Publications by authors named "Qian Zhou"

1,050 Publications

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Microglia-Based Sex-Biased Neuropathology in Early-Stage Alzheimer's Disease Model Mice and the Potential Pharmacologic Efficacy of Dioscin.

Cells 2021 Nov 22;10(11). Epub 2021 Nov 22.

Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1-1 Iseigaoka, Yahatanishi-ku, Kitakyushu 807-8555, Japan.

Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, is characterized by amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation, microglia-associated neuroinflammation, and synaptic loss. The detailed neuropathologic characteristics in early-stage AD, however, are largely unclear. We evaluated the pathologic brain alterations in young adult App knock-in model mice at 3 and 6 months of age, which corresponds to early-stage AD. At 3 months of age, microglia expression in the cortex and hippocampus was significantly decreased. By the age of 6 months, the number and function of the microglia increased, accompanied by progressive amyloid-β deposition, synaptic dysfunction, neuroinflammation, and dysregulation of β-catenin and NF-κB signaling pathways. The neuropathologic changes were more severe in female mice than in male mice. Oral administration of dioscin, a natural product, ameliorated the neuropathologic alterations in young mice. Our findings revealed microglia-based sex-differential neuropathologic changes in a mouse model of early-stage AD and therapeutic efficacy of dioscin on the brain lesions. Dioscin may represent a potential treatment for AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells10113261DOI Listing
November 2021

Engineering In-Plane Nickel Phosphide Heterointerfaces with Interfacial sp HP Hybridization for Highly Efficient and Durable Hydrogen Evolution at 2 A cm.

Small 2021 Nov 25:e2105642. Epub 2021 Nov 25.

Department of Physics and TcSUH, University of Houston, Houston, TX, 77204, USA.

The catalytic hydrogen-evolving activities of transition-metal phosphides are greatly related to the phosphorus content, but the physical origin of performance enhancement remains ambiguous, and tuning the catalytic activity of nickel phosphides (NiP /Ni P ) remains challenging due to unfavorable H* adsorption. Here, a strategy is introduced to integrate P-rich NiP and P-poor Ni P into in-plane heterostructures by anion substitution, in which P atoms at the in-plane interfaces perform as active sites to adsorb H* and thus facilitate the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) process via modulating the electronic structure between NiP and Ni P . Consequently, the NiP /Ni P hybrid exhibits an outstanding hydrogen-evolving activity, requiring only 30 and 76 mV to afford 10 and 100 mA cm in acid, respectively. It surpasses most of the earth-abundant electrocatalysts thus far, and is comparable to Pt catalysts (30/72 mV at 10/100 mA cm ). Particularly, it can run smoothly at large current density and only requires 247 mV to reach 2000 mA cm . Detailed theoretical calculations reveal that its exceptional activity stems from the moderate overlap of density states between P 2p and H 1s orbitals, thus optimizing the H*-adsorption strength. This work highlights a new avenue toward the fabrication of robust non-noble electrocatalysts by constructing in-plane heterojunctions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202105642DOI Listing
November 2021

Morphological redescription and molecular characterization of Trichodina matsu Basson amp; Van As, 1994 (Ciliophora, Mobilida, Trichodinidae) infecting Tachysurus fulvidraco (Richardson, 1846) from Chongqing, China.

Zootaxa 2021 Jun 30;4995(2):334-344. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Chongqing Key Laboratory of Animal Biology, College of Life Sciences, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing, 401331, P. R. China.

During a survey of parasitic ciliates in Chongqing, China, Trichodina matsu Basson Van As, 1994 was isolated from gills of Tachysurus fulvidraco. Furthermore, the 18S rRNA gene and ITS-5.8S rRNA region of T. matsu were sequenced for the first time and applied for the species identification and comparison with similar species in the present study. Based on the morphological and molecular comparisons, the results indicate that T. matsu is an ectoparasite specific for the Siluriformes catfish. Based on the analyses of genetic distance, multiple sequence alignments, and phylogenetic analyses, no obvious differentiation within populations of T. matsu was found. In addition, the 'Trichodina hyperparasitis (KX904933) in GenBank is a misidentification and appears to be conspecific with T. matsu according to the comparison of morphological and molecular data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4995.2.6DOI Listing
June 2021

Assessing the causal effects of long-term exposure to PM during pregnancy on cognitive function in the adolescence: Evidence from a nationwide cohort in China.

Environ Pollut 2021 Nov 19;293:118560. Epub 2021 Nov 19.

West China School of Public Health and West China Fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, China; School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, 3004, Australia. Electronic address:

The effects of air pollution on adolescents need further consideration. Although there is evidence that maternal exposure to air pollution may affect the cognitive function of offspring, relevant studies remain limited and inconsistent, with a lack of studies assessing the causal effects and evidence from developing countries. Using data from Chinese Family Panel Studies, a representative Chinese nationwide cohort study, OLS combined with instrumental variable + two-stage least square (IV+2SLS) was used to explore the causal effects of exposure to PM concentrations during pregnancy on the cognitive function of offspring when they become adolescents. After detailed argumentation and multiple testing, Planetary Boundary Layer Height (PBLH) and Surface Pressure (SP) were selected as the instrumental variables for this study. One thousand five hundred fifty-five adolescents participated in this study, with a mean age of 13.3 years (sd = 2.3). There were 706 females (45.4%), the mean maternal PM exposure concentration was 64.9 μg/m, and recorded a mean cognitive function score of 38.1 (sd = 9.4). The OLS results found that maternal exposure to air pollution increased cognitive function in offspring adolescents, corroborating the presence of endogeneity. Multi-domain knowledge, the results of the weak instrumental variable assessments of F-tests (F = 237 > 10) and Stock-yogo tests (minimum eigenvalue statistic = 153.16 > 16.38), and the results of the Hansen J overidentification test (p > 0.05) verified the plausibility and validity of the instrumental variables. The IV+2SLS results, following causal modeling, showed that PM exposure during pregnancy impairs the cognitive ability of offspring adolescents (β = -0.040, p < 0.05). Robustness tests also validated the results. This study provides important policy implications for developing countries on protecting their adolescents and reminds parents that the protection of adolescents from air pollution should begin from conception.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.118560DOI Listing
November 2021

Innovative Synoptic Reporting With Seven-Point Sampling Protocol to Improve Detection Rate of Microvascular Invasion in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Front Oncol 2021 4;11:726239. Epub 2021 Nov 4.

Department of Liver Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Pathological MVI diagnosis could help to determine the prognosis and need for adjuvant therapy in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, narrative reporting (NR) would miss relevant clinical information and non-standardized sampling would underestimate MVI detection. Our objective was to explore the impact of innovative synoptic reporting (SR) and seven-point sampling (SPRING) protocol on microvascular invasion (MVI) rate and patient outcomes. In retrospective cohort, we extracted MVI status from NR in three centers and re-reviewed specimen sections by SR recommended by the College of American Pathologists (CAP) in our center. In prospective cohort, our center implemented the SPRING protocol, and external centers remained traditional pathological examination. MVI rate was compared between our center and external centers in both cohorts. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) before and after implementation was calculated by Kaplan-Meier method and compared by the log-rank test. In retrospective study, we found there was no significant difference in MVI rate between our center and external centers [10.3% (115/1112) 12.4% (35/282), P=0.316]. In our center, SR recommended by CAP improved the MVI detection rate from 10.3 to 38.6% (P<0.001). In prospective study, the MVI rate in our center under SPRING was significantly higher than external centers (53.2 17%, P<0.001). RFS of MVI (-) patients improved after SPRING in our center (P=0.010), but it remained unchanged in MVI (+) patients (P=0.200). We conclude that the SR recommended by CAP could help to improve MVI detection rate. Our SPRING protocol could help to further improve the MVI rate and optimize prognostic stratification for HCC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.726239DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8599152PMC
November 2021

Up-regulation of PUMA caused the activation of p53 phosphorylation and acetylation, enhancing the interaction between PUMA and Bcl-X and mediating arsenic-induced apoptosis.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2021 Nov 16;434:115800. Epub 2021 Nov 16.

School of Public Health, Kunming Medical University, No.1168 Chunrongxi Road, Chenggong District, Kunming, Yunnan Province, China. Electronic address:

Arsenic is a toxic metalloid vastly dispersed all over the occupational environments, manifesting multiple adverse health issues related to apoptosis. PUMA (p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis) is a crucial member of the Bcl-2 protein family and plays a key role in pro-apoptosis. The purpose of this work was to determine whether inorganic arsenic (NaAsO) and its metabolites influenced the expression of PUMA in vivo and vitro, followed by investigating the mechanisms. RNA was extracted from serum and used to determine the expression of PUMA in vivo. The urine samples performed arsenic speciation analysis. This trial tested three-dose proportions in two cell lines (A549: 20, 40, 60 μM/L; 16HBE: 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 μM/L), respectively. According to the results of qRT-PCR and western blotting, NaAsO caused the overexpression of PUMA, not its metabolites. Furthermore, NaAsO induced phosphorylation of p53 at Ser315, 376, 392, and Thr55, and acetylation of p53 at K370, 382 with a dose-response relationship, suggesting the contribution of PUMA up-regulation to p53 phosphorylation and acetylation. CCK-8, JC-1 (5, 5', 6, 6'-tetrachloro-1, 1', 3, 3'-tetramethylbenzimi-dazolylcarbocyanine iodide), Hoechst33342/PI and the caspase3 and PARP1 blots were utilized to reveal apoptosis responding to NaAsO exposure. The co-immunoprecipitation assay showed that the interaction between PUMA and Bcl-X enhanced in intensity responding to NaAsO exposure, disrupting the complexes of Bcl-X with other pro-survival Bcl-2-related proteins. To our knowledge, we first reported that NaAsO activated phosphorylation of p53 at Ser315, 376, and Thr55, as well as acetylation of p53 at K370.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2021.115800DOI Listing
November 2021

Investigating the Relationships Between Public Health Literacy and Public Trust in Physicians in China's Control of COVID-19: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Front Public Health 2021 28;9:758529. Epub 2021 Oct 28.

School of Public Affairs, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Public trust in physicians and public health literacy (HL) are important factors that ensure the effectiveness of health-care delivery, particularly that provided during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. This study investigates HL as a predictor of public trust in physicians in China's ongoing efforts to control COVID-19. Data were gathered in February 2020 during the peak of the disease in China. Based on Nutbeam's conceptualization of HL, we measure HL vis-à-vis COVID-19 by using a six-item scale that includes two items each for functional, interactive, and critical HL. Trust in physicians was measured by assessing physicians' capability to diagnose COVID-19. A rank-sum test and ordinal logit regression modeling were used to analyze the data. Two key findings: (a) trust in physician handling of treatment for COVID-19 is reported by about 74% of respondents; and (b) five of the six HL measures are positive predictors of public trust in physician treatment of the disease, with functional HL1 having the highest level of such association (coefficient 0.285, odds ratio 1.33%, < 0.01). Improving public HL is important for better public-physician relationships, as well as for nations' efforts to contain the pandemic, serving as a possible behavioral, non-clinical antidote to COVID-19. Being confronted with the unprecedented virus, humans need trust. Health education and risk communication can improve public compliance with physicians' requirements and build a solid foundation for collective responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.758529DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8584494PMC
November 2021

Embryonic exposure to fenbuconazole inhibits gametogenesis in adult zebrafish by targeting gonads not brain.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Nov 11;228:112967. Epub 2021 Nov 11.

State Key Laboratory of Cellular Stress Biology, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005, PR China. Electronic address:

Fenbuconazole (FBZ) is widely used in agriculture. The current study was conducted to evaluate the influence of embryonic exposure to FBZ on reproduction in adult zebrafish. Embryos were exposed to 5, 50 and 500 ng/L FBZ for 72 h and then raised in clean water until adulthood. The result showed that the percentage of mature gametes was significantly reduced in adult zebrafish. The fertilization rate and survival rate of F1 embryos were decreased when the exposed fish were mated with untreated fish. The transcription of brain gnrh3, fshβ and lhγ in adult fish was upregulated, while the levels of 17β-estradiol and testosterone were not significantly changed in all treated groups, indicating that the reproduction-related genes in brain was not responsible for the reduced reproductive ability. The downregulated transcription of fshr, lhr, ar and esr2 in the gonads indicated the dysfunction of Sertoli and Leydig cells. Notably, downregulated transcription and upregulated methylation levels of genes related to germ cells were observed in treated F0 larvae and adult gonads. The elevated methylation levels of piwil1 and dnmt6 in the testes and vasa and dazl in the ovary were matched with the alterations in the expression of these genes, suggesting that germ cells are the main targets of FBZ. These results provide new mechanism underlying reproductive toxicity in fish caused by chemicals, and give potential retroactive biomarkers for monitoring reproductive toxic pollutants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112967DOI Listing
November 2021

Boosting Alkaline Hydrogen and Oxygen Evolution Kinetic Process of Tungsten Disulfide-Based Heterostructures by Multi-Site Engineering.

Small 2021 Nov 10:e2104624. Epub 2021 Nov 10.

Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory for Matter Microstructure and Function of Hunan Province, Department of Physics and Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effects and Applications, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, 410081, China.

Alkaline water electrolysis is an advanced technology for scalable H production using surplus electricity from intermittent energy sources, but it remains challenging for non-noble electrocatalysts to split water into hydrogen and oxygen efficiently, especially for tungsten disulfide (WS )-based catalysts. Density functional theory calculations in combination with experimental study are used to establish a multi-site engineering strategy for developing robust WS -based hybrid electrocatalyst on mesoporous bimetallic nitride (Ni FeN) nanoarrays for bifunctional water splitting. This ingenious design endows the catalyst with numerous edge sites chemically bonded with the conductive scaffold, which are favorable for water dissociation and hydrogen adsorption. Benefiting from the synergistic advantages, the N-WS /Ni FeN hybrid exhibits exceptional bifunctional properties for hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions (HER and OER) in base with excellent large-current durability, requiring 84 mV to afford 10 mA cm for HER, and 240 mV at 100 mA cm for OER, respectively. Assembling the catalytic materials as both the anode and cathode to construct an electrolyzer, it is actualized very good activities for overall water splitting with only 1.5 V to deliver 10 mA cm , outperforming the IrO //Pt coupled electrodes and many non-noble bifunctional electrocatalysts thus far. This work provides a promising avenue for designing WS -based heterogeneous electrocatalysts for water electrolysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202104624DOI Listing
November 2021

Effects of the Deacetylation Degree of Chitosan on 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-]pyridine (PhIP) Formation in Chemical Models and Beef Patties.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Nov 10;69(46):13933-13941. Epub 2021 Nov 10.

College of Food Science and Technology, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306, China.

The effects of the deacetylation degree (DD) of chitosan on heterocyclic aromatic amine formation were investigated in chemical models and beef patties. The results in model systems showed that at lower addition levels (10 mg), chitosan with 85% DD showed the strongest inhibitory effect against 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-]pyridine (PhIP) formation, while chitosan with a higher DD (95%) or a lower DD (72 and 50%) did not show any significantly inhibitory effect. Further mechanism study showed that chitosan addition reduced the content of Maillard reaction intermediates including phenylacetaldehyde and the aldol condensation product but increased the PhIP precursor creatinine residue in the chemical model, indicating that chitosan at least partially competed with creatinine to react with phenylacetaldehyde to inhibit PhIP formation. In roast beef patties, 0.15% (w/w) chitosan (85% DD) significantly reduced the formation of PhIP, MeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx, Harman, and Norharman by 56.21, 33.32, 31.35, 25.14, and 28.12%, respectively. Moreover, chitosan significantly inhibited the formation of aldehydes in roast beef patties, further confirming the above-mentioned inhibition mechanism. However, the addition of chitosan might promote fatty acid oxidation. In addition, chitosan addition below 0.15% (w/w) had no significant effect on the textural properties of the roast samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.1c05733DOI Listing
November 2021

Nitrogen-rich carbon nitride as solid-phase microextraction fiber coating for high-efficient pretreatment of polychlorinated biphenyls from environmental samples.

J Chromatogr A 2021 Oct 30;1659:462655. Epub 2021 Oct 30.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental and Biological Analysis, Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR.

A two-dimensional nitrogen-rich carbon nitrogen (CN) material was prepared via a facile high temperature thermal polymerization. For the first time, the CN was used as fiber coating of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) to extract and preconcentrate polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) before gas chromatography (GC) analysis. The X-ray diffraction, N adsorption-desorption, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were performed to investigate structure, functional groups, thermal stability, bonding type, element composition, and atomic ratio of CN. The two-dimensional planar stacking structure was further verified by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Five PCBs including PCB-4, PCB-12, PCB-29, PCB-52 and PCB-101 were selected as targets to evaluate performance of SPME fiber. Under the optimal conditions, the method showed a good linear range from 0.01 to 1000 ng/mL with the correlation coefficients (R) higher than 0.9990. Enrichment factors of the method were obtained from 2045 to 3080. The limits of detection (LODs, S/N = 3) and limits of quantification (LOQs, S/N = 10) were calculated as 0.0031-0.0111 ng/mL and 0.01-0.05 ng/mL, respectively. The precisions of intra-day and inter-day were obtained with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) at 1.5-6.6% and 0.8-6.9%, respectively. The fiber-to-fiber producibility was achieved with RSDs ranged from 3.5% to 11.4%. The method was applied to detect PCBs in river water and soil samples. The contents were calculated at 0.040-0.147 ng/mL in water and 0.520-3.218 ng/g in soil. The CN as SPME fiber coating material may be applied to extract and preconcentrate other environmental pollutants which have similar chemical structures with PCBs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2021.462655DOI Listing
October 2021

Holothurian fucosylated chondroitin sulfates and their potential benefits for human health: Structures and biological activities.

Carbohydr Polym 2022 Jan 22;275:118691. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Marine Microbiome Engineering, Institute for Advanced Study, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China; Institute for Innovative Development of Food Industry, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China. Electronic address:

Fucosylated chondroitin sulfates (FCS) are a sulfated polysaccharide exclusively existing in the body wall of sea cucumber. FCS possesses a mammalian chondroitin sulfate like backbone, namely repeating disaccharides units composed of GlcA and GalNAc, with fucosyl branches linked to GlcA and/or GalNAc residues. It is found that FCS can prevent unhealthy dietary pattern-induced metabolic syndromes, including insulin resistance and β-cell function improvement, anti-inflammation, anti-hyperlipidemia, and anti-adipogenesis. Further studies show that those activities of FCS might be achieved through positively modulating gut microbiota composition. Besides, FCS also show therapeutic efficacy in cancer, HIV infection, and side effects of cyclophosphamide. Furthermore, bioactivities of FCS are closely affected by their molecular weights, sulfation pattern of the fucosyl branches, and chain conformations. This review summarizes the recent 20 years studies to provide references for the future studies and applications of FCS in functional foods or drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.118691DOI Listing
January 2022

Fine-Tuning of Cholesterol Homeostasis Controls Erythroid Differentiation.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Nov 5:e2102669. Epub 2021 Nov 5.

Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology (Ministry of Education), School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, 250012, China.

Lipid metabolism is essential for stemness maintenance, self-renewal, and differentiation of stem cells, however, the regulatory function of cholesterol metabolism in erythroid differentiation is poorly studied. In the present study, a critical role for cholesterol homeostasis in terminal erythropoiesis is uncovered. The master transcriptional factor GATA1 binds to Sterol-regulatory element binding protein 2 (SREBP2) to downregulate cholesterol biosynthesis, leading to a gradual reduction in intracellular cholesterol levels. It is further shown that reduced cholesterol functions to block erythroid proliferation via the cholesterol/mTORC1/ribosome biogenesis axis, which coordinates cell cycle exit in the late stages of erythroid differentiation. The interaction of GATA1 and SREBP2 also provides a feedback loop for regulating globin expression through the transcriptional control of NFE2 by SREBP2. Importantly, it is shown that disrupting intracellular cholesterol hemostasis resulted in defect of terminal erythroid differentiation in vivo. These findings demonstrate that fine-tuning of cholesterol homeostasis emerges as a key mechanism for regulating erythropoiesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202102669DOI Listing
November 2021

Less loop diuretic use in patients on sacubitril/valsartan undergoing remote pulmonary artery pressure monitoring.

ESC Heart Fail 2021 Nov 4. Epub 2021 Nov 4.

Comprehensive Heart Failure Center, University and University Hospital Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.

Aims: Control of pulmonary pressures monitored remotely reduced heart failure hospitalizations mainly by lowering filling pressures through the use of loop diuretics. Sacubitril/valsartan improves heart failure outcomes and increases the kidney sensitivity for diuretics. We explored whether sacubitril/valsartan is associated with less utilization of loop diuretics in patients guided with haemodynamic monitoring in the CardioMEMS European Monitoring Study for Heart Failure (MEMS-HF).

Methods And Results: The MEMS-HF population (n = 239) was separated by the use of sacubitril/valsartan (n = 68) or no use of it (n = 164). Utilization of diuretics and their doses was prespecified in the protocol and was monitored in both groups. Multivariable regression, ANCOVA, and a generalized linear model were used to fit baseline covariates with furosemide equivalents and changes for 12 months. MEMS-HF participants (n = 239) were grouped in sacubitril/valsartan users [n = 68, 64 ± 11 years, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 25 ± 9%, cardiac index (CI) 1.89 ± 0.4 L/min/m ] vs. non-users (n = 164, 70 ± 10 years, LVEF 36 ± 16%, CI 2.11 ± 0.58 L/min/m , P = 0.0002, P < 0.0001, and P = 0.0015, respectively). In contrast, mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) values were comparable between groups (29 ± 11 vs. 31 ± 11 mmHg, P = 0.127). Utilization of loop diuretics was lower in patients taking sacubitril/valsartan compared with those without (P = 0.01). Significant predictor of loop diuretic use was a history of renal failure (P = 0.005) but not age (P = 0.091). After subjects were stratified by sacubitril/valsartan or other diuretic use, PAP was nominally, but not significantly lower in sacubitril/valsartan-treated patients (baseline: P = 0.52; 6 months: P = 0.07; 12 months: P = 0.53), while there was no difference in outcome or PAP changes. This difference was observed despite lower CI (P = 0.0015). Comparable changes were not observed for other non-loop diuretics (P = 0.21).

Conclusions: In patients whose treatment was guided by remote PAP monitoring, concomitant use of sacubitril/valsartan was associated with reduced utilization of loop diuretics, which could potentially be relevant for outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.13665DOI Listing
November 2021

Photoelectrochemical sensing and mechanism investigation of hydrogen peroxide using a pristine hematite nanoarrays.

Talanta 2022 Jan 2;237:122894. Epub 2021 Oct 2.

Henan Joint International Research Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control Materials, Henan Provincial Engineering Research Center of Green Anticorrosion Technology for Magnesium Alloys, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, 475004, China. Electronic address:

In this paper, a facile hydrothermal combined with subsequent two-step post-calcination method was used to fabricate hematite (α-FeO) nanoarrays on fluorine-doped SnO glass (FTO). The morphology, crystalline phase, optical property and surface chemical states of the fabricated α-FeO photoelectrode were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet visible spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy correspondingly. The α-FeO photoelectrode exhibits excellent photoelectrochemical (PEC) response toward hydrogen peroxide (HO) in aqueous solutions, with a low detection limit of 20 μM (S/N = 3) and wide linear range (0.01-0.09, 0.3-4, and 6-16 mM). Additionally, the α-FeO photoelectrode shows satisfying reproducibility, stability, selectivity and good feasibility for real samples. Mechanism analysis indicates, comparing with HO, HO possesses much more fast reaction kinetics over α-FeO surface, thus the recombination of photogenerated charges are reduced, followed by much more photogenerated electrons are migrated to the counter electrode via external circuit. The insight on the enhanced photocurrent, which is corelative to the concentration of HO in aqueous solution, will stimulate us to further optimize the surface structure of α-FeO to gain highly efficient α-FeO based sensors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2021.122894DOI Listing
January 2022

The phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor ZSTK474 increases the susceptibility of osteosarcoma cells to oncolytic vesicular stomatitis virus VSVΔ51 via aggravating endoplasmic reticulum stress.

Bioengineered 2021 Nov 1. Epub 2021 Nov 1.

Department of Spine Surgery, The First Hospital of Changsha, Changsha, 410005, Hunan, China.

Blockage of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signal pathway is effective to increase the cytotoxic effects of oncolytic virus on cancer cells, but the detailed mechanisms are still largely unknown. Based on this, the present study managed to investigate the anti-tumor effects of PI3K inhibitor ZSTK474 and oncolytic vesicular stomatitis virus VSVΔ51 combination treatments on osteosarcoma (OS) and . Specifically, ZSTK474 aggravated the inhibiting effects of VSVΔ51 on osteosarcoma development by triggering endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress mediated apoptotic cell death. Mechanistically, either ZSTK474 or VSVΔ51 alone had limited effects on cell viability in osteosarcoma cells, while ZSTK474 and VSVΔ51 combination treatments significantly induced osteosarcoma cell apoptosis. Interestingly, VSVΔ51 increased the expression levels of IRE1α and p-PERK to initiate ER stress in osteosarcoma cells, which were aggravated by co-treating cells with ZSTK474. Next, the promoting effects of ZSTK474-VSVΔ51 combined treatment on osteosarcoma cell death were abrogated by the ER-stress inhibitor 4-phenyl butyric acid (4-PBA), indicating that ZSTK474 enhanced the cytotoxic effects of VSVΔ51 on osteosarcoma cells in an ER-stress dependent manner. Finally, the xenograft tumor-bearing mice models were established, and the results showed that ZSTK474-VSVΔ51 combined treatment synergistically hindered tumorigenesis of osteosarcoma cells . Taken together, our data suggested that ZSTK474 was a novel agent to enhance the cytotoxic effects of VSVΔ51 on osteosarcoma by aggravating ER-stress, and the present study might provide alternative therapy treatments for osteosarcoma in clinic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21655979.2021.1999372DOI Listing
November 2021

Clinical impact and quality of randomized controlled trials involving interventions evaluating artificial intelligence prediction tools: a systematic review.

NPJ Digit Med 2021 Oct 28;4(1):154. Epub 2021 Oct 28.

Clinical Trials Unit, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, 510080, Guangzhou, China.

The evidence of the impact of traditional statistical (TS) and artificial intelligence (AI) tool interventions in clinical practice was limited. This study aimed to investigate the clinical impact and quality of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving interventions evaluating TS, machine learning (ML), and deep learning (DL) prediction tools. A systematic review on PubMed was conducted to identify RCTs involving TS/ML/DL tool interventions in the past decade. A total of 65 RCTs from 26,082 records were included. A majority of them had model development studies and generally good performance was achieved. The function of TS and ML tools in the RCTs mainly included assistive treatment decisions, assistive diagnosis, and risk stratification, but DL trials were only conducted for assistive diagnosis. Nearly two-fifths of the trial interventions showed no clinical benefit compared to standard care. Though DL and ML interventions achieved higher rates of positive results than TS in the RCTs, in trials with low risk of bias (17/65) the advantage of DL to TS was reduced while the advantage of ML to TS disappeared. The current applications of DL were not yet fully spread performed in medicine. It is predictable that DL will integrate more complex clinical problems than ML and TS tools in the future. Therefore, rigorous studies are required before the clinical application of these tools.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41746-021-00524-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8553754PMC
October 2021

Clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of patients with IgA nephropathy and renal vasculitic lesions.

BMC Nephrol 2021 Oct 28;22(1):353. Epub 2021 Oct 28.

Department of Nephrology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, 58 Zhongshan Road II, Guangzhou, 510080, China.

Background: We studied patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN) and compared those with and without renal vasculitic lesions (RVLs).

Methods: From January 2006 to December 2011, patients with biopsy-proven primary IgAN at our institution were retrospectively examined and assigned to an RVL group or a no-RVL group. RVLs were defined as thromboses in arteries and/or arterioles, necrosis of capillary loops, crescent formation, and fibrinoid necrosis of small blood vessels. The association of RVLs with clinical outcomes was analyzed using multivariate models. The primary composite endpoint was end-stage renal disease or doubling of serum creatinine.

Results: There were 1570 patients, 50.2% (788) with RVLs and 49.8% (782) without RVLs. The RVL group was younger; had shorter disease course, more severe proteinuria and hematuria, worse renal function; and were prescribed more steroids and/or immunosuppressants. The RVL group had a greater prevalence of global glomerular sclerosis, more crescents, and a higher Oxford classification grade. A total of 501 patients in the RVL group (50.7%) and 487 in the no-RVL group (49.3%) completed follow-up. The RVL group was more likely to reach the composite endpoint after 1, 3, and 5 years (all P < 0.001). Proteinuria, anemia, low eGFR, and global and segmental sclerosis were independent predictors of progression to the composite endpoint in patients with RVLs.

Conclusions: Almost half of our IgAN patients had RVLs, and these patients were younger and had worse renal function, with more severe proteinuria, hematuria, and severe pathologic lesions. IgAN patients with RVLs had worse renal outcomes than those without RVLs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12882-021-02556-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8555338PMC
October 2021

ACEi/ARBs associate with lower incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding in peritoneal dialysis patients.

Clin Exp Nephrol 2021 Oct 26. Epub 2021 Oct 26.

Department of Nephrology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) is widespread in patients with impaired renal function. Whether angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers (ACEi/ARBs) potentially take a crucial role in avoiding GIB incidence among peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients is unknown.

Methods: Overall, 734 PD patients were enrolled after using propensity score matching. Kaplan-Meier analysis and COX regression were used to explore correlation between ACEi/ARBs and GIB. Competitive risk model was aimed to identify whether other events were confounding factors. Forest plot was applied to assess the influence of ACEI/ARBs on GIB incidence in different groups.

Results: During 8-year follow-up, 89 (12.13%) cases of GIB were recorded. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the incidence of GIB among patients taking ACEi/ARBs was lower than those subjects who had not (log rank = 6.442, P = 0.011). After adjusted different confounding factors, administration of ACEi/ARBs was associated with lowered GIB incidence (adjusted HR = 0.49, 95% CI 0.32-0.77, P = 0.002). In competitive risk model, considering of other events, the incidence of GIB in two groups was still statistically significant (P = 0.010). Subgroup analysis showed ACEi/ARBs taking impeded GIB in the ≥ 60 age group (HR = 0.52, 95% CI 0.28-0.98, P = 0.040).

Conclusion: PD patients who were submitted to ACEi/ARBs inclined to have a lower risk for GIB. In this regard, ACEi/ARBs offered a promising choice to GIB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10157-021-02150-4DOI Listing
October 2021

Aminoglycoside Resistance and Possible Mechanisms in Spp. Isolated From Chicken and Swine in Jiangsu, China.

Front Microbiol 2021 8;12:716185. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Supervision, Inspection & Testing Centre for Poultry Quality (Yangzhou), Ministry of Agriculture, Jiangsu Institute of Poultry Science, Yangzhou, China.

is a major food-borne pathogen in humans, and previous studies reported a high prevalence of gentamicin-resistant isolates from food-producing animals in China. This study aimed to investigate the aminoglycoside resistance of isolated from chicken and swine in Jiangsu province, China and understand the possible mechanisms responsible for aminoglycoside resistance. One hundred and eighty-five isolates of chicken and swine origins in 2017 and 2018 were analyzed for gentamicin and kanamycin resistance. Some aminoglycoside resistance genes were selected for PCR detection in all strains. The genomic DNAs of two strains with high resistance to gentamicin were used as donors to subject NCTC11168 to natural transformation. The transformants were investigated by whole-genome sequencing and analyzed comparatively with NCTC11168. In total, 30.5% (29/95) of isolates and 42.2% (38/90) of isolates were resistant to gentamicin and kanamycin. The prevalence of the gene and gene was 65.4% (121/185) and 36.2% (67/185) in isolates, respectively. The cluster was identified in 8.7% (8/92) and 20.4% (19/93) of all isolates in each year. With each donor DNA, aminoglycoside-resistant transformants were obtained. The transformants showed ≥128-fold increases in the MICs of gentamicin, kanamycin, and tobramycin. A 5200-bp segment was found to be inserted between the highly conserved genes and of . A total of 9.7% (18/185) strains showing high resistance to aminoglycosides had this segment by PCR detection. The genetic diversity of the insertion-fragment positive strains was determined by MLST, and seven sequence types were identified for these strains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.716185DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8531746PMC
October 2021

Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Ertapenem in Isolates Collected Within the China Gonococcal Resistance Surveillance Programme (China-GRSP) 2018.

Infect Drug Resist 2021 12;14:4183-4189. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

STD Reference Laboratory, Institute of Dermatology and Hospital for Skin Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Nanjing, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: This study aimed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ertapenem on collected from eight Chinese provinces in 2018.

Methods: The MICs of ertapenem on 503 isolates (415 isolates selected randomly and 88 isolates selected with preference) were measured using the agar dilution method. For comparison, the MICs of ceftriaxone and azithromycin were detected.

Results: Among 415 randomly selected isolates, the MIC range for ertapenem was from ≤0.008 mg/L to 0.5 mg/L. The corresponding MIC and MIC were 0.06 and 0.125 mg/L, respectively. Twelve of 415 isolates (2.9%) exhibited MIC values ≥0.25 mg/L, and only one isolate (0.2%) had a MIC of 0.5 mg/L. By comparing all 503 tested isolates, a correlation of = 0.487 ( <0.001) between ertapenem and ceftriaxone MIC was observed, and the correlation between MICs of ertapenem and azithromycin was low ( = -0.12, = 0.007). In 24 ceftriaxone-decreased susceptibility isolates, four isolates (16.7%) showed a MIC ≥0.25 mg/L for ertapenem. In 85 azithromycin resistant isolates, three isolates (3.5%) showed a MIC ≥0.25 mg/L for ertapenem.

Conclusion: The in vitro results suggest that ertapenem has satisfactory susceptibility in isolates collected from eight provinces in China; hence, it might be a promising treatment option for resistant gonococcal infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S335252DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8520434PMC
October 2021

Evaluation of ceftazidime/avibactam alone and in combination with amikacin, colistin and tigecycline against Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae by in vitro time-kill experiment.

PLoS One 2021 14;16(10):e0258426. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Department of Respiratory Diseases, Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) poses a major threat to human health worldwide. Combination therapies of antibiotics with different mechanisms have been recommended in literatures. This study assessed in vitro antibacterial activities and synergistic activities of ceftazidime/avibactam alone and in combinations against KPC-Kp. In total, 70 isolates from 2 hospitals in Beijing were examined in our study. By using the agar dilution method and broth dilution method, we determined the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of candidate antibiotics. Ceftazidime/avibactam demonstrated promising susceptibility against KPC-Kp (97.14%). Synergistic activities testing was achieved by checkerboard method and found ceftazidime/avibactam-amikacin displayed synergism in 90% isolates. Ceftazidime/avibactam-colistin displayed partial synergistic in 43% isolates, and ceftazidime/avibactam-tigecycline displayed indifference in 67% isolates. In time-kill assays, antibiotics at 1-fold MIC were mixed with bacteria at 1 × 105 CFU/ml and Mueller-Hinton broth (MHB). Combinations of ceftazidime/avibactam with amikacin and tigecycline displayed better antibacterial effects than single drug. Ceftazidime/avibactam-colistin combination did not exhibit better effect than single drug. In KPC-Kp infections, susceptibility testing suggested that ceftazidime/avibactam may be considered as first-line choice. However, monotherapy is often inadequate in infection management. Thus, our study revealed that combination therapy including ceftazidime/avibactam colistin and ceftazidime/avibactam tigecycline may benefit than monotherapy in KPC-Kp treatment. Further pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic and mutant prevention concentration studies should be performed to optimize multidrug-regimens.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0258426PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8516195PMC
October 2021

Study on the Spatiotemporal Evolution and Influencing Factors of Urban Resilience in the Yellow River Basin.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 09 28;18(19). Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Economics School, Zhongnan University of Economics and Law, Wuhan 430073, China.

The outbreak of COVID-19 has prompted consideration of the importance of urban resilience. Based on a multidimensional perspective, the authors of this paper established a comprehensive evaluation indicator system for evaluating urban resilience in the Yellow River basin (YRB), and various methods such as the entropy value method, Theil index, exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) model, and geographical detector model were used to measure the spatiotemporal characteristics and influencing factors of urban resilience in the YRB from 2011 to 2018. The results are as follows. (1) From 2011 to 2018, the urban resilience index (URI) of the YRB showed a "V"-shaped dynamic evolution in the time series, and the URI increased by 13.4% overall. The resilience of each subsystem showed the following hierarchical structure: economic resilience > social resilience > ecological resilience > infrastructure resilience. (2) The URI of the three major regions-upstream, midstream, and downstream-increased, and the resilience of each subsystem in the region showed obvious regional characteristics. The comprehensive difference in URI values within the basin was found to be shrinking, and intraregional differences have contributed most to the comprehensive difference. (3) There were obvious zonal differences in the URI from 2011 to 2018. Shandong Peninsula and Hohhot-Baotou-Ordos showed a "High-High" agglomeration, while the southern and southwestern regions showed a "Low-Low" agglomeration. (4) Among the humanist and social factors, economic, fiscal, market, urbanization, openness, and innovation were found to be the factors that exert a high impact on the URI, while the impacts of natural factors were found to be low. The impact of the interaction of each factor is greater than that of a single factor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph181910231DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8507992PMC
September 2021

The Influence of Transaction Process With Doctors on Patient Satisfaction, Self-Rating Anxiety and Self-Efficacy Among International Students in China.

Front Public Health 2021 23;9:737278. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

School of Medicine and Health Management, Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

To investigate the communication mechanism between international students and Chinese physicians by evaluating the influence of the transaction process on patient satisfaction, self-rating anxiety and self-efficacy. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among international students living in Central, Northern and Eastern China; enrolled at Chinese universities and experienced outpatient and inpatient healthcare services. Guided by the elements of King's transaction process: IR, Initiating and Responding; IP, Identifying Problems; MGS, Mutual Goal Setting; and EM, Exploring means and agreeing on means to achieve goals. We used spearman correlation analysis to calculate the correlation of the variables: patient satisfaction, self-efficacy, transaction process, IR, IP, MGS, and EM and regression analysis to measure the influence of transaction process on patient satisfaction, self-rating anxiety and self-efficacy. Four hundred and four (404) participants were investigated for this study. The results of correlation analysis showed that there was a significant positive correlation among patient satisfaction, self-efficacy, transaction process, IR, IP, MGS, and EM ( < 0.05). Regression analysis showed that the higher scores of IR (β = 0.176, = 0.003) and MGS (β = 0.249, = 0.002) was associated with the higher score of patient satisfaction; the higher the score of IR and IP was associated with the higher self-efficacy score (β = 0.148,0.225; = 0.016,0.001); and higher the MGS score was associated the lower the self-rating anxiety (β = -0.220, = 0.022). The influence of transaction process on patient satisfaction, self-rating anxiety and self-efficacy between Chinese physicians and international students (Patients) was established. Findings support the urgent implementation of tools at healthcare facilities to improve the communication between Chinese doctors and international students, therefore improving patient satisfaction and self-efficacy, and reducing anxiety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.737278DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8496449PMC
October 2021

Method for fabricating large-area gratings with a uniform duty cycle without a spatial beam modulator.

Opt Express 2021 Aug;29(17):27791-27806

A fabrication method for large-area gratings with uniform duty without using a spatial beam modulator is introduced in this study. The inhomogeneity of gratings caused by flaws of the lens and stray light was solved by controlling exposure time within an appropriate range and selecting a suitable beam expansion aperture in the optical path. A model for representing this process was established by analyzing the effects of exposure and development time length, and experimental results exhibited good agreement with the simulation results. Finally, a grating with a period of 550 nm, a uniform duty cycle, and a diameter larger than 30 mm was achieved using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer optical path without a spatial beam modulator. The uniformity of this grating was observed via atomic force microscopy, and the results were highly desirable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.438235DOI Listing
August 2021

To Be or Not To Be Vaccinated: That Is a Question in Myasthenia Gravis.

Front Immunol 2021;12:733418. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Neurology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease characterized by muscle weakness and abnormal fatigability due to the antibodies against postsynaptic receptors. Despite the individual discrepancy, patients with MG share common muscle weakness, autoimmune dysfunction, and immunosuppressive treatment, which predispose them to infections that can trigger or exacerbate MG. Vaccination, as a mainstay of prophylaxis, is a major management strategy. However, the past years have seen growth in vaccine hesitancy, owing to safety and efficacy concerns. Ironically, vaccines, serving as an essential and effective means of defense, may induce similar immune cross-reactivity to what they are meant to prevent. Herein, we outline the progress in vaccination, review the current status, and postulate the clinical association among MG, vaccination, and immunosuppression. We also address safety and efficacy concerns of vaccination in MG, in relation to COVID-19. Since only a handful of studies have reported vaccination in individuals with MG, we further review the current clinical studies and guidelines in rheumatic diseases. Overall, our reviews offer a reference to guide future vaccine clinical decision-making and improve the management of MG patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.733418DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8485039PMC
October 2021

Gradient Architecture-Enabled Capacitive Tactile Sensor with High Sensitivity and Ultrabroad Linearity Range.

Small 2021 10 29;17(43):e2103312. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

Joint Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education Institute of Applied Physics and Materials Engineering University of Macau, Avenida da Universidade, Taipa, Macau, 999078, China.

The sensitivity and linearity are critical parameters that can preserve the high pressure-resolution across a wide range and simplify the signal processing process of flexible tactile sensors. Although extensive micro-structured dielectrics have been explored to improve the sensitivity of capacitive sensors, the attenuation of sensitivity with increasing pressure is yet to be fully resolved. Herein, a novel dielectric layer based on the gradient micro-dome architecture (GDA) is presented to simultaneously realize the high sensitivity and ultrabroad linearity range of capacitive sensors. The gradient micro-dome pixels with rationally collocated amount and height can effectively regulate the contact area and hence enable the linear variation in effective dielectric constant of the GDA dielectric layer under varying pressures. With systematical optimization, the sensor exhibits the high sensitivity of 0.065 kPa in an ultrabroad linearity range up to 1700 kPa, which is first reported. Based on the excellent sensitivity and linearity, the high pressure-resolution can be preserved across the full scale of pressure spectrum. Therefore, potential applications such as all-round physiological signal detection in diverse scenarios, control instruction transmission with combinatorial force inputs, and convenient Morse code communication with non-overlapping capacitance signals are successfully demonstrated through a single sensor device.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202103312DOI Listing
October 2021

Plasma circRNAs as Biomarkers in Cancer.

Cancer Manag Res 2021 21;13:7325-7337. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Nantong Institute of Liver Disease, Nantong Third People's Hospital, Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.

The incidence and mortality of cancer are increasing each year. At present, the sensitivity and specificity of the blood biomarkers that were used in clinical practice are low, which make the detection rate of cancer decrease. With advances in bioinformatics and technology, some non-coding RNA as biomarkers can be easily detected through some traditional and new technologies. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are non-coding RNAs, that is, they do not encode proteins, and have important regulatory functions. CircRNAs can remain stable in bodily fluids, such as in saliva, blood, urine, and especially plasma. The difference in the expression of plasma circRNAs between cancer patients and normal people may suggest that plasma circRNAs may play an important role in the occurrence and development of cancer. In this review, we summarized the clinical effect of plasma circRNAs in several high-incidence cancers. CircRNAs may be effective biomarkers for tumour diagnosis, treatment selection and prognosis evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S330228DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8464305PMC
September 2021

Fabricating an Electrospray Ionization Chip Based on Induced Polarization and Liquid Splitting.

Micromachines (Basel) 2021 Aug 28;12(9). Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Division of Advanced Manufacturing, Tsinghua Shenzhen International Graduate School, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055, China.

The coupling of the microfluidic chip to mass spectrometry (MS) has attracted considerable attention in the area of chemical and biological analysis. The most commonly used ionization technique in the chip-MS system is electrospray ionization (ESI). Traditional chip-based ESI devices mainly employ direct electrical contact between the electrode and the spray solvent. In this study, a microchip ESI source based on a novel polarization-splitting approach was developed. Specifically, the droplet in the microchannel is first polarized by the electric field and then split into two sub-droplets. In this process, the charge generated by polarization is retained in the liquid, resulting in the generation of two charged droplets with opposite polarities. Finally, when these charged droplets reach the emitter, the electrospray process is initiated and both positive and negative ions are formed from the same solution. Preliminary experimental results indicate that the coupling of this polarization-splitting ESI (PS-ESI) chip with a mass spectrometer enables conventional ESI-MS analysis of various analytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mi12091034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8472801PMC
August 2021

The Accuracy of Molecular Detection Targeting the Mutation C2611T for Detecting Moderate-Level Azithromycin Resistance in : A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2021 Aug 24;10(9). Epub 2021 Aug 24.

National Center for STD Control, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Department of Reference STD Lab, Institute of Dermatology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Nanjing 210042, China.

Background: is now recognized as a commonly reported sexually transmitted pathogen, and the increasing drug resistance of has become a serious public health problem. The accuracy of molecular detection for detecting moderate-level azithromycin resistance is not well-established. We summarized the data from studies of the 23S rRNA mutation at position 2611 with azithromycin resistance to determine the relationship between the mutation and resistance.

Methods And Findings: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, two researchers independently searched six databases for studies with data for the azithromycin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and the 23S rRNA mutation C2611T of each isolate. Since the breakpoint of moderate-level resistance to azithromycin (ML-AzmR) was not determined, we divided the moderate level into two groups according to the range of MICs (moderate resistance limited to 2-128 mg/L or 4-128 mg/L) for data extraction. A random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled sensitivity rate, the specificity rate, the pooled positive likelihood ratio (PLR), the negative likelihood ratio (NLR), and the diagnostic odds ratio (DOR). Meta-regression analyses by detection method, isolates sampling (a random sample or not), location, and sample size were performed to explore the possible causes of heterogeneity. The potential publication bias of the included studies was conducted by the Deeks' test. We included 20 studies in our study: 20 studies have data of with MICs between 2 and 128 mg/L with mutation or without mutation at position 2611(4759 samples), and 14 studies have data of with MICs between 4 and 128 mg/L (3367 samples). In the group with the moderate level of 2-128 mg/L, the pooled sensitivity rate of the molecular assays was determined to be 71.9% (95% CI, 67.6-74%), the pooled specificity rate was 98.7% (95% CI, 98.2-99.0%), and the DOR ranged from 55.0 to 351.3 (mean, 139.1). In the 4-128 mg/L group, the pooled sensitivity rate was 91.9% (95% CI, 88.9-94.2%), the pooled specificity rate was 95.9% (95% CI, 95.1-96.6%), and the DOR ranged from 41.9 to 364.1 (mean, 123.6).

Conclusion: Through this meta-analysis, we found that the C2611T mutation of 23S rRNA is valuable for the molecular diagnostic of moderate-level azithromycin resistance (ML-AzmR) in , especially when the moderate level is set at 4-128 mg/L. This rapid molecular detection method can be used for the rapid identification of ML-AzmR isolates in the clinic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10091027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8471969PMC
August 2021
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