regulated. The characterization of TLR7 can expand our understanding of the PRRs in teleost fishes, and eventually aid the exploration of interactions between host and pathogen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2022.04.035DOI Listing
June 2022
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