Publications by authors named "Qian Wei"

900 Publications

The PdeK-PdeR two-component system promotes unipolar localization of FimX and pilus extension in pv. .

Sci Signal 2021 Sep 14;14(700):eabi9589. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Plant Pathology and MOA Key Laboratory of Pest Monitoring and Green Management, and Joint International Research Laboratory of Crop Molecular Breeding, Ministry of Education, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China.

[Figure: see text].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scisignal.abi9589DOI Listing
September 2021

A comparison of the efficiency of diagnostic ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging of cervical lymph nodes in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

J Xray Sci Technol 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Affiliated People's Hospital of Jiangsu University, (The First People's Hospital of Zhenjiang), Jiangsu Province, China.

Objective: To compare and evaluate diagnostic capabilities of preoperative ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the cervical lymph nodes of patients with papillary thyroid cancer.

Methods: A retrospective dataset involving 156 patients who had undergone thyroidectomy and preoperative US and MRI was assembled. Among these, 69 had cervical lymph node metastasis and 87 did not. At least four radiologists unilaterally and spontaneously investigated the US and MRI attributes of the cervical lymph nodes. The efficiency of diagnostic imaging for cervical lymph nodes, including their true-positive rate or sensitivity, true-negative rate or specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and predictive accuracy were analysed and assessed.

Results: In the assessment of cervical lymph node metastases of papillary thyroid cancer, the diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of diagnostic US vs. MRI were 58.0% vs. 79.7%, 69.0% vs. 83.9%, 59.7% vs. 79.7%, 67.4% vs. 83.9%, and 64.1% vs. 82.1%, respectively. The accuracy consistency of the two imaging modalities was 83.5%.

Conclusions: MRI is more effective than US in diagnosing and assessing cervical lymph node metastases of papillary thyroid cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/XST-210927DOI Listing
September 2021

Sequential Growth of 2D/3D Double-Layer Perovskite Films with Superior X-Ray Detection Performance.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Sep 8:e2102730. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Guangdong Key Lab of Nano-Micro Material Research, School of Chemical Biology and Biotechnology, Shenzhen Graduate School, Peking University, Shenzhen, 518055, China.

Perovskite materials in different dimensions show great potential in direct X-ray detection, but each with limitations stemming from its own intrinsic properties. Particularly, the sensitivity of two-dimensional (2D) perovskites is limited by poor carrier transport while ion migration in three-dimensional (3D) perovskites causes the baseline drifting problem. To circumvent these limitations, herein a double-layer perovskite film is developed with properly aligned energy level, where 2D (PEA) MA Pb I (PEA=2-phenylethylammonium, MA=methylammonium) is cascaded with vertically crystallized 3D MAPbI . In this new design paradigm, the 3D layer ensures fast carrier transport while the 2D layer mitigates ion migration, thus offering a high sensitivity and a greatly stabilized baseline. Besides, the 2D layer increases the film resistivity and enlarges the energy barrier for hole injection without compromising carrier extraction. Consequently, the double-layer perovskite detector delivers a high sensitivity (1.95 × 10 μC Gy cm ) and a low detection limit (480 nGy s ). Also demonstrated is the X-ray imaging capacity using a circuit board as the object. This work opens up a new avenue for enhancing X-ray detection performance via cascade assembly of various perovskites with complementary properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202102730DOI Listing
September 2021

Simultaneous adsorption of Cr(VI) and phenol by biochar-based iron oxide composites in water: Performance, kinetics and mechanism.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Aug 28;416:125930. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Guangdong Provincial Engineering and Technology Research Center for Agricultural Land Pollution Prevention and Control, Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering, Guangzhou 510225, China. Electronic address:

The pollution of heavy metals and organic compounds has received increased attention in recent years. In the current study, a novel biochar-based iron oxide composite (FeYBC) was successfully synthesized using pomelo peel and ferric chloride solution through one-step process at moderate temperature. Results clearly demonstrate that FeYBC exhibited more efficient removal of Cr(VI) and/or phenol compared with the pristine biochar, and the maximum adsorption amounts of Cr(VI) and phenol by FeYBC could reach 24.37 and 39.32 mg g, respectively. A series of characterization data suggests that several iron oxides such as FeO, Fe, FeOOH and FeO were formed on the FeYBC surface as well as oxygen-containing groups. Thermodynamics study indicates that Cr(VI) and phenol adsorption by FeYBC were endothermic and exothermic processes, respectively. Langmuir adsorption isotherm and pseudo-second order models could better explain the Cr(VI) and phenol adsorption behaviors over FeYBC. The Cr(VI) adsorption might be primarily achieved through the ion exchange and surface complexation and reduction, whereas the π-π interaction and electron donor-acceptor complex mainly contributed to phenol adsorption. The findings indicate that the biochar-based iron oxide composites material was an efficient adsorbent for the remediation of industrial effluents containing Cr(VI) and phenol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125930DOI Listing
August 2021

The Role of Amyloid-Beta and Tau in the Early Pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease.

Med Sci Monit 2021 Sep 2;27:e933084. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical School, Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu, China (mainland).

The abnormal accumulation of amyloid-b (Ab) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) containing phosphorylated tau proteins are the main histopathological feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Synaptic damage and loss are earlier events than amyloid plaques and NFTs in AD progress and best correlate with cognitive deficits in AD patients. Soluble oligomeric Aß initiates the progression of AD and tau mediates the subsequent synaptic impairments at an early stage of AD. In this review we discuss how Ab or/and tau causes synaptic dysfunction. Ab oligomers gather at synapses and give rise to synaptic death in a variety of ways such as regulating receptors and receptor tyrosine kinases, unbalancing calcium homeostasis, and activating caspases and calcineurin. A large amount of hyperphosphorylated tau exists in the synapse of the AD brain. Aß-triggered synaptic deficits are dependent on tau. Soluble, hyperphosphorylated tau is much more correlated to cognitive decline in AD patients. Tau-targeted therapies have received more attention because the treatments targeting Aß failed in AD. Here, we also review the therapy strategies used to intervene in the very early stages of AD. Soluble hyperphosphorylated tau forms a complex with cell surface receptors, scaffold proteins, or intracellular signaling molecules to damage synaptic function. Therefore, therapeutic strategies targeting synaptic tau at the early stage of AD may ameliorating pathology in AD. This review aims to provide an update on the role of oligomeric Ab and soluble hyperphosphorylated tau in the early pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and to develop a new treatment strategy based on this.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.933084DOI Listing
September 2021

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Thioredoxin1 (SsTrx1) is required for pathogenicity and oxidative stress tolerance.

Mol Plant Pathol 2021 Aug 30. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, Southwest University, Chongqing, China.

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum infects host plant tissues by inducing necrosis to source nutrients needed for its establishment. Tissue necrosis results from an enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) at the site of infection and apoptosis. Pathogens have evolved ROS scavenging mechanisms to withstand host-induced oxidative damage. However, the genes associated with ROS scavenging pathways are yet to be fully investigated in S. sclerotiorum. We selected the S. sclerotiorum Thioredoxin1 gene (SsTrx1) for our investigations as its expression is significantly induced during S. sclerotiorum infection. RNA interference-induced silencing of SsTrx1 in S. sclerotiorum affected the hyphal growth rate, mycelial morphology, and sclerotial development under in vitro conditions. These outcomes confirmed the involvement of SsTrx1 in promoting pathogenicity and oxidative stress tolerance of S. sclerotiorum. We next constructed an SsTrx1-based host-induced gene silencing (HIGS) vector and mobilized it into Arabidopsis thaliana (HIGS-A) and Nicotiana benthamiana (HIGS-N). The disease resistance analysis revealed significantly reduced pathogenicity and disease progression in the transformed genotypes as compared to the nontransformed and empty vector controls. The relative gene expression of SsTrx1 increased under oxidative stress. Taken together, our results show that normal expression of SsTrx1 is crucial for pathogenicity and oxidative stress tolerance of S. sclerotiorum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mpp.13127DOI Listing
August 2021

Disproportionate variations in denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation across freshwater-oligohaline wetlands in Min River Estuary, Southeast China.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Aug 28. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Key Laboratory for Humid Subtropical Eco-geographical Processes of the Ministry of Education, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, 350007, China.

Spatial and temporal variations in soil denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) across the freshwater-oligohaline wetlands in subtropical estuary have not been well understood. In this study, continuous-flow soil core incubation combined with nitrogen isotope tracer was used to determine denitrification and anammox rates across freshwater-oligohaline tidal wetlands in Min River Estuary, Southeast China. Areal rates of denitrification and anammox varied from 3.89 to 19.0 μmol m h and from 0.15 to 1.11 μmol m h, respectively, across these wetlands and throughout sampling months. Denitrification rates were higher in warm months (July, September) than in cool months (November, January), whereas anammox did not vary significantly across the sampling months. Average denitrification rates throughout the sampling months were higher in freshwater than in oligohaline wetlands, while anammox rates did not vary among the wetlands. Relative contribution of anammox (R) to N production (including denitrification and anammox) varied from 1.03 to 18.3% across the sampling months and wetlands. Denitrification rates differed significantly across the wetlands and sampling months. Anammox rates and R did not vary significantly among the sampling months. Denitrification rates were positively correlated with water content, total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen, dissolved organic nitrogen, NH, NO, Fe, and Fe/Fe, but negatively related to pH. Anammox rates showed negative relationships with water content and TOC. Water content, temperature, and pH were crucial for organic carbon and Fe availability with important implications on denitrification and anammox. Therefore, denitrification rates vary significantly, whereas anammox rates do not vary significantly across freshwater-oligohaline wetlands in the Min River Estuary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-16152-yDOI Listing
August 2021

The role of TPS, CA125, CA15-3 and CEA in prediction of distant metastasis of breast cancer.

Clin Chim Acta 2021 Aug 26;523:19-25. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin's Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin 300060, PR China. Electronic address:

Objective: To explore the application value of breast cancer tumor markers tissue polypeptide specific antigen (TPS), carbohydrate antigen 15-3 (CA15-3), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) detection alone or in combination for the monitoring of distant metastasis of breast cancer.

Method: The clinical data of 389 female breast cancer patients admitted to Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital from January 2016 to March 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. Serum levels of TPS, CA125, CA15-3, and CEA were compared to analyze their significance in prediction distant metastasis of breast cancer. The patients were divided into the distant metastatic group and the non-metastatic group according to whether the patients had distant metastasis. The non-metastatic group was divided into the control group and the occult metastasis group according to whether distant metastases occurred in 3 years after treatment.

Result: The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that all four markers had the diagnostic value in distant metastasis of breast cancer (AUC = 0.754, AUC = 0.821, AUC = 0.755, AUC = 0.651) and in occult metastasis in 3 years after treatment (AUC = 0.751, AUC = 0.744, AUC = 0.725, AUC = 0.661). To estimate whether the discrimination ability could be improved by marker panels, we established marker panels composed of TPS, CA125, CA15-3, and CEA. To discriminate distant metastasis from non-distant metastasis, the diagnostic ability of different panels composed of TPS, CA125, CA15-3 and CEA did not show significant difference compared with single CA15-3 (P > 0.05). To discriminate occult metastasis from the control group, no significant difference was shown in AUC between marker panels and single marker (P > 0.05). However, the sensitivity was improved when the marker-panels were used overall.

Conclusion: All tumor markers have abilities in prediction of distant metastasis of breast cancer. The combined detection of the markers is more valuable than using single tumor marker in improving sensitivity. Two markers' panels are more suitable for the prediction of distant metastasis of breast cancer than three or four makers' panels with the similar sensitivity and AUC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2021.08.027DOI Listing
August 2021

Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Ross River Virus in Queensland, 2001-2020.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2021 Aug 3;6(3). Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Institute for Health and Biomedical Innovation, School of Biomedical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove, QLD 4059, Australia.

Ross River virus (RRV), the most common human arbovirus infection in Australia, causes significant morbidity and substantial medical costs. About half of Australian cases occur in Queensland. We describe the spatial and temporal patterns of RRV disease in Queensland over the past two decades. RRV notifications, human population data, and weather data from 2001 to 2020 were analysed by the Statistical Area Level 2 (SA2) area. Spatial interpolation or linear extrapolation were used for missing weather values and the estimated population in 2020, respectively. Notifications and incidence rates were analysed through space and time. During the study period, there were 43,699 notifications in Queensland. The highest annual number of notifications was recorded in 2015 (6182), followed by 2020 (3160). The average annual incidence rate was 5 per 10,000 people and the peak period for RRV notifications was March to May. Generally, SA2 areas in northern Queensland had higher numbers of notifications and higher incidence rates than SA2 areas in southern Queensland. The SA2 areas with high incidence rates were in east coastal areas and western Queensland. The timely prediction may aid disease prevention and routine vector control programs, and RRV management plans are important for these areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed6030145DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8396220PMC
August 2021

Allicin inclusions with α-cyclodextrin effectively masking its odor: Preparation, characterization, and olfactory and gustatory evaluation.

J Food Sci 2021 Sep 18;86(9):4026-4036. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Center for Drug Delivery Systems, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.

Allicin, a chemical found in functional foods, has a variety of beneficial bioactivities but the unpleasent odor and unstability hinder its applications. Isolating products from cyclodextrin (CD) complexation, using β-CD and its derivatives, is usually a time and energy-consuming process. Herein, a high-efficiency and eco-friendly preparation method of an inclusion ([email protected]α-CD) formed by allicin and α-CD was designed, which turned liquid allicin into crystal particles with high-speed stirring (10,000 r/min) at 25°C for 10 min in water. In vivo and in vitro masking evaluations showed that the inclusion particles could decrease the unpleasant odor of allicin. Molecular docking and experimental characterization results illustrated that the main reason of odor masking was due to the disulfide and thiocarbonyl groups of allicin being partially encapsulated by the cavity of α-CD. Compared with the physical mixture, the stability of allicin in [email protected]α-CD at 60°C for 10 days was 33-fold improved. Overall, this efficient strategy of inclusion provided a promising approach for the industrialization of allicin-related formulations. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: In this study, an environmentally friendly method of α-CD inclusion without the use of organic reagents was designed to solidify and stabilize allicin, which effectively masked the unpleasant odor and taste of allicin. It has contributed greatly to improving the compliance of consumers and provided a new and effective approach to broaden the application of allicin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.15882DOI Listing
September 2021

Cooperation within the microbial consortia of fermented grains and pit mud drives organic acid synthesis in strong-flavor Baijiu production.

Food Res Int 2021 09 3;147:110449. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Key Laboratory of Industrial Biotechnology of Ministry of Education, School of Biotechnology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, PR China; National Engineering Laboratory for Cereal Fermentation Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, PR China; National Engineering Research Center of Solid-State Brewing, Luzhou 646000, PR China. Electronic address:

Mud cellars have long been used as anaerobic bioreactors for the fermentation of Chinese strong-flavor Baijiu, where starchy raw materials (mainly sorghum) are metabolized to ethanol and various flavor compounds by multi-species microorganisms. Jiupei (fermented grains) and pit mud are two spatially linked microbial habitats in the mud cellar, yet their metabolic division of labor remains unclear. Here, we investigated the changes in environmental variables (e.g., temperature, oxygen, pH), key metabolites (e.g., ethanol, organic acids) and microbial communities in jiupei and pit mud during fermentation. Jiupei (low pH, high ethanol) and pit mud (neutral pH) provided two habitats with distinctly different environmental conditions for microbial growth. Lactic acid accumulated in jiupei, while butyric and hexanoic acids were mainly produced by microbes inhabiting the pit mud. Biomass analysis using quantitative real-time PCR showed that bacteria dominated the microbial consortia during fermentation, moreover cluster and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) analysis showed that the bacterial communities of jiupei and pit mud were significantly divergent. The bacterial community diversity of jiupei decreased significantly during the fermentation process, and was relatively stable in pit mud. Lactobacillus dominated the jiupei bacterial community, and its relative abundance reached 98.0% at the end of fermentation. Clostridia (relative abundance: 42.9-85.5%) was the most abundant bacteria in pit mud, mainly distributed in the genus Hydrogenispora (5.3-68.4%). Fungal communities of jiupei and pit mud showed a similar succession pattern, and Kazachstania, Aspergillus and Thermoascus were the predominant genera. PICRUSt analysis demonstrated that enzymes participating in the biosynthesis of acetic and lactic acid were mainly enriched in jiupei samples, while the bacterial community in the pit mud displayed greater potential for butyric and hexanoic acid synthesis. Assays from an in vitro simulated fermentation further validated the roles of jiupei microbiota in acetic and lactic acid production, and these acids were subsequently metabolized to butyric and hexanoic acid by the pit mud microbiota. This work has demonstrated the synergistic cooperation between the microbial communities of jiupei and pit mud for the representative flavor formation of strong-flavor Baijiu.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2021.110449DOI Listing
September 2021

Interaction of Insomnia and Somatization with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Pregnant Women During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2021 6;17:2539-2547. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

CAS Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Introduction: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has an adverse impact on the emotional health of prenatal maternal women and their offspring. During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, pregnant women are vulnerable to traumatic events and are prone to PTSD symptoms. The aim of the study was to explore the predictive effects of insomnia and somatization on PTSD in pregnant women by utilizing generalized additive model (GAM).

Materials And Methods: A total of 1638 pregnant women from three local cities in China underwent online survey on sleep quality, somatization, and PTSD symptoms tested by the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), the subscale somatization of Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90-S) and the Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5), respectively.

Results: Insomnia was positively correlated with PTSD symptoms in pregnant women ( = 1.79×10). Interestingly, insomnia and somatization showed a complex non-primary linear interaction in predicting PTSD ( = 2.00×10).

Conclusion: Our results suggest that insomnia is a prominent predictor of PTSD symptoms in pregnant women in the context of public emergencies. In addition, the effects of insomnia and somatization on PTSD symptoms are characterized by complex non-primary linear relationships.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S310300DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8354733PMC
August 2021

THBS4/integrin α2 axis mediates BM-MSCs to promote angiogenesis in gastric cancer associated with chronic infection.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 08 14;13(15):19375-19396. Epub 2021 Aug 14.

Department of Gastroenterology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, China.

Background: BM-MSCs contribute to -induced gastric cancer, but their mechanism is still unclear. The aim of our study was to investigate the specific role and mechanism of BM-MSCs in -induced gastric cancer.

Main Methods: Mice received total bone marrow transplants and were then infected with . BM-MSCs were extracted and transplanted into the gastric serosal layer of mice chronically infected with . Hematoxylin and eosin staining, immunohistochemistry staining and immunofluorescence were performed to detect tumor growth and angiogenesis in mouse stomach tissues. Chicken chorioallantoic membrane assays, xenograft tumor models, and human umbilical vein endothelial cell tube formation assays were used for and angiogenesis studies. THBS4 was screened from RNA-seq analysis of gastric tissues of BM-MSCs transplanted into infected mice.

Results: BM-MSCs can migrate to the site of chronic mucosal injury and promote tumor angiogenesis associated with chronic infection. Migration of BM-MSCs to the site of chronic mucosal injury induced the upregulation of THBS4, which was also evident in human gastric cancer and correlated with increased blood vessel formation and worse outcome. The THBS4/integrin α2 axis promoted angiogenesis by facilitating the PI3K/AKT pathway in endothelial cells.

Conclusions: Our results revealed a novel proangiogenic effect of BM-MSCs in the chronic infection microenvironment, primarily mediated by the THBS4/integrin α2 axis, which activates the PI3K/AKT pathway in endothelial cells and eventually induces the formation of new tumor vessels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.203334DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8386559PMC
August 2021

Spectral characteristics of dissolved organic carbon derived from biomass-pyrogenic smoke (SDOC) in the aqueous environment and its solubilization effect on hydrophobic organic pollutants.

Water Res 2021 Sep 4;203:117515. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Key Laboratory for Humid Subtropical Eco-geographical Processes of the Ministry of Education/Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory for Plant Eco-Physiology/School of Geographical Sciences, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350007, China. Electronic address:

Dissolved organic carbon derived from biomass-pyrogenic smoke (SDOC) can be transported and deposited with atmospheric aerosols, enter aqueous environments, and possibly alter aqueous chemistry and quality. However, the characteristics of SDOC in aqueous environments and their effects on the fate of hydrophobic organic pollutants are poorly understood. In this study, we found that the emitted SDOC is 7.2∼19.6 wt.% of biochar retained in situ after biomass pyrolysis, and the emitted SDOC is approximately 1-3 orders of magnitude greater than dissolved organic carbon (DOC) released from biochar in a short term, which indicates that SDOC is a more important source of DOC in aqueous environments relative to biochar-released DOC after a biomass burning/pyrolysis event. The characteristics of SDOC in aqueous environments are dominated by the <1000 Da fraction, which accounts for >96 wt.% of bulk SDOC. In comparison with DOC in biochar, natural water, and soil, the S value of SDOC (0.037-0.053) is significantly greater, further indicating that SDOC has a smaller molecular size. Moreover, fluorescence EEM suggests that a fluorescence component located at the Ex/Em of 205/310 nm and the combinational ranges of fluorescence index (1.28-2.28), humification index (0.07-0.80), and biological index (1.16-1.72) can be used to identify SDOC from DOC in other media. Solubilization experiments indicated that SDOC (20 mg/L) improved the solubility of hydrophobic pollutants (pyrene and triclocarban) by 2-6 folds in aqueous environments, which potentially enhances the mobility of pollutants and enlarges the potential risk region. This study indicates that SDOC may cause a severe harm to aqueous environments in addition to the atmosphere. The results have profound implications for comprehensive assessments of the environmental effects of SDOC while promoting its identification and elucidating its behavior in aqueous environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2021.117515DOI Listing
September 2021

Long-Term, Noninvasive Tracking of Progenitor Cells Using Multimodality Photoacoustic, Optical Coherence Tomography, and Fluorescence Imaging.

ACS Nano 2021 Aug 11. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105, United States.

Stem cell regenerative medicine therapies have emerged as promising treatments for currently incurable diseases. A remaining challenge for cell therapies is the ability to track the migration and distribution of the transplanted cells in a long-term, noninvasive manner to assess their efficacy. This study develops a noninvasive, and high spatial resolution photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging system for tracking of subretinally injected progenitor human retinal pigment epithelium cells (ARPE-19) labeled with chainlike gold nanoparticle (CGNP) clusters in RPE damage. CGNP provided significant PAM, OCT, and fluorescence signals to selectively track the migration of ARPE-19 cells in living rabbit eyes for 3 months. PAM and OCT imaging allow accurate anatomical information to determine the exact retinal layer in which the transplanted ARPE-19 cells are located which was confirmed by histology. This presents an efficient and advanced technology to visualize fundamental biological processes of cell therapies in complex environments in real time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.1c03035DOI Listing
August 2021

[The regulatory role of autophagy in rats lung ischemia/reperfusion injury].

Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi 2021 Jul;37(4):385-388

Institute of Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035.

To investigate the role of cell autophagy in lung ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Forty SD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (=8): ①Sham operated group (sham group):just open rat chest for 3.5 h; ②Ischemia/reperfusion group (I/R group):after open chest, clamp pulmonary hilus for 0.5h then reperfusion for 3 h; ③Solvent group (DMSO group): intraperitoneal injection of DMSO solution for 1h before operation; ④Autophagic inhibitor group (3-MA group); ⑤Autophagic agonist group (Rap group): intraperitoneal injection of autophagic agonist rapamycin before operation; the rest operations of DMSO, 3-MA and Rap groups are the same as that of I/R group. At the end of the experiment, the rats were killed by euthanasia-killing. The lung tissues were collected and the wet/dry weight ratio (W/D) and total lung water content (TLW) of the lung tissues were detected. The lung tissue structure and cell ultramicro morphology were observed by light microscopy and electron microscopy and the injuried alveolar rate(IAR) was calculated. The autophagy-related protein expressions were detected by Western blot. Compared with sham group, the levels of W/D, TLW and IAR were increased, the expressions of autophagy related protein and p-AMPK, Beclin 1, LC3 II were also increased in other four groups, while the protein expressions of p-mTOR and p62 were decreased significantly (< 0.05 or <0.01). Under the light microscope, the other groups of lung tissue had edema and exudation in varying degrees, the structure of alveoli was disordered, the ultrastructural damage of cells was aggravated under the electron microscope, and autophagosome could be observed. Compared with DMSO group, the expressions of autophagy related protein, the levels of W/D, TLW and IAR in 3-MA group were decreased (<0.05 or <0.01), the edema of lung interstitial was lighter, and less cells were found in alveolar cavity. Ultrastructural damage was also lighter and with less autophagosome. Besides, there was no significant difference among I/R, DMSO and Rap groups (>0.05). Autophagy can be activated during ischemia/reperfusion in rats to induce lung injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12047/j.cjap.6061.2021.019DOI Listing
July 2021

Functionalized contrast agents for multimodality photoacoustic microscopy, optical coherence tomography, and fluorescence microscopy molecular retinal imaging.

Methods Enzymol 2021 21;657:443-480. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States; Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States. Electronic address:

Near-infrared (NIR) targeting contrast agents have been investigated as great photoabsorbers to improve photoacoustic microscopy (PAM), OCT, and fluorescence imaging contrast for visualization of various diseases. In ophthalmology, a limited number of NIR contrast agents have been approved for clinical use. Recently, gold nanoparticles with different size and shapes have been developed for molecular imaging. This chapter provides the principles of multimodality PAM, OCT, and fluorescence imaging as well as a brief overview of contrast agents for optical imaging. A detailed protocol for the fabrication of discrete colloidal gold nanoparticles (GNPs), synthesis of functionalized RGD-conjugated chain-like GNP (CGNP) clusters labeled with indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence dye ([email protected] clusters-RGD), and validation of the synthesized nanoparticles to evaluate newly developed blood vessels in the retina, named choroidal neovascularization (CNV), is described. Using RGD peptide, [email protected] clusters-RGD can bind integrin which is expressed on activated endothelial cells and newly developed CNV. The targeting efficiency of nanoparticles is monitored by multimodality PAM, OCT, and fluorescence imaging longitudinally.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.mie.2021.06.038DOI Listing
August 2021

Integrative analysis of GWAS and transcriptome to reveal novel loci regulation flowering time in semi-winter rapeseed.

Plant Sci 2021 Sep 17;310:110980. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Collaborative Innovation Center of Grain and Oil Crops in South China, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha, 410128, China. Electronic address:

Flowering is an important turning point from vegetative growth to reproductive growth, and vernalization is an essential condition for the flowering of annual winter plants. To investigate the genetic architecture of flowering time in rapeseed, we used the 60 K Brassica Infinium SNP array to perform a genome-wide analysis of haplotype blocks associated with flowering time in 203 Chinese semi-winter rapeseed inbred lines. Twenty-one haplotype regions carrying one or more candidate genes showed a significant association with flowering time. Interestingly, we detected a SNP (Bn-scaff_22728_1-p285715) located in exon 3 of the BnVIN3-C03 gene that showed a significant association with flowering time on chromosome C03. Based on the SNP alleles A and G, two groups of accessions with early and late flowering time phenotypes were selected, respectively, and PCR amplification and gene expression analysis were combined to reveal the structural variation of the BnVIN3-C03 gene that affected flowering time. Moreover, we found that BnVIN3-C03 inhibited the expression of BnFLC-A02, BnFLC-A03.1, BnFLC-A10 and BnFLC-C03.1, thus modulating the flowering time of Brassica napus. This result provides insight into the genetic improvement of flowering time in B. napus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2021.110980DOI Listing
September 2021

Predictive Radiomic Models for the Chemotherapy Response in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer based on Computerized-Tomography Images.

Front Oncol 2021 7;11:646190. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX, United States.

The heterogeneity and complexity of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors mean that NSCLC patients at the same stage can have different chemotherapy prognoses. Accurate predictive models could recognize NSCLC patients likely to respond to chemotherapy so that they can be given personalized and effective treatment. We propose to identify predictive imaging biomarkers from pre-treatment CT images and construct a radiomic model that can predict the chemotherapy response in NSCLC. This single-center cohort study included 280 NSCLC patients who received first-line chemotherapy treatment. Non-contrast CT images were taken before and after the chemotherapy, and clinical information were collected. Based on the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors and clinical criteria, the responses were classified into two categories: response (n = 145) and progression (n = 135), then all data were divided into two cohorts: training cohort (224 patients) and independent test cohort (56 patients). In total, 1629 features characterizing the tumor phenotype were extracted from a cube containing the tumor lesion cropped from the pre-chemotherapy CT images. After dimensionality reduction, predictive models of the chemotherapy response of NSCLC with different feature selection methods and different machine-learning classifiers (support vector machine, random forest, and logistic regression) were constructed. For the independent test cohort, the predictive model based on a random-forest classifier with 20 radiomic features achieved the best performance, with an accuracy of 85.7% and an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.941 (95% confidence interval, 0.898-0.982). Of the 20 selected features, four were first-order statistics of image intensity and the others were texture features. For nine features, there were significant differences between the response and progression groups ( < 0.001). In the response group, three features, indicating heterogeneity, were overrepresented and one feature indicating homogeneity was underrepresented. The proposed radiomic model with pre-chemotherapy CT features can predict the chemotherapy response of patients with non-small cell lung cancer. This radiomic model can help to stratify patients with NSCLC, thereby offering the prospect of better treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.646190DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8293296PMC
July 2021

Depression of Pyroptosis by Inhibiting Caspase-1 Activation Improves Neurological Outcomes of Kernicterus Model Rats.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2021 08 23;12(15):2929-2939. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Neonatology, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, Chongqing 400014, China.

Kernicterus is a severe complication of extreme neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Prolonged exposure to high-level unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) directly damages brain tissue. Neuroinflammation is believed to contribute to UCB-induced neurotoxicity. Pyroptosis has been as a highly inflammatory form of programmed cell death. Therefore, this study aimed to explore whether pyroptosis was involved in the pathogenesis of UCB neurotoxicity in kernicterus model rats. VX-765, a specific inhibitor of caspase-1, was intraperitoneally administered to the model rats to observe its effects on the short-term and long-term outcomes of the model animals at the molecular, cellular, morphological, and behavioral levels. The results indicated that UCB significantly induced the activation of caspase-1 and gasdermin D(GSDMD), and VX-765 inhibited caspase-1-GSDMD pathway. Compared with those of the UCB group and the vehicle+UCB group, VX-765-treated rats released lower levels of IL-1β and IL-18. Furthermore, H&E and TUNEL staining showed that nerve cells in the VX-765-treated group were better preserved and had less DNA fragmentation. Most importantly, VX-765 improved both the short-term and long-term neurological functions of kernicterus model rats. This study demonstrated that pyroptosis was involved in the pathogenesis of kernicterus through caspase-1 activation, which could be inhibited by VX-765, exerting a neuroprotective effect in kernicterus model rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.1c00287DOI Listing
August 2021

Comparing ameliorative effects of biomass ash and alkaline slag on an acidic Ultisol under artificial Masson pine: A field experiment.

J Environ Manage 2021 Nov 16;297:113306. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 821, Nanjing, 210008, PR China.

Forest soil acidification caused by acid deposition is a serious threat to the forest ecosystem. To investigate the liming effects of biomass ash (BA) and alkaline slag (AS) on the acidic topsoil and subsoil, a three-year field experiment under artificial Masson pine was conducted at Langxi, Anhui province in Southern China. The surface application of BA and AS significantly increased the soil pH, and thus decreased exchangeable acidity and active Al in the topsoil. Soil exchangeable Ca and Mg in topsoil were significantly increased by the surface application of BA and AS, while an increase in soil exchangeable K was only observed in BA treatments. The soil acidity and active Al in subsoil were decreased by the surface application of AS. Compared with the control, soluble monomeric and exchangeable Al in the subsoil was decreased by 38.0% and 29.4% after 3 years of AS surface application. There was a minimal effect on soluble monomeric and exchangeable Al after the application of BA. The soil exchangeable Ca and Mg in the subsoil increased respectively by 54% and 141% after surface application of 10 t ha AS. The decrease of soil active Al and increase of base cations in subsoil were mainly attributed to the high migration capacity of base cations in AS. In conclusion, the effect of surface application of AS was superior to BA in ameliorating soil acidity and alleviating soil Al toxicity in the subsoil of this Ultisol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.113306DOI Listing
November 2021

Development of a Novel Prognostic Signature Based on Antigen Processing and Presentation in Patients with Breast Cancer.

Pathol Oncol Res 2021 1;27:600727. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Complex antigen processing and presentation processes are involved in the development and progression of breast cancer (BC). A single biomarker is unlikely to adequately reflect the complex interplay between immune cells and cancer; however, there have been few attempts to find a robust antigen processing and presentation-related signature to predict the survival outcome of BC patients with respect to tumor immunology. Therefore, we aimed to develop an accurate gene signature based on immune-related genes for prognosis prediction of BC. Information on BC patients was obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Gene set enrichment analysis was used to confirm the gene set related to antigen processing and presentation that contributed to BC. Cox proportional regression, multivariate Cox regression, and stratified analysis were used to identify the prognostic power of the gene signature. Differentially expressed mRNAs between high- and low-risk groups were determined by KEGG analysis. A three-gene signature comprising HSPA5 (heat shock protein family A member 5), PSME2 (proteasome activator subunit 2), and HLA-F (major histocompatibility complex, class I, F) was significantly associated with OS. HSPA5 and PSME2 were protective (hazard ratio (HR) < 1), and HLA-F was risky (HR > 1). Risk score, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and PD-L1 were independent prognostic indicators. KIT and ACACB may have important roles in the mechanism by which the gene signature regulates prognosis of BC. The proposed three-gene signature is a promising biomarker for estimating survival outcomes in BC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/pore.2021.600727DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8262234PMC
April 2021

Dendritic/Post-synaptic Tau and Early Pathology of Alzheimer's Disease.

Front Mol Neurosci 2021 25;14:671779. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical School, Nantong University, Nantong, China.

Microtubule-associated protein tau forms insoluble neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), which is one of the major histopathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Many studies have demonstrated that tau causes early functional deficits prior to the formation of neurofibrillary aggregates. The redistribution of tau from axons to the somatodendritic compartment of neurons and dendritic spines causes synaptic impairment, and then leads to the loss of synaptic contacts that correlates better with cognitive deficits than amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregates do in AD patients. In this review, we discuss the underlying mechanisms by which tau is mislocalized to dendritic spines and contributes to synaptic dysfunction in AD. We also discuss the synergistic effects of tau and oligomeric forms of Aβ on promoting synaptic dysfunction in AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnmol.2021.671779DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8270001PMC
June 2021

The chromosome-scale reference genome of Rubus chingii Hu provides insight into the biosynthetic pathway of hydrolyzable tannins.

Plant J 2021 Jun 26. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Life Science College, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei, 230036, China.

Rubus chingii Hu (Fu-Pen-Zi), a perennial woody plant in the Rosaceae family, is a characteristic traditional Chinese medicinal plant because of its unique pharmacological effects. There are abundant hydrolyzable tannin (HT) components in R. chingii that provide health benefits. Here, an R. chingii chromosome-scale genome and related functional analysis provide insights into the biosynthetic pathway of HTs. In total, sequence data of 231.21 Mb (155 scaffolds with an N50 of 8.2 Mb) were assembled into seven chromosomes with an average length of 31.4 Mb, and 33 130 protein-coding genes were predicted, 89.28% of which were functionally annotated. Evolutionary analysis showed that R. chingii was most closely related to Rubus occidentalis, from which it was predicted to have diverged 22.46 million years ago (Table S8). Comparative genomic analysis showed that there was a tandem gene cluster of UGT, carboxylesterase (CXE) and SCPL genes on chromosome 02 of R. chingii, including 11 CXE, eight UGT, and six SCPL genes, which may be critical for the synthesis of HTs. In vitro enzyme assays indicated that the proteins encoded by the CXE (LG02.4273) and UGT (LG02.4102) genes have tannin hydrolase and gallic acid glycosyltransferase functions, respectively. The genomic sequence of R. chingii will be a valuable resource for comparative genomic analysis within the Rosaceae family and will be useful for understanding the biosynthesis of HTs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tpj.15394DOI Listing
June 2021

Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of leaf related traits in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.).

BMC Plant Biol 2021 Jun 24;21(1):290. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Institute of Vegetables and Flowers, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China.

Background: Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is an important leafy vegetable crop, and leaf-related traits including leaf length, leaf width, and petiole length, are important commercial traits. However, the underlying genes remain unclear. The objective of the study was to conduct QTL mapping of leaf-related traits in spinach.

Results: A BC population was used to construct the linkage map and for QTL mapping of leaf length, leaf width, petiole length, and the ratio of leaf length to width in 2015 and 2019. Two genetic linkage maps were constructed by specific locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq), and kompetitive allele specific PCR (KASP) technology, respectively using BC population in 2015. Based on the results of 2015, the specific linkage groups (LG) detected QTLs were generated using BC population in 2019. A total of 13 QTLs were detected for leaf-related traits, only five QTLs being repeatedly detected in multiple years or linkage maps. Interestingly, the major QTLs of leaf length, petiole length, and the ratio of leaf length to width were highly associated with the same SNP markers (KM3102838, KM1360385 and KM2191098). A major QTL of leaf width was mapped on chromosome 1 from 41.470-42.045 Mb. And 44 genes were identified within the region. Based on the GO analysis, these genes were significantly enriched on ribonuclease, lyase activity, phosphodiester bond hydrolysis process, and cell wall component, thus it might change cell size to determine leaves shape.

Conclusions: Five QTLs for leaf-related traits were repeatedly detected at least two years or linkage maps. The major QTLs of leaf length, petiole length, and the ratio of leaf length to width were mapped on the same loci. And three genes (Spo10792, Spo21018, and Spo21019) were identified as important candidate genes for leaf width.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-021-03092-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8223354PMC
June 2021

Mining the Factors Driving the Evolution of the Pit Mud Microbiome under the Impact of Long-Term Production of Strong-Flavor Baijiu.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 08 11;87(17):e0088521. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Key Laboratory of Industrial Biotechnology of Ministry of Education, School of Biotechnology, Jiangnan Universitygrid.258151.a, Wuxi, People's Republic of China.

The mud cellar creates a unique microenvironment for the fermentation of strong-flavor baijiu (SFB). Recent research and long-term practice have highlighted the key roles of microbes inhabiting pit mud in the formation of SFB's characteristic flavor. A positive correlation between the quality of SFB and cellar age was extracted from practice; however, the evolutionary patterns of pit mud microbiome and driving factors remain unclear. Here, based on the variation regularity analysis of microbial community structure and metabolites of samples from cellars of different ages (∼30/100/300 years), we further investigated the effects of lactate and acetate (main microbial metabolites in fermented grains) on modulating the pit mud microbiome. Esters (50.3% to 64.5%) dominated the volatile compounds identified in pit mud, and contents of the four typical acids (lactate, hexanoate, acetate, and butyrate) increased with cellar age. Bacteria (9.5 to 10.4 log [lg] copies/g) and archaea (8.3 to 9.1 lg copies/g) mainly constituted pit mud microbiota, respectively dominated by (39.7% to 81.2%) and (32.8% to 92.9%). An upward trend with cellar age characterized the relative and absolute abundance of the most predominant bacterial and archaeal genera, and . Correlation analysis revealed significantly ( < 0.05) positive relationships between the two genera and major metabolites. Anaerobic fermentation with acetate and lactate as carbon sources enhanced the enrichment of , and furthermore, the relative abundance of (40.9%) significantly increased after 15-day fed-batch fermentation with lactate compared with the initial pit mud (0.22%). This work presents a directional evolutionary pattern of pit mud microbial consortia and provides an alternative way to accelerate the enrichment of functional microbes. The solid-state anaerobic fermentation in a mud cellar is the most typical feature of strong-flavor baijiu (SFB). Metabolites produced by microbes inhabiting pit mud are crucial to create the unique flavor of SFB. Accordingly, craftspeople have always highlighted the importance of the pit mud microbiome and concluded by centuries of practice that the production rate of high-quality baijiu increases with cellar age. To deepen the understanding of the pit mud microbiome, we determined the microbial community and metabolites of different-aged pit mud, inferred the main functional groups, and explored the forces driving the microbial community evolution through metagenomic, metabolomic, and multivariate statistical analyses. The results showed that the microbial consortia of pit mud presented a regular and directional evolutionary pattern under the impact of continuous batch-to-batch brewing activities. This work provides insight into the key roles of the pit mud microbiome in SFB production and supports the production optimization of high-quality pit mud.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00885-21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8357292PMC
August 2021

Exogenous l-fucose protects the intestinal mucosal barrier depending on upregulation of FUT2-mediated fucosylation of intestinal epithelial cells.

FASEB J 2021 07;35(7):e21699

Division of Gastroenterology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

FUT2, a protein that uses l-fucose to mediate fucosylation of intestinal epithelial cells, is one of the detected gene variants in IBD patients. We aimed to investigate whether exogenous l-fucose could be an enteral nutritional supplement to protect intestinal barrier function. The effect of l-fucose on the restoration of epithelial barrier function in both the DSS-induced colitis mouse model and LPS-stimulated Caco-2 cells was investigated, and the impact on fucosylation of epithelial cells was examined. The severity of DSS-induced colitis was significantly reduced by l-fucose. Restoration of epithelial barrier function by l-fucose was detected. Direct l-fucose-mediated protection of tight junctions was observed in Caco-2 cells. Moreover, exogenous l-fucose promoted the exogenous metabolic pathway of l-fucose, and fucosylation of epithelial cells both in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, knockout of the FUT2 gene restrained fucosylation and the protective effect of l-fucose on barrier function. The severity of colitis was not improved by l-fucose in Fut2 knockout mice. Therefore we conclude that exogenous l-fucose protects intestinal barrier function and relieves intestinal inflammation via upregulation of FUT2-mediated fucosylation of intestinal epithelial cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.202002446RRRRDOI Listing
July 2021

Cancer-Preventive Role of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Colitis-Associated Colorectal Cancer: Roles of Gut Microbiota Involved.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 4;9:642948. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Division of Gastroenterology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Background: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) treatment showed promising results in inflammatory bowel disease in both rodent models and patients. Nevertheless, previous studies conducted conflicting results on preclinical tumor models treated with MSCs concerning their influence on tumor initiation and progression. This study is designed to demonstrate the role of bone marrow-derived MSCs and the potential mechanism in the colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC) model.

Methods: Bone marrow-derived MSCs were isolated from green fluorescent protein-transgenic mice, cultured, and identified by flow cytometry. Azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium were administrated to establish the CAC mouse model, and MSCs were infused intraperitoneally once per week. The mice were weighed weekly, and colon length, tumor number, and average tumor size were assessed after the mice were killed. MSC localization was detected by immunofluorescence staining; tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis were measured by immunohistochemistry staining of Ki-67 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling assay, respectively. The colonic tumor tissues were isolated for RNA-seq, and fecal samples were collected for 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing of the microbiome.

Results: After injection intraperitoneally, MSCs migrated to the intestine and inhibited the initiation of colitis-associated colorectal cancer. This inhibition effect was marked by less weight loss, longer colon length, and reduced tumor numbers. Moreover, MSCs reduced tumor cell proliferation and induced tumor cell apoptosis. Furthermore, MSCs could inhibit chronic inflammation assessed by RNA-sequencing and promote gut microbiome normalization detected by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing.

Conclusion: The results proved that MSCs could migrate to the colon, inhibit chronic inflammation, and regulate gut microbiome dysbiosis to suppress the development of CAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.642948DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8212064PMC
June 2021

Overexpression of PTPRN Promotes Metastasis of Lung Adenocarcinoma and Suppresses NK Cell Cytotoxicity.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 2;9:622018. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Background: Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is the most common diagnostic histologic subtype of non-small cell lung cancer, but the role of receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase-like N (PTPRN) in LUAD has not been studied.

Methods: We conducted a bioinformatic analysis to identify the expression of PTPRN on LUAD data from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the relationship between PTPRN and overall survival of LUAD patients. The effects of PTPRN on the migration ability of LUAD cells and the underlying mechanisms were investigated by and assays (i.e., wound healing assay, transwell assay, western blotting, xenograft model, and immunohistochemistry). Gene-set enrichment analysis and computational resource were used to analyze the correlation between PTPRN and different tumor-infiltrating immune cells (TIICs). Lactate dehydrogenase assay and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were conducted to examine natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity.

Results: In our study, we found that PTPRN was up-regulated in LUAD and related to metastasis of LUAD patients. Besides, PTPRN was correlated with poor prognosis in the TCGA-LUAD dataset. PTPRN overexpression promoted LUAD cell migration and the expression of EMT markers by influencing MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling. Moreover, PTPRN expression was significantly associated with TIICs, especially NK cells. A549 and H1299 cells overexpressed PTPRN inhibited NK cell cytotoxicity.

Conclusion: Taken together, these findings demonstrated that PTPRN might be a potential and novel therapeutic target modulating antitumor immune response in treatment of LUAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.622018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8207963PMC
June 2021

Hemorheological responses to an acute bout of maximal exercise in Veterans with Gulf War Illness.

Life Sci 2021 Sep 16;280:119714. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences, Newark, NJ, USA; Surgical Services, Veterans Affairs New Jersey Health Care System, East Orange, NJ, USA.

Background: Altered red blood cell (RBC) deformability has been reported in Veterans with Gulf War Illness (GWI) who endorse exercise-induced symptom exacerbation and fatigue. However, it is unknown whether altered RBC deformability is worsened secondary to exercise.

Objective: To evaluate RBC deformability in response to maximal exercise in individuals with and without GWI.

Methods: Seventeen Veterans with GWI and 11 controls performed maximal exercise and provided blood samples (pre-, immediately post- and 60-min post-exercise). We calculated RBC deformation at infinite stress (EI), shear stress for half-deformation (SS) and their ratio (SS/EI) via repeated measures ANOVA with group and time as factors.

Results: A moderate interaction effect (p = 0.08, η = 0.10), large main effect for group (p = 0.02, η = 0.19) and moderate main effect for time (p = 0.20, η = 0.06) were observed for EI, but only the main effect for group reached statistical significance. Changes in SS and SS/EI over time were similar between cases and controls as were main effects.

Conclusions: Veterans with GWI had more deformable RBCs in comparison to controls that was unaffected by maximal exercise. Future studies to confirm our findings and identify associated mechanisms are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119714DOI Listing
September 2021
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