Publications by authors named "Qian Shao"

112 Publications

Core-Shell Magnetic Micropillars for Reprogrammable Actuation.

ACS Nano 2021 Mar 22;15(3):4747-4758. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Engineering Mechanics, School of Civil Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430072, China.

Stimuli-responsive micro/nanostructures that exhibit not only programmable but also reprogrammable actuation behaviors are highly desirable for various advanced engineering applications (.., anticounterfeiting, information encoding, dynamic imaging and display, microrobotics, ) but yet to be realized with state-of-the-art technologies. Here we report a concept and a corresponding experimental technique for core-shell magnetic micropillars enabling simultaneously programmable and reprogrammable actuations using a simple magnetic field. The micropillars are composed of elastomeric hollow shells for shaping encapsulated with liquid magnetic nanocomposite resin cores for actuating. The spatial distribution of the magnetic nanoparticles inside the resin channels can be dynamically modulated within individual micropillars, which consequently regulates the magnetomechanical responses of the pillars upon actuation (bending deformation varied near 1 order of magnitude under the same actuation field). We demonstrate that the micropillars with contrasting bending responses can be configured in an arbitrary spatial pattern by direct magnetic writing, and the written pattern can then be easily magnetically erased to facilitate next-round rewriting and reconfiguration. This reprogrammable actuation capability of the micropillars is further demonstrated by their potential applications for rewritable paper and recyclable displays, where various microscale characteristics can be controlled to dynamically appear and disappear at the same or different locations of one single micropillar array. The core-shell magnetic micropillars reported here provide a universal prototype for reprogrammable responsive micro/nanostructures through rational design and facile fabrication from conventional materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.0c09298DOI Listing
March 2021

Advances in Waterborne Acrylic Resins: Synthesis Principle, Modification Strategies, and Their Applications.

ACS Omega 2021 Feb 21;6(4):2443-2449. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Integrated Composites Laboratory (ICL), Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996, United States.

Waterborne acrylic resin is a kind of environmental protection resin, which is widely used in coatings, bridges, ships, and locomotives. In order to be better used in various fields, modification of waterborne acrylic resin has attracted much attention. In this paper, we introduce the method to synthesize waterborne acrylic resins, the composition of the resin, and basic properties of each monomer. According to the requirements of different properties of the resin, the modification mechanism and methods of the resin are discussed, including thermal performance, corrosion resistance, mechanical property, and water resistance. The applications of waterborne acrylic resin in the construction, automobile, metal anticorrosion, and furniture industries are discussed with detailed examples. Finally, the prospect of waterborne acrylic resin is proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.0c05593DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7859933PMC
February 2021

Characterization of Three Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinases of .

Front Microbiol 2020 12;11:622203. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, School of Resource and Environmental, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China.

In spp., calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are considered promising targets for the development of pharmaceutical interventions. Whole-genome sequencing has revealed the presence of 11 CDPKs in (CpCDPKs). In this study, we expressed recombinant CpCDPK4, CpCDPK5, and CpCDPK6 in . The biological characteristics and functions of these CpCDPKs were examined by using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR), immunofluorescence microscopy, and an neutralization assay. The expression of the CpCDPK4 gene peaked at 12 h post-infection, the CpCDPK5 gene peaked at 12 and 48 h, and the CpCDPK6 gene peaked at 2-6 h. CpCDPK4 protein was located in the anterior and mid-anterior regions of sporozoites, and CpCDPK5 protein was located over the entire sporozoites, while CpCDPK6 protein was expressed in a spotty pattern. Immune sera of CpCDPK4 and CpCDPK6 exhibited significant inhibitory effects on host cell invasion, while the immune sera of CpCDPK5 had no effects. These differences in protein localization, gene expressions, and neutralizing capacities indicated that the CpCDPK proteins may have different roles during the lifecycle of spp.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.622203DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7835281PMC
January 2021

A comparative study of the normal oesophageal wall thickness based on 3-dimensional, 4-dimensional, and cone beam computed tomography.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Nov;99(45):e22553

Department of Radiology, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute (Shandong Cancer Hospital), Shandong First Medical University and Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, China.

Background: The study aimed to compare normal oesophageal wall thickness based on 3-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT), 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT).

Methods: Contrast-enhanced 3DCT, 4DCT, and CBCT scans were acquired from 50 patients with lung cancer or metastatic lung cancer. The outer oesophageal wall was manually contoured on each 3DCT, the maximum intensity projection of 4DCT (4DCTMIP) the end expiration phase of 4DCT (4DCT50) (the end expiration phase of 4DCT) and the CBCT data sets. The average wall thicknesses were measured (defined as R3DCT, R50, RMIP, and RCBCT).

Results: Whether for thoracic or for intra-abdominal segments, there were no significant differences between R3DCT and R50, but significant differences between R3DCT and RMIP, R3DCT and RCBCT. For upper and middle oesophagus, RCBCT were larger than RMIP. There was no significant difference between upper and middle segments on 3DCT, 4DCT, and CBCT. Intra-abdominal oesophageal wall thickness was greater than that of thoracic oesophagus. There were no differences between upper and lower, and middle and lower oesophagus on CBCT.

Conclusion: Our findings indicate normal oesophageal wall thickness differed along the length of oesophagus whatever it was delineated on 3DCT, 4DCT (4DCT50 and 4DCTMIP) or CBCT. It is reasonable to use uniform criterion to identify normal esophageal wall thickness when delineating gross tumor volume on 3DCT and 4DCT50, the same is true of delineating internal gross tumor volume on 4DCTMIP or CBCT images for lower and intra-abdominal oesophagus. But, in spite of using contrast-enhanced scanning, relatively blurred boundary on the CBCT images is noteworthy, especially for upper and middle thoracic esophagus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000022553DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7647587PMC
November 2020

Microwave Hydrothermally Synthesized Metal-Organic Framework-5 Derived C-doped ZnO with Enhanced Photocatalytic Degradation of Rhodamine B.

Langmuir 2020 Aug 16;36(33):9658-9667. Epub 2020 Aug 16.

Integrated Composites Laboratory (ICL), Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996, United States.

C-doped ZnO particles have been successfully prepared by the calcination using microwave hydrothermally prepared metal-organic framework-5 (MOF-5) as the precursor. MOF-5 was turned into C-doped ZnO through calcination at 500 °C, and its cubic shape was well-maintained. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies confirmed the C-doping in the ZnO. The as-prepared C-doped ZnO demonstrated a Rhodamine B (RhB) degradation efficiency of 98% in 2 h under an solar-simulated light irradiation, much higher than that of C-doped ZnO derived from MOF-5 synthesized by the ordinary hydrothermal method. The trapping experiment revealed that the crucial factors in the RhB removal were photogenerated h and •O.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.0c00395DOI Listing
August 2020

Clinical study on different doses and fractionated radiotherapies for multiple brain metastases of non-EGFR mutant lung adenocarcinoma.

Ann Palliat Med 2020 Jul 20;9(4):2003-2012. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Department of Radiation Oncology (Chest Section), Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, Shandong First Medical University and Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, China.

Background: To study the effects and adverse reactions of different doses and fractionated radiotherapies on non-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant lung adenocarcinoma patients with multiple brain metastases.

Methods: In total, 80 patients eligible for inclusion were randomly divided into 4 groups. Group A included whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) alone 300 cGy/fraction ×10 fractions, at a total dose of 3,000 cGy. Group B included WBRT alone 180 cGy/fraction ×22 fractions, at a total dose of 3,960 cGy. Group C included intracranial metastases radiotherapy alone 250 cGy/fraction ×22 fractions at a total dose of 5,500 cGy. Group D included the whole brain + intracranial metastases group (SIB group) whole brain 180 cGy/fraction ×22 fractions intracranial metastases 250 cGy/fraction ×22 fractions, at a total dose 3,960 cGy, 5,500 cGy, respectively.

Results: The median survival time of intracranial disease-free survival (IPFS) in group A, group B, group C, and group D was 6, 9, 8, and 13 months, respectively (P=0.000). The median overall survival (OS) time was 16, 24.5, 24, and 30 months, respectively (P=0.150). There was a significant difference in IPFS between different doses and fractionated radiotherapies, but there was no difference in OS. Multivariate analysis showed that the radiotherapy dose of intracranial metastases was positively correlated with IPFS and OS. The incidence rate of adverse reaction of memory decline in 0.5, 1, and 2 years in group A, group B, group C, and group D was respectively 10.0%, 15.0%, 5.0%, and 15.0% (P=0.006); 20.0%, 45.0%, 30.0%, and 60.0% (P=0.000); 10.0%, 20.0%, 35.0%, and 65.0% (P=0.000). The incidence rates of memory decline in the groups of WBRT were significantly more increased than in the non-WBRT group.

Conclusions: Radiotherapy is effective for multiple brain metastases of lung adenocarcinoma, the increase of radiotherapy dose can improve IPFS and OS, and the adverse reaction of memory decline after WBRT is increased but tolerable. Therefore, WBRT and simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) radiotherapy of intracranial metastases is recommended for multiple brain metastases of non-EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-20-1203DOI Listing
July 2020

[Inhibitory effect of paeonol on aortic endothelial inflammation in atherosclerotic rats by up-regulation of caveolin-1 expression and suppression of NF-κB pathway].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2020 Jun;45(11):2578-2585

Department of Pharmacy, Anhui University of Traditional Chinese Medicine Hefei 230012, China Key Laboratory of Xin'an Medicine Hefei 230012, China.

To explore whether paeonol can play an anti-atherosclerotic role by regulating the expression of aortic caveolin-1 and affecting NF-κB pathway, so as to inhibit the inflammatory response of vascular endothelium in atherosclerotic rats. The atherosclerotic model of rats was induced by high-fat diet and vitamin D_2. The primary culture of vascular endothelial cells(VECs) was carried out by tissue block pre-digestion and adherent method. The injury model of VECs was induced by lipopolysaccharide(LPS), and filipin, a small concave protein inhibitor, was added for control. HE staining was used to observe pathological changes of aorta. TNF-α, IL-6 and VCAM-1 were detected by ELISA. Western blot assay was used to detect the protein expression levels of caveolin-1 and p65 in aorta and VECs. The results showed that as compared with model group, paeonol significantly reduced aortic plaque area and lesion degree in rats, decreased the level of serum TNF-α, IL-6 and VCAM-1 in the rats and enhanced the relative expression level of caveolin-1, decreased p65 expression conversely(P<0.05 or P<0.01). In vitro, as compared to model group, paeonol obviously improved cell morphology, decreased the secretion of TNF-α, IL-6 and VCAM-1 in VECs, increased caveolin-1 expression, and decreased p65 protein expression(P<0.05 or P<0.01). Furthermore, filipin could reverse the effect of paeonol on expression of inflammatory factors and proteins(P<0.05 or P<0.01). According to the results, it was found that paeonol could play the role of anti-atherosclerosis by up-regulating the expression of caveolin-1 and inhibiting the activation of NF-κB pathway to reduce vascular inflammation in atherosclerotic rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20200210.408DOI Listing
June 2020

Comparison of gross target volumes based on four-dimensional CT, positron emission tomography-computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging in thoracic esophageal cancer.

Cancer Med 2020 08 8;9(15):5353-5361. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, Shandong First Medical University and Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, China.

Purpose: The application value of F-FDG PET-CT combined with MRI in the radiotherapy of esophageal carcinoma was discussed by comparing the differences in position, volume, and the length of GTVs delineated on the end-expiration (EE) phase of 4DCT, F-FDG PET-CT, and T W-MRI.

Methods: A total of 26 patients with thoracic esophageal cancer sequentially performed 3DCT, 4DCT, F-FDG PET-CT, and MRI simulation for thoracic localization. All images were fused with the 3DCT images by deformable registration. GTV and GTV were delineated on 3DCT and the EE phase of 4DCT images, respectively. The GTV based on PET-CT images was determined by thresholds of SUV ≥ 2.5 and designated as GTV . The images of T -weighted sequence and diffusion-weighted sequence were referred as GTV and GTV , respectively. The length of the abnormality seen on the 4DCT, PET-CT, and DWI was compared.

Results: GTV was significantly larger than GTV and GTV (P = .000 and 0.008, respectively), and the volume of GTV was similar to that of GTV (P = .439). Significant differences were observed between the CI of GTV to GTV and GTV to GTV (P = .004). The CI of GTV to GTV and GTV to GTV were statistically significant (P = .039). The CI of GTV to GTV was significantly lower than that of GTV to GTV , GTV to GTV , GTV to GTV , and GTV to GTV (P = .000-0.021). Tumor length measurements by endoscopy were similar to the tumor length as measured by PET and DWI scan (P > .05), and there was no significant difference between the longitudinal length of GTV and GTV (P = .072).

Conclusion: The volumes of GTV and GTV were similar. However, GTV has different volumes and poor spatial matching compared with GTV .The MRI imaging could not include entire respiration. It may be a good choice to guide target delineation and construction of esophageal carcinoma by combining 4DCT with MRI imaging. Utilization of DWI in treatment planning for esophageal cancer may provide further information to assist with target delineation. Further studies are needed to determine if this technology will translate into meaningful differences in clinical outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.3072DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7402825PMC
August 2020

Engineering Polymeric Prodrug Nanoplatform for Vaccination Immunotherapy of Cancer.

Nano Lett 2020 06 29;20(6):4393-4402. Epub 2020 May 29.

State Key Laboratory of Drug Research & Center of Pharmaceutics, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203, China.

Neoantigen-based cancer vaccines are promising for boosting cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses. However, the therapeutic effect of cancer vaccines is severely blunted by functional suppression of the dendritic cells (DCs). Herein, we demonstrated an acid-responsive polymeric nanovaccine for activating the stimulator of interferon genes (STING) pathway and improving cancer immunotherapy. The nanovaccines were fabricated by integrating an acid-activatable polymeric conjugate of the STING agonist and neoantigen into one single nanoplatform. The nanovaccines efficiently accumulated at the lymph nodes for promoting DC uptake and facilitating cytosol release of the neoantigens. Meanwhile, the STING agonist activated the STING pathway in the DCs to elicit interferon-β secretion and to boost T-cell priming with the neoantigen. The nanovaccine dramatically inhibited tumor growth and occurrence of B16-OVA melanoma and 4T1 breast tumors in immunocompetent mouse models. Combination immunotherapy with the nanovaccines and anti-PD-L1 antibody demonstrated further improved antitumor efficacy in a 4T1 breast tumor model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c01140DOI Listing
June 2020

Factors Influencing the Incidental Dose Distribution in Internal Mammary Nodes: A Comparative Study.

Front Oncol 2020 9;10:456. Epub 2020 Apr 9.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, Shandong First Medical University and Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, China.

To investigate the effect of anatomic and technical parameters on the incidental internal mammary lymph node (IMN) irradiation (IIMNI) dose among postmastectomy patients. We retrospectively delineated the IMN on planning CT images from 138 patients who had undergone postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT). We analyzed the IIMNI dose coverage and its relationship with anatomic and technical parameters. The IIMNI mean dose was 32.85 ± 9.49 Gy, and 10 of 138 patients (7.25%) treated with PMRT received ≥45 Gy. In univariate analysis, the body weight, body mass index, body surface area, thoracic transverse diameter (D), ratio of D to the thoracic anteroposterior diameter (D)(R), planning target volume of IMN (PTV) included in PTV (IMNin) and the ratio of IMNin to PTV (R) and PTV posterior border were the parameters affecting IIMNI dose. In multivariate analysis, body weight, R, and R were correlative factors that affected IIMNI dose. For patients who underwent PMRT without IMN irradiation (IMNI), there was a wide variety in IIMNI doses. A minority of patients had adequate IIMNI dose coverage, and the higher IIMNI doses were associated with the less body weights and more R.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.00456DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7160365PMC
April 2020

From Pd(OAc) to Chiral Catalysts: The Discovery and Development of Bifunctional Mono-N-Protected Amino Acid Ligands for Diverse C-H Functionalization Reactions.

Acc Chem Res 2020 04 31;53(4):833-851. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Department of Chemistry, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, United States.

The functionalization of unactivated carbon-hydrogen bonds is a transformative strategy for the rapid construction of molecular complexity given the ubiquitous presence of C-H bonds in organic molecules. It represents a powerful tool for accelerating the synthesis of natural products and bioactive compounds while reducing the environmental and economic costs of synthesis. At the same time, the ubiquity and strength of C-H bonds also present major challenges toward the realization of transformations that are both highly selective and efficient. The development of practical C-H functionalization reactions has thus remained a compelling yet elusive goal in organic chemistry for over a century.Specifically, the capability to form useful new C-C, C-N, C-O, and C-X bonds via direct C-H functionalization would have wide-ranging impacts in organic synthesis. Palladium is especially attractive as a catalyst for such C-H functionalizations because of the diverse reactivity of intermediate palladium-carbon bonds. Early efforts using cyclopalladation with Pd(OAc) and related salts led to the development of many Pd-catalyzed C-H functionalization reactions. However, Pd(OAc) and other simple Pd salts perform only racemic transformations, which prompted a long search for effective chiral catalysts dating back to the 1970s. Pd salts also have low reactivity with synthetically useful substrates. To address these issues, effective and reliable ligands capable of accelerating and improving the selectivity of Pd-catalyzed C-H functionalizations are needed.In this Account, we highlight the discovery and development of bifunctional mono-N-protected amino acid (MPAA) ligands, which make great strides toward addressing these two challenges. MPAAs enable numerous Pd(II)-catalyzed C(sp)-H and C(sp)-H functionalization reactions of synthetically relevant substrates under operationally practical conditions with excellent stereoselectivity when applicable. Mechanistic studies indicate that MPAAs operate as unique bifunctional ligands for C-H activation in which both the carboxylate and amide are coordinated to Pd. The -acyl group plays an active role in the C-H cleavage step, greatly accelerating C-H activation. The rigid MPAA chelation also results in a predictable transfer of chiral information from a single chiral center on the ligand to the substrate and permits the development of a rational stereomodel to predict the stereochemical outcome of enantioselective reactions.We also describe the application of MPAA-enabled C-H functionalization in total synthesis and provide an outlook for future development in this area. We anticipate that MPAAs and related next-generation ligands will continue to stimulate development in the field of Pd-catalyzed C-H functionalization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.accounts.9b00621DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7738004PMC
April 2020

Characterization of serum small extracellular vesicles and their small RNA contents across humans, rats, and mice.

Sci Rep 2020 03 6;10(1):4197. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Department of Pathology, Medical School of Nantong University, Nantong, China.

Serum small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) have recently drawn considerable interest because of the diagnostic and therapeutic potential of their miRNAs content. However, the characteristics of human, mouse and rat serum sEVs and their differences in small RNA contents are still unknown. In this study, through nanoparticle tracking analysis and small RNA sequencing, we found that human, rat, and mouse serum sEVs exhibited distinct sizes and particle numbers as well as small RNA contents. Serum sEVs contained not only abundant miRNAs but also a large number of tRNA fragments. Most serum miRNAs existed both inside and outside of sEVs but were enriched in sEVs. Common serum sEV miRNAs (188 miRNAs) and species-specific serum sEV miRNAs (265, 58, and 159 miRNAs, respectively) were identified in humans, rats, or mice. The serum sEVs contained miRNAs from tissues and organs throughout the body, with blood cells as the main contributors. In conclusion, our findings confirmed the rationality of exploring serum sEV miRNAs as noninvasive diagnostic markers and revealed great differences in serum sEV small RNAs between humans, rats, and mice. Inadequate attention to these differences and the contribution of blood cells to serum sEV miRNAs could hinder the clinical translation of basic studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-61098-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7060188PMC
March 2020

Selection of Aptamers with Large Hydrophobic 2'-Substituents.

J Am Chem Soc 2020 02 21;142(5):2125-2128. Epub 2020 Jan 21.

Department of Chemistry , The Scripps Research Institute , 10550 North Torrey Pines Road , La Jolla , California 92037 , United States.

Previously, we evolved a DNA polymerase, SFM4-3, for the recognition of substrates modified at their 2' positions with a fluoro, -methyl, or azido substituent. Here we use SFM4-3 to synthesize 2'-azido-modified DNA; we then use the azido group to attach different, large hydrophobic groups via click chemistry. We show that SFM4-3 recognizes the modified templates under standard conditions, producing natural DNA and thereby allowing amplification. To demonstrate the utility of this remarkable property, we use SFM4-3 to select aptamers with large hydrophobic 2' substituents that bind human neutrophil elastase or the blood coagulation protein factor IXa. The results indicate that SFM4-3 should facilitate the discovery of aptamers that adopt novel and perhaps more protein-like folds with hydrophobic cores that in turn allow them to access novel activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.9b10538DOI Listing
February 2020

N self-doped ZnO derived from microwave hydrothermal synthesized zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 toward enhanced photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2020 Apr 26;565:142-155. Epub 2019 Dec 26.

Integrated Composites Laboratory (ICL), Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA. Electronic address:

The precursor particles were successfully prepared by a facile microwave hydrothermal method. Compared with solvothermal and precipitation method, microwave hydrothermal method can greatly shorten the reaction time and increase the product yields. Nitrogen (N) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were derived via one-step controllable pyrolysis of zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (Zif-8) precursors under 550 °C. The powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, elemental mapping image, energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis proved that Zif-8 particles were converted to ZnO and the N atoms were successfully doped into ZnO lattice. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results demonstrated that N doped ZnO retained the morphology of Zif-8 with a particle size of approximately ~70 nm and the UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-vis DRS) showed that the as-prepared N doped ZnO possessed a lower band gap (3.16 eV) than commercial ZnO (3.26 eV). The photocatalytic activities of the as-prepared samples were evaluated by the degradation rate of methylene blue (MB) upon irradiation with solar-simulated light. The photocatalytic degradation efficiency of N doped ZnO was 95.3% after 80 min illumination, which was much higher than that of other samples prepared by other methods. Quenching tests proved that the photo-generated holes (h) played a main role in the photodegradation of MB under solar-simulated light irradiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2019.12.107DOI Listing
April 2020

Advances in Template Prepared Nano-Oxides and their Applications: Polluted Water Treatment, Energy, Sensing and Biomedical Drug Delivery.

Chem Rec 2020 Jul 16;20(7):710-729. Epub 2020 Jan 16.

Integrated Composites Laboratory (ICL), Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA.

The nano-oxide materials with special structures prepared by template methods have a good dispersion, regular structures and high specific surface areas. Therefore, in some areas, improved properties are observed than conventional bulk oxide materials. For example, in the treatment of dye wastewater, the treatment efficiency of adsorbents and catalytic materials prepared by template method was about 30 % or even higher than that of conventional samples. This review mainly focuses on the progress of inorganic, organic and biological templates in the preparation of micro- and nano- oxide materials with special morphologies, and the roles of the prepared materials as adsorbents and photocatalysts in dye wastewater treatment. The characteristics and advantages of inorganic, organic and biological template are also summarized. In addition, the applications of template method prepared oxides in the field of sensors, drug carrier, energy materials and other fields are briefly discussed with detailed examples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tcr.201900093DOI Listing
July 2020

Achyranthes bidentata polypeptide k suppresses neuroinflammation in BV2 microglia through Nrf2-dependent mechanism.

Ann Transl Med 2019 Oct;7(20):575

Key Laboratory of Neuroregeneration of Jiangsu and Ministry of Education, Co-Innovation Center of Neuroregeneration, Nantong University, Nantong 226001, China.

Background: Activated microglia play a critical role in regulating neuroinflammatory responses in central nervous system. Previous studies have shown that Achyranthes bidentata polypeptide k's (ABPPk's) neuroprotective effects are partly due to its anti-inflammatory effect, but the mechanism remains unknown. This study is aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of ABPPk on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated neuroinflammation in BV2 microglia.

Methods: We pretreated BV2 microglia with different concentrations of ABPPk (0.04-5 µg/mL) for 30 minutes, and then stimulated microglia with LPS for 24 hours. Pro-inflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E (PGE) production were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), phosphorylated nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) expression levels were detected by western blot. Glutathione (GSH) level was measured by GSH-Glo™ Glutathione assay. Immunofluorescent staining was used to detect the nuclear translocation of NF-κB and Nrf2. BV2 microglia transfected with Nrf2 siRNA were used to investigate the effect of Nrf2 on the anti-inflammatory activity of ABPPk.

Results: ABPPk (0.2-5 µg/mL) reduced the iNOS mediated NO and COX-2 mediated PGE production significantly in LPS-activated BV2 microglia. ABPPk (1 and 5 µg/mL) also suppressed the production of TNF-α and IL-6 significantly. NF-κB is phosphorylated and translocated into nuclear in LPS-activated BV2 microglia, but ABPPk is shown to inhibit the phosphorylation and translocation of NF-κB in a concentration-dependent way. ABPPk increased the protein expression levels of HO-1 and Nrf2, as well as the GSH content in BV2 microglia. Immunofluorescent staining showed that ABPPk also promoted nuclear translocation of Nrf2. After knocking down Nrf2 in BV2 cells with siRNA interference, ABPPk's inhibitory effect on pro-inflammatory mediators also disappeared.

Conclusions: The present study suggests that ABPPk inhibits neuroinflammation in BV2 microglia through Nrf2-dependent mechanism. This provides some strong evidence for the potential of this neuroprotective natural compound to treat neurodegenerative diseases such as ischemic stroke and Parkinson's disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm.2019.09.07DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6861762PMC
October 2019

Flexible Zinc-Ion Hybrid Fiber Capacitors with Ultrahigh Energy Density and Long Cycling Life for Wearable Electronics.

Small 2019 11 14;15(47):e1903817. Epub 2019 Oct 14.

School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, 2006, Australia.

Emerging wearable electronics require flexible energy storage devices with high volumetric energy and power densities. Fiber-shaped capacitors (FCs) offer high power densities and excellent flexibility but low energy densities. Zn-ion capacitors have high energy density and other advantages, such as low cost, nontoxicity, reversible Faradaic reaction, and broad operating voltage windows. However, Zn-ion capacitors have not been applied in wearable electronics due to the use of liquid electrolytes. Here, the first quasisolid-state Zn-ion hybrid FC (ZnFC) based on three rationally designed components is demonstrated. First, hydrothermally assembled high surface area and conductive reduced graphene oxide/carbon nanotube composite fibers serve as capacitor-type positive electrodes. Second, graphite fibers coated with a uniform Zn layer work as battery-type negative electrodes. Third, a new neutral ZnSO -filled polyacrylic acid hydrogel act as the quasisolid-state electrolyte, which offers high ionic conductivity and excellent stretchability. The assembled ZnFC delivers a high energy density of 48.5 mWh cm at a power density of 179.9 mW cm . Further, Zn dendrite formation that commonly happens under high current density is efficiently suppressed on the fiber electrode, leading to superior cycling stability. Multiple ZnFCs are integrated as flexible energy storage units to power wearable devices under different deformation conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201903817DOI Listing
November 2019

Dosimetric comparison of incidental radiation to the internal mammary nodes after breast-conserving surgery using 3 techniques-inverse intensity-modulated radiotherapy, field-in-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy, and 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy: A retrospective clinical study.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2019 Oct;98(41):e17549

Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, Shandong First Medical University and Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan.

Background: The study aimed to evaluate and compare the dosimetric parameters of incidental irradiation to internal mammary node (IMN) from inverse intensity-modulated radiotherapy (I-IMRT) and field-in-field IMRT (F-IMRT), and 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) in patients after breast-conservation surgery (BCS).

Methods: Eighty-four patients with BCS were selected. The breast, tumor bed, and IMN, including intercostal spaces (ICS) 1 to 3, were contoured. Three plans were generated. The prescription doses for the breast and tumor bed were 50.4 Gy/28 F and 60.2 Gy/28 F, respectively. If there was no tumor bed boost, patient was treated with 50 Gy/25 F for the whole breast only. The IMN was not included in planning target volume.

Results: The median mean dose (Dmean) of the IMNtotal (ICS 1-3) was 2740.2 cGy, 2973.9 cGy, and 2951.4 cGy for I-IMRT, F-IMRT, and 3D-CRT, respectively. Differences were not detected between any of the plans. After separating ICS 1 to 3 for further analysis, neither of the Dmean of ICS 1 to 2 was significantly different between the plans. However, for ICS 3, the median Dmean was highest for I-IMRT, and those for 3D-CRT and F-IMRT were not significantly different. After separating the 3 techniques for further analysis, the median Dmean was highest in ICS 3 and lowest in ICS 1 for all the 3 techniques.

Conclusion: All 3 techniques failed to attain an adequate dose to cure subclinical disease, and there were no significant differences among the 3 techniques. It is risky to avoid IMN irradiation (IMNI) using any of the 3 techniques during whole-breast radiotherapy in women with indications for elective IMNI. However, in era of systematic therapy, whether the incidental dose could meet clinical acquirements needs further follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000017549DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6799772PMC
October 2019

A heterozygous point mutation of the ANKRD11 (c.2579C>T) in a Chinese patient with idiopathic short stature.

Mol Genet Genomic Med 2019 12 30;7(12):e988. Epub 2019 Sep 30.

Department of Endocrinology, Affiliated Hospital of Jining Medical University, Jining Medical University, Jining, China.

Background: Pathogenic variants of ANKRD11 have been reported to cause KBG syndrome characterized by short stature, characteristic facial appearance, intellectual disability, macrodontia, and skeletal anomalies. However, the direct clinical relevance of ANKRD11 mutation with short stature is yet unknown.

Methods: Here, we report a Chinese boy with idiopathic short stature (ISS) based on clinical and genetic characteristics. Comprehensive medical evaluations were performed including metabolic studies, endocrine function tests, bone X-rays, and echocardiography. Whole-exome and Sanger sequencing was used to detect and confirm genetic mutations associated with short stature in this patient, respectively. The pathogenicity of the variant was further predicted by several in silico prediction tools and repositories of sequence variation. Twenty-four months follow-up was performed to observe the growth rate of the patient treated with recombinant human growth hormone (GH).

Results: One heterozygous point mutation (c.2579C>T) was confirmed in the ANKRD11 gene of the patient and inherited from his mother. This mutation site was located within the highly conservative region of ANKRD11 protein and predicted to be possibly damaging in several in silico prediction programs and repositories of sequence variation. Additionally, patient underwent GH replacement therapy for 24 months exhibited good response to the treatment.

Conclusion: A heterozygous point mutation of AKNRD11 gene was identified in a Chinese patient with short stature phenotype. The patient was treated effectively with GH supplementation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mgg3.988DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6900381PMC
December 2019

Early Histone Deacetylase Inhibition Mitigates Ischemia/Reperfusion Brain Injury by Reducing Microglia Activation and Modulating Their Phenotype.

Front Neurol 2019 20;10:893. Epub 2019 Aug 20.

Department of Neurology, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, China.

Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are a promising therapeutic intervention for stroke. The involvement of the anti-inflammatory effects of HDACi in their neuroprotection has been reported, but the underlying mechanisms are still uncertain. Given the post-stroke inflammation is a time-dependent process, starting with acute and intense inflammation, and followed by a prolonged and mild one, we proposed whether target the early inflammatory response could achieve the neuroprotection of HDACi? To test this hypothesis, a single dose of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) (50 mg/kg), a pan HDACi, was intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected immediately or 12 h after ischemia onset in a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) mouse model. Compared with delayed injection, immediate SAHA treatment provided more protection, evidenced by smaller infarction volume, and a better outcome. This protection was accompanied by suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reduction of activated microglia in the early stage of post-stroke inflammation. Moreover, SAHA treatment suppressed M1 cytokine expression (IL-6, TNF-α, and iNOS) while promoted the transcription of M2 cytokines (Arg-1 and IL-10) in LPS-challenged mouse microglia, and enhanced CD206 (M2 marker) but decreased CD86 (M1 markers) levels in microglia isolated from the ipsilateral hemisphere of MCAO mice. Collectively, our data suggested that the protection of SAHA on ischemic brain injury was closely associated with its inhibition on the early inflammatory response, and this inhibition was related to its reducing microglia activation and priming the activated microglia toward a more protective phenotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2019.00893DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6710990PMC
August 2019

Monoterpenoid indole alkaloids from the bark of Melodinus henryi.

Fitoterapia 2019 Oct 30;138:104354. Epub 2019 Aug 30.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan, Hubei 430074, China; National Demonstration Center for Experimental Ethnopharmacology Education (South-Central University for Nationalities), China. Electronic address:

Four new alkaloids, melodinines W-W (1-4), together with twenty one known alkaloids (5-25) were isolated from Melodinus henryi. The structures with absolute configurations were elucidated by extensive MS and NMR spectroscopic methods, as well as the single crystal X-ray diffraction and ECD calculations. All compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicities to five human cancer cell lines. Many compounds showed certain cytotoxicities to five human cancer cell lines with an IC range of 1.4-29.4 μM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2019.104354DOI Listing
October 2019

Research Progress in the Field of Adsorption and Catalytic Degradation of Sewage by Hydrotalcite-Derived Materials.

Chem Rec 2020 Apr 27;20(4):355-369. Epub 2019 Aug 27.

Integrated Composites Laboratory (ICL), Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA.

With the rapid development of industry and agriculture and the greatly improved living conditions, the resultant gradually deteriorated environments threaten the human beings. Refractory or even toxic pollutants, which are from different industries such as printing and dyeing, pesticides, chemicals, petrochemicals, plastics and rubber, seriously threat the ecosystems and human health. Having the advantages of flexible composition, unique structure, high stability, memory effect, easy preparation and low cost, hydrotalcite compounds have a great potential in sewage degradation and environmental protection. This study focuses on the adsorption and catalytic properties (such as photocatalysis, electrocatalysis and photoelectrocatalysis) of hydrotalcite-derived materials for treating organic, inorganic and heavy metal ion sewage. The types of adsorption and catalysis, and the effects of various influencing factors on the degradation efficiency were discussed as well.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tcr.201900046DOI Listing
April 2020

Controllable organic magnetoresistance in polyaniline coated poly(p-phenylene-2,6-benzobisoxazole) short fibers.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2019 Aug;55(68):10068-10071

Shanghai Key Lab of Chemical Assessment and Sustainability, School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, People's Republic of China.

Herein, we first report a tunable organic magnetoresistance (OMAR) effect in polyaniline (PANI) coated acid treated poly(p-phenylene-2,6-benzobisoxazole) (t-PBO) short fibers. This unique OMAR is interpreted using the paramagnetic nature of PBO molecules combined with the localization length a0 calculated from the wave-function shrinkage model and forward interference model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9cc04789aDOI Listing
August 2019

Anchoring carbon nanotubes and post-hydroxylation treatment enhanced Ni nanofiber catalysts towards efficient hydrous hydrazine decomposition for effective hydrogen generation.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2019 Aug 10;55(61):9011-9014. Epub 2019 Jul 10.

Integrated Composites Lab (ICL), Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37966, USA.

For effective hydrogen generation with remarkable durability, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) grown on Ni nanofibers and their post hydroxylation treatment engendered active Ni nanofiber catalysts an efficient decomposition of hydrous hydrazine with a turnover frequency (TOF) of 19.4 h and an activation energy down to 51.05 KJ mol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9cc04559gDOI Listing
August 2019

Setup Error Assessment and Correction in Planar kV Image- Versus Cone Beam CT Image-Guided Radiation Therapy: A Clinical Study of Early Breast Cancer Treated With External Beam Partial Breast Irradiation.

Technol Cancer Res Treat 2019 Jan-Dec;18:1533033819853847

1 Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province, China.

Objective: To compare differences in setup error assessment and correction between planar kilovolt images and cone beam computed tomography images for external beam partial breast irradiation during free breathing.

Methods: Nineteen patients who received external beam partial breast irradiation after breast-conserving surgery were recruited. Interfraction setup error was acquired using planar kilovolt images and cone beam computed tomography. After online setup correction, the residual error was calculated, and the setup error was compared. The residual error and setup margin were quantified for planar kilovolt and cone beam computed tomography images.

Results: The largest setup error was observed in the anteroposterior direction for both cone beam computed tomography and planar kilovolt imaging (-1.45 mm, 1.74 mm). The cone beam computed tomography-based setup error (systematic error [Σ]) was less than the planar kilovolt images based on Σ in the anteroposterior direction (-1.2 mm vs 2.00 mm; P = .005), and no significant differences were observed for random error (σ) in 3 dimensions ( P = .948, .376, .314). After online setup correction, cone beam computed tomography significantly reduced the residual setup error compared with planar kilovolt images in the anteroposterior direction (Σ: -0.20 mm vs 0.50 mm, P = .008; σ: 0.45 mm vs 1.34 mm, P = .002). The cone beam computed tomography-based setup margin was smaller than the planar kilovolt image-based setup margin in the anteroposterior direction (-1.39 mm vs 5.57 mm, P = .003; 0.00 mm vs 3.20 mm, P = .003).

Conclusions: Discrepancy between the setup errors observed with planar kilovolt and cone beam computed tomography was obvious in the anteroposterior direction. Compared to cone beam computed tomography, the elapsed treatment time was smaller when the initial alignment used kilovolt planar imaging. Whether using planar kilovolt or cone beam computed tomography, residual errors can be reduced to 1.5 mm for external beam partial breast irradiation procedures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1533033819853847DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6552346PMC
December 2019

Surface intercalated spherical MoSSe nanocatalysts for highly efficient and durable hydrogen evolution reactions.

Dalton Trans 2019 Jun 17;48(23):8279-8287. Epub 2019 May 17.

Integrated Composites Laboratory (ICL), Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA.

An efficient hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) depends essentially on high-performing electrocatalysts. The aggregation of catalysts normally deteriorates their activity and stability. In this study, a two-step route was used to synthesize surface intercalated well-dispersed spherical MoSSe nanocatalysts. The resulting catalysts present a highly active and stable performance towards the HER with an overpotential of -143 mV at 10 mA cm, and a Tafel slope of 53.8 mV dec. The mechanism for the enhanced HER was analyzed and was attributed to three factors: (i) large numbers of defects and edge active sites arising from the coexistence of S and Se elements; (ii) enhanced electric conductivity arising from the phase transition from the semiconducting 2H-phase to metallic 1T-phase during the intercalation process; and (iii) enlarged contact areas between active sites and electrolyte caused by the increased surface roughness due to the surface intercalation. This work not only deepens our understanding of the improved HER performance of surface intercalated catalysts, but also provides novel strategies for preparing durable electrocatalysts through surface engineering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9dt01218dDOI Listing
June 2019

Zinc oxide/vanadium pentoxide heterostructures with enhanced day-night antibacterial activities.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2019 Jul 19;547:40-49. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Integrated Composites Laboratory (ICL), Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37934, USA. Electronic address:

Low photocatalytic efficiency of visible light and fast recombination of photo-generated carriers are two challenges facing the applications of photocatalyst sterilant zinc oxide (ZnO). Meanwhile, both light and dark photocatalytic activities are important. It is of great theoretical and practical significance to construct a day-night photocatalytic antibacterial material, which is beneficial to the effective use of energy and to tackle the limitation of using photocatalytic bacteriostat. ZnO nanoflowers decorated vanadium pentoxide (VO) nanowires heterojunction (ZVH) was firstly fabricated using a facile water-bathing method. The designed ZVH structure efficiently produced abundant reactive oxygen species (ROS) in both light and darkness. It yielded 99.8% and 99.0% of antibacterial rate against S. aureus due to oxidative stress induced by ROS in light and darkness, respectively. The generation of ROS played a major role in the antibacterial activities against S. aureus under both light and dark conditions. The prepared ZVH with improved antibacterial properties provides an alternative for day-night antibacterial agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2019.03.061DOI Listing
July 2019

Sandwich-like NiCo layered double hydroxide/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite cathodes for high energy density asymmetric supercapacitors.

Dalton Trans 2019 Apr;48(16):5193-5202

Institute of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100, China.

Nanocomposites with a well-defined sandwich-like nanostructure were prepared via in situ growing NiCo-layered double hydroxide nanosheets with tunable Ni/Co ratios on reduced graphene oxide (rGO). Electrochemical impedance spectra and N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms confirmed that these sandwich nanostructures effectively promoted charge transport and enlarged the specific surface area. The nanocomposites with Ni : Co = 2 : 1 exhibited a maximum specific capacitance of 2130 F g-1 at 2 A g-1, excellent rate capability (72.7% retention at 15 A g-1), and cycling stability. Asymmetric supercapacitors were assembled with these nanocomposite cathodes and rGO as a negative electrode (anode), and demonstrated an energy density of 34.5 W h kg-1 at a power density of 772 W kg-1, while maintaining a capacity retention of 86.7% after 10 000 cycles at 5 A g-1. The robust electrochemical properties indicate the composites as promising electrodes for electrochemical energy storage devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9dt00615jDOI Listing
April 2019

A comparative study based on deformable image registration of the target volumes for external-beam partial breast irradiation defined using preoperative prone magnetic resonance imaging and postoperative prone computed tomography imaging.

Radiat Oncol 2019 Mar 5;14(1):38. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Department of Medical Imaging, Shandong Cancer Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, Shandong province, China.

Background: To explore the differences and correlations between the target volumes defined using preoperative prone diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and postoperative prone computed tomography (CT) simulation imaging based on deformable image registration (DIR) for external-beam partial breast irradiation (EB-PBI) after breast-conserving surgery (BCS).

Methods: Eighteen breast cancer patients suitable for EB-PBI were enrolled. Preoperative prone diagnostic MRI and postoperative prone CT scan sets for all the patients were acquired during free breathing. Target volumes and ipsilateral breast were all contoured by the same radiation oncologist. The gross tumor volume (GTV) delineated on the preoperative MRI images was denoted as the GTV and the tumor bed (TB) delineated on the postoperative prone CT images was denoted as the GTV. The MIM software system was used to deformably register the MRI and CT images.

Results: When based on the coincidence of the compared target centers, there were statistically significant increases in the conformity index (CI) and degree of inclusion (DI) values for GTV-GTV, GTV-CTV, CTV-GTV and CTV-CTV when compared with those based on the DIR of the thorax (Z = - 3.724, - 3.724, - 2.591, - 3.593, all P < 0.05; Z = -3.724, - 3.724, - 3.201, - 3.724, all P < 0.05, respectively).

Conclusions: Although based on DIR, there was relatively poor spatial overlap between the preoperative prone diagnostic MRI images and the postoperative prone CT simulation images for either the whole breast or the target volumes. Therefore, it is unreasonable to use preoperative prone diagnostic MRI images to guide postoperative target delineation for EB-PBI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13014-019-1244-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6402104PMC
March 2019

Postmastectomy radiotherapy using three different techniques: a retrospective evaluation of the incidental dose distribution in the internal mammary nodes.

Cancer Manag Res 2019 30;11:1097-1106. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250117, China,

Objective: To evaluate the incidental coverage dose to the internal mammary nodes (IMN) in patients treated with postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) and its relationship with the treatment plan.

Patients And Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 138 patients undergoing PMRT and divided them into three groups: three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), field-in-field forward intensity-modulated radiotherapy (F-IMRT), and inverse intensity-modulated radiotherapy (I-IMRT). The IMN were contoured according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group consensus and not included in the planning target volume. We analyzed incidental IMN dose coverage and its relationship with the lung and heart.

Results: The mean dose (Dmean) to the IMN was 32.85 Gy for all patients, and the dose delivered to the IMN showed no differences in 3D-CRT, F-IMRT, and I-IMRT (33.80, 29.65, and 32.95 Gy, respectively). In addition, 10.42%, 2.04%, and 9.76% of patients achieved ≥45 Gy with 3D-CRT, F-IMRT, and I-IMRT, respectively. No differences were evident among the three treatment plans regarding IMN dose in the first three intercostal spaces (ICS1-3). The Dmean, V20, V30, V40, and V50 of ICS2 and ICS3 were superior to those of ICS1 for all three plans. For 3D-CRT, a moderate positive correlation was evident between the Dmean to the IMN and the Dmean to the heart. For F-IMRT and I-IMRT, positive correlations were evident between the Dmean of the IMN and the Dmean and V20 of the lung.

Conclusion: The mean incidental dose to the IMN for IMRT (F-IMRT and I-IMRT) and 3D-CRT after modified radical mastectomy was insufficient to treat subclinical disease. A substantial dose was delivered to the IMN in some patients. Higher incidental doses to the IMN were associated with a higher heart mean dose for 3D-CRT and a higher dose to the lung for IMRT. Future prospective studies should further explore subgroups that do not require IMN irradiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S191047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6361227PMC
January 2019