Publications by authors named "Qian Cong"

136 Publications

Influence of the large-Z effect during contact between butterfly sister species.

Ecol Evol 2021 Sep 18;11(17):11615-11626. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Department of Biophysics University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center Dallas TX USA.

Recently diverged butterfly populations in North America have been found to exhibit high levels of divergence on the Z chromosome relative to autosomes, as measured by fixation index, . The pattern of divergence appears to result from accumulation of incompatible alleles, obstructing introgression on the Z chromosome in hybrids (i.e., the large-Z effect); however, it is unknown whether this mechanism is sufficient to explain the data. Here, we simulate the effects of hybrid incompatibility on interbreeding butterfly populations using a model in which populations accumulate cross-incompatible alleles in allopatry prior to contact. We compute statistics for introgression and population divergence during contact between model populations and compare our results to those for 15 pairs of butterfly species interbreeding along a suture zone in central Texas. Time scales for allopatry and contact in the model are scaled to glacial and interglacial periods during which real populations evolved in isolation and contact. We find that the data for butterflies are explained well by an otherwise neutral model under slow fusion conditions. In particular, levels of divergence on the Z chromosome increase when interacting clusters of genes are closely linked, consistent with clusters of functionally related genes in butterfly genomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.7785DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8427592PMC
September 2021

Single institute experience of bypass surgery for complex anterior cerebral artery aneurysms: paying special attention to the spatial and diameter relationship between the efferent arteries.

World Neurosurg 2021 Aug 9. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Department of Neurosurgery, 2nd Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China, 310009. Electronic address:

Single institute experience with bypass surgery of complex ACA aneurysm was retrospectively reviewed over a 6-year period. Eight patients with complex ACA aneurysms were treated with bypass, including five females and three males, with mean age of 34.2 years old. There were three pre-communicating aneurysms, one communicating artery aneurysm, and four post-communicating aneurysms (two in A2 and two in A3). A3-A3 side-to-side in situ bypass was applied in six cases. A3-radial artery-A3 interpositional bypass was used in one case with far apart A3s, and A3-A3 transplantation in the other with unparalleled aligned A3s. Three aneurysms were secured with proximal clipping, one with distal clipping, one with direct clipping, one with isolation, and two with embolization. Aneurysm obliteration was achieved in all cases. Only one in situ bypass from smaller donor artery towards larger recipient artery failed with minor postoperative infarction. Intraoperative bleeding from the site of anastomosis occurred in one case during embolization. All the patients showed complete recovery with normal neurological function during follow-up at out-of-patient clinics. A simplified surgical algorithm for complex ACA aneurysm is established based on the geometrical and spatial relationship between efferent arteries. The reasons of bypass failure and hemorrhagic complication are also discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2021.08.005DOI Listing
August 2021

Accurate prediction of protein structures and interactions using a three-track neural network.

Science 2021 08 15;373(6557):871-876. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Molecular Biophysics & Integrated Bioimaging Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA.

DeepMind presented notably accurate predictions at the recent 14th Critical Assessment of Structure Prediction (CASP14) conference. We explored network architectures that incorporate related ideas and obtained the best performance with a three-track network in which information at the one-dimensional (1D) sequence level, the 2D distance map level, and the 3D coordinate level is successively transformed and integrated. The three-track network produces structure predictions with accuracies approaching those of DeepMind in CASP14, enables the rapid solution of challenging x-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy structure modeling problems, and provides insights into the functions of proteins of currently unknown structure. The network also enables rapid generation of accurate protein-protein complex models from sequence information alone, short-circuiting traditional approaches that require modeling of individual subunits followed by docking. We make the method available to the scientific community to speed biological research.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.abj8754DOI Listing
August 2021

Design of Bionic Buffering and Vibration Reduction Foot for Legged Robots.

Appl Bionics Biomech 2021 9;2021:5510993. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Key Laboratory of Bionic Engineering, Ministry of Education, China, Jilin University, Changchun 130022, China.

When legged robots walk on rugged roads, they would suffer from strong impact from the ground. The impact would cause the legged robots to vibrate, which would affect their normal operation. Therefore, it is necessary to take measures to absorb impact energy and reduce vibration. As an important part of a goat's foot, the hoof capsule can effectively buffer the impact from the ground in the goat's running and jumping. The structure of the hoof capsules and its principle of buffering and vibration reduction were studied. Inspired by the unique shape and internal structure of the hoof capsules, a bionic foot was designed. Experimental results displayed that the bionic foot could effectively use friction to consume impact energy and ensured the stability of legged robot walking. In addition, the bionic foot had a lower natural vibration frequency, which was beneficial to a wide range of vibration reduction. This work brings a new solution to the legged robot to deal with the ground impact, which helps it adapt to a variety of complex terrain.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5510993DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8211519PMC
June 2021

A covariation analysis reveals elements of selectivity in quorum sensing systems.

Elife 2021 06 28;10. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, United States.

Many bacteria communicate with kin and coordinate group behaviors through a form of cell-cell signaling called acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) quorum sensing (QS). In these systems, a signal synthase produces an AHL to which its paired receptor selectively responds. Selectivity is fundamental to cell signaling. Despite its importance, it has been challenging to determine how this selectivity is achieved and how AHL QS systems evolve and diversify. We hypothesized that we could use covariation within the protein sequences of AHL synthases and receptors to identify selectivity residues. We began by identifying about 6000 unique synthase-receptor pairs. We then used the protein sequences of these pairs to identify covariation patterns and mapped the patterns onto the LasI/R system from PAO1. The covarying residues in both proteins cluster around the ligand-binding sites. We demonstrate that these residues are involved in system selectivity toward the cognate signal and go on to engineer the Las system to both produce and respond to an alternate AHL signal. We have thus demonstrated that covariation methods provide a powerful approach for investigating selectivity in protein-small molecule interactions and have deepened our understanding of how communication systems evolve and diversify.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.69169DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8328516PMC
June 2021

loss in mesenchymal progenitors causes Job syndrome-like skeletal defects by reducing Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Jun;118(26)

Department of Developmental Biology, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA 02115;

Job syndrome is a rare genetic disorder caused by mutations and primarily characterized by immune dysfunction along with comorbid skeleton developmental abnormalities including osteopenia, recurrent fracture of long bones, and scoliosis. So far, there is no definitive cure for the skeletal defects in Job syndrome, and treatments are limited to management of clinical symptoms only. Here, we have investigated the molecular mechanism whereby regulates skeletal development and osteoblast differentiation. We showed that removing function in the developing limb mesenchyme or osteoprogenitor cells in mice resulted in shortened and bow limbs with multiple fractures in long bones that resembled the skeleton symptoms in the Job Syndrome. However, loss did not alter chondrocyte differentiation and hypertrophy in embryonic development, while osteoblast differentiation was severely reduced. Genome-wide transcriptome analyses as well as biochemical and histological studies showed that loss resulted in down-regulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Restoration of Wnt/β-catenin signaling by injecting BIO, a small molecule inhibitor of GSK3, or crossing with a gain of function (GOF) allele, rescued the bone reduction phenotypes due to loss to a great extent. These studies uncover the essential functions of in maintaining Wnt/β-catenin signaling in early mesenchymal or osteoprogenitor cells and provide evidence that bone defects in the Job Syndrome are likely caused by Wnt/β-catenin signaling reduction due to reduced STAT3 activities in bone development. Enhancing Wnt/β-catenin signaling could be a therapeutic approach to reduce bone symptoms of Job syndrome patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2020100118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8256036PMC
June 2021

A self-amplifying loop of YAP and SHH drives formation and expansion of heterotopic ossification.

Sci Transl Med 2021 06;13(599)

Department of Developmental Biology, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Harvard Stem Cell Institute, 188 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Heterotopic ossification (HO) occurs as a common complication after injury or in genetic disorders. The mechanisms underlying HO remain incompletely understood, and there are no approved prophylactic or secondary treatments available. Here, we identify a self-amplifying, self-propagating loop of Yes-associated protein (YAP)-Sonic hedgehog (SHH) as a core molecular mechanism underlying diverse forms of HO. In mouse models of progressive osseous heteroplasia (POH), a disease caused by null mutations in , we found that mesenchymal cells secreted SHH, which induced osteoblast differentiation of the surrounding wild-type cells. We further showed that loss of led to activation of YAP transcription activity, which directly drove expression. Secreted SHH further induced YAP activation, expression, and osteoblast differentiation in surrounding wild-type cells. This self-propagating positive feedback loop was both necessary and sufficient for HO expansion and could act independently of in fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP), another genetic HO, and nonhereditary HO mouse models. Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of YAP or SHH abolished HO in POH and FOP and acquired HO mouse models without affecting normal bone homeostasis, providing a previously unrecognized therapeutic rationale to prevent, reduce, and shrink HO.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.abb2233DOI Listing
June 2021

The Role of the Blood Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

Front Neurol 2021 3;12:671098. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Neurological Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is an important type of stroke with the highest rates of mortality and disability. Recent evidence indicates that neuroinflammation plays a critical role in both early brain injury and delayed neural deterioration after aSAH, contributing to unfavorable outcomes. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a peripheral biomarker that conveys information about the inflammatory burden in terms of both innate and adaptive immunity. This review summarizes relevant studies that associate the NLR with aSAH to evaluate whether the NLR can predict outcomes and serve as an effective biomarker for clinical management. We found that increased NLR is valuable in predicting the clinical outcome of aSAH patients and is related to the risk of complications such as delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) or rebleeding. Combined with other indicators, the NLR provides improved accuracy for predicting prognosis to stratify patients into different risk categories. The underlying pathophysiology is highlighted to identify new potential targets for neuroprotection and to develop novel therapeutic strategies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.671098DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8209292PMC
June 2021

Nutrient loss by runoff from rice-wheat rotation during the wheat season is dictated by rainfall duration.

Environ Pollut 2021 Sep 19;285:117382. Epub 2021 May 19.

Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Agro-Environment in Downstream of Yangze Plain, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of China, Nanjing, 210014, China.

Clarifying the properties/features of nutrient loss from farmland surface runoff is essential for the mitigation of nutrient losses. Plough pan formation underneath topsoil is a common feature of long-term paddy soils that significantly affects water movement and nutrient runoff loss, especially during the upland season of paddy-upland rotation. To characterize the nutrients that are lost from wheat fields of paddy-wheat rotation with runoff, a field experiment was conducted in a wheat field using a simulated rainfall system from November 2019 to May 2020 in Nanjing, China. The aim of this study was to investigate the temporal characteristics of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loss under different rainfall intensities (low, 30 mm h; middle, 60 mm h; high, 90 mm h). The results showed that the time interval from the beginning of rain to the occurrence of runoff (time to runoff, Tr) was negatively correlated with "rainfall intensity" (Ri) (P<0.01) but unaffected by soil moisture. Different rainfall intensities had no effect on the runoff coefficient (the ratio of the runoff volume over the precipitation, 0.14-0.17). The N and P loss concentrations in the nutrient discharge followed a power-function relationship that decreased over time (P<0.01), and the peak nutrient concentration appeared during the initial runoff period (0-5 min). The N and P loss rates were the highest during the middle-to-late discharge period (15-30 min) for all intensities. In terms of cumulative nutrient losses, the amounts of TN lost were similar for all rainfall intensities, while TP significantly increased with intensity. The results revealed that nitrate-nitrogen (NO-N) and particulate phosphorus (PP) were the predominant forms of N and P losses. Overall, during the initial runoff period, nutrient concentration peaks, whereas the nutrient loss rate is the highest during the middle-late phase of the phenomenon.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117382DOI Listing
September 2021

Effect of proximal box elevation on fracture resistance and microleakage of premolars restored with ceramic endocrowns.

PLoS One 2021 26;16(5):e0252269. Epub 2021 May 26.

Hospital of Stomatology, Jilin University, Changchun, P.R China.

Background: Restoration of endodontically treated premolar is in high risk for biomechanical failure, and often presents with subgingival margins. Proximal box elevation (PBE) has been used to relocate subgingival cavity outlines.

Objective: To evaluate the influence of PBE on fracture resistance and gingival microleakage of premolars with endodontic access cavities following ceramic endocrown.

Methods: Eighty sound maxillary premolars with standardized Class II cavities on mesial surfaces were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 20 in each group). Groups E1, E2 and E3, with proximal margins located in dentin/cementum, 2 mm below the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ), simulated subgingival location. Group E4 (supragingival group), with proximal margins located in enamel, 1 mm above the CEJ, was used as the positive control. For margin elevation of the proximal cavities, bulk-fill Smart Dentin Replacement (SDR), a visible light cured resin composite, was applied in group E1, and conventional resin composite (3M Z350 XT, a light-activated composite) was placed in group E2. Group E3 was only treated with a ceramic crown and served as the negative control. In all groups, computer-aided design (CAD) ceramic endocrowns were adhesively inserted, and fracture resistance, failure mode and microleakage were evaluated.

Results: A higher fracture resistance value was observed in PBE groups E1 and E2, regardless of the materials used (P = 0.038, and 0.010, respectively, vs E3), and fracture resistance in group E1 was higher than that in group E2. In teeth without PBE, the percentage of catastrophic failures reached 70%. Compared to group E3, a lower frequency distribution of microleakage was detected in supragingival group E4 (P = 0.031). No increased percentage of microleakage was observed in groups treated with PBE.

Conclusion: For endodontically treated maxillary premolars restored with ceramic endocrowns, PBE increases fracture resistance but not microleakage.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0252269PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8153463PMC
May 2021

Perfusion image guided mechanical thrombectomy combined with tirofiban successfully revascularize systemic lupus erythematosus related acute large vessel occlusion: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 May;100(18):e25779

Department of Neurological Surgery, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China.

Rationale: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an important cause of stroke, more than a half the cases present as acute ischemic stroke. Thrombolysis is an effective choice in most cases, but for large vessel occlusion, mechanical thrombectomy is more effective. Here we reported a case of SLE-related stroke with left middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion, who was successfully treated by MT and tirofiban.

Patient Concern: A 38-year-old female suffered from right hemiplegia and aphasia for 8 hours. She was diagnosed with SLE 20 years ago, and neuropsychiatric SLE was considered 8 months before this onset. One month ago, glucocorticoids were discontinued by herself because of deterioration of bilateral femoral head osteonecrosis.

Diagnosis: Left MCA occlusion was confirmed by computed tomography perfusion.

Intervention: Immediate mechanical thrombectomy was performed and tirofiban was given to prevent re-occlusion of left MCA. Twenty fourhours later oral antiplatelet was given after intracranial hemorrhage was ruled out.

Outcomes: Her neurological symptom improved several days later, and she was transferred to further rehabilitation. At 4 months follow-up she can live independently with mild hypophrasia. There was no further events of ischemic stroke in 1-year follow-up.

Lessons: Mechanical thrombectomy is a highly effective and indispensable treatment for SLE related large vessel occlusion. In addition, tirofiban may reduce vessel reocclusion in special cases such as SLE and artery stenosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000025779DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8104300PMC
May 2021

A switch to feeding on cycads generates parallel accelerated evolution of toxin tolerance in two clades of caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae).

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 02;118(7)

Department of Biophysics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390-8816.

We assembled a complete reference genome of , an aposematic cycad-eating hairstreak butterfly that suffered near extinction in the United States in the last century. Based on an analysis of genomic sequences of and 19 representative genera, the closest relatives of are and We report natural history information for , , and Using genomic sequences for each species of , , and (and three outgroups), we trace the evolution of cycad feeding, coloration, gregarious behavior, and other traits. The switch to feeding on cycads and to conspicuous coloration was accompanied by little genomic change. oon after its origin, split into two fast evolving lineages, instead of forming a clump of close relatives in the phylogenetic tree. Significant overlap of the fast evolving proteins in both clades indicates parallel evolution. The functions of the fast evolving proteins suggest that the caterpillars developed tolerance to cycad toxins with a range of mechanisms including autophagy of damaged cells, removal of cell debris by macrophages, and more active cell proliferation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2018965118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7896331PMC
February 2021

Genomics Reveals the Origins of Historical Specimens.

Mol Biol Evol 2021 05;38(5):2166-2176

Department of Biophysics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

Centuries of zoological studies have amassed billions of specimens in collections worldwide. Genomics of these specimens promises to reinvigorate biodiversity research. However, because DNA degrades with age in historical specimens, it is a challenge to obtain genomic data for them and analyze degraded genomes. We developed experimental and computational protocols to overcome these challenges and applied our methods to resolve a series of long-standing controversies involving a group of butterflies. We deduced the geographical origins of several historical specimens of uncertain provenance that are at the heart of these debates. Here, genomics tackles one of the greatest problems in zoology: countless old specimens that serve as irreplaceable embodiments of species concepts cannot be confidently assigned to extant species or population due to the lack of diagnostic morphological features and clear documentation of the collection locality. The ability to determine where they were collected will resolve many on-going disputes. More broadly, we show the utility of applying genomics to historical museum specimens to delineate the boundaries of species and populations, and to hypothesize about genotypic determinants of phenotypic traits.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msab013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8097301PMC
May 2021

Endovascular treatment for ruptured vertebral dissecting aneurysms involving PICA: Reconstruction or deconstruction? Experience from 16 patients.

Interv Neuroradiol 2021 Apr 28;27(2):163-171. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Objective: Ruptured vertebral dissecting aneurysms (VDAs) with posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) involved require an optimal method to isolate the dissection and prevent the symptomatic infraction. This study aims to present our experience with both parent artery occlusion (PAO) and stent-assisted coiling (SAC), and provide a favorable strategy to the management of ruptured VDAs with PICA involved.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage in our database from March 2013 to December 2018, suffering from dissecting aneurysms of the intradural vertebral arteries and endovascularly treated. A total of 16 cases with PICA involved were included. Basic information, aneurysm characteristics, procedure related complications and outcomes of patients were analyzed.

Results: 10 (62.5%) aneurysms were managed with PAO containing 3 proximal occlusion and 8 targeted-trapping preserved the PICA. 5 (31.3%) aneurysms were treated with SAC and one 6.3%) treated with vertebral artery to PICA stenting and trapping. Two (12.5%) patients died in the acute phase. Good clinical outcomes (modified Rankin Scale 0 to 3) were observed in 13(81.5%) cases in 30 days follow-up. PICA territory infraction was happened in one patient without any dysfunction. Favorable occlusion was observed in 9 of 12 (75%) which were free of further treatment.

Conclusions: For patients with good contralateral circulation, PAO could be a first line management for ruptured VDAs with PICA involved. Targeted-trapping with either reserved PICA or proximal occlusion with moderate coiling in aneurysm are promising modalities to prevent severe PICA infraction.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1591019920970030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8050515PMC
April 2021

A genomic perspective on the taxonomy of the subtribe Carcharodina (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Carcharodini).

Zootaxa 2020 Mar 5;4748(1):zootaxa.4748.1.10. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Departments of Biophysics and Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX, USA 75390-9050.

We obtained whole genome shotgun sequences and phylogenetically analyzed protein-coding regions of representative skipper butterflies from the genus Carcharodus Hübner, [1819] and its close relatives. Type species of all available genus-group names were sequenced. We find that species attributed to four exclusively Old World genera (Spialia Swinhoe, 1912, Gomalia Moore, 1879, Carcharodus Hübner, [1819] and Muschampia Tutt, 1906) form a monophyletic group that we call a subtribe Carcharodina Verity, 1940. In the phylogenetic trees built from various genomic regions, these species form 7 (not 4) groups that we treat as genera. We find that Muschampia Tutt, 1906 is not monophyletic, and the 5th group is formed by currently monotypic genus Favria Tutt, 1906 new status (type species Hesperia cribrellum Eversmann, 1841), which is sister to Gomalia. The 6th and 7th groups are composed of mostly African species presently placed in Spialia. These groups do not have names and are described here as Ernsta Grishin, gen. n. (type species Pyrgus colotes Druce, 1875) and Agyllia Grishin, gen. n. (type species Pyrgus agylla Trimen, 1889). Two subgroups are recognized in Ernsta: the nominal subgenus and a new one: Delaga Grishin, subgen. n. (type species Pyrgus delagoae Trimen, 1898). Next, we observe that Carcharodus is not monophyletic, and species formerly placed in subgenera Reverdinus Ragusa, 1919 and Lavatheria Verity, 1940 are here transferred to Muschampia. Furthermore, due to differences in male genitalia or DNA sequences, we reinstate Gomalia albofasciata Moore, 1879 and Gomalia jeanneli (Picard, 1949) as species, not subspecies or synonyms of Gomalia elma (Trimen, 1862), and Spialia bifida (Higgins, 1924) as a species, not subspecies of Spialia zebra (Butler, 1888). Sequencing of the type specimens reveals 2.2-3.2% difference in COI barcodes, the evidence that combined with wing pattern differences suggests a new status of a species for Spialia lugens (Staudinger, 1886) and Spialia carnea (Reverdin, 1927), formerly subspecies of Spialia orbifer (Hübner, [1823]).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4748.1.10DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8018707PMC
March 2020

Piezo1/2 mediate mechanotransduction essential for bone formation through concerted activation of NFAT-YAP1-ß-catenin.

Elife 2020 03 18;9. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

Department of Developmental Biology, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Boston, United States.

Mechanical forces are fundamental regulators of cell behaviors. However, molecular regulation of mechanotransduction remain poorly understood. Here, we identified the mechanosensitive channels Piezo1 and Piezo2 as key force sensors required for bone development and osteoblast differentiation. Loss of Piezo1, or more severely Piezo1/2, in mesenchymal or osteoblast progenitor cells, led to multiple spontaneous bone fractures in newborn mice due to inhibition of osteoblast differentiation and increased bone resorption. In addition, loss of Piezo1/2 rendered resistant to further bone loss caused by unloading in both bone development and homeostasis. Mechanistically, Piezo1/2 relayed fluid shear stress and extracellular matrix stiffness signals to activate Ca influx to stimulate Calcineurin, which promotes concerted activation of NFATc1, YAP1 and ß-catenin transcription factors by inducing their dephosphorylation as well as NFAT/YAP1/ß-catenin complex formation. Yap1 and ß-catenin activities were reduced in the Piezo1 and Piezo1/2 mutant bones and such defects were partially rescued by enhanced ß-catenin activities.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.52779DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7112954PMC
March 2020

The mitogenome of a Malagasy butterfly (Mabille, 1884) recovered from the holotype collected over 140 years ago adds support for a new subfamily of Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera).

Genome 2020 Apr 6;63(4):195-202. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75390-9050, USA.

is a lavishly patterned skipper butterfly from a genus that has three described species, all endemic to the mainland of Madagascar. To our knowledge, has not been collected for nearly 50 years. To evaluate the power of our techniques to recover DNA, we used a single foreleg of an at least 140-year-old holotype specimen from the collection of the Natural History Museum London with no destruction of external morphology to extract DNA and assemble a complete mitogenome from next generation sequencing reads. The resulting 15 540 bp mitogenome contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and an A+T rich region, similarly to other Lepidoptera mitogenomes. Here we provide the first mitogenome also for Trapezitinae (). Phylogenetic analysis of available skipper mitogenomes places outside of Trapezitinae and Barcinae + Hesperiinae, with a possible sister relationship to Heteropterinae. Of these, at least Heteropterinae, Trapezitinae, and almost all Hesperiinae have monocot-feeding caterpillars. appears to be an evolutionarily highly distinct ancient lineage, morphologically with several unusual hesperiid features. The monotypic subfamily Lees & Grishin subfam. nov. (type genus ) is proposed to reflect this morphological and molecular evidence.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/gen-2019-0189DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8012180PMC
April 2020

Modeling of geometry and insertion force of a new lancet medical needle.

Sci Prog 2020 Jan-Mar;103(1):36850419891074. Epub 2019 Dec 10.

Key Laboratory of Bionic Engineering, Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun, P.R. China.

Lancet needle is a typical medical treatment device. Its tip consists of two lancet planes and one bevel plane. When the lancet needle is inserted into soft organ tissue, the insertion force may influence the needle cutting direction and treatment effect and increase the pain. One of the main factors affecting this insertion force is the geometry of the needle tip. Based on the research on the shape and processing method of the conventional lancet needle, a new lancet needle tip geometry was obtained by adjusting the relative position of the grinding wheel to the needle. A mathematical model of this new lancet needle was established. The relationship between processing parameters and needle shape was analyzed, and the needle insertion force was predicted. Compared with the conventional lancet needle, the new lancet needle is sharper, and the insertion force on the cutting edge is smaller. However, this change in the grinding position of the needle lancet plane has a great influence on the shape of needle tip near the intersection of the bevel plane and the lancet plane. Some special second bevel angle and rotated angle will cause a large change in the specific force at the intersection place, which is not conducive to reducing the insertion force.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0036850419891074DOI Listing
December 2019

Cushion Mechanism of Goat Hoof Bulb Tissues.

Appl Bionics Biomech 2019 6;2019:3021576. Epub 2019 Nov 6.

Key Laboratory of Bionic Engineering (Ministry of Education, China), Jilin University, Changchun 130022, China.

The hoof bulb sections of white goats were observed via scanning electron microscopy and stereomicroscopy in order to explore the cushion mechanism in the bulb tissue microstructures of hoofed animals. The hoof bulbs consisted of multilayer tissues, including an epidermal layer, a dermal layer, and subcutaneous tissues from outside to inside. A bionic model based on hoof bulb tissue composite structures was built with a normal model as the control. The microcosmic mechanics of the bulb tissues was analyzed via the finite element method. Simulations showed that when the bionic model was impacted by the top plates at the speed of 1-10 m/s, stress was concentrated in the epidermal layer and uniformly distributed in the dermal layer and dermal papillae, which effectively reduced the impact onto the ground. The cornified epidermal layer can resist the instant impact onto the ground, while the dermal papillae embedded in the dermal layer can store, release, and dissipate the impulsive energy, and the three parts synergically act in the cushion.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/3021576DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6877982PMC
November 2019

Retrospective analysis of brain abscess in 183 patients: A 10-year survey.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2019 Nov;98(46):e17670

Department of Neurological Surgery, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou.

This study aims to identify predictive factors related to clinical outcome, reoperation, and complications in patients with brain abscess.Patients with a diagnosis of brain abscess at discharge at the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine between 2008 and 2018 were reviewed. Logistic regression was used to identify predictive factors associated with Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) at discharge, GOS at 1 year after discharge, reoperation and complications.Among 183 patients enrolled into the study, 142 patients had a good outcome at discharge (GOS ≥ 4) and 41 had a poor outcome (GOS ≤ 3). During the follow-up period, 20 additional patients had a good outcome. A total of 156 patients were treated by open craniotomy excision (n = 72) and aspiration (n = 84), 10 of whom underwent reoperation. Complications in surgical patients for brain abscess occurred in 54 patients. Poor outcome was related to Glasgow coma scale (P = .007) and ventricular proximity (P = .001). Surgical method was associated with reoperation (P = .04) and complications (P < .001). Seizure at admission was related to epilepsy (P < .001). Surgical method was related to postoperative intracranial hemorrhage (P = .02).Glasgow coma scale (GCS) and ventricular proximity were associated with poor outcome. Further, patients who underwent aspiration were more likely to experience reoperation, while open craniotomy excision (OCE) was related to complications. Patients presenting seizure at admission were more likely to develop epilepsy. Patients who underwent OCE tended to experience postoperative intracranial hemorrhage.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000017670DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6867766PMC
November 2019

Genomic analysis of the tribe Emesidini (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae).

Zootaxa 2019 Sep 12;4668(4):zootaxa.4668.4.2. Epub 2019 Sep 12.

Departments of Biophysics and Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, and 3Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX, USA 75390-9050.

We obtained and phylogenetically analyzed whole genome shotgun sequences of nearly all species from the tribe Emesidini Seraphim, Freitas Kaminski, 2018 (Riodinidae) and representatives from other Riodinidae tribes. We see that the recently proposed genera Neoapodemia Trujano, 2018 and Plesioarida Trujano García, 2018 are closely allied with Apodemia C. R. Felder, [1865] and are better viewed as its subgenera, new status. Overall, Emesis Fabricius, 1807 and Apodemia (even after inclusion of the two subgenera) are so phylogenetically close that several species have been previously swapped between these two genera. New combinations are: Apodemia (Neoapodemia) zela (Butler, 1870), Apodemia (Neoapodemia) ares (Edwards, 1882), and Apodemia (Neoapodemia) arnacis (Stichel, 1928) (not Emesis); and Emesis phyciodoides (Barnes Benjamin, 1924) (not Apodemia), assigned to each genus by their monophyly in genomic trees with the type species (TS) of the genus. Surprisingly, we find that Emesis emesia Hewitson, 1867 is not grouped with Emesis, but in addition to Apodemia forms a third lineage of similar rank, here named Curvie Grishin, gen. n. (TS: Symmachia emesia Hewitson, 1867). Furthermore, we partition Emesis into 6 subgenera (4 new): Emesis (TS: Hesperia ovidius Fabricius, 1793, a subjective junior synonym of Papilio cereus Linnaeus, 1767), Aphacitis Hübner, [1819] (TS: Papilio dyndima Cramer, [1780], a subjective junior synonym of Papilio lucinda Cramer, [1775]), Poeasia Grishin, subgen. n. (TS: Emesis poeas Godman, [1901]), Mandania Grishin, subgen. n. (TS: Papilio mandana Cramer, [1780]), Brimia Grishin, subgen. n. (TS: Emesis brimo Godman Salvin, 1889), and Tenedia Grishin, subgen. n. (TS: Emesis tenedia C. R. Felder, 1861). Next, genomic comparison of primary type specimens suggests new status for Emesis vimena Schaus, 1928 as a subspecies of Emesis brimo Godman Salvin, 1889, Emesis adelpha Le Cerf, 1958 with E. a. vicaria Le Cerf, 1958 are subspecies of Emesis heteroclita Stichel, 1929, and Emesis tristis Stichel, 1929 is not a synonym of E. brimo vimena but of Emesis lupina Godman Salvin, 1886. A new status of a species is given to the following taxa: Emesis furor A. Butler H. Druce, 1872 (not a subspecies of E. mandana (Cramer, 1780)), Emesis melancholica Stichel, 1916 (not a subspecies of E. lupina Godman Salvin, 1886), Emesis progne (Godman, 1903) (not a subspecies of E. brimo Godman Salvin, 1889), and Emesis opaca Stichel, 1910 (not a synonym of E. lucinda (Cramer, 1775)). Emesis castigata diringeri Gallard 2008 is a subjective junior synonym of E. opaca, new status. Finally, Xanthosa Grishin, gen. n. (TS: Charmona xanthosa Stichel, 1910) is proposed for a sister lineage of Sertania Callaghan Kaminski, 2017 and Befrostia Grishin, gen. n. (TS: Emesis elegia Stichel, 1929) is proposed for a clade without apparent phylogenetic affinities that we place in Befrostiini Grishin, trib. n. In conclusion, genomic data reveal a number of errors in the current classification of Emesidini and allow us to confidently reclassify the tribe partitioning it in three genera: Apodemia, Curvie gen. n. and Emesis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4668.4.2DOI Listing
September 2019

Design, experiment and adsorption mechanism analysis of bionic sucker based on octopus sucker.

Proc Inst Mech Eng H 2019 Dec 16;233(12):1250-1261. Epub 2019 Oct 16.

Key Laboratory of Bionic Engineering, Ministry of Education, College of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun, P.R. China.

The vacuum chuck is widely used in industrial and daily life. By observing the macroscopic and microscopic morphology of octopus sucker, it is found that the sucker surface has concave-convex continuous wave shape with large number of non-smooth morphologies. The sealing mechanism of octopus sucker is analyzed according to its surface morphology before and after adsorption, and the non-smooth morphology is found to greatly enhance the adsorption. Based on the bionics theory, the non-smooth surface morphology of octopus sucker is applied to improve the sucker adsorption. And the bionic suckers with three types of grooves are designed. According to the model of standard and bionic suckers, the sucker entities are obtained by the method of three-dimensional printing and casting. And the tensile tests of suckers are carried out. The stress of suckers is analyzed by finite element method, and the sealing mechanism is discussed. According to the test results, the bionic sucker has larger adsorption force. And the ring sucker possesses the best adsorption performance. Compared with the standard sucker, the maximum adsorption force of the bionic sucker is increased by 12.2% in the air and 25.2% underwater. The adsorption force of bionic sucker becomes larger with the increase in the groove number; when the groove number increases to a certain extent, the adsorption force becomes smaller. The deformation of non-smooth morphology during adsorption makes the bionic sucker have a larger contact area. That is the reason why the bionic sucker has good adsorption performance. The bionic design of sucker can provide a new method to improve its adsorption.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0954411919879358DOI Listing
December 2019

Template-based modeling by ClusPro in CASP13 and the potential for using co-evolutionary information in docking.

Proteins 2019 12 1;87(12):1241-1248. Epub 2019 Oct 1.

Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York.

As a participant in the joint CASP13-CAPRI46 assessment, the ClusPro server debuted its new template-based modeling functionality. The addition of this feature, called ClusPro TBM, was motivated by the previous CASP-CAPRI assessments and by the proven ability of template-based methods to produce higher-quality models, provided templates are available. In prior assessments, ClusPro submissions consisted of models that were produced via free docking of pre-generated homology models. This method was successful in terms of the number of acceptable predictions across targets; however, analysis of results showed that purely template-based methods produced a substantially higher number of medium-quality models for targets for which there were good templates available. The addition of template-based modeling has expanded ClusPro's ability to produce higher accuracy predictions, primarily for homomeric but also for some heteromeric targets. Here we review the newest additions to the ClusPro web server and discuss examples of CASP-CAPRI targets that continue to drive further development. We also describe ongoing work not yet implemented in the server. This includes the development of methods to improve template-based models and the use of co-evolutionary information for data-assisted free docking.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/prot.25808DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8200321PMC
December 2019

Three new subfamilies of skipper butterflies (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae).

Zookeys 2019 8;861:91-105. Epub 2019 Jul 8.

Departments of Biophysics and Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX, 75390-9050, USA University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center Dallas United States of America.

We obtained and analyzed whole genome data for more than 160 representatives of skipper butterflies (family Hesperiidae) from all known subfamilies, tribes and most distinctive genera. We found that two genera, Watson, 1893 and Karsch, 1895, which are sisters, are well-separated from all other major phylogenetic lineages and originate near the base of the Hesperiidae tree, prior to the origin of some subfamilies. Due to this ancient origin compared to other subfamilies, this group is described as Katreinae Grishin, DNA sequencing of primary type specimens reveals that Karsch, 1895 is not a female of Mabille, 1891, but instead a female of Holland, 1896. This finding establishes as a junior subjective synonym of . Furthermore, we see that Evans, 1949 does not originate within Pyrginae Burmeister, 1878, but, unexpectedly, forms an ancient lineage of its own at the subfamily rank: Chamundinae Grishin, . Finally, a group of two sister genera, de Nicéville, 1902 and Leech, [1893], originates around the time Hesperiinae Latreille, 1809 have split from their sister clade. A new subfamily Barcinae Grishin, sets them apart from all other Hesperiidae.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.861.34686DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6629708PMC
July 2019

High-accuracy refinement using Rosetta in CASP13.

Proteins 2019 12 5;87(12):1276-1282. Epub 2019 Aug 5.

Department of Biochemistry and Institute for Protein Design, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.

Because proteins generally fold to their lowest free energy states, energy-guided refinement in principle should be able to systematically improve the quality of protein structure models generated using homologous structure or co-evolution derived information. However, because of the high dimensionality of the search space, there are far more ways to degrade the quality of a near native model than to improve it, and hence, refinement methods are very sensitive to energy function errors. In the 13th Critial Assessment of techniques for protein Structure Prediction (CASP13), we sought to carry out a thorough search for low energy states in the neighborhood of a starting model using restraints to avoid straying too far. The approach was reasonably successful in improving both regions largely incorrect in the starting models as well as core regions that started out closer to the correct structure. Models with GDT-HA over 70 were obtained for five targets and for one of those, an accuracy of 0.5 å backbone root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) was achieved. An important current challenge is to improve performance in refining oligomers and larger proteins, for which the search problem remains extremely difficult.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/prot.25784DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6851472PMC
December 2019

Protein interaction networks revealed by proteome coevolution.

Science 2019 07 11;365(6449):185-189. Epub 2019 Jul 11.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105, USA.

Residue-residue coevolution has been observed across a number of protein-protein interfaces, but the extent of residue coevolution between protein families on the whole-proteome scale has not been systematically studied. We investigate coevolution between 5.4 million pairs of proteins in and between 3.9 millions pairs in We find strong coevolution for binary complexes involved in metabolism and weaker coevolution for larger complexes playing roles in genetic information processing. We take advantage of this coevolution, in combination with structure modeling, to predict protein-protein interactions (PPIs) with an accuracy that benchmark studies suggest is considerably higher than that of proteome-wide two-hybrid and mass spectrometry screens. We identify hundreds of previously uncharacterized PPIs in and that both add components to known protein complexes and networks and establish the existence of new ones.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aaw6718DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6948103PMC
July 2019

Assessing predictions on fitness effects of missense variants in calmodulin.

Hum Mutat 2019 09 3;40(9):1463-1473. Epub 2019 Sep 3.

Departments of Biophysics and Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas.

This paper reports the evaluation of predictions for the "CALM1" challenge in the fifth round of the Critical Assessment of Genome Interpretation held in 2018. In the challenge, the participants were asked to predict effects on yeast growth caused by missense variants of human calmodulin, a highly conserved protein in eukaryotic cells sensing calcium concentration. The performance of predictors implementing different algorithms and methods is similar. Most predictors are able to identify the deleterious or tolerated variants with modest accuracy, with a baseline predictor based purely on sequence conservation slightly outperforming the submitted predictions. Nevertheless, we think that the accuracy of predictions remains far from satisfactory, and the field awaits substantial improvements. The most poorly predicted variants in this round surround functional CALM1 sites that bind calcium or peptide, which suggests that better incorporation of structural analysis may help improve predictions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.23857DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6744288PMC
September 2019

Protein contact prediction using metagenome sequence data and residual neural networks.

Bioinformatics 2020 01;36(1):41-48

School of Mathematical Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China.

Motivation: Almost all protein residue contact prediction methods rely on the availability of deep multiple sequence alignments (MSAs). However, many proteins from the poorly populated families do not have sufficient number of homologs in the conventional UniProt database. Here we aim to solve this issue by exploring the rich sequence data from the metagenome sequencing projects.

Results: Based on the improved MSA constructed from the metagenome sequence data, we developed MapPred, a new deep learning-based contact prediction method. MapPred consists of two component methods, DeepMSA and DeepMeta, both trained with the residual neural networks. DeepMSA was inspired by the recent method DeepCov, which was trained on 441 matrices of covariance features. By considering the symmetry of contact map, we reduced the number of matrices to 231, which makes the training more efficient in DeepMSA. Experiments show that DeepMSA outperforms DeepCov by 10-13% in precision. DeepMeta works by combining predicted contacts and other sequence profile features. Experiments on three benchmark datasets suggest that the contribution from the metagenome sequence data is significant with P-values less than 4.04E-17. MapPred is shown to be complementary and comparable the state-of-the-art methods. The success of MapPred is attributed to three factors: the deeper MSA from the metagenome sequence data, improved feature design in DeepMSA and optimized training by the residual neural networks.

Availability And Implementation: http://yanglab.nankai.edu.cn/mappred/.

Supplementary Information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btz477DOI Listing
January 2020

Functional expression and characterization of the envelope glycoprotein E1E2 heterodimer of hepatitis C virus.

PLoS Pathog 2019 05 22;15(5):e1007759. Epub 2019 May 22.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Center for Protein Science Shanghai, Shanghai Science Research Center, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a member of Hepacivirus and belongs to the family of Flaviviridae. HCV infects millions of people worldwide and may lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV envelope proteins, E1 and E2, play critical roles in viral cell entry and act as major epitopes for neutralizing antibodies. However, unlike other known flaviviruses, it has been challenging to study HCV envelope proteins E1E2 in the past decades as the in vitro expressed E1E2 heterodimers are usually of poor quality, making the structural and functional characterization difficult. Here we express the ectodomains of HCV E1E2 heterodimer with either an Fc-tag or a de novo designed heterodimeric tag and are able to isolate soluble E1E2 heterodimer suitable for functional and structural studies. Then we characterize the E1E2 heterodimer by electron microscopy and model the structure by the coevolution based modeling strategy with Rosetta, revealing the potential interactions between E1 and E2. Moreover, the E1E2 heterodimer is applied to examine the interactions with the known HCV receptors, neutralizing antibodies as well as the inhibition of HCV infection, confirming the functionality of the E1E2 heterodimer and the binding profiles of E1E2 with the cellular receptors. Therefore, the expressed E1E2 heterodimer would be a valuable target for both viral studies and vaccination against HCV.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007759DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6530877PMC
May 2019

Genomes reveal drastic and recurrent phenotypic divergence in firetip skipper butterflies (Hesperiidae: Pyrrhopyginae).

Proc Biol Sci 2019 05;286(1903):20190609

1 Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center , 5323 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX 75390-9050 , USA.

Biologists marvel at the powers of adaptive convergence, when distantly related animals look alike. While mimetic wing patterns of butterflies have fooled predators for millennia, entomologists inferred that mimics were distant relatives despite similar appearance. However, the obverse question has not been frequently asked. Who are the close relatives of mimetic butterflies and what are their features? As opposed to close convergence, divergence from a non-mimetic relative would also be extreme. When closely related animals look unalike, it is challenging to pair them. Genomic analysis promises to elucidate evolutionary relationships and shed light on molecular mechanisms of divergence. We chose the firetip skipper butterfly as a model due to its phenotypic diversity and abundance of mimicry. We sequenced and analysed whole genomes of nearly 120 representative species. Genomes partitioned this subfamily Pyrrhopyginae into five tribes (1 new), 23 genera and, additionally, 22 subgenera (10 new). The largest tribe Pyrrhopygini is divided into four subtribes (three new). Surprisingly, we found five cases where a uniquely patterned butterfly was formerly placed in a genus of its own and separately from its close relatives. In several cases, extreme and rapid phenotypic divergence involved not only wing patterns but also the structure of the male genitalia. The visually striking wing pattern difference between close relatives frequently involves disappearance or suffusion of spots and colour exchange between orange and blue. These differences (in particular, a transition between unspotted black and striped wings) happen recurrently on a short evolutionary time scale, and are therefore probably achieved by a small number of mutations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2019.0609DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6545083PMC
May 2019
-->