Publications by authors named "Qian Wu"

1,312 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Psychological Status of Nepalese Young Adults During The End of First Wave of COVID-19 Pandemic.

J Nepal Health Res Counc 2022 Jun 2;20(1):166-172. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Department of psychiatry, Dhulikhel Hospital Kathmandu University Hospital.

Background: Psychological problems increased during the period of COVID-19. Lockdown" is adopted in many countries of the world. It has also been seen that COVID-19 has led not only to an increase of infection and death but also vast change in the lifestyles of every individual especially in young adults causing various mental health issues. However, in Nepal, there are limited studies to address this issue. The main objective of this study is to generate evidence on the prevalence of symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression among young adults and the factors contributing to these outcomes in Nepal.

Methods: Cross-sectional methods were employed using an online structured questionnaire in January 2021, among 1229 participants. Three logistic regression models were performed to examine the significant COVID-19 factors.

Results: The prevalence of Depression, Anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder related symptoms in this study were 255(20.4%), 240(19.2%)and 162(13.2%) respectively relate.COVID-19 diagnosis, COVID-related stress and exposure was significantly related to depression. Similarly, COVID-19 diagnosis, change in income during COVID-19, being exposed to 4 or more exposure factors had high chances of getting anxiety. Also, income change during COVID-19 and stressors during COVID-19 were related to post-traumatic stress disorder.

Conclusions: This research shows that various COVID-19 related factors have contributed to the high prevalence of these outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.33314/jnhrc.v20i01.3922DOI Listing
June 2022

MicroRNA-379-5p regulates free cholesterol accumulation and relieves diet induced-liver damage in db/db mice via STAT1/HMGCS1 axis.

Mol Biomed 2022 Aug 10;3(1):25. Epub 2022 Aug 10.

Center for Drug Safety Evaluation and Research, State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 501 Haike Road, Shanghai, 201203, China.

Lipotoxicity induced by the overload of lipid in the liver, especially excess free cholesterol (FC), has been recognized as one of driving factors in the transition from non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). MicroRNA (miR)-379-5p has been reported to play regulatory roles in hepatic triglyceride homeostasis, but the relationship of miR-379-5p and hepatic cholesterol homeostasis has never been touched. In the current study, we found that hepatic miR-379-5p levels were decreased obviously in NAFLD patients and model mice compared with their controls. Moreover, miR-379-5p was discovered to be able to inhibit intracellular FC accumulation and alleviate mitochondrial damage induced by palmitic acid (PA) in vitro. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-379-5p in HFHC-fed db/db mice could reduce the level of hepatic total cholesterol (TC) and FC, and ameliorate hepatic injury reflected by the lower serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST). Subsequently, by combining spectrometry (MS) and luciferase assay, we identified miR-379-5p suppressed STAT1 through transcriptional and translational regulation. Finally, we confirmed that STAT1 was a transcriptional factor of HMGCS1. In conclusion, miR-379-5p inhibits STAT1 expression and regulates cholesterol metabolism through the STAT1/HMGCS1 axis, suggesting miR-379-5p might be applied to improve lipotoxicity in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s43556-022-00089-wDOI Listing
August 2022

Debate: Could the litchi pericarp oligomeric procyanidins bioconverted by increase the inhibitory capacity on advanced glycation end products?

Front Nutr 2022 22;9:961078. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Key Laboratory of Fermentation Engineering (Ministry of Education), National "111" Center for Cellular Regulation and Molecular Pharmaceutics, Cooperative Innovation Center of Industrial Fermentation (Ministry of Education & Hubei Province), Hubei Key Laboratoy of Industrial Microbiology, Hubei University of Technology, Wuhan, China.

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have already been used as fermentation strains to enhance the antioxidant capacity of polyphenols. Antioxidant capacity is one of the most important factors to inhibit advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation and could LAB increase the inhibitory capacity of procyanidins on AGEs formation? It was surprising that opposite results were obtained both in simulated food processing and gastrointestinal digestion systems. After incubation with , litchi pericarp oligomeric procyanidins (LPOPCs) were bioconverted to several phenolic acids, which increased the antioxidant activity as expected. However, antiglycation ability and trapping carbonyl compounds capacity both weakened and it might be the primary reason for decreasing the inhibitory effect on AGE formation. Furthermore, it was found that LPOPCs incubated with inhibited the activity of digestive enzymes and thus decreased the digestibility of glycated protein. Our study systematically proposed for the first time that procyanidins bioconversion is an effective means to improve the antioxidant activity but has no remarkable promoting effect on AGEs inhibition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2022.961078DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9354931PMC
July 2022

Incidence and prevalence of tuberculosis in systemic lupus erythematosus patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Front Immunol 2022 22;13:938406. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Department of Tuberculosis Control and Prevention, Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou, China.

Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients are particularly susceptible to infections, such as pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB). This meta-analysis aimed to determine the incidence and prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) in SLE patients.

Methods: The Web of Science, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases were searched for articles of relevant studies published from the dates the databases were established until April 30, 2022. The statistic and test were used to evaluate heterogeneity among the analysed studies. Random-effects models were utilised and subgroup analyses were conducted for analysis of the study data.

Results: A total of 35 studies with 46,327 SLE patients were eligible for analysis. The incidence and prevalence of TB among the SLE patients were 1.16 per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.69-1.93) and 3.59% (95% CI: 2.57%-5.02%), respectively. The pooled prevalence of SLE-PTB and SLE-EPTB was 2.46% (95% CI: 1.73%-3.51%) and 1.42% (95% CI: 0.98%-2.06%), respectively. Subgroup analyses showed that the incidence of SLE-TB was higher in Africa and in countries with a high TB burden than in countries with a low TB burden. The prevalence of SLE-TB was elevated in Asia, in patients taking a mean daily dose of glucocorticoids ≥20 mg, in studies with small sample sizes (n <1000) and ended before 2001.

Conclusions: The available evidence suggests that both the incidence and prevalence of TB in SLE patients are high. This study provides a more specific understanding of SLE-TB, which can help health policymakers in the development of preventive strategies for reducing the SLE-TB burden.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2022.938406DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9355093PMC
August 2022

Superselective Ophthalmic Artery Thrombolytic Therapy for Hyaluronic Acid Embolization: A Case Report.

Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol 2022 1;15:1459-1463. Epub 2022 Aug 1.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Senior Department of Burns and Plastic Surgery, The Fourth Medical Center of Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Blindness caused by embolization of fillers is a rare but catastrophic complication after cosmetic injection. Vision improvement is rarely reported among the various studies on potential clinical treatments. In this case, the patient suffered from ophthalmic artery occlusion with no light perception 48 h after hyaluronic acid injection. After two intra-arterial thrombolytic therapy sessions and traditional sequential therapy, ocular appearance was restored to normal, blood supply to the retina and visual function were improved, and visual acuity was restored to hand motion levels. Our results suggest that intra-arterial thrombolytic therapy with hyaluronidase and papaverine has a positive effect on hyaluronic acid-induced visual loss and is worthy of clinical promotion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CCID.S367481DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9355662PMC
August 2022

Advanced oxidation protein products induce annulus fibrosus cell senescence through a NOX4-dependent, MAPK-mediated pathway and accelerate intervertebral disc degeneration.

PeerJ 2022 2;10:e13826. Epub 2022 Aug 2.

Division of Spine Surgery, Department of Orthopaedics, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

Background: Intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) is closely associated with senescence. Annulus fibrosus (AF) cell senescence is a crucial driver of AF tissue tearing and fissures, thereby exacerbating IVDD. Increased advanced oxidative protein products (AOPPs) were found in human degenerative discs and aged rat discs and may be involved in IVDD. This study aimed to explore the mechanism of AOPPs-induced senescence in AF cells.

Methods: The pathological effects of AOPPs were investigated using a rat lumbar disc persistent degeneration model and a rat caudal disc puncture model. Rat primary AF cells were selected as models, and AOPPs were used as direct stimulation to observe their pathological effects. Setanaxb (NOX1/4 inhibitor), apocynin (NADPH oxidase inhibitor) and adenovirus (ADV) packed NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) specific shRNAs were used for pathway inhibition, respectively. Finally, adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) packed with NOX4-specific blocking sequences were used to inhibit the pathway.

Results: AOPPs accumulated in the rat lumbar and caudal degenerative discs. Intra-discal loading of AOPPs up-regulated the expression of NOX4, p53, p21, p16, IL-1, and TNF-, ultimately accelerating IVDD. Exposure of AOPPs to AF primary cells up-regulated NOX4 expression, induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), triggered senescence and increased IL-1 and TNF-. Apocynin, setanaxib, and ADV pre-cultured AF cells abrogated AOPPs-induced senescence. AAV-mediated inhibition of NOX4 expression reduced the expression of p53, p21, p16, IL-1 and TNF- and delayed IVDD.

Conclusions: AOPPs induced AF cell senescence through a NOX4-dependent and MAPK-mediated pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.13826DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9354796PMC
August 2022

Tong-Qiao-Huo-Xue decoction activates PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway to reduce BMECs autophagy after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.

J Ethnopharmacol 2022 Jul 31:115585. Epub 2022 Jul 31.

Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicinal Formula, Anhui University of Chinese Medicine, Hefei, 230012, PR China; Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Research & Development of Chinese Medicine, Anhui University of Chinese Medicine, Hefei, 230012, PR China; Institute for Pharmacodynamics and Safety Evaluation of Chinese Medicine, Anhui Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Hefei, 230012, PR China; College of Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine (College of Life Science), Anhui University of Chinese Medicine, Hefei, China.

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Tong-Qiao-Huo-Xue Decoction (TQHXD) is a traditional classic Chinese Medicinal Formula (CMF) used for clinical treatment of ischemic stroke. TQHXD leads to improvement in the symptoms of the acute period of cerebral infarction and recovery period after stroke. Our previous studies also showed that TQHXD produced a significant protective effect on the brain after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. It is reported that autophagy is closely related to ischemic brain injury; however, the functional contribution of TQHXD to brain microvascular endothelial cell (BMEC) autophagy and its underlying mechanism remains unclear.

Aim Of The Study: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanism of TQHXD in inhibiting cerebral ischemia-induced endothelial autophagy.

Materials And Methods: The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint of the chemical constituents from TQHXD was established for the quality control, and the Longa method was used to evaluate the efficacy of TQHXD in rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). The expression of LC3 was determined by immunofluorescence double staining. To evaluate the protective effects of TQHXD-containing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on BMECs injured by oxygen-glucose deprivation and reperfusion, cell survival rate was determined using the CCK-8 assay and cell apoptosis was determined by fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-Annexin V/PI. Autophagy was detected using transmission electron microscopy.

Results: The results showed that TQHXD-CSF significantly ameliorated oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R)-induced injury in BMECs. Confocal microscopy and western blot results showed that TQHXD-CSF reduced autophagy-related protein expression and autophagosome number. The results of the western blotting indicated that TQHXD-CSF caused a marked increase in the phosphorylation of protein kinase B and phosphoinsotide-3 kinase (Akt/p-Akt and PI3K/p-PI3K, respectively) and their expression levels were down-regulated after treatment with pathway inhibitor, ZSTK474. Furthermore, in a MCAO model in rats, TQHXD markedly increased p-PI3K, p-Akt and p-mTOR, whereas the autophagy related proteins decreased.

Conclusions: Taken together, these findings demonstrate that TQHXD protects against ischemic insult by inhibiting autophagy through the regulation of the PI3K/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway and that TQHXD may have therapeutic value for protecting BMECs from cerebral ischemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2022.115585DOI Listing
July 2022

Protective anti-gB neutralizing antibodies targeting two vulnerable sites for EBV-cell membrane fusion.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2022 Aug 2;119(32):e2202371119. Epub 2022 Aug 2.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics, National Institute of Diagnostics and Vaccine Development in Infectious Diseases, School of Life Sciences, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, China.

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infects more than 90% of the world's adult population and accounts for a significant cancer burden of epithelial and B cell origins. Glycoprotein B (gB) is the primary fusogen essential for EBV entry into host cells. Here, we isolated two EBV gB-specific neutralizing antibodies, 3A3 and 3A5; both effectively neutralized the dual-tropic EBV infection of B and epithelial cells. In humanized mice, both antibodies showed effective protection from EBV-induced lymphoproliferative disorders. Cryoelectron microscopy analyses identified that 3A3 and 3A5 bind to nonoverlapping sites on domains D-II and D-IV, respectively. Structure-based mutagenesis revealed that 3A3 and 3A5 inhibit membrane fusion through different mechanisms involving the interference with gB-cell interaction and gB activation. Importantly, the 3A3 and 3A5 epitopes are major targets of protective gB-specific neutralizing antibodies elicited by natural EBV infection in humans, providing potential targets for antiviral therapies and vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2202371119DOI Listing
August 2022

Metal-organic framework-derived Co/CoO nanoparticles with tunable particle size for strong low-frequency microwave absorption in the S and C bands.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2022 Jul 25;628(Pt A):10-21. Epub 2022 Jul 25.

Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education) School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, No. 37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191, PR China. Electronic address:

Nowadays, constructing strong absorption materials addressing the low-frequency electromagnetic radiation (S and C bands) from electronic devices remains a significant challenge. In this work, size-tunable Co/CoO nanoparticles (NPs) are fabricated by decomposing zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-67) precursors and subsequent hydrogen reduction. All samples show obvious low-frequency attenuation in the S and C bands. At a thin thickness of 2.3 mm, the minimum reflection loss (RL) value for the Co/CoO NPs of 30 nm reaches up to -90.3 dB at 4.4 GHz, and the corresponding effective absorption bandwidth (EAB) of RL ≤ -10 dB ranges from 3.8 to 5.4 GHz. Notably, 90 % of the electromagnetic waves can be absorbed in the frequency range of 2.3-13.2 GHz, covering almost the entire S, C, and X bands at a thickness of 1.0-4.0 mm. The strong low-frequency absorption performance is attributed to the nano-porous structure, high conduction loss, tunable dielectric/magnetic loss, as well as optimized impedance matching. These Co/CoO NPs are promising candidates for high-efficient microwave absorbers in the low-frequency application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2022.07.138DOI Listing
July 2022

Bridging the Gap in End Tuberculosis Targets in the Elderly Population in Eastern China: Observational Study From 2015 to 2020.

JMIR Public Health Surveill 2022 Jul 29;8(7):e39142. Epub 2022 Jul 29.

Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou, China.

Background: With a progressive increase in the aging process, the challenges posed by pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) are also increasing for the elderly population.

Objective: This study aimed to identify the epidemiological distribution of PTB among the elderly, forecast the achievement of the World Health Organization's 2025 goal in this specific group, and predict further advancement of PTB in the eastern area of China.

Methods: All notified active PTB cases aged ≥65 years from Zhejiang Province were screened and analyzed. The general epidemiological characteristics were depicted and presented using the ArcGIS software. Further prediction of PTB was performed using R and SPSS software programs.

Results: Altogether 41,431 cases aged ≥65 years were identified by the surveillance system from 2015 to 2020. After excluding extrapulmonary TB cases, we identified 39,832 PTB cases, including laboratory-confirmed (23,664, 59.41%) and clinically diagnosed (16,168, 40.59%) PTB. The notified PTB incidence indicated an evident downward trend with a reduction of 30%; however, the incidence of bacteriologically positive cases was steady at approximately 60/100,000. Based on the geographical distribution, Quzhou and Jinhua Cities had a higher PTB incidence among the elderly. The delay in PTB diagnosis was identified, and a significantly prolonged treatment course was observed in the elderly. Moreover, a 50% reduction of PTB incidence by the middle of 2024 was predicted using a linear regression model. It was found that using the exponential smoothing model would be better to predict the PTB trend in the elderly than a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average model.

Conclusions: More comprehensive and effective interventions such as active PTB screening combined with physical checkup and succinct health education should be implemented and strengthened in the elderly. A more systematic assessment of the PTB epidemic trend in the elderly population should be considered to incorporate more predictive factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/39142DOI Listing
July 2022

Chitosan-modified hollow manganese dioxide nanoparticles loaded with resveratrol for the treatment of spinal cord injury.

Drug Deliv 2022 Dec;29(1):2498-2512

Pharmacy School, Jinzhou Medical University, Jinzhou, Liaoning, China.

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a serious central nervous system disease, and secondary injury, including oxidative stress, the inflammatory response and accompanying neuronal apoptosis, will aggravate the condition. Due to the existence of the blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB), the existing drugs for SCI treatment are difficulty to reach the injury site and thus their efficacy is limited. In this study, we designed chitosan-modified hollow manganese dioxide nanoparticles (CM) for the delivery of resveratrol to help it pass through the BSCB. Resveratrol (Res), a poorly soluble drug, was adsorbed into CM with a particle size of approximately 130 nm via the adsorption method, and the drug loading reached 21.39 ± 2.53%. dissolution experiment, the Res release of the loaded sample (CMR) showed slowly release behavior and reached about 87% at 36 h. at the cellular level and at the animal level experiments demonstrated that CMR could alleviate significantly oxidative stress by reducing level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and increasing glutathione peroxidase (GSH) level. Additionally, immunofluorescence (iNOS, IL-1β, and Cl caspase-3) and western blot (iNOS, cox-2, IL-1β, IL-10, Cl caspase-3, bax, and bcl-2) were used to detect the expression of related factors, which verified that CMR could also reduce inflammation and neuronal apoptosis. These results indicated that CM, as a potential central nervous system drug delivery material, was suitable for SCI treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10717544.2022.2104957DOI Listing
December 2022

Solid-state electrochemiluminescence sensor based on zeolitic imidazolate framework-67 electrospinning nanofibers for chlorpyrifos detection.

Mikrochim Acta 2022 07 28;189(8):298. Epub 2022 Jul 28.

College of Chemistry, Changchun Normal University, Changchun, 130032, People's Republic of China.

A novel solid-state electrochemiluminescence (ECL) sensor for chlorpyrifos (CPF) detection was constructed based on zeolitic imidazolate framework-67 electrospinning nanofibers (ZIF-67 NFs). Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs), ZIF-67 NFs, tris(2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium(II) [Ru(bpy)], and Nafion were successively deposited on the surface of the electrode. Ag NPs played a role in promoting electron transfer, and ZIF-67 NFs played a role in fixing Ru(bpy) and promoting electron transfer due to its large specific surface area and porosity. Nafion formed a film on the outermost layer of the electrode to further improve the stability of the system. Therefore, the modified electrode showed stable and obvious ECL signal in PBS solution containing 10 μL 0.01 M TprA (pH 8.0). CPF quenched the ECL signal of the system, and the quenching value was linear with the logarithm of CPF concentration in the range 1.0 × 10 to 1.0 × 10 M. The detection limit was 3.3 × 10 M (S/N = 3). In this study, ZIF-67 NFs were used as an ECL promoter for the first time, broadening the application range of ZIF-67 NFs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00604-022-05398-zDOI Listing
July 2022

Comparative Mitogenomic Analysis Reveals Intraspecific, Interspecific Variations and Genetic Diversity of Medical Fungus .

J Fungi (Basel) 2022 Jul 26;8(8). Epub 2022 Jul 26.

Biotechnology and Nuclear Technology Research Institute, Sichuan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 106 # Shizishan Rd., Chengdu 610061, China.

species are widely distributed in the world with high diversity. Some species are considered to be pathogenic fungi while others are used as traditional medicine in Asia. In this study, we sequenced and assembled four complete mitogenomes, including s118, s37, s62, and s74. The sizes of the four mitogenomes ranged from 50,603 to 73,416 bp. All specimens had a full set of core protein-coding genes (PCGs), and the gene of species was detected to be under positive or relaxed selection. We found that the non-conserved PCGs, which encode RNA polymerases, DNA polymerases, homing endonucleases, and unknown functional proteins, are dynamic within and between species. Introns were thought to be the main contributing factor in mitogenome size variation (< 0.01). Frequent intron loss/gain events were detected within and between species. The mitogenome of s26 gained intron P637 in the gene compared with the other two mitogenomes. In addition, some rare introns in were detected in distinct Basidiomycetes, indicating potential gene transfer events. Comparative mitogenomic analysis revealed that gene arrangements also varied within and between mitogenomes. Using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods with a combined mitochondrial gene dataset, phylogenetic analyses generated identical, well-supported tree topologies for 71 species. This study reveals intraspecific and interspecific variations of the mitogenomes, which promotes the understanding of the origin, evolution, and genetic diversity of species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jof8080781DOI Listing
July 2022

Spatial Variations and Determinants of Anemia among Under-five Children in Nepal, DHS (2006-2016).

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 Jul 16;19(14). Epub 2022 Jul 16.

Health Science Center, Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Xian Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710061, China.

Anemia among under-five children is the major health problem in Nepal. The lack of nutritional supplementation and lack of healthcare facilities are influential factors of anemia. Thus, the main objective of this study is to explore spatial variations and determinants of anemia among under-five children in Nepal. Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) data from 2006 to 2016 were used in this study, which includes: household and individual-level data of 8555 under-five children, whose anemia was measured. In addition, a total of 260 (2006), 281 (2011), and 383 DHS clusters (2016) were taken in consideration for spatial analysis. The overall prevalence of anemia was 48.9%, 46.4%, and 52.2% in 2006, 2011, and 2016 respectively. The spatial analysis revealed a nonrandom spatial distribution, where statistically significant hotspots and coldspots were detected in different parts of the country. The results also identified mother's age, mother's educational level, socioeconomic status of household, number of under-5 children, household size, birth weight, underweight, stunting, diarrhea, and fever as associated factors of anemia among under-5 children. These findings may provide assistance to concerned health officials in adopting anemia-related programs and policies to address the anemia problems that plague Nepalese children under the age of five.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19148664DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9323660PMC
July 2022

Recent Developments in Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy and Its Application in Food Analysis: Alcoholic Beverages as an Example.

Foods 2022 Jul 21;11(14). Epub 2022 Jul 21.

Key Laboratory of Coarse Cereal Processing, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Sichuan Engineering & Technology Research Center of Coarse Cereal Industrialization, School of Food and Biological Engineering, Chengdu University, Chengdu 610106, China.

Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is an emerging technology that combines Raman spectroscopy and nanotechnology with great potential. This technology can accurately characterize molecular adsorption behavior and molecular structure. Moreover, it can provide rapid and sensitive detection of molecules and trace substances. In practical application, SERS has the advantages of portability, no need for sample pretreatment, rapid analysis, high sensitivity, and 'fingerprint' recognition. Thus, it has great potential in food safety detection. Alcoholic beverages have a long history of production in the world. Currently, a variety of popular products have been developed. With the continuous development of the alcoholic beverage industry, simple, on-site, and sensitive detection methods are necessary. In this paper, the basic principle, development history, and research progress of SERS are summarized. In view of the chemical composition, the beneficial and toxic components of alcoholic beverages and the practical application of SERS in alcoholic beverage analysis are reviewed. The feasibility and future development of SERS are also summarized and prospected. This review provides data and reference for the future development of SERS technology and its application in food analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods11142165DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9316878PMC
July 2022

A Pilot Study on Plasma and Urine Neurotransmitter Levels in Children with Tic Disorders.

Brain Sci 2022 Jul 4;12(7). Epub 2022 Jul 4.

Department of Neurology, Wuhan Children's Hospital of Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430000, China.

Background: Tic disorders (TDs), including Tourette syndrome, are childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by motor and/or vocal tics that commonly affect children's physical and mental health. The pathogenesis of TDs may be related to abnormal neurotransmitters in the cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical circuitry, especially dopaminergic, glutamatergic, and serotonergic neurotransmitters. The purpose of this study was to preliminarily investigate the differences in the three types of neurotransmitters in plasma and urine between children with TD and healthy children.

Methods: We collected 94 samples of plasma and 69 samples of urine from 3-12-year-old Chinese Han children with TD before treatment. The plasma and urine of the same number of healthy Chinese Han children, matched for age and sex, participating in a physical examination, were collected. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to detect the three types of neurotransmitters in the above samples.

Results: The plasma levels of norepinephrine, glutamic acid, and γ-aminobutyric acid, and the urine levels of normetanephrine and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were higher in the TD children than in healthy children. The area under the curve (AUC) values of the above neurotransmitters in plasma and urine analyzed by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis were all higher than 0.6, with significant differences. Among them, the combined AUC of dopamine, norepinephrine, normetanephrine, glutamic acid, and γ-aminobutyric acid in the 8-12-year-old subgroup was 0.930, and the sensitivity and specificity for TD were 0.821 and 0.974, respectively ( = 0.000).

Conclusions: There are differences in plasma and urine neurotransmitters between TD children and healthy children, which lays a foundation for further research on the pathogenesis of TD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12070880DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9313232PMC
July 2022

Landscape of genetic variants in sporadic meningiomas captured with clinical genomics.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2022 Jul 26. Epub 2022 Jul 26.

Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, UConn Health, 263 Farmington Ave, Farmington, CT, 06030, USA.

Background: Meningiomas are the most common primary central nervous system tumor. Previous studies have characterized recurrent genetic alterations that can predict patient prognosis and potentially provide new avenues for therapeutic intervention. Continued efforts to characterize the genomic changes in meningioma samples can aid in the discovery of therapeutic targets and appropriate patient stratification.

Methods: We performed targeted genomic sequencing on 25 primary and 2 recurrent meningiomas using a 500-gene panel, including canonical meningioma drivers. We further detail the genomic profiles and relevant clinical findings in three cases of angiomatous meningiomas and two recurrent atypical meningiomas.

Results: Our approach uncovers a diverse landscape of genomic variants in meningioma samples including mutations in established meningioma-related genes NF2, AKT1, PIK3CA, and TRAF7. In addition to known meningioma drivers, we uncover variants in genes encoding other PI3K subunits, Notch/hedgehog/Wnt signaling pathway components, and chromatin regulators. We additionally identify 22 genes mutated across multiple samples. Three patients included in the study were diagnosed with angiomatous WHO grade I meningiomas, all three of which contained variants in the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway previously described to regulate tumor angiogenesis. Analysis of patient-matched primary and recurrent atypical meningiomas revealed clonal enrichment for mutations in the SWI/SNF complex subunits ARID1A and SMARCA4.

Conclusions: Targeted genomics implemented in neuro-oncology care can enhance our understanding of the genetic underpinnings of central nervous system tumors, including meningiomas. These molecular signatures may be clinically useful in dictating treatment strategies and patient follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00701-022-05316-5DOI Listing
July 2022

A review of comprehensive utilization of red mud.

Waste Manag Res 2022 Jul 23:734242X221107987. Epub 2022 Jul 23.

School of Minerals Processing and Bioengineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Red mud (RM) is a solid waste generated during the process of alumina production. RM has already posed a serious environmental threat with the development of the alumina refining industry. The comprehensive utilization of RM has attracted much attention due to its large-scale generation and harmful nature. This paper introduces the characteristics and state of RM and summarizes the relevant research on the comprehensive utilization of RM. The results show that comprehensive utilization of RM is mainly focused on the preparation of building materials, the extraction of valuable metals, catalyst synthesis and environmental protection. Besides, the article discusses the existing problems while utilizing RM. Prospects and suggestions for different utilization methods of RM are proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0734242X221107987DOI Listing
July 2022

SARM1 deletion in parvalbumin neurons is associated with autism-like behaviors in mice.

Cell Death Dis 2022 Jul 22;13(7):638. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

School of Mental Health, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 325035, Zhejiang, China.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a group of neurodevelopmental disorder diseases, is characterized by social deficits, communication difficulties, and repetitive behaviors. Sterile alpha and TIR motif-containing 1 protein (SARM1) is known as an autism-associated protein and is enriched in brain tissue. Moreover, SARM1 knockdown mice exhibit autism-like behaviors. However, its specific mechanism in ASD pathogenesis remains unclear. Here we generated parvalbumin-positive interneurons (PVI)-specific conditional SARM1 knockout (SARM1-CKO) mice. SARM1-CKO male mice showed autism-like behaviors, such as mild social interaction deficits and repetitive behaviors. Moreover, we found that the expression level of parvalbumin was reduced in SARM1-CKO male mice, together with upregulated apoptosis-related proteins and more cleaved-caspase-3-positive PVIs, suggesting that knocking out SARM1 may cause a reduction in the number of PVIs due to apoptosis. Furthermore, the expression of c-fos was shown to increase in SARM1-CKO male mice, in combination with upregulation of excitatory postsynaptic proteins such as PSD-95 or neuroligin-1, indicating enhanced excitatory synaptic input in mutant mice. This notion was further supported by the partial rescue of autism-like behavior deficits by the administration of GABA receptor agonists in SARM1-CKO male mice. In conclusion, our findings suggest that SARM1 deficiency in PVIs may be involved in the pathogenesis of ASD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-022-05083-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9307765PMC
July 2022

Commentary: Central Nervous System Vasculitis Post-COVID-19 Infection: A New Challenge With Histopathological Confirmation.

Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2022 06 20;22(6):e295-e298. Epub 2022 Apr 20.

Department Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1227/ons.0000000000000225DOI Listing
June 2022

Effects of Subauroral Polarization Streams on the Upper Thermospheric Winds During Non-Storm Time.

J Geophys Res Space Phys 2022 May 27;127(5):e2021JA029988. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology Haystack Observatory Westford MA USA.

Intense sunward (westward) plasma flows, named Subauroral Polarization Stream (SAPS), have been known to occur equatorward of the electron auroras for decades, yet their effect on the upper thermosphere has not been well understood. On the one hand, the large velocity of SAPS results in large momentum exchange upon each ion-neutral collision. On the other hand, the low plasma density associated with SAPS implies a low ion-neutral collision frequency. We investigate the SAPS effect during non-storm time by utilizing a Scanning Doppler Imager (SDI) for monitoring the upper thermosphere, SuperDARN radars for SAPS, all-sky imagers and DMSP Spectrographic Imager for the auroral oval, and GPS receivers for the total electron content. Our observations suggest that SAPS at times drives substantial (>50 m/s) westward winds at subauroral latitudes in the dusk-midnight sector, but not always. The occurrence of the westward winds varies with index, plasma content in the trough, and local time. The latitudinally averaged wind speed varies from 60 to 160 m/s, and is statistically 21% of the plasma. These westward winds also shift to lower latitude with increasing and increasing MLT. We do not observe SAPS driving poleward wind surges, neutral temperature enhancements, or acoustic-gravity waves, likely due to the somewhat weak forcing of SAPS during the non-storm time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2021JA029988DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9286583PMC
May 2022

[Research progress of nanomaterials for intra-articular targeted drug delivery in treatment of osteoarthritis].

Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi 2022 Jul;36(7):908-914

Department of Orthopedics, the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou Jiangsu, 215000, P. R. China.

Objective: To review the research progress of intra-articular targeted delivery of nanomaterials in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA).

Methods: The domestic and foreign related literature on intra-articular targeted delivery of nanomaterials for the treatment of OA was extensively reviewed, and their targeting strategies were discussed and summarized.

Results: Rapid drug clearance from the joint remains a critical limitation in drug efficacy. Nanocarriers can not only significantly improve the residence profiles of drugs in the joint, but also achieve targeted delivery of drugs to specific joint tissues through active or passive targeting strategies.

Conclusion: With the continuous development of various emerging tissue- or cell-specific drugs, the targeted delivery of drugs with nanomaterials promise to realize the clinical translation of these drugs in the treatment of OA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7507/1002-1892.202203033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9288906PMC
July 2022

Acute iron overload aggravates blood-brain barrier disruption and hemorrhagic transformation after transient focal ischemia in rats with hyperglycemia.

IBRO Neurosci Rep 2022 Dec 3;13:87-95. Epub 2022 Jul 3.

Center of Cerebrovascular Diseases, Department of Neurology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China.

Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) has been reported to be associated with a poor prognosis after acute ischemic stroke. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage is considered as the major pathophysiologic mechanism of HT. Our aim was to investigate the role of acute iron overload in BBB damage and HT after transient focal ischemia in rats with hyperglycemia. Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was induced in rats with hyperglycemia. Animals were assigned to four groups: Sham, Vehicle, Iron overload and Iron chelator treatment groups. Brain samples were collected at 24 h after surgery to quantify the amount of hemorrhage, determine extravasation of Evans blue and detect the levels of following proteins: ferritin, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), Occludin and Claudin-5 by western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Compared to the Vehicle group, the Iron overload group had a significantly higher amount of hemorrhage and more extravasation of Evans blue. The Iron overload group had lower levels of ZO-1, Occludin and Claudin-5 and higher levels of ferritin and MMP-9 than the Vehicle group. Administering iron chelator reduced the extension of hemorrhage and extravasation of Evans blue, reversed the MCAO-induced reduction of ZO-1, Occludin and Claudin-5 and decreased the levels of ferritin and MMP-9. Our results suggest that acute iron overload aggravates BBB damage and HT after transient ischemia in rats with hyperglycemia, which provides basic evidence for iron overload as a potential factor associated with BBB damage and HT in ischemic stroke patients when accompanied with hyperglycemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ibneur.2022.06.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9284446PMC
December 2022

A hypometabolic defense strategy against malaria.

Cell Metab 2022 Aug 15;34(8):1183-1200.e12. Epub 2022 Jul 15.

Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência, Oeiras, Portugal. Electronic address:

Hypoglycemia is a clinical hallmark of severe malaria, the often-lethal outcome of Plasmodium falciparum infection. Here, we report that malaria-associated hypoglycemia emerges from a non-canonical resistance mechanism, whereby the infected host reduces glycemia to starve Plasmodium. This hypometabolic response is elicited by labile heme, a byproduct of hemolysis that induces illness-induced anorexia and represses hepatic glucose production. While transient repression of hepatic glucose production prevents unfettered immune-mediated inflammation, organ damage, and anemia, when sustained over time it leads to hypoglycemia, compromising host energy expenditure and adaptive thermoregulation. The latter arrests the development of asexual stages of Plasmodium via a mechanism associated with parasite mitochondrial dysfunction. In response, Plasmodium activates a transcriptional program associated with the reduction of virulence and sexual differentiation toward the generation of transmissible gametocytes. In conclusion, malaria-associated hypoglycemia represents a trade-off of a hypometabolic-based defense strategy that balances parasite virulence versus transmission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2022.06.011DOI Listing
August 2022

Reduced cortical complexity in patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy.

Brain Imaging Behav 2022 Jul 12. Epub 2022 Jul 12.

Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, No. 300, Guangzhou Rd., Nanjing, 210029, China.

Psychical and functional disturbances of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) patients are drawing increasingly attention, despite the characterized ophthalmic symptoms. We aimed to investigate the alterations of structural complexity using fractal dimension (FD) analysis in patients with TAO. Thirty-nine TAO patients and 25 healthy controls underwent high-resolution 3.0 T structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). FD values of brain regions were calculated by Computational Anatomy Toolbox (CAT12) and compared between groups. The associations between clinical variables and FD values were further estimated. We found that TAO patients exhibited significantly decreased FD values in right caudal anterior cingulate cortex, right lingual gyrus, right pars orbitalis and right cuneus cortex (FDR corrected p < 0.05). FD values of right cuneus cortex were positively correlated with visual acuity, and FD values of right caudal anterior cingulate cortex were also positively correlated with cognitive performance. Meanwhile, FD values of right lingual gyrus were found to be negatively correlated with emotional function. Our study indicated disturbed cortical complexity in brain regions corresponding to known functional deficits of vision, emotion and cognition in TAO. FD might be a potential marker for reflecting the underlying neurobiological basis of TAO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11682-022-00683-0DOI Listing
July 2022

Deletion of the Loop Linking Two Domains of Exo-Inulinase InuAMN8 Diminished the Enzymatic Thermo-Halo-Alcohol Tolerance.

Front Microbiol 2022 23;13:924447. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Engineering Research Center of Sustainable Development and Utilization of Biomass Energy, Ministry of Education, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming, China.

Inulin is the rich water-soluble storage polysaccharide after starch in nature, and utilization of inulin through hydrolysis of exo-inulinases has attracted much attention. Thermo-halo-alcohol tolerance is essential for exo-inulinase applications, while no report reveals the molecular basis involved in halo-alcohol tolerance of exo-inulinases experimental data. In this study, two loops of exo-inulinase InuAMN8, including the loop built with GHVRLGPQP linking domains of Glyco_hydro_32N and Glyco_hydro_32C and another loop built with GGAG in the catalytic domain, were deleted to generate mutants MutG360Δ9 and MutG169Δ4, respectively. After heterologous expression, purification, and dialysis, InuAMN8, MutG169Δ4, and MutG360Δ9 showed half-lives of 144, 151, and 7 min at 50°C, respectively. InuAMN8 and MutG169Δ4 were very stable, while MutG360Δ9 showed a half-life of approximately 60 min in 5.0% (w/v) NaCl, and they showed half-lives of approximately 60 min in 25.0, 25.0, and 5.0% (w/v) ethanol, respectively. Structural analysis indicated that two cation-π bonds, which contributed to thermal properties of InuAMN8 at high temperatures, broke in MutG360Δ9. Four basic amino acid residues were exposed to the structural surface of MutG360Δ9 and formed positive and neutral electrostatic potential that caused detrimental effects on halo-alcohol tolerance. The study may provide a better understanding of the loop-function relationships that are involved in thermo-halo-alcohol adaptation of enzymes in extreme environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2022.924447DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9260423PMC
June 2022

Altered Long- and Short-Range Functional Connectivity Density in Patients With Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy: A Resting-State fMRI Study.

Front Neurol 2022 23;13:902912. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Background And Purpose: Although previous neuroimaging studies have demonstrated emotion- and psychology-associated brain abnormalities in patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO), the changes of brain functional connectivity in TAO were seldom focused. We aimed to investigate interregional and intraregional functional interactions in patients with TAO by using resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) with long- and short-range functional connectivity density (FCD) analysis.

Methods: Thirty patients with TAO and 30 well-matched healthy controls (HCs) were recruited in our study. Long- and short-range FCD values were calculated and compared between the two groups. Correlations between long- and short-range FCD values and clinical indicators were analyzed.

Results: Compared with HCs, patients with showed both increased long- and short-range FCDs in the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG), orbital part of superior frontal gyrus (ORBsup), and dorsolateral part of superior frontal gyrus (SFGdor); meanwhile, both decreased long- and short-range FCDs in bilateral postcentral gyrus (PoCG), left superior parietal gyrus (SPG), and inferior parietal (IPL). In addition, patients with TAO showed increased short-range FCD in the right SFGdor, bilateral medial part of superior frontal gyrus (SFGmed), left orbital part of middle frontal gyrus (ORBmid), and orbital part of inferior frontal gyrus (ORBinf), as well as decreased short-range FCD in the right supplementary motor area (SMA) and the left paracentral lobule (PCL) than HCs. Moreover, the short-range value in the left SFGdor showed a negative correlation with Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score ( = -0.501, = 0.005).

Conclusion: Our findings complemented the functional neural mechanism of TAO, and provided potential neuroimaging markers for assessing the psychiatric, visual, and emotional disturbances in patients with TAO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2022.902912DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9259934PMC
June 2022

Predictors of cytopenias after treatment with axicabtagene ciloleucel in patients with large B-cell lymphoma.

Leuk Lymphoma 2022 Jul 9:1-5. Epub 2022 Jul 9.

Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Cytopenias are important but less studied adverse events following chimeric antigen receptor-engineered T cell (CAR-T) therapy. In our analysis of patients with large cell lymphoma who received axicabtagene ciloleucel (axi-cel), we sought to determine the rate and risk factors of clinically significant short term cytopenias defined as grade ≥3 neutropenia, anemia, or thrombocytopenia, or treatment with growth factors or blood product transfusions between days 20-30 after axi-cel. Fifty-three pts received axi-cel during the study period and severe cytopenias were observed in 32 (60%) pts. Significant cytopenias were more common in non-responders (stable or progressive disease) vs. responders (partial or complete response) (100% vs. 70%; = .01). In the multivariable model, platelet transfusion within a month before leukapheresis, number of red blood cell and platelet transfusions between leukapheresis to lymphodepletion, pre-lymphodepletion absolute neurophil count, pre-lymphodepletion lactate dehydrogenase, and number of dexamethasone treatments after CAR-T were significantly associated with severe cytopenias after axi-cel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2022.2095632DOI Listing
July 2022

Spider Silk-Improved Quartz-Enhanced Conductance Spectroscopy for Medical Mask Humidity Sensing.

Molecules 2022 Jul 5;27(13). Epub 2022 Jul 5.

Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Information and Sensing Technologies of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, Department of Optoelectronic Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China.

Spider silk is one of the hottest biomaterials researched currently, due to its excellent mechanical properties. This work reports a novel humidity sensing platform based on a spider silk-modified quartz tuning fork (SSM-QTF). Since spider silk is a kind of natural moisture-sensitive material, it does not demand additional sensitization. Quartz-enhanced conductance spectroscopy (QECS) was combined with the SSM-QTF to access humidity sensing sensitively. The results indicate that the resonance frequency of the SSM-QTF decreased monotonously with the ambient humidity. The detection sensitivity of the proposed SSM-QTF sensor was 12.7 ppm at 1 min. The SSM-QTF sensor showed good linearity of ~0.99. Using this sensor, we successfully measured the humidity of disposable medical masks for different periods of wearing time. The results showed that even a 20 min wearing time can lead to a >70% humidity in the mask enclosed space. It is suggested that a disposable medical mask should be changed <2 h.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules27134320DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9268163PMC
July 2022

Biochemical and Molecular Characteristics of a Novel Hyaluronic Acid Lyase from .

Foods 2022 Jul 5;11(13). Epub 2022 Jul 5.

College of Life Sciences, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650500, China.

The Gram-negative strain of YNLX, has the ability to degrade hyaluronic acid. In this study, we expressed a hyaluronic acid lyase, from polysaccharide lyase family 8, in . The purified recombinant enzyme (rHynACF8) showed a substantially higher cleavage activity of hyaluronic acid than chondroitin sulfate. We found that its optimal pH and temperature are 5.5 and 35 °C, respectively. In addition, the enzyme activity was not notably affected by most metal ions. and of rHynACF8 towards HA were 1.5 ± 0.01 mg/mL and 30.9 ± 0.5 /s, respectively. rHynACF8 is an endo-acting enzyme. Its cleavage products had dramatically increased antioxidant activity than hyaluronic acid in vitro ( < 0.001). As the molecular weight of hyaluronic acid decreased, the intramolecular interactions among antioxidant functional groups were removed; in the process of the cracking reaction, new double bonds formed and conjugated with the carbonyl group. We presumed that the structural change is the critical factor influencing antioxidant capacity. Overall, we found that rHynACF8 from Gram-negative bacteria with metal ion resistance, indicated the relationship between the function and structure of its antioxidant cleavage product.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods11131989DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9265501PMC
July 2022
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