Publications by authors named "Qian Jin"

361 Publications

Development of a kinetic model to evaluate thiosulfate-driven denitrification and anammox (TDDA) process.

Water Res 2021 Apr 16;198:117155. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Chinese National Engineering Research Center for Control & Treatment of Heavy Metal Pollution (Hong Kong Branch) and Water Technology Center, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, China; Shenzhen Research Institute, Fok Ying Tung Graduate School, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Guangdong, China. Electronic address:

Recently, the integration of sulfur-driven denitrification and anammox process has been extensively studied as a promising alternative nitrogen removal technology. Most of these studies investigated the process feasibility and monitored the community dynamics. However, an in-depth understanding of this new sulfur-nitrogen cycle bioprocess based on mathematical modeling and elucidation of complex interactions among different microorganisms has not yet been achieved. To fill this gap, we developed a kinetic model (with 7 bioprocesses, 12 variables, and 19 parameters) to assess the sulfur(thiosulfate)-driven denitrification and anammox (TDDA) process in a single reactor. The parameters used in this process were separately estimated by fitting the data obtained from the experiments. Then, the model was further validated under different conditions, and the results demonstrated that the developed model could describe the dynamic behaviors of nitrogen and sulfur conversions in the TDDA system. The newly developed branched thiosulfate oxidation model was also verified by conducting a metagenomics analysis. Using the developed model, we i) examined the interactions between sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and anammox bacteria at steady-state conditions with varying substrates to demonstrate the reliability of TDDA, and ii) evaluated the feasibility and operation of the TDDA process in terms of practical implementation. Our results will benefit further exploration of the significance of this novel S-N cycle bioprocess and guide its future applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2021.117155DOI Listing
April 2021

Optimization of Nanostructured Lipid Carriers of Fenofibrate Using a Box-Behnken Design for Oral Bioavailability Enhancement.

Curr Drug Deliv 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

State Key Laboratory of Toxicology and Medical Countermeasures, Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Beijing 100850, China.

Background: Fenofibrate (FNB) is a commonly used hypolipidemic agent. However, the oral bioavailability of FNB is limited by slow dissolution due to its low solubility. Thus, investigations on novel FNB formulations are necessary for their use.

Objective: To enhance the oral bioavailability of FNB using optimized Nanostructured Lipid Carrier (NLC) formulations.

Methods: Hot homogenization followed by ultrasonication was used to prepare FNB-NLCs. These formulations were optimized using a Box-Behnken design, where the amount of FNB (X1), a ratio of solid lipid/liquid lipid (X2), and the percentage of emulsifier (X3), were set as independent variables, while the particle size (Y1), and Entrapment Efficiency (EE%) (Y2), were used as dependent factors. An in vitro dissolution test was then performed using a paddle method, while an in vivo pharmacokinetic study of FNB-NLC formulation was performed in rats.

Results: FNB-NLCs were successfully prepared and optimized using a Box-Behnken design. The particle size and EE% of the FNB-NLC had less than 5% difference from predicted values. The in vitro dissolution and oral bioavailability of the FNB-NLC were both higher than those of raw FNB.

Conclusion: A Box-Behnken design was successfully applied to optimize FNB-NLC formulation for the enhancement of the dissolution and bioavailability of FNB, a poorly water-soluble drug.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1567201818666210423110745DOI Listing
April 2021

HucMSC exosome-delivered 14-3-3ζ alleviates ultraviolet radiation-induced photodamage via SIRT1 pathway modulation.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 Apr 21;13(8):11542-11563. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Key Laboratory of Laboratory Medicine of Jiangsu Province, School of Medicine, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.

Exosomes derived from human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hucMSC-ex) are nano-sized membrane-bound vesicles that have been reported to facilitate skin regeneration and repair. However, the roles played by hucMSC-ex in ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced skin photodamage and the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. To investigate the functions of hucMSC-ex in a rat model of acute skin photodamage, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical staining, quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), western blot, and gene silencing assays were performed. We found that the subcutaneous injection of hucMSC-ex elicited antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects against UV radiation-induced DNA damage and apoptosis. Further studies showed that the sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) expression level in skin keratinocytes (HaCaT) decreased in a time- and dose-dependent manner under UV radiation induced-oxidative stress conditions, which could be reversed by treatment with hucMSC-ex. The activation of SIRT1 significantly attenuated UV- and HO-induced cytotoxic damage by inhibiting oxidative stress and promoting the activation of autophagy. Our study found that 14-3-3ζ protein, which was delivered by hucMSC-ex, exerted a cytoprotective function via the modulation of a SIRT1-dependent antioxidant pathway. Collectively, our findings indicated that hucMSC-ex might represent a new potential agent for preventing or treating UV radiation-induced skin photodamage and aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.202851DOI Listing
April 2021

Polyethyleneimine- -Tocopherol Hydrogen Succinate/Hyaluronic Acid-Quercetin (PEI-TOS/HA-QU) Core-Shell Micelles Delivering Paclitaxel for Combinatorial Treatment of MDR Breast Cancer.

J Biomed Nanotechnol 2021 Mar;17(3):382-398

Multidrug resistance (MDR) remains a significant impediment to chemotherapy during cancer therapy. In this study, the amphiphilic biomaterials PEI-TOS and HA-QU were synthesized to self-assemble into PEI-TOS/HA-QU core-shell micelles for the targeted codelivery of paclitaxel (PTX) and quercetin (QU) to alleviate multidrug drug resistance and enhance therapeutic efficacy. The PTX-loaded micelles possessed a uniform particle size (167.60 ± 8.185 nm), stable negative charge (-19.13 ± 0.321 mV), and pH-responsive drug release with good compatibility. The drug-loaded micelles increased the chemosensitivity of MDR tumor cells (MDA-MB-231/MDR1) to PTX and activated mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathways (the IC was 2.22-fold lower than that of PTX alone). Moreover, PEI-TOS/HA-QU micelles increased the cellular uptake of lipophilic antitumor drugs by downregulating P-gp expression in MDA-MB-231/MDR1 cells. Compared with Taxol, PTX-loaded PEI-TOS/HA-QU micelles presented excellent antitumor efficacy in tumor-bearing mice, with an average tumor size that was 3.7-fold lower than that of the control group. The drug-loaded formulation showed low in vitro / in vivo toxicity and better tumor accumulation than the free drug, which led to a high tumor inhibition rate of 80.56% and considerable biocompatibility. This work describes a new platform for the codelivery of lipophilic anticancer drugs and natural active ingredients such as PTX and QU for the treatment of MDR cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jbn.2021.3032DOI Listing
March 2021

Letter to the editor regarding: Posterior auricular artery free flap reconstruction of the retroauricular sulcus in microtia repair.

J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2021 Mar 21. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Department of Ear Reconstruction, Plastic Surgery Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, No. 33 Ba-Da-Chu Road, Shi jing shan District, Beijing 100144, PR China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjps.2021.03.005DOI Listing
March 2021

MPscore: A Novel Predictive and Prognostic Scoring for Progressive Meningioma.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Mar 5;13(5). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Surgery, the University of Melbourne, Melbourne 3050, Australia.

Meningioma is the most common tumor in central nervous system (CNS). Although most cases of meningioma are benign (WHO grade I) and curable by surgical resection, a few tumors remain diagnostically and therapeutically challenging due to the frequent recurrence and progression. The heterogeneity of meningioma revealed by DNA methylation profiling suggests the demand of subtyping for meningioma. Therefore, we performed a clustering analyses to characterize the progressive features of meningioma and constructed a meningioma progression score to predict the risk of the recurrence. A total of 179 meningioma transcriptome from RNA sequencing was included for progression subtype clustering. Four biologically distinct subtypes (subtype 1, subtype 2, subtype 3 and subtype 4) were identified. Copy number alternation and genomewide DNA methylation of each subtype was also characterized. Immune cell infiltration was examined by the microenvironment cell populations counter. All anaplastic meningiomas (7/7) and most atypical meningiomas (24/32) are enriched in subtype 3 while no WHO II or III meningioma presents in subtype 1, suggesting subtype 3 meningioma is a progressive subtype. Stemness index and immune response are also heterogeneous across four subtypes. Monocytic lineage is the most immune cell type in all meningiomas, except for subtype 1. CD8 positive T cells are predominantly observed in subtype 3. To extend the clinical utility of progressive meningioma subtyping, we constructed the meningioma progression score (MPscore) by the signature genes in subtype 3. The predictive accuracy and prognostic capacity of MPscore has also been validated in three independent cohort. Our study uncovers four biologically distinct subtypes in meningioma and the MPscore is potentially helpful in the recurrence risk prediction and response to treatments stratification in meningioma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13051113DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7961759PMC
March 2021

Genetic Background and Kinetics Define Wound Bed Extracellular Vesicles in a Mouse Model of Cutaneous Injury.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 29;22(7). Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Division of Trauma, Department of Surgery, UC San Diego Health Sciences, 212 Dickinson Street, MC 8236, San Diego, CA 92103, USA.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have an important role in mediating intercellular signaling in inflammation and affect the kinetics of wound healing, however, an understanding of the mechanisms regulating these responses remains limited. Therefore, we have focused on the use of cutaneous injury models in which to study the biology of EVs on the inflammatory phase of wound healing. For this, the foreign body response using sterile subcutaneous polyvinylalcohol (PVA) sponges is ideally suited for the parallel analysis of immune cells and EVs without the need for tissue dissociation, which would introduce additional variables. We have previously used this model to identify mediators of EV biogenesis, establishing that control of how EVs are made affects their payload and biological activity. These studies in normal mice led us to consider how conditions such as immunodeficiency and obsesity affect the profile of immune cells and EVs in this model using genetically defined mutant mice. Since EVs are intrinsically heterogenous in biological fluids, we have focused our studies on a novel technology, vesicle flow cytometry (vFC) to quantify changes in EVs in mouse models. Here, we show that myeloid-derived immune cells and EVs express proteins relevant in antigen presentation in PVA sponge implants that have distinct profiles in wildtype, immune-deficient (NOD scid) vs. diabetic (Lepr) mice. Together, these results establish a foundation for the parallel analysis of both immune cells and EVs with technologies that begin to address the heterogeneity of intercellular communication in the wound bed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22073551DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8037942PMC
March 2021

Effects of polystyrene nanoplastics on extracellular polymeric substance composition of activated sludge: The role of surface functional groups.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jun 17;279:116904. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resource Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, Hohai University, Nanjing, 210098, People's Republic of China; College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing, 210098, People's Republic of China.

Here we investigated the acute effects (12 h exposure) of three polystyrene nanoplastics (PS NPs, including PS, PS-COOH and PS-NH) on extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) composition of activated sludge. Three PS NPs exhibited the significant inhibition in total EPS and protein (PRO) production. The functional groups involved in the interactions between PS NPs and EPS were C-(C, H), and those between PS-NH NPs and EPS were CO and O-C-O. In addition, the dewaterability of activated sludge were optimized by three PS NPs, especially PS-NH NPs. Three PS NPs caused nonnegligible cellular oxidative stress and cell membrane damage in activated sludge (PS NPs exposure concentration: 100 mg/L). Among them, the cell membrane damage caused by PS-NH was the most significant. Overall, the degree of influence on EPS and cytotoxicity of activated sludge varies with the surface functional groups of PS NPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.116904DOI Listing
June 2021

HIF-1 Inhibitor YC-1 Reverses the Acquired Resistance of EGFR-Mutant HCC827 Cell Line with MET Amplification to Gefitinib.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 3;2021:6633867. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Tongde Hospital of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310012, China.

Background: Acquired resistance occurred in the majority of nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients receiving epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) therapy, and this may be related to the activation of the HIF-1 pathway. Therefore, we examined the influence of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) pathway inhibition on the sensitivity of HCC827 gefitinib-resistant (HCC827 GR) cells with MET amplification to gefitinib.

Methods: We established HCC827 GR cell line with MET amplification and set four groups with different treatment. An MTT assay, a colony formation analysis, and a wound healing assay were performed to determine the sensitivity change of HCC827 GR cells after different treatments. HIF-1, p-EGFR, and p-Met levels were detected with western blot. Correlations among HIF-1, p-EGFR, and p-Met levels of HCC827 GR cells with different treatments were analyzed with Pearson's correlation analysis.

Results: HIF-1 inhibitor YC-1 enhanced the sensitivity of HCC827 GR cells to gefitinib. p-Met level was correlated with HIF-1 level, while there was no correlation between p-Met level and p-EGFR level.

Conclusion: HIF-1 inhibitor YC-1 is able to reverse the acquired resistance of HCC827 GR to gefitinib, and the regulation of the HIF-1 pathway on MET may be one of the mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6633867DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7946473PMC
March 2021

Physiological and biochemical effects of TiAlC nanosheets on rice (Oryza sativa L.).

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 23;770:145340. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Guangdong Key Laboratory of Integrated Agro-environmental Pollution Control and Management, Guangdong Institute of Eco-environmental Science & Technology, Guangzhou 510650, China; National-Regional Joint Engineering Research Center for Soil Pollution Control and Remediation in South China, Guangzhou 510650, China. Electronic address:

MAX phase materials are a new type of nanomaterial with wide applications, but the potential effects of MAX phase materials on plants have not been reported. Herein, we selected TiAlC nanosheets as a typical MAX phase material to investigate its potential impacts on rice (Oryza sativa L.) at 0-1000 μg·mL. The foliar application of TiAlC at 100 and 1000 μg·mL inhibited the growth of rice seedlings by producing excess reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, foliar spraying of TiAlC at 100 μg·mL decreased the stomatal aperture (78.6%) and increased the number of trichomes (100%). These responses demonstrated that the application of TiAlC could interfere with the immune system of plants by changing the structure and function of leaves, disturbing the activities of antioxidant enzymes. According to the above results, we concluded that the toxicity of TiAlC nanosheets on plants was mainly caused by the release of titanium ions. This study provides a valuable reference for understanding the impact of MAX phase materials on plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145340DOI Listing
May 2021

Extracellular Vesicles: Novel Roles in Neurological Disorders.

Stem Cells Int 2021 17;2021:6640836. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Key Laboratory of Laboratory Medicine of Jiangsu Province, School of Medicine, Jiangsu University, 212013 Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, China.

Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles (EVs) secreted by almost all cells, which have been recognized as a novel platform for intercellular communication in the central nervous system (CNS). Exosomes are capable of transferring proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and metabolites between neurons and glial cells, contributing to CNS development and maintenance of homeostasis. Evidence shows that exosomes originating from CNS cells act as suppressors or promoters in the initiation and progression of neurological disorders. Moreover, these exosomes have been shown to transfer molecules associated with diseases through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and thus can be detected in blood. This unique feature enables exosomes to act as potential diagnostic biomarkers for neurological disorders. In addition, a substantial number of researches have indicated that exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have repair effects on neurological disorders. Herein, we briefly introduce the roles of exosomes under physiological and pathological conditions. In particular, novel roles of exosomes as potential diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic tools for neurological disorders are highlighted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6640836DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7904361PMC
February 2021

Characterization and Function of a Novel Welan Gum Lyase From Marine sp. WG.

Front Microbiol 2021 9;12:638355. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Engineering Research Center of Industrial Biocatalysis, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials Oriented Chemical Engineering, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials, Key Laboratory of OptoElectronic Science and Technology for Medicine of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, China.

Welan gum, a kind of microbial exopolysaccharides, produced by the genus , have great potential for application in many fields, such as the food industry, cement production, and enhanced oil recovery. But there are still challenges to reduce the cost, enhance the production and the quality. Herein, the bioinformatics analysis of gene was preformed, and the characterization and function of WelR, welan gum lyase, from sp. WG were investigated for the first time. The results indicated that 382nd (Asn), 383rd (Met), 494th (Asn), and 568th (Glu) were the key amino acid residues, and C-terminal amino acids were essential to keeping the stability of WelR. The optimal temperature and pH of the enzymatic activity were found to be 25°C and 7.4, respectively. And WelR was good low temperature resistance and alkali resistant. K, Mg, Ca, Mn, and EDTA increased WelR activities, in contrast to Zn. Coupled with the change in glucose concentration and growth profile, the qRT-PCR results indicated that WelR may degrade welan gum existing in the culture to maintain bacterial metabolism when glucose was depleted. This work will lay a theoretical foundation to establish new strategies for the regulation of welan gum biosynthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.638355DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7899989PMC
February 2021

Histopathology and the predominantly progressive, indeterminate and predominately regressive score in hepatitis C virus patients after direct-acting antivirals therapy.

World J Gastroenterol 2021 Feb;27(5):404-415

Hepatopancreatobiliary Center, Beijing Tsinghua Changgung Hospital, Tsinghua University, Beijing 102218, China.

Background: Histological changes after direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) therapy in hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients has not been elucidated. Whether the predominantly progressive, indeterminate and predominately regressive (P-I-R) score, evaluating fibrosis activity in hepatitis B virus patients has predictive value in HCV patients has not been investigated.

Aim: To identify histological changes after DAAs therapy and to evaluate the predictive value of the P-I-R score in HCV patients.

Methods: Chronic HCV patients with paired liver biopsy specimens before and after DAAs treatment were included. Sustained virologic response (SVR) was defined as an undetectable serum HCV RNA level at 24 wk after treatment cessation. The Ishak system and P-I-R score were assessed. Inflammation improvement and fibrosis regression were defined as a ≥ 2-points decrease in the histology activity index (HAI) score and a ≥ 1-point decrease in the Ishak fibrosis score, respectively. Fibrosis progression was defined as a ≥ 1-point increase in the Ishak fibrosis score. Histologic improvement was defined as a ≥ 2-points decrease in the HAI score without worsening of the Ishak fibrosis score after DAAs therapy. The P-I-R score was also assessed. "absolutely reversing or advancing" was defined as the same directionality implied by both change in the Ishak score and posttreatment P-I-R score; and "probably reversing or advancing" was defined as only one parameter showing directionality.

Results: Thirty-eight chronic HCV patients with paired liver biopsy specimens before and after DAAs treatment were included. The mean age of these patients was 40.9 ± 14.6 years and there were 53% (20/38) males. Thirty-four percent (13/38) of patients were cirrhotic. Eighty-two percent (31/38) of patients achieved inflammation improvement. The median HAI score decreased significantly after SVR (pretreatment 7.0 posttreatment 2.0, = -5.146, = 0.000). Thirty-seven percent (14/38) of patients achieved fibrosis improvement. The median Ishak score decreased significantly after SVR (pretreatment 4.0 posttreatment 3.0, = -2.354, = 0.019). Eighty-two percent (31/38) of patients showed histological improvement. The P-I-R score was evaluated in 61% (23/38) of patients. The progressive group showed lower platelet ( = 0.024) and higher HAI scores ( = 0.070) before treatment. In patients with stable Ishak stage after treatment: Progressive injury was seen in 22% (4/18) of patients, 33% (6/18) were classified as indeterminate and regressive changes were seen in 44% (8/18) of patients who were judged as probably reversing by the Ishak and P-I-R systems.

Conclusion: Significant improvement of necroinflammation and partial remission of fibrosis in HCV patients occurred shortly after DAAs therapy. The P-I-R score has potential in predicting fibrosis in HCV patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v27.i5.404DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7856841PMC
February 2021

The Plasticity of Nanofibrous Matrix Regulates Fibroblast Activation in Fibrosis.

Adv Healthc Mater 2021 04 29;10(8):e2001856. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710049, P. R. China.

Natural extracellular matrix (ECM) mostly has a fibrous structure that supports and mechanically interacts with local residing cells to guide their behaviors. The effect of ECM elasticity on cell behaviors has been extensively investigated, while less attention has been paid to the effect of matrix fiber-network plasticity at microscale, although plastic remodeling of fibrous matrix is a common phenomenon in fibrosis. Here, a significant decrease is found in plasticity of native fibrotic tissues, which is associated with an increase in matrix crosslinking. To explore the role of plasticity in fibrosis development, a set of 3D collagen nanofibrous matrix with constant modulus but tunable plasticity is constructed by adjusting the crosslinking degree. Using plasticity-controlled 3D culture models, it is demonstrated that the decrease of matrix plasticity promotes fibroblast activation and spreading. Further, a coarse-grained molecular dynamic model is developed to simulate the cell-matrix interaction at microscale. Combining with molecular experiments, it is revealed that the enhanced fibroblast activation is mediated through cytoskeletal tension and nuclear translocation of Yes-associated protein. Taken together, the results clarify the effects of crosslinking-induced plasticity changes of nanofibrous matrix on the development of fibrotic diseases and highlight plasticity as an important mechanical cue in understanding cell-matrix interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adhm.202001856DOI Listing
April 2021

Lactic acid promotes metastatic niche formation in bone metastasis of colorectal cancer.

Cell Commun Signal 2021 Jan 21;19(1). Epub 2021 Jan 21.

College of Medicine, Southwest Jiaotong University, North Section 1 No.111, Second Ring Road, Chengdu, 610000, People's Republic of China.

Background: To investigate the effect of lactic acid (LA) on the progression of bone metastasis from colorectal cancer (CRC) and its regulatory effects on primary CD115 (+) osteoclast (OC) precursors.

Methods: The BrdU assay, Annexin-V/PI assay, TRAP staining and immunofluorescence were performed to explore the effect of LA on the proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation of OC precursors in vitro and in vivo. Flow cytometry was performed to sort primary osteoclast precursors and CD4(+) T cells and to analyze the change in the expression of target proteins in osteoclast precursors. A recruitment assay was used to test how LA and Cadhein-11 regulate the recruitment of OC precursors. RT-PCR and Western blotting were performed to analyze the changes in the mRNA and protein expression of genes related to the PI3K-AKT pathway and profibrotic genes. Safranin O-fast green staining, H&E staining and TRAP staining were performed to analyze the severity of bone resorption and accumulation of osteoclasts.

Results: LA promoted the expression of CXCL10 and Cadherin-11 in CD115(+) precursors through the PI3K-AKT pathway. We found that CXCL10 and Cadherin-11 were regulated by the activation of CREB and mTOR, respectively. LA-induced overexpression of CXCL10 in CD115(+) precursors indirectly promoted the differentiation of osteoclast precursors through the recruitment of CD4(+) T cells, and the crosstalk between these two cells promoted bone resorption in bone metastasis from CRC. On the other hand, Cadherin-11 mediated the adhesion between osteoclast precursors and upregulated the production of specific collagens, especially Collagen 5, which facilitated fibrotic changes in the tumor microenvironment. Blockade of the PI3K-AKT pathway efficiently prevented the progression of bone metastasis caused by lactate.

Conclusion: LA promoted metastatic niche formation in the tumor microenvironment through the PI3K-AKT pathway. Our study provides new insight into the role of LA in the progression of bone metastasis from CRC. Video Abstract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12964-020-00667-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7818572PMC
January 2021

High expression of hypoxia inducible factor 1α related with acquired resistant to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in NSCLC.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 13;11(1):1199. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, The First Hospital of Jiaxing, No. 1882 South Zhonghuan Road, Jiaxing, Zhejiang, 314000, People's Republic of China.

The acquired resistance of the first generation epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) is a main factor leading to poor prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), so we researched whether the high expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in EGFR-TKIs sensitive NSCLC tissue tends to induce the acquired resistance. We detected the HIF-1α in normal lung tissue, EGFR-TKIs sensitive NSCLC tissue, the first generation EGFR-TKIs acquired resistant NSCLC tissue and acquired EGFR T790M mutation NSCLC tissue with the method of immunohistochemistry. Then, we compared the expression of HIF-1α in these tissues, and evaluate the effect of HIF-1α expression to the occurrence of acquired resistance. The expression of HIF-1α was much higher in the EGFR-TKIs sensitive NSCLC tissue than that in normal lung tissue. HIF-1α level became higher after the occurrence acquired resistance. There was negative correlation between HIF-1α level before receiving treatment and the time of acquired resistance occurring as well as the acquired EGFR T790M mutation occurring. As the treatment going on, EGFR-TKIs sensitivity rate of low HIF-1α level group was much higher than that of high level group. The high expression of HIF-1α related with the acquired resistance of the first generation EGFR-TKIs, and HIF-1α can be a biomarker to predict the early occurrence of acquired resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79801-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7806909PMC
January 2021

Effect of Cyclic Stretch on Neuron Reorientation and Axon Outgrowth.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2020 14;8:597867. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Key Laboratory of Soft Machines and Smart Devices of Zhejiang Province, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

The directional alignment and outgrowth of neurons is a critical step of nerve regeneration and functional recovery of nerve systems, where neurons are exposed to a complex mechanical environment with subcellular structures such as stress fibers and focal adhesions acting as the key mechanical transducer. In this paper, we investigate the effects of cyclic stretch on neuron reorientation and axon outgrowth with a feasible stretching device that controls stretching amplitude and frequency. Statistical results indicate an evident frequency and amplitude dependence of neuron reorientation, that is, neurons tend to align away from stretch direction when stretching amplitude and frequency are large enough. On the other hand, axon elongation under cyclic stretch is very close to the reference case where neurons are not stretched. A mechanochemical framework is proposed by connecting the evolution of cellular configuration to the microscopic dynamics of subcellular structures, including stress fiber, focal adhesion, and microtubule, yielding theoretical predictions that are consistent with the experimental observations. The theoretical work provides an explanation of the neuron's mechanical response to cyclic stretch, suggesting that the contraction force generated by stress fiber plays an essential role in both neuron reorientation and axon elongation. This combined experimental and theoretical study on stretch-induced neuron reorientation may have potential applications in neurodevelopment and neuron regeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2020.597867DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7793818PMC
December 2020

The complete chloroplast genome of R. Br. () and its phylogenetic implication.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2020 Jan 22;5(1):766-767. Epub 2020 Jan 22.

Suqian Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Suqian, China.

The genus () is an annual parasitic twining herb. There are about 200 species in this genus, which are widely distributed in tropical and subtropical areas. is mainly parasitic on crops bringing significant losses to the production of agriculture. Furthermore, dried seeds of and are used as a Chinese traditional herbal medicine. Despite the importance of species, it is difficult to distinguish these plants by the naked eye. Moreover, plastid sequence information available for species is limited. In this study, the complete chloroplast (cp) genome sequence of was determined using next-generation sequencing. The entire cp genome was determined to be 85,263 bp in length. It contained large single-copy (LSC) and small single-copy (SSC) regions of 50,384 and 6727 bp, respectively, which were separated by a pair of 14,076 bp inverted repeat (IR) regions. The genome contained 98 genes, including 61 protein-coding genes, 29 tRNA genes, and 4 rRNA genes. The overall GC content of the genome is 37.8%. A phylogenetic tree reconstructed by 26 chloroplast genomes reveals that is most related with in , with bootstrap support values of 100%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2020.1715865DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7748759PMC
January 2020

Diversity Patterns of Bermuda Grass along Latitudinal Gradients at Different Temperatures in Southeastern China.

Plants (Basel) 2020 Dec 15;9(12). Epub 2020 Dec 15.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225000, China.

(L.) Pers. (common Bermuda grass) has a limited capacity to grow at low temperatures, which limits its geographical range. Exploring its evolutionary relationship across different environmental gradients is necessary to understand the effects of temperature change on the genetics of common Bermuda grass. In this study, high-throughput transcriptome sequencing was performed on 137 samples of from 16 latitudinal gradients to explore the differential molecular markers and analyze genetic diversity and structure along latitudinal gradients at different temperatures. We primarily sampled more high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from populations at lower and middle latitudes. Greater intraspecific genetic variation at each level of temperature treatment could be due to factors such as wind pollination and asexual breeding. Populations of at high latitudes differed from populations at middle and low latitudes, which was supported by a principal component analysis (PCA) and genetic structure analysis, performed at different temperatures. We observed more genetic variation for low-latitude populations at 5 °C, according to an analysis of three phylogenetic trees at different temperature levels, suggesting that low temperatures affected samples with low cold resistance. Based on the results of phylogenetic analysis, we found that samples from high latitudes evolved earlier than most samples at low latitudes. The results provide a comprehensive understanding of the evolutionary phenomenon of landscape genetics, laying the groundwork for future structural and comparative genomic studies of .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants9121778DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7765174PMC
December 2020

Basic mechanisms and kinetics of pause-interspersed transcript elongation.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 01;49(1):15-24

Physics, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30307, USA.

RNA polymerase pausing during elongation is an important mechanism in the regulation of gene expression. Pausing along DNA templates is thought to be induced by distinct signals encoded in the nucleic acid sequence and halt elongation complexes to allow time for necessary co-transcriptional events. Pausing signals have been classified as those producing short-lived elemental, long-lived backtracked, or hairpin-stabilized pauses. In recent years, structural microbiology and single-molecule studies have significantly advanced our understanding of the paused states, but the dynamics of these states are still uncertain, although several models have been proposed to explain the experimentally observed pausing behaviors. This review summarizes present knowledge about the paused states, discusses key discrepancies among the kinetic models and their basic assumptions, and highlights the importance and challenges in constructing theoretical models that may further our biochemical understanding of transcriptional pausing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkaa1182DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7797061PMC
January 2021

Programmable Deformations of Biomimetic Composite Hydrogels Embedded with Printed Fibers.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Dec 15;12(51):57497-57504. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Synthesis and Functionalization, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China.

Shape deformations are prevalent in nature, which are closely related to the heterogeneous structures with a feature of fibrous elements embedded in a matrix. The microfibers with specific orientations act as either passive geometrical constraints in an active matrix or active elements in a passive matrix, which generate programmed internal stresses and drive shape morphing under external stimuli. Morphing materials can be designed in a biomimetic way, yet it is challenging to fabricate composite hydrogels with well-distributed fibers by a facile strategy. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of microfiber-embedded hydrogels facilitated by the extrusion-based printing technology. Programmed deformations are achieved in these hydrogels with microfibers distributed in the upper and/or bottom layers of the gel matrix. Under external stimuli, the microfibers and the gel matrix have different responses that produce internal stresses and result in programmable deformations of the composite gel. Multiple shape transformations are realized in the hydrogel by embedding multiple types of responsive microfibers in the passive or active matrix, which is fabricated with the assistance of multinozzle printing. A soft hook is designed to show the capacity of the composite hydrogel to hold and move an object in a saline solution. This facile and versatile strategy provides an alternative way to prepare biomimetic hydrogels with potential applications in biomedical devices, flexible electronics, and soft robots.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c19656DOI Listing
December 2020

Achieving rapid thiosulfate-driven denitrification (TDD) in a granular sludge system.

Water Res 2021 Feb 1;190:116716. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Chinese National Engineering Research Center for Control & Treatment of Heavy Metal Pollution (Hong Kong Branch) and Water Technology Center, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong SAR, China. Electronic address:

Sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) can drive a high level of autotrophic denitrification (AD) activity with thiosulfate (SO) as the electron donor. However, the slow growth of SOB results in a low biomass concentration in the AD reactor and unsatisfactory biological nitrogen removal (BNR). In this study, our goal was to establish a high-rate thiosulfate-driven denitrification (TDD) system via sludge granulation. Granular sludge was successfully cultivated by increasing the nitrogen loading rate stepwise in thiosulfate-oxidizing/nitrate-reducing conditions in an upflow anaerobic blanket reactor. In the mature-granular-sludge reactor, a nitrate removal rate of 280 mg N/L/h was achieved with a nitrate removal efficiency of 97.7%±1.0% at a hydraulic retention time of only 15 minutes, with no nitrite detected in the effluent. Extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) analysis indicated that the proteins in loosely bound and tightly bound EPS were responsible for maintaining the compact structure of the TDD granular sludge. The dynamics of the microbial-community shift were identified by 16S rRNA high-throughput pyrosequencing analysis. The Sulfurimonas genus was found to be enriched at 74.1% of total community and may play the most critical role in the high-rate BNR. The batch assay results reveal that no nitrite accumulation occurred during nitrate reduction because the nitrate reduction rate (75.90±0.67 mg N/g MLVSS/h) was almost equal to the nitrite reduction rate (66.06±1.28 mg N/g MLVSS/h) in the thiosulfate-driven granular sludge reactor. The results of this study provide support for the establishment of a high-rate BNR system that maintains its stability with a low sludge yield.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2020.116716DOI Listing
February 2021

The novel six LIM and one PET domain-containing protein Lmpt is involved in the immune response through activation of the NF-κB signalling pathway in the crustacean, Macrobrachium nipponense.

Dev Comp Immunol 2021 Mar 27;116:103948. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

College of Animal Sciences, Zhejiang University, 866 Yuhangtang Road, Hangzhou 310058, Zhejiang Province, China. Electronic address:

The four-and-a-half LIM-only protein family of transcription co-factors participates in various cellular processes, such as cell proliferation, cell differentiation, apoptosis, cell adhesion, migration, transcription and signal transduction. However, the knowledge of the structural characteristics and immune functions of its ancestor Lmpt, which contains six LIM domains at the C-terminus and a PET domain at the N-terminus, is limited in invertebrates, especially in crustaceans. In the present study, a novel Lmpt from oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) was identified, and its role in the immune response was investigated. Its full-length cDNA sequence was 6407 bp, which contained a 2595 bp ORF encoding 865 amino acids, exhibiting high similarity to the structure of Lmpt derived from other invertebrates. Tissue distribution analysis revealed that MnLmpt was widely expressed in all examined tissues, and high expression levels were observed in muscle, heart and intestine in M. nipponense. After experimental challenges with bacteria and virus, the transcription levels of MnLmpt significantly fluctuated in gill and hepatopancreas, indicating that it might play a role in the innate immune response in M. nipponense. Silencing of MnLmpt by dsRNA injection in vivo could promote bacterial growth, suggesting that MnLmpt exerted an antibacterial immune function in prawn. Immunocytochemistry assay results demonstrated that MnLmpt was able to translocate from the cytoplasm to the nucleus after being stimulated with pathogens. The expression levels of NF-κB signalling cascade members, such as dorsal, relish, TAK1, TAB1, Ikkβ, and Ikkε, and AMPs, including ALF4, Cru1, and Cru2, exhibited significant downregulation in the MnLmpt silenced group. Similarly, dual-luciferase reporter assays also demonstrated that MnLmpt could stimulate an NF-κB signalling cascade. Meanwhile, all of the LIM domains of MnLmpt could trigger NF-κB signalling; however, their cumulative effect on NF-κB promoter activation was hardly observed. These results showed that MnLmpt might play a crucial role in the innate immune response in M. nipponense, and these findings paved the way for a better understanding of the immune system in crustacean species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dci.2020.103948DOI Listing
March 2021

SLAM family receptors control pro-survival effectors in germinal center B cells to promote humoral immunity.

J Exp Med 2021 Mar;218(3)

Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, Institut de recherches cliniques de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

Expression of the signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP) is critical for the germinal center (GC) reaction and T cell-dependent antibody production. However, when SAP is expressed normally, the role of the associated SLAM family receptors (SFRs) in these processes is nebulous. Herein, we established that in the presence of SAP, SFRs suppressed the expansion of the GC reaction but facilitated the generation of antigen-specific B cells and antibodies. SFRs favored the generation of antigen-reactive B cells and antibodies by boosting expression of pro-survival effectors, such as the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) and Bcl-2, in activated GC B cells. The effects of SFRs on the GC reaction and T cell-dependent antibody production necessitated expression of multiple SFRs, both in T cells and in B cells. Hence, while in the presence of SAP, SFRs inhibit the GC reaction, they are critical for the induction of T cell-mediated humoral immunity by enhancing expression of pro-survival effectors in GC B cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20200756DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7694575PMC
March 2021

From source to sink: Review and prospects of microplastics in wetland ecosystems.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 12;758:143633. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resource Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, People's Republic of China; College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, People's Republic of China.

The source, distribution, migration, and fate of microplastics (MPs) in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems have received much attention. However, the relevant reports in wetland ecosystems, the boundary area between water and land, are still rare. Where are the sources and sinks of MPs in the wetland? The latest researches have shown that the sources of MPs in wetlands include sewage discharge, surface runoff, and plastic wastes from aquaculture. Fibers and fragments are the most common shapes, and PE, PP, PS can be detected in water or sediment matrices, and biota of wetlands. The distribution is affected by hydrodynamic conditions, sediment properties, and vegetation coverage. Factors affecting the vertical migration of MPs include their own physical and chemical properties, the combination of substances that accelerate deposition (mineral adsorption and biological flocculation), and resuspension. Minerals tend to adsorb negatively charged MPs while algae aggregates have a preference for positively charged MPs. The wetlands vegetation can trap MPs and affect their migration. In water matrices, MPs are ingested by organisms and integrated into sediments, which makes them seem undetectable in the wetland ecosystem. Photodegradation and microbial degradation can further reduce the MPs in size. Although recent research has increased, we are still searching for a methodological harmonization of the detection practices and exploring the migration rules and fate patterns of MPs. Our work is the first comprehensive review of the source, distribution, migration, and fate of MPs in wetland ecosystems. It reveals the uniqueness of wetland habitat in the research of MPs and indicates the potential of wetlands acting as sources or sinks for MPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.143633DOI Listing
March 2021

Red blood cell-hitchhiking chitosan nanoparticles for prolonged blood circulation time of vitamin K.

Int J Pharm 2021 Jan 12;592:120084. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

State key Laboratory of Toxicology and Medical Countermeasures, Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Beijing 100850, China.

Nanocarriers have been extensively applied for intravascular drug delivery. However, rapid clearance from circulation by mononuclear phagocyte system has limited their applications. Erythrocytes carriers are potential solutions to overcome the limitations of nanocarriers and considered to be ideal natural carriers for drug delivery because of their unique properties. The purpose of this work is to combine nanocarriers with erythrocytes carriers for sustained release and prolonged circulation time of vitamin K. Chitosan nanoparticles loading VK (VK-CSNPs) were prepared using ionotropic gelation method, which was optimized using box-behnken design and response surface methodology. VK-CSNPs adsorbed onto red blood cells (RBC-VK-CSNPs) rapidly via electrostatic interactions. The exposure of phosphatidylserine, osmotic fragility and turbulence fragility of RBC loading nanoparticles were investigated to study the toxicity of nanoparticles to erythrocytes. In vivo pharmacokinetic study indicated that C, AUC and MRT of RBC-VK-CSNPs group were remarkably higher than that of VK-CSNPs group. Flow cytometry showed VK-CSNPs steadily retained on the surface of RBC for a long time without affecting the circulation profiles of RBC themselves. The nanoparticles carried on RBC released drug, desorbed and were eliminated in vivo. Therefore, the circulation time of RBC-hitchhiking chitosan nanoparticles was greatly prolonged compared with nanoparticles alone. RBC-hitchhiking could be a valuable hybrid strategy for prolonging the in vivo life of nanocarriers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2020.120084DOI Listing
January 2021

Stable isotope analyses of nitrogen source and preference for ammonium versus nitrate of riparian plants during the plant growing season in Taihu Lake Basin.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 21;763:143029. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resource Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, People's Republic of China; College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, People's Republic of China.

Plants are vital components of the nitrogen (N) cycling in the riparian zones. Understanding of N uptake strategies of riparian plants, including N sources and preference in N forms (ammonium (NH) vs. nitrate (NO)), is essential to advance our knowledge on the role that plants play in regulating nutrient biogeochemical cyclings in the riparian areas. In this study, stable N isotopes (δN) of three riparian plants, including Acorus calamus, Canna indica and Phragmites australis, and the δN of NH and NO in different sources were measured during the plant growing season (June-September) in the Taihu Lake Basin. The dissolved inorganic N (DIN) from river water, groundwater, rainwater and soil were considered as the major N sources for plants in the riparian ecosystem. Our results indicated that soil was the largest source for plant N nutrition, with significantly different (P < 0.05) contributions from soil observed among plant species (80.5 ± 4.1, 73.9 ± 2.8 and 58.7 ± 6.1% for A. calamus, C. indica, and P. australis, respectively). Meanwhile, complex water networks, shallow water tables, and high DIN content in rainwater lead to nonignorable N contributions from river water, groundwater and rainwater to plants. Groundwater contributed more percentage of N to P. australis (12.8 ± 3.2%) than A. calamus (6.1 ± 1.9%) and C. indica (8.0 ± 1.5%), which is likely attributed to the deeper roots of P. australis. All plants showed similar N preference for NO during the growing season. External environmental conditions and plant characteristics and adaption to more abundant soil NO content are possible explanations. Our research could provide important information for vegetation selections during the process of riparian ecological restoration. Reasonable choice of vegetation is essential to plant growth and water quality management, especially in agricultural watersheds where N concentrations are relatively high in agricultural runoff due to the wide uses of N fertilizers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.143029DOI Listing
April 2021

Auricular reconstruction with modified expanded two-flap method in Goldenhar Syndrome: 7-Year experiences.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2020 Dec 11;139:110228. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Auricular Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Center, Plastic Surgery Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100144, China. Electronic address:

Background: Goldenhar Syndrome (GS) is a systematic polymalformational disease characterized by microtia, hemifacial microsomy, ocular anomalies, abnormal vertebra and other deformities. These congenital malformations brought severe physical and mental stress to the patients. Auricular reconstruction has always been the primary appeal of the patients and their families to achieve a better facial balance and harmony. However, multiple deformities made it a great challenge to perform this technique. In this study, we reported a modified expanded two-flap method of auricular reconstruction, which is more applicable for patients with Goldenhar Syndrome.

Methods: Between January of 2012 and September of 2019, 69 cases of Goldenhar Syndrome underwent auricular reconstruction with the modified expanded two-flap technique. Auricular reconstruction was performed in three surgical stages. In the first stage, a 50 ml kidney-shaped tissue expander was embedded in mastoid region and the retroauricular skin expanded. In the second stage, the autologous rib cartilage was harvested and the ear framework fabricated. The expander was further removed, and then enveloped by the expanded flap, retroauricular fascial flap and a free skin graft. In the third stage, the reconstructed ear was further trimmed, including lobule transposition and tragus reconstruction.

Results: The patients were followed for 6 months to 7 years. There were 63 cases (91.3%) responded satisfied outcomes in size, shape, position and bilateral symmetry. One case suffered expander leakage and tissue expansion accomplished after the expander was replaced. Hematoma was occurred in four cases and removed to complete the reconstruction. Complications of cartilage exposure were observed in one case.

Conclusion: Modified expanded two-flap method is effective and safe in auricular reconstruction for patients of Goldenhar syndrome with long term satisfying results. Level of Evidence IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijporl.2020.110228DOI Listing
December 2020

Emerging roles and potential clinical applications of noncoding RNAs in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Semin Cancer Biol 2020 Sep 12. Epub 2020 Sep 12.

State Key Laboratory of Proteomics, National Center for Protein Sciences at Beijing, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing, China; Collaborative Innovation Center for Personalized Cancer Medicine, Center for Global Health, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing City, China; Medical College, Guizhou University, Guiyang City, China. Electronic address:

Hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) is one of the most common forms of cancer, and accounts for a high proportion of cancer-associated deaths. Growing evidences have demonstrated that non- protein-coding regions of the genome could give rise to transcripts, termed noncoding RNA (ncRNA), that form novel functional layers of the cellular activity. ncRNAs are implicated in different molecular mechanisms and functions at transcriptional, translational and post-translational levels. An increasing number of studies have demonstrated a complex array of molecular and cellular functions of ncRNAs in different stages of the HCC tumorigenesis, either in an oncogenic or tumor-suppressive manner. As a result, several pre-clinical studies have highlighted the great potentials of ncRNAs as novel biomarkers for cancer diagnosis or therapeutics in targeting HCC progression. In this review, we briefly described the characteristics of several representative ncRNAs and summarized the latest findings of their roles and mechanisms in the development of HCC, in order to better understand the cancer biology and their potential clinical applications in this malignancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semcancer.2020.09.003DOI Listing
September 2020

Chitosan oligosaccharide combined with running benefited the immune status of rats.

Int Immunopharmacol 2020 Nov 2;88:106915. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Biomass Conversion and Utilization, Hubei Engineering University, Xiaogan, Hubei 432000, China. Electronic address:

Chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) degraded by chitosan, is an easily accessible and biocompatible natural molecule, which can facilitate the immune system. Running is one of the most effective forms of exercise. Persistence in running can effectively improve the body's resistance against pathogens. However, whether the combination of COS and running could benefit immune status still remains to be elucidated. We used Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats to explore the combinatory effect of COS and running. The organs and blood of the rats were collected after four weeks and the organ body mass index, biochemical and blood routine examination, cytokines, and T cells in the spleen and blood were detected and analyzed. In the group intragastric administration of COS only, the level of blood lactate dehydrogenase was increased, while the blood creatinine, red blood cells, lymphocytes, and serum TNF were decreased. Furthermore, COS combined with running promoted the development of spleen and lung, the level of lymphocytes, T cell and CD8 T cell ratio in the blood, and serum TNF level. At the same time, the level of lactate dehydrogenase, serum IL-2, and T cell ratio in spleen were decreased. Therefore, our study indicated that COS combined with running could improve the immune status of rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2020.106915DOI Listing
November 2020