Publications by authors named "Qian Guo"

337 Publications

Associations between exposure to landscape fire smoke and child mortality in low-income and middle-income countries: a matched case-control study.

Lancet Planet Health 2021 Sep;5(9):e588-e598

BIC-ESAT and SKL-ESPC, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Peking University Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Background: The prevalence of landscape fires has increased, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). We aimed to assess the impact of exposure to landscape fire smoke (LFS) on the health of children.

Methods: We conducted a sibling-matched case-control study and selected 552 155 children (aged <18 years) from Demographic and Health Surveys in 55 LMICs from 2000 to 2014. Each deceased child was matched with their sibling(s). The exposure indicators were fire-sourced PM and dry-matter emissions. We associated these exposure indicators with child mortality using conditional regressions, and derived an exposure-response function using a non-linear model. Based on the association, we quantified the global burden of fire-attributable child deaths in LMICs from 2000 to 2014.

Findings: Each 1 μg/m increment of fire-sourced PM was associated with a 2·31% (95% CI 1·50-3·13) increased risk of child mortality. The association was robust to different models. The exposure-response function was superlinear and suggested per-unit exposure to larger fires was more toxic. Based on our non-linear exposure-response function, we estimated that between 2000 and 2014, the five countries with the largest number of child deaths associated with fire-sourced PM were Nigeria (164 000 [126 000 to 209 000] annual deaths), Democratic Republic of the Congo (126 000 [95% CI 114 000 to 139 000] annual deaths), India (65 900 [-22 200 to 147 000] annual deaths), Uganda (30 200 [24 500 to 36 300] annual deaths), and Indonesia (28 900 [19 100 to 38 400]).

Interpretation: Exposure to landscape fire smoke contributes substantially to the global burden of child mortality.

Funding: National Natural Science Foundation of China, Ministry of Science and Technology of China, Peking University, UK National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit, Leverhulme Center for Wildfires, Environment and Society, and National Environment Research Council National Capability funding to National Centre for Earth Observation and Energy Foundation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2542-5196(21)00153-4DOI Listing
September 2021

DeePhage: distinguishing virulent and temperate phage-derived sequences in metavirome data with a deep learning approach.

Gigascience 2021 Sep;10(9)

State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems and Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, Beijing, China.

Background: Prokaryotic viruses referred to as phages can be divided into virulent and temperate phages. Distinguishing virulent and temperate phage-derived sequences in metavirome data is important for elucidating their different roles in interactions with bacterial hosts and regulation of microbial communities. However, there is no experimental or computational approach to effectively classify their sequences in culture-independent metavirome. We present a new computational method, DeePhage, which can directly and rapidly judge each read or contig as a virulent or temperate phage-derived fragment.

Findings: DeePhage uses a "one-hot" encoding form to represent DNA sequences in detail. Sequence signatures are detected via a convolutional neural network to obtain valuable local features. The accuracy of DeePhage on 5-fold cross-validation reaches as high as 89%, nearly 10% and 30% higher than that of 2 similar tools, PhagePred and PHACTS. On real metavirome, DeePhage correctly predicts the highest proportion of contigs when using BLAST as annotation, without apparent preferences. Besides, DeePhage reduces running time vs PhagePred and PHACTS by 245 and 810 times, respectively, under the same computational configuration. By direct detection of the temperate viral fragments from metagenome and metavirome, we furthermore propose a new strategy to explore phage transformations in the microbial community. The ability to detect such transformations provides us a new insight into the potential treatment for human disease.

Conclusions: DeePhage is a novel tool developed to rapidly and efficiently identify 2 kinds of phage fragments especially for metagenomics analysis. DeePhage is freely available via http://cqb.pku.edu.cn/ZhuLab/DeePhage or https://github.com/shufangwu/DeePhage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gigascience/giab056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8427542PMC
September 2021

Impact of the collaboration mechanism of PPP projects based on consumer participation: A system dynamics model of tripartite evolutionary game.

PLoS One 2021 8;16(9):e0256304. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Anhui Normal University, Wuhu, Anhui, China.

Developing countries need a large number of social infrastructure projects (e.g. schools, medical care, nursing homes). But the government's finance to invest in these projects is limited. By using the public-private partnership (PPP) mode to attract social capital to invest in PPP projects, it can relieve the financial pressure and improve the operation efficiency. The cooperation between government and consumer can ensure the sustainable development of the project operation. A system dynamics model of tripartite evolutionary game is developed to analyze the interaction of participant's strategies and simulate the corresponding evolution process. We employ the scenario analysis method to investigate the impact of the key parameters in relation with PPP projects based on realistic scenario assumptions. The results reveal the effect of some policies including reverse effect, blocking effect and over-reliance effect. Specifically, the results show that high penalty can prevent social capital from providing low-quality services, the low cost of government regulation can promote social capital to provide high-quality services, compensation to consumer can increase the enthusiasm of consumer participating in supervision, appropriate difference between price and cost of high-quality service as social capital's profit can encourage social capital to provide high-quality service. These policy suggestions will contribute to the sustainable development of social infrastructures in PPP mode.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0256304PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8425542PMC
September 2021

The state of CD44 activation in cancer progression and therapeutic targeting.

FEBS J 2021 Sep 3. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Molecular Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai, 200233, China.

CD44, a non-kinase transmembrane glycoprotein, is ubiquitously expressed on various types of cells (especially cancer stem cells, CSCs), and has been implicated in cancer onset and aggressiveness. The major ligand for the CD44, hyaluronan (HA), binds to and interacts with CD44 which in turn triggers downstream signaling cascades, thereby promoting cellular behaviors such as proliferation, motility, invasiveness, and chemoresistance. The CD44-HA interaction is cell-specific and strongly affected by the state of CD44 activation. Therefore, the binding of HA to CD44 is essential to the activation of CD44 during which the detailed regulatory mechanism needs to be clarified. Different CD44 activation states distribute in human carcinoma and normal tissue, however, whether CD44 activation is a critical requirement for tumor initiation, progression and notorious CSCs properties remains obscure. A deeper understanding of the regulation of CD44 activation may facilitate the development of novel targeted drugs in the future. Here, we review the current findings concerning the states of CD44 activation on the cell surface, the underlying regulatory mechanisms of CD44 activation, the known role for CD44 activation in tumor progression and CSCs hallmarks, and the potential of HA-coated nanoparticle for targeting activated CD44 for cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/febs.16179DOI Listing
September 2021

Predicting hosts based on early SARS-CoV-2 samples and analyzing the 2020 pandemic.

Sci Rep 2021 08 31;11(1):17422. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, China.

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has raised concerns in the identification of the hosts of the virus since the early stages of the outbreak. To address this problem, we proposed a deep learning method, DeepHoF, based on extracting viral genomic features automatically, to predict the host likelihood scores on five host types, including plant, germ, invertebrate, non-human vertebrate and human, for novel viruses. DeepHoF made up for the lack of an accurate tool, reaching a satisfactory AUC of 0.975 in the five-classification, and could make a reliable prediction for the novel viruses without close neighbors in phylogeny. Additionally, to fill the gap in the efficient inference of host species for SARS-CoV-2 using existing tools, we conducted a deep analysis on the host likelihood profile calculated by DeepHoF. Using the isolates sequenced in the earliest stage of the COVID-19 pandemic, we inferred that minks, bats, dogs and cats were potential hosts of SARS-CoV-2, while minks might be one of the most noteworthy hosts. Several genes of SARS-CoV-2 demonstrated their significance in determining the host range. Furthermore, a large-scale genome analysis, based on DeepHoF's computation for the later pandemic in 2020, disclosed the uniformity of host range among SARS-CoV-2 samples and the strong association of SARS-CoV-2 between humans and minks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-96903-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8408148PMC
August 2021

Changes in children's lung function over two decades in relation to socioeconomic, parental and household factors in Wuhan, China.

J Thorac Dis 2021 Jul;13(7):4601-4613

Nicholas School of the Environment and Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, USA.

Background: It is important to identify risk and beneficial factors for children's lung function. This study aims to ascertain potential changes in children's lung function in relation to changes in socioeconomic, parental and household factors, based on a comparison between two periods spanning 25 years in Wuhan, the largest metropolis in central China.

Methods: In two cross-sectional studies, lung function measurements and questionnaire surveys were conducted on school-age children in 1993-1996 (Period I) and in 2018 (Period II). Children of 6-12 years old from elementary schools were selected by a multistage sampling method. Demographic information, socioeconomic status, feeding methods, parental illness and behavior patterns, as well as household characteristics, were collected through a questionnaire survey. Spirometric lung function was measured, including forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV), forced expiratory flow at 25% and 75% of the pulmonary volume (FEF25-75), and peak expiratory flow (PEF). Wilcoxon analysis of variances was used to assess the differences in lung function indexes between Period I and Period II. Multiple linear regression models were used to estimate the association of lung function with regard to socioeconomic, parental and household factors, respectively.

Results: Significant prevalence reductions were observed for household coal use, paternal smoking and maternal asthma, while the prevalence increased significantly for children sleeping in their own rooms or own beds and breastfeeding, ventilation use during cooking, and parental education level from Period I to Period II. When adjusted for age, height, weight, sex and other factors assessed in the study, children had significant lower values of FVC, FEV, and PEF in Period II than in Period I. Enclosed kitchen was significantly associated with lower lung function in children in Period I. Urban living condition and higher maternal education level were each associated with a higher FVC, while father having no fixed income was associated with a lower FVC and a lower FEV, respectively, in Period II. In comparison with Period I, the beneficial impact of urban living and that of breastfeeding were enhanced and the detrimental effect of poor household condition was weakened in Period II.

Conclusions: Lung function was lower in 2018 than in 1993-1996 in school-age children living in Wuhan. Although improvements in urban living and household environmental conditions as well as increased breastfeeding in Period II could have contributed to increased lung function, other unmeasured risk factors may have played a more dominant role in leading to a net decrease in lung function from Period I to Period II. Future studies are needed to identify these risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd-21-158DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8339758PMC
July 2021

Household environmental factors and children's respiratory health: comparison of two cross-sectional studies over 25 years in Wuhan, China.

J Thorac Dis 2021 Jul;13(7):4589-4600

School of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Beijing Key Laboratory of Resource-oriented Treatment of Industrial Pollutants, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, China.

Background: Over the recent decades, residential lifestyle and household environment have changed substantially with rapid development of industrialization and urbanization in China. Whether the prevalence of respiratory diseases changed is still lack of evidence. The objective of this study is to assess potential changes in children's respiratory disease prevalence and associated household environmental factors in Wuhan over a 25-year time interval.

Methods: Two cross-sectional studies in the Period 1 (1993 to 1996) and Period 2 (2017 to 2018) were compared in this research. Elementary school children in period 1 (N=2,517) and in period 2 (N=3,152) were recruited in Wuhan, China. The respiratory health condition, home environmental factors, and family socioeconomic status of each subject were acquired through questionnaire survey using the same protocols in both periods. We used the Chi-square test to analyze the difference of household environmental factors (focused on three indoor air quality determinants) and children's respiratory health condition between two periods. Logistic regression models were used to assess the impacts of household environmental determinants on children's respiratory diseases and symptoms between the two studies, by adjusting a set of covariates.

Results: The three indoor air quality determinants have reduced substantially in prevalence from period 1 to period 2: environment tobacco smoke (ETS) from 86.6% to 45.9%, household coal use from 47.6% to 4.9%, and kitchen smoke from 58.9% to 7.3%. The prevalence of certain respiratory symptoms in children significantly decreased, such as cough with colds (51.1% to 41.6%) and phlegm with colds (22.3% to 17.7%). The prevalence of asthma was 2.5% and 2.4% and that of bronchitis was 27.1% and 29.8% in both periods. Coal use was a risk factor for asthma in period 1 (OR =2.34, 95% CI: 1.30-4.23), while it was not significantly associated with prevalence of asthma in period 2 (OR =0.60, 95% CI: 0.08-4.51).

Conclusions: Household indoor air quality determinants and respiratory health condition of children in Wuhan has been improved over the last 25 years. At present, kitchen smoke is an important factor affecting the prevalence of wheeze whatever child has a cold or not and reducing exposure to ETS could be beneficial to protect children to be less likely to develop bronchitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd-20-2170DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8339747PMC
July 2021

Children's lung function in relation to changes in socioeconomic, nutritional, and household factors over 20 years in Lanzhou.

J Thorac Dis 2021 Jul;13(7):4574-4588

Global Health Research Center, Duke Kunshan University, Kunshan, China.

Background: Lanzhou has experienced rapid urbanization, leading to changes in socioeconomic, nutritional, and household factors. These changes may affect children's lung function.

Methods: Two cross-sectional studies of school-age children (6-13 years of age) from the urban (Chengguan) (Period 1 in 1996 with n=390; Period 2 in 2017 with n=192) and the suburban (Xigu) (Period 1 n=344; Period 2 n=492) district were conducted. Demographic information, household factors, and nutrition status were obtained via a questionnaire survey. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV) were measured in each period. Student's t-test analysis of variance was used to assess the differences in FVC and FEV between Periods 1 and 2. Generalized linear models were used to analyze the associations between questionnaire derived factors and lung function. Analyses were done separately for girls and boys.

Results: Children had significantly lower mean FEV and FVC measures in Period 2 than in Period 1. This reduction was greater in children living in the urban area than those living in the suburban area. Obese children had significantly lower lung function but this was only statistically significant in Period 1.

Conclusions: Children's lung function (FVC and FEV) were lower in 2017 than in 1996. Rapid urbanization may have contributed to the decline of lung function. Obesity may be a risk factor for impaired lung function in children living in Lanzhou and possibly elsewhere.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd-20-2232DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8339784PMC
July 2021

The role of circulating blood microRNA-374 and microRNA-10 levels in the pathogenesis and therapeutic mechanisms of major depressive disorder.

Neurosci Lett 2021 Oct 18;763:136184. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Department of Psychiatry, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, PR China; Shanghai Key Laboratory of Psychotic Disorders, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, PR China. Electronic address:

Compelling recent evidence suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate specific mRNA transcripts at the transcriptomic level and coordinately influence complex regulatory networks, which may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD) and the treatment effects of antidepressants. To evaluate the possible involvement of miRNAs in the pathophysiology and therapeutic response of MDD, we conducted a miRNA expression array analysis of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 5 depressed patients and 5 healthy controls (HCs). Subsequently, we chose 2 miRNAs for validation with real-time PCR (RT-PCR) analysis pre- and post-treatment in another group of 25 MDD patients and 25 HCs. In the array, 5 miRNAs were differentially expressed in medication-naïve MDD patients compared to HCs, of which 2 miRNAs were upregulated and 3 were downregulated. Furthermore, in comparison with HCs, MDD patients showed significantly lower expression levels of miR-374b and miR-10a before treatment. After 8 weeks of antidepressant treatment, both miR-374b and the miR-10a expression levels in MDD patients were significantly elevated only in responders. In conclusion, these results indicate the involvement of miR-374b and miR-10a in the biological mechanisms and therapeutic response of MDD, and provide new insights for exploring miRNAs as potential biomarkers for MDD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2021.136184DOI Listing
October 2021

Bioaugmentation improves the anaerobic co-digestion of cadmium-containing plant residues and cow manure.

Environ Pollut 2021 Aug 2;289:117885. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

MOE Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu, 730000, PR China; Key Laboratory for Resources Utilization Technology of Unconventional Water of Gansu Province, Gansu Academy of Membrane Science and Technology, Duanjiatanlu #1272, Lanzhou, 730020, PR China. Electronic address:

Phytoremediation causes a large quantity of phytoremediation residues rich in heavy metals (HMs). This kind of plant residue can be used as a substrate for anaerobic digestion (AD) to reduce the content of HM-containing biomass, but high concentrations of HMs will inhibit the digestion efficiency and reduce the conversion efficiency of plant residues. Bioaugmentation may be an effective method to improve the degradation efficiency and methane yield of plant residues rich in HMs. In this study, a cellulose-degrading anaerobic bacteria Paracoccus sp. Termed strain LZ-G1 was isolated from cow dung, which can degrade cellulose and simultaneously adsorb Cd. The Cd (10 mg/L)-adsorbtion efficiency and cellulose (463.12 g/kg)-degradation rate were 65.1 % and 60.59 %, respectively. In addition, using the strain LZ-G1 bioaugmented Cd-containing plant residues and cow manure mixed AD system, the system's biogas and methane production significantly increased (98.97 % and 142.03 %, respectively). During the AD process, the strain LZ-G1 was successfully colonized in the digestion system. Furthermore, the microbial community analysis revealed that LZ-G1 bioaugmentation alleviates the toxicity of free Cd to the microbial community in the AD system, regulates and restores the archaea genus dominant in the methanogenesis stage, and restores the relative abundance of dominant bacteria associated with biomass hydrolysis. The restoration of the microbial community increased the biogas yield and methane production rate. Thus, bioaugmentation provides an easy and a feasible method for the actual on-site treatment of HM-rich phytoremediation residues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117885DOI Listing
August 2021

HoPhage: an ab initio tool for identifying hosts of phage fragments from metaviromes.

Bioinformatics 2021 Aug 12. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering and Center for Quantitative Biology, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, China.

Summary: We present HoPhage (Host of Phage) to identify the host of a given phage fragment from metavirome data at the genus level. HoPhage integrates two modules using a deep learning algorithm and a Markov chain model, respectively. HoPhage achieves 47.90% and 82.47% mean accuracy at the genus and phylum levels for ∼1 kb-long artificial phage fragments when predicting host among 50 genera, representing 7.54%-20.22% and 13.55%-24.31% improvement, respectively. By testing on three real virome samples, HoPhage yields 81.11% mean accuracy at the genus level within a much broader candidate host range.

Availability And Implementation: HoPhage is available at http://cqb.pku.edu.cn/ZhuLab/HoPhage/.

Supplementary Information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btab585DOI Listing
August 2021

[Constructing Brain Aβ-Targeting Nanoparticles Loaded with EGCG for Treating Alzheimer's Disease in Mice].

Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 Jul;52(4):605-611

Key Laboratory of Smart Drug Delivery of the Ministry of Education, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203, China.

Objective: To construct a nanodelivery system surface-modified with RD2 peptide (polypeptide sequence PTLHTHNRRRRR) for brain tissue penetration and β-amyloid (Aβ) binding. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) was selected for encapsulation in the targeted delivery system and its therapeutic potential for Alzheimer's disease (AD) was investigated.

Methods: EGCG-load nanoparticles (NP/EGCG), NP/EGCG with RD2 peptide surface modification (RD2-NP/EGCG), as well as RD2 peptide-modified blank nanoparticles (RD2-NP) were prepared and characterized. Thioflavin T assay was done to assess the ability of RD2-NP to bind with Aβ and imaging was conducted to evaluate the distribution of RD2-NP in brain lesion sites. The AD mice model was established by injecting oligomeric Aβ in the bilateral hippocampi of ICR mice. Then AD mice were administered intravenously through the tail vein with normal saline, EGCG solution, NP/EGCG or RD2-NP/EGCG for 28 d, respectively, and the Morris water maze tests were performed to assess the spatial memory of mice. Subsequently, RT-PCR method was used to determine the mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the hippocampus of the mice, and the morphological changes of hippocampal neurons were observed with Nissl staining. Additionally, the pathological changes of heart, liver, spleen, lung, and kidney were characterized by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining.

Results: The particle diameter of the prepared RD2-NP/EGCG was (204.83±2.80) nm and the zeta potential was -23.88 mV. The encapsulation efficiency and drug loading capacity were 94.39% and 5.90%, respectively. The RD2 peptide modification has no significant effect on the physiochemical properties of the nanoparticles. RD2-NP had good Aβ binding ability, and it could be concentrated in hippocampus and cerebral cortex, the most common Aβ deposition sites. The four-week RD2-NP/EGCG treatment significantly decreased the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α and IL-1β, restored neuronal losses and hippocampal damage, and ameliorated spatial memory impairment in AD model mice. Moreover, treatment with the RD2-NP/EGCG did not present organ toxicity.

Conclusion: Surface modified RD2 peptide nanodelivery system can efficiently deliver drugs to AD lesions and improve the therapeutic effect of EGCG on AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12182/20210760206DOI Listing
July 2021

MicroRNA-151a-3p Functions in the Regulation of Osteoclast Differentiation: Significance to Postmenopausal Osteoporosis.

Clin Interv Aging 2021 14;16:1357-1366. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Community Medicine Department, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing City, 100096, People's Republic of China.

Background: Studies have found the pivotal role of miRNAs in the progression of postmenopausal osteoporosis (OP). However, the function of miRNAs in OP is unclear. This study aimed to explore the biological functions of microRNA-151a-3p in OP.

Methods: RT-qPCR was employed to assess the expression of microRNA-151a-3p in serum isolated from OP patients and healthy controls. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to measure the bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine. The expression levels of c-Fos, NFATc1, and TRAP were tested by Western blot. Ovariectomized (OVX) rats were treated with antago microRNA-151a-3p or antago NC, and then serum and lumbar vertebrae were collected for ELISA and bone histomorphology analysis.

Results: The expression of microRNA-151a-3p in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis was significantly up-regulated, and microRNA-151a-3p level was negatively correlated with BMD. During osteoclastogenesis, microRNA-151a-3p level was obviously increased. Overexpression of microRNA-151a-3p promoted the differentiation of RANKL-induced THP-1 and RAW264.7 cells into osteoclasts, whereas silencing of microRNA-151a-3p resulted in the opposite results. Silencing of microRNA-151a-3p in OVX rats altered osteoclastogenesis-related factors and raised BMD.

Conclusion: MicroRNA-151a-3p could partly regulate osteoporosis by promoting osteoclast differentiation, and miRNA-151a-3p could be a potential therapeutic target for postmenopausal osteoporosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S289613DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8286966PMC
July 2021

Microfluidic origami nano-aptasensor for peanut allergen Ara h1 detection.

Food Chem 2021 Dec 1;365:130511. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, Sichuan 611731, China; Institute of Electronic and Information Engineering of UESTC in Guangdong, Dongguan, Guangdong 523808, China. Electronic address:

In this study, an origami microfluidic electrochemical nano-aptasensor was developed for the rapid detection of the peanut allergen Ara h1. Specifically, the microfluidic aptasensor was fabricated through sequential folding of a piece of chromatography paper substrate patterned with microchannel and screen-printed electrodes. Aptamer-decorated black phosphorus nanosheets (BPNSs) were electrodeposited onto the paper-based electrode surface as sensing probes for enhanced electrochemical detection and high specificity and selectivity. Critical design parameters (the concentration of probe, time for self-assembly of aptamer and reaction time) were investigated to optimize the aptasensor performance. The prepared aptasensor was able to complete detection within 20 min and demonstrated a linear range from 50 ~ 1000 ng/mL with a detection limit of 21.6 ng/mL. The aptasensor was successfully used to detect the Ara h1 spiked cookie dough sample. The proposed method reduces the gap between complex lab testing and food allergen analysis at the point of need.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130511DOI Listing
December 2021

Inhibition of ACLY Leads to Suppression of Osteoclast Differentiation and Function Via Regulation of Histone Acetylation.

J Bone Miner Res 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Biological Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Center, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY), generating most of the nucleocytosolic acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) for histone acetylation, links cell metabolism to epigenetic regulation. Recent investigations demonstrated that ACLY activated by metabolic reprogramming played an essential role in both M1 and M2 macrophage activation via histone acetylation. Previous studies also revealed that histone methylation and acetylation were critical for transcriptional regulation of osteoclast-specific genes. Considering that osteoclast differentiation also undergoes metabolic reprogramming and the activity of ACLY is always Akt-dependent, we inferred that receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) activation might enhance the activity of ACLY through downstream pathways and ACLY might play a role in osteoclast formation. In the current study, we found that ACLY was gradually activated during RANK ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation from bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs). Both ACLY knock-down and small molecular ACLY inhibitor BMS-303141 significantly decreased nucleocytosolic acetyl-CoA in BMMs and osteoclasts and suppressed osteoclast formation in vitro. BMS-303141 also suppressed osteoclast formation in vivo and prevents ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss. Further investigations showed that RANKL triggered ACLY translocation into nucleus, consistent with increasing histone H3 acetylation, which was correlated to ACLY. The H3 lysine residues influenced by ACLY were in accordance with GCN5 targets. Using GCN5 knock-down and overexpression, we showed that ACLY and GCN5 functioned in the same pathway for histone H3 acetylation. Analysis of pathways downstream of RANK activation revealed that ACLY was Akt-dependent and predominately affected Akt pathway. With the help of RNA-sequencing, we discovered Rac1 as a downstream regulator of ACLY, which was involved in shACLY-mediated suppression of osteoclast differentiation, cytoskeleton organization, and signal transduction and was transcriptionally regulated by ACLY via histone H3 acetylation. To summarize, our results proved that inhibition of ATP-citrate lyase led to suppression of osteoclast differentiation and function via regulation of histone acetylation. Rac1 could be a downstream regulator of ACLY. © 2021 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.4399DOI Listing
June 2021

Isothiocyanate Iberin inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell apoptosis in the progression of ovarian cancer by mediating ROS accumulation and GPX1 expression.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jun 17;142:111533. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Ovarian cancer (OC) is one of the most common gynecologic malignancies with poor survival rate, and Iberin is a member of isothiocyanate family with anti-tumor activity. However, the role of Iberin in OC development has not been reported yet. In this study, A2780 and OVCAR-3 cells were treated with gradient concentrations of Iberin to investigate the effect of Iberin on OC in vitro. Meanwhile, the in vivo tumorgenesis experiment was performed using female BALB/c nude mice treated with Iberin. Iberin inhibited cell proliferation, induced G2 cell cycle arrest and promoted cell apoptosis in OC cells. Besides, Iberin reduced GSH/GSSG level, enhanced ROS accumulation, and activated MAPK signaling in OC cells. More interestingly, ROS scavenger (NAC) compensated the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of Iberin on OC cells, suggesting the involvement of ROS in the regulation of Iberin on OC cell growth. Notably, Iberin induced down-regulation of glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPX1), and over-expression of GPX1 reversed Iberin-mediated alterations in the proliferation, apoptosis and ROS accumulation of OC cells. The in vivo tumorgenesis study further evidenced the protection of Iberin against OC development. Besides, Iberin displayed a synergistic effect on the enhancement of chemo-sensitivity in OC cells. In summary, our study demonstrates the anti-tumor effect of Iberin on OC and its potential as a therapeutic agent against OC in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111533DOI Listing
June 2021

Gut Microbiota-Related Effects of Tanhuo Decoction in Acute Ischemic Stroke.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 27;2021:5596924. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053, China.

Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is a major cause of acquired adult disability and death. Our previous studies proved the efficacy and effectiveness of Tanhuo decoction (THD) on AIS. However, the therapeutic mechanism remains unclear. We recruited 49 AIS patients and 30 healthy people to explore the effects of THD+basic treatment on the poststroke gut microbiota of AIS patients using 16S rRNA sequencing, in which 23 patients received basic treatment (control group) and 26 patients received THD+basic treatment (THD group). By comparing the data before and after treatments, we found the THD group acquired better outcome than the control group on both clinical outcome indices and the characteristics of gut microbiota. In addition to the mediation on short-chain fatty acid- (SCFA-) producing bacteria in two groups, treatment in the THD group significantly decreased the lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) producing bacteria to reduce LPS biosynthesis. Besides, the complexity of the cooccurrence of gut microbiota and the competition among LPS-producing bacteria and opportunistic pathogenetic bacteria were enhanced in the THD group. Treatment in the THD group also exhibited the potential in decreasing genes on the biosynthesis of trimethylamine (TMA), the precursor of Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), and increasing genes on the degradation of TMA, especially increasing trimethylamine-corrinoid protein Co-methyltransferase () which catabolizes TMA to methane. These results hinted that THD+basic treatment might exert its efficacy by mediating the gut microbiota and microbial metabolites, including LPS and TMAO that aggravate the sterile inflammation and platelet aggregation. Moreover, the well-fitting regression model results in predicting the clinical outcome with the alteration of gut microbiota proved gut microbiota as a potential indicator of AIS and provided evidence of the communication between the gut and brain of AIS patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5596924DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8175183PMC
May 2021

Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins (GSPs) Inhibit the Development of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma by Regulating the hsa_circ_0070934/miR-136-5p/PRAF2 Axis.

Cancer Manag Res 2021 1;13:4359-4371. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Dermatology, Jiangxi Province Hospital of Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine, Nanchang, Jiangxi, 330003, People's Republic of China.

Background: Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) have been shown to inhibit the progression of many cancers, including cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Circular RNA (circRNA) is a key regulator for cancer progression. However, it is unclear whether GSPs can mediate the progression of CSCC by regulating circRNA.

Methods: Quantitative real-time PCR was conducted to determine the expression of hsa_circ_0070934, microRNA (miR)-136-5p and prenylated Rab acceptor family 2 (PRAF2). MTT assay and colony formation assay were used to assess cell proliferation. Cell cycle process and apoptosis were detected by flow cytometry, and cell migration and invasion were measured by transwell assay. Western blot analysis was utilized to examine protein expression. In addition, dual-luciferase reporter assay and RIP assay were used to evaluate the interaction between miR-136-5p and hsa_circ_0070934 or PRAF2. Subcutaneous xenograft models were constructed to explore the function of GSPs on CSCC tumor growth in vivo.

Results: GSPs could reduce hsa_circ_0070934 expression and inhibit CSCC cell proliferation, cell cycle process, migration, invasion, while promote apoptosis. Overexpressed hsa_circ_0070934 could reverse the suppressive effect of GSPs on CSCC cell progression. MiR-136-5p could be sponged by hsa_circ_0070934, and its overexpression also abolished the positively regulation of hsa_circ_0070934 on the progression of GSPs-induced CSCC cells. PRAF2 was a target of miR-136-5p, and its expression could be decreased by GSPs and increased by hsa_circ_0070934. The inhibitory effect of miR-136-5p on CSCC cell progression could be reversed by PRAF2 overexpression. Additionally, GSPs also could inhibit CSCC tumor growth in vivo.

Conclusion: Our data showed that GSPs regulated the hsa_circ_0070934/miR-136-5p/PRAF2 axis to restrain CSCC progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S302084DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8179753PMC
June 2021

Clinical significance of CCNE1 copy number gain in acral melanoma patients.

Melanoma Res 2021 08;31(4):352-357

Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education), Department of Renal Cancer and Melanoma, Peking University Cancer Hospital & Institute, Beijing.

Copy number variations are frequently observed in cell cycle-related genes in acral melanoma. However, the clinical significance of copy number gain of CCNE1 in acral melanoma has not been fully elucidated. In this study, 490 acral melanoma samples were examined for CCNE1 copy number using the QuantiGenePlex DNA Assay. Correlation between CCNE1 copy number and acral melanoma patients' clinicopathologic features were analyzed using Chi-squared test. The impact of CCNE1 copy number on patients' progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) probability were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier analysis. The impact of CCNE1 copy number on patients' median PFS after receiving chemotherapy was also evaluated. The results showed that CCNE1 copy number gain was observed in 28.30% of patients, with 3.16% of patients carrying both CCNE1 copy number gain and BRAF mutation and 4.34% of patients carrying both CCNE1 copy number gain and NRAS mutation. The median PFS time for patients with CCNE1 copy number gain was shorter than that of patients without CCNE1 copy number gain (17.0 vs. 27.0 months, P = 0.002).In the cohort that received chemotherapy (n = 82), the median PFS time for patients with CCNE1 copy number gain was shorter than that of patients without CCNE1 copy number gain (4.8 vs. 7.4 months, P = 00.006). CCNE1 copy number gain was an independent prognostic marker for acral melanoma patients' PFS. Our study indicates that CCNE1 copy number gain is frequent in acral melanoma and may be a biomarker to predict acral melanoma patients' outcomes after receiving chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CMR.0000000000000742DOI Listing
August 2021

Decoupled Monitoring Method for Strain and Cracks Based on Multilayer Patch Antenna Sensor.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Apr 14;21(8). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

School of Logistic Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430063, China.

As the rapid development of high-end intelligent equipment continues, the design requirements for crack and strain monitoring equipment are increasing daily. In this paper, a decoupled monitoring method for strain and cracks based on a multilayer patch antenna sensor is studied. First, the monitoring principle for strain and crack decoupling is analyzed. Second, the design method for the multilayer patch antenna sensor is studied, and the hierarchical arrangement, patch size, substrate layer thickness, and feeding line structure are designed on the basis of this method. A quarter-wavelength impedance converter is designed to perform impedance matching and optimize the resonant frequency information. The effects of strain and crack propagation on the resonant frequency of the patch antenna are analyzed through simulations, and the decoupled monitoring method for the structural stress state and crack propagation is discussed. Lastly, the feasibility of decoupled monitoring of strain and cracks is verified experimentally. The results of the theoretical analysis, simulations, and experiments show that the proposed patch antenna sensor based on the multilayer structure can realize decoupled monitoring of strain and cracks in the structure, and the sensor has broad application prospects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21082766DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8070952PMC
April 2021

Everolimus inhibits PI3K/Akt/mTOR and NF-kB/IL-6 signaling and protects seizure-induced brain injury in rats.

J Chem Neuroanat 2021 Jul 26;114:101960. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Pediatrics, The Second Hospital, University of South China, Hengyang, Hunan, 421001, China.

Background: Epilepsy is a common chronic neurological disease caused by the over-synchronization of neurons leading to brain dysfunction. Recurrent seizures can lead to cognitive and behavioral deficits, and irreversible brain damage. While the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway regulates various physiological processes of neurons and glia, it may also lead to abnormal neuronal signal transduction under pathological conditions, including that of epilepsy. Everolimus (Eve), an mTOR inhibitor, may modulate neuronal excitability and therefore exert protection against epilepsy. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of Everolimus on seizure-induced brain injury and its regulation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR and NF-kB/IL-6 signaling pathway. Kainic acid (KA) 15 mg/kg was used to induce seizures and Everolimus (1, 2, 5 mg/kg) was administered as a pretreatment. Hippocampal tissue was extracted 24 h post-seizure.

Results: The protein and mRNA expression levels of PI3K、p-AKt、p-mTOR、NF-kB and IL-6 as well as neuronal apoptosis and microglia activation, significantly increased after KA-induced seizures, however, these effects were inhibited by Everolimus treatment. Furthermore, pretreatment with Everolimus decreased seizure scores and increased seizure latency.

Conclusions: Everolimus can decrease the PI3K/Akt/mTOR and NF-kB/IL-6 signaling pathway, reduce neuronal apoptosis and microglia activation, and attenuate seizure susceptibility and intensity, thus having a protective effect on seizure-induced brain damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchemneu.2021.101960DOI Listing
July 2021

A Preliminary Investigation on Plasma Cell Adhesion Molecules Levels by Protein Microarray Technology in Major Depressive Disorder.

Front Psychiatry 2021 12;12:627469. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Psychiatry, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a serious mental disorder, and there is a great difficulty to diagnose and treat. Hitherto, relatively few studies have explored the correlation between the levels of plasma cell adhesion molecules and MDD. Thirty outpatients with acute episodes of MDD in Shanghai Mental Health Center and 34 healthy volunteers from the community were recruited as subjects. Protein microarray technology was applied to compared the differences in plasma levels of 17 kinds of adhesion molecular proteins between the two groups. Meanwhile, the diagnostic value of different proteins in depression was discussed by using the receiver operating characteristic curve. The levels of Carcinoembryonic Antigen Related Cell Adhesion Molecule-1(CEACAM-1) and Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule (NrCAM) in MDD patients were significantly higher than those in healthy controls ( < 0.05). The area under ROC curve of CEACAM-1 combined with NrCAM was 0.723, with the sensitivity 0.800 and the specificity 0.676. The plasma levels of CEACAM-1 and NrCAM were significantly up-regulated in MDD, and their combined application was of potential diagnostic value, deserving to expand the sample size for further verification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.627469DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8071998PMC
April 2021

A green solar photo-Fenton process for the degradation of carbamazepine using natural pyrite and organic acid with in-situ generated HO.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 18;784:147187. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500, PR China; The Innovation Team for Volatile Organic Compounds Pollutants Control and Resource Utilization of Yunnan Province, Kunming 650500, PR China; The Higher Educational Key Laboratory for Odorous Volatile Organic Compounds Pollutants Control of Yunnan Province, Kunming 650500, PR China.

Pyrite is widely used in Fenton reaction for degradation of pollutants and exhibits great potential for environmental remediation, however, its efficiency is greatly compromised by extra HO and pH adjustment. Herein, a pyrite based green solar photo-Fenton system for carbamazepine (CBZ) treatment is constructed, involving the use of simulated sunlight and natural organic acids with in situ-generated HO and without extra pH adjustment. The addition of organic acids including tartaric acid (TA), citric acid (CA), and ascorbic acid (AA) can form complex with iron in pyrite, which promotes the Fe(II) dissolution. Upon irradiation, pyrite could be excited to produce photoelectrons, which would reduce oxygen to produce HO through a two-step route assisted by organic acids. The simulated sunlight and organic acids promoted the in-situ production of HO and Fe(II) species, sustaining an efficient Fenton reaction. This produced massive hydroxyl radical (OH), as demonstrated by the active species capture experiment. Compared with no degradation of CBZ under pure pyrite, the degradation efficiency of CBZ reached to 70%, 60%, and 53% in pyrite/TA, pyrite/CA, pyrite/AA within 30 min under simulated solar light irradiation, respectively. This work reports the first use of natural pyrite, a typical Fe-mineral semiconductor, to produce OH for CBZ degradation through natural additive assisted Fenton reaction excluding the adding extra HO and pH adjustment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147187DOI Listing
August 2021

Timing of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease diagnosis in lung cancer prognosis: a clinical and genomic-based study.

Transl Lung Cancer Res 2021 Mar;10(3):1209-1220

Division of Epidemiology, Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Background: A two-phase study (clinical and genomic-based) was conducted to evaluate the effect of timing of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) diagnosis on lung cancer outcomes.

Methods: The prognostic influence of COPD was investigated in a clinical cohort of 1,986 patients who received surgery for stage I lung cancer; 823 (41.4%) of them also had COPD, including 549 (27.6%) incidental COPD (diagnosed within 6-months of lung cancer diagnosis) and 274 (13.8%) prior COPD (>6 months before lung cancer diagnosis). The genomic variations were analyzed from another cohort of 1,549 patients for association with 384 lung cancer-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs).

Results: Older age (≥70 years), smokers, and respiratory symptoms were independent predictors of incidental COPD in lung cancer (all P<0.05). Similar to prior COPD, incidental COPD increased postoperative complications and worsened quality-of-life related to dyspnea (both P<0.05). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed lung cancer survival decreased significantly in incidental COPD (HR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.02-1.66), but not in prior COPD (HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.87-1.52). Among prior COPD, median survival showed a trend for being better in those with fewer exacerbations (0-1 ≥2 exacerbation/year; 6.1 4.1 years; P=0.10). The SNP-based analysis identified ADCY2:rs52827085 was significantly associated with risk of incidental COPD (OR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.30-2.38) and NRXN1:rs1356888 associated with prior COPD complicated with lung cancer (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.29-2.33).

Conclusions: Different long-term survival and genomic variants were observed between lung cancer patients with incidental and with prior COPD, suggesting timing of COPD diagnosis should be considered in lung cancer clinical management and mechanistic research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tlcr-20-1017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8044468PMC
March 2021

Community-Wide Experimental Evaluation of the PROSS Stability-Design Method.

J Mol Biol 2021 06 27;433(13):166964. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Vienna Biocenter Core Facilities GmbH, Dr. Bohr-gasse 3, 1030 Vienna, Austria.

Recent years have seen a dramatic improvement in protein-design methodology. Nevertheless, most methods demand expert intervention, limiting their widespread adoption. By contrast, the PROSS algorithm for improving protein stability and heterologous expression levels has been successfully applied to a range of challenging enzymes and binding proteins. Here, we benchmark the application of PROSS as a stand-alone tool for protein scientists with no or limited experience in modeling. Twelve laboratories from the Protein Production and Purification Partnership in Europe (P4EU) challenged the PROSS algorithm with 14 unrelated protein targets without support from the PROSS developers. For each target, up to six designs were evaluated for expression levels and in some cases, for thermal stability and activity. In nine targets, designs exhibited increased heterologous expression levels either in prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic expression systems under experimental conditions that were tailored for each target protein. Furthermore, we observed increased thermal stability in nine of ten tested targets. In two prime examples, the human Stem Cell Factor (hSCF) and human Cadherin-Like Domain (CLD12) from the RET receptor, the wild type proteins were not expressible as soluble proteins in E. coli, yet the PROSS designs exhibited high expression levels in E. coli and HEK293 cells, respectively, and improved thermal stability. We conclude that PROSS may improve stability and expressibility in diverse cases, and that improvement typically requires target-specific expression conditions. This study demonstrates the strengths of community-wide efforts to probe the generality of new methods and recommends areas for future research to advance practically useful algorithms for protein science.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmb.2021.166964DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7610701PMC
June 2021

Microfluidic thread-based electrochemical aptasensor for rapid detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Jun 24;182:113191. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, Sichuan, 611731, China. Electronic address:

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is one of the foodborne bacteria that widely present in seafood as well as the leading cause of seafood-associated bacterial gastroenteritis. Traditional identification of such pathogens mainly relies on culturing methods, ELISA or PCR. These methods are usually laborious, time-consuming with poor diagnosis competences, or require costly and bulky equipment though of high sensitivity. In this study, a thread-based microfluidic electrochemical aptasensor was designed, fabricated and tested by using label-free aptamer immunosensing technology for rapid and highly sensitive detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafood. Both the microfluidic channels and electrodes were simply fabricated on threads. Molybdenum disulfide (MoS) nanosheets were used to obtain enhanced sensitivity of the electrochemical measurement. When used in detecting Vibrio parahaemolyticus, the proposed aptasensor has a dynamic detection range of 10-10 CFU mL with a detection limit of 5.74 CFU mL. Compared with traditional plate counting method, the proposed aptasensor has higher detection sensitivity and less assay time (30 min), while high specificity and accuracy are kept. The proposed microfluidic thread-based electrochemical aptasensor grabs the potential to detect other pathogens by simply functionalizing the threaded electrodes with aptamers for targeted biological substances.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2021.113191DOI Listing
June 2021

Long-term exposure to ambient PM increase obesity risk in Chinese adults: A cross-sectional study based on a nationwide survey in China.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 2;778:145812. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Nicholas School of the Environment and Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; Duke Kunshan University, Kunshan, Jiangsu Province, China.

Certain studies suggest that air pollution could be a risk factor for obesity, but the evidence on the association between air pollution exposure and obesity in adults is limited. This study aims to examine the association between long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM) and obesity-related traits in Chinese adults. Thus, a cross-sectional study was conducted based on a nationally representative sample of 91, 121 adults from 31 provinces in China. Integrated the data from satellites, chemical transport model, and ground observations, annual average concentrations of PM was obtained at the township level using a machine learning method. The information on body weight, height, and waist circumference (WC) were obtained from a questionnaire survey. The general obesity and abdominal obesity status were classified based on body mass index (BMI) and WC, respectively. Logistic and multivariate linear regression models were used to examine the association between PM and obesity-related traits, along with the examination of potential effect modifications. After adjustment for covariates, a 10 μg/m increase in PM concentration was associated with 8.0% [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0%, 10.0%] and 10% (95% CI: 9.0%, 11.0%) increases in odds for general obesity and abdominal obesity, respectively. The odds ratios associated with per 10 μg/m PM increase were significantly greater in individuals of older age (≥60 years), of Han ethnicity, with lower socioeconomic status (SES), cooking without using a ventilation device, using unclean household fuels, having near-home pollution sources, and doing no physical exercise. These findings suggest that long-term exposure to ambient PM increase obesity risk in Chinese adults. It has significant significance to reduce air pollution to reducing the burden of obesity, particularly for the susceptible populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145812DOI Listing
July 2021

Photoelectrochemical imaging system with high spatiotemporal resolution for visualizing dynamic cellular responses.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 May 2;180:113121. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

School of Engineering and Materials Science, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS, UK. Electronic address:

Photoelectrochemical imaging has great potential in the label-free investigation of cellular processes. Herein, we report a new fast photoelectrochemical imaging system (PEIS) for DC photocurrent imaging of live cells, which combines high speed with excellent lateral resolution and high photocurrent stability, which are all crucial for studying dynamic cellular processes. An analog micromirror was adopted to raster the sensor substrate, enabling high-speed imaging. α-FeO (hematite) thin films synthesized via electrodeposition were used as a robust substrate with high photocurrent and good spatial resolution. The capabilities of this system were demonstrated by monitoring cell responses to permeabilization with Triton X-100. The ability to carry out dynamic functional imaging of multiple cells simultaneously provides improved confidence in the data than could be achieved with the slower electrochemical single-cell imaging techniques described previously. When monitoring pH changes, the PEIS can achieve frame rates of 8 frames per second.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2021.113121DOI Listing
May 2021

Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Mycobacterium abscessus complex isolates from respiratory specimens in Shanghai, China.

J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2021 06 6;25:72-76. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, Fudan University, Shanghai 201508, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Mycobacterium abscessus complex (MABC) isolates and to investigate the relationship between susceptibility profiles and genetic mechanisms of macrolide resistance.

Methods: More than 200 isolates collected from respiratory specimens between 2014 and 2018 were randomly analysed in this study. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (Mics) of ten potential antimicrobial agents were determined by the microplate alamarBlue assay.

Results: We identified 43 MABC isolates, including 32 M. abscessus subsp. abscessus (M. abscessus) (6 from immunocompromised patients) and 11 M. abscessus subsp. massiliense (M. massiliense). The majority of MABC isolates were susceptible to amikacin (96.9% and 100.0% for M. abscessus and M. massiliense, respectively), linezolid (96.9% and 100.0%, respectively), cefoxitin (100.0% and 100.0%, respectively), imipenem (90.6% and 72.7%, respectively) and tobramycin (90.6% and 72.7%, respectively). The resistance rates to clarithromycin and doxycycline in isolates of M. abscessus (68.8% and 100.0%) were significantly higher than those in isolates of M. massiliense (18.2% and 63.6%) (P < 0.05), whereas the percentage of tobramycin-resistant isolates among M. abscessus (9.4%) was significantly lower than among M. massiliense (27.3%) (P = 0.007). Sequencing analyses showed significant differences between erm(41) of M. abscessus and M. massiliense.

Conclusion: Mycobacterium abscessus is the dominant pathogen of pulmonary MABC infections in our hospital. Aminoglycosides (amikacin and tobramycin), β-lactams (cefoxitin and imipenem) and linezolid exhibited potent inhibitory activity against MABC in vitro. The erm(41) gene may be a promising marker to predict macrolide susceptibility for M. abscessus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgar.2021.02.024DOI Listing
June 2021

Delving Into the Working Mechanism of Prediction in Sentence Comprehension: An ERP Study.

Front Psychol 2021 19;12:608379. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.

The present study aims to delineate the working mechanism of prediction in sentence comprehension, by disentangling the influence of the facilitated general memory retrieval from the coexistent influence of the predicted language-specific semantic and/or syntactic information for the first time. The results support that prediction might influence the downstream cognitive processing in two aspects: (1) the pre-activated information facilitates the retrieval of a matched input in memory and, (2) the pre-activated information interacts with higher-level semantic/syntactic processing. More importantly, the present findings suggest that these two types of influences seem to occur at different stages of sentence comprehension: the facilitated memory retrieval of the input modulates N400 amplitude and the latency of post-N400 late central-parietal positivity/P600, while the predicted semantic/syntactic information and/or their interactions modulate the amplitude of the late positivity. The present findings would be helpful for interpreting the underlying mechanism of observed effects in prediction studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.608379DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7933546PMC
February 2021
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