Publications by authors named "Qi Yang"

1,332 Publications

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Restoration of dystrophin expression in mice by suppressing a nonsense mutation through the incorporation of unnatural amino acids.

Nat Biomed Eng 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, Department of Chemical Biology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Approximately 11% of monogenic diseases involve nonsense mutations that are caused by premature termination codons. These codons can in principle be read-through via the site-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids to generate full-length proteins with minimal loss of function. Here we report that aminoacyl-tRNA-synthase-tRNA pairs specific for the desired unnatural amino acids can be used to read through a nonsense mutation in the dystrophin gene. We show partial restoration of dystrophin expression in differentiated primary myoblasts (from a mdx mouse model and a patient with Duchenne muscular dystrophy), and restoration of muscle function in two mouse models: mdx mice, via viral delivery of the engineered tRNA-synthase-tRNA pair intraperitoneally or intramuscularly and of the associated unnatural amino acid intraperitoneally; and mice produced by crossing mdx mice and transgenic mice with a chromosomally integrated pair, via intraperitoneal delivery of the unnatural amino acid. The incorporation of unnatural amino acids to restore endogenous protein expression could be explored for therapeutic use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41551-021-00774-1DOI Listing
August 2021

TSPO deficiency accelerates amyloid pathology and neuroinflammation by impairing microglial phagocytosis.

Neurobiol Aging 2021 Jul 3;106:292-303. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Department of Immunology, CAMS Key Laboratory for T Cell and Immunotherapy, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College, State Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Biology, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Increasing evidence has placed inflammation and immune dysfunction at the center of the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The mitochondrial protein translocator protein (18 kDa) (TSPO) is highly upregulated in microglia and astrocytes in response to inflammatory stimulation. However, the biological action of TSPO in the pathogenesis of AD has not been determined to date. In this study, we showed that TSPO expression was upregulated in brain tissues from AD patients and AD model mice. APP/PS1 mice lacking TSPO generated significantly higher levels of Aβ and Aβ peptides and more Aβ plaques, as well as enhanced microglial activation, in the brain. TSPO-deficient microglia cultured in vitro showed a significant decrease in the ability to phagocytose Aβ peptides or latex beads and generated more proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) in response to Aβ peptides. Our findings suggest that TSPO has protective functions against neuroinflammation and Aβ pathogenesis in AD. TSPO may be a potential drug target for the development of drugs that have therapeutic or preventive effects in neuroinflammatory diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2021.06.020DOI Listing
July 2021

Two-way comparison of brain perfusion image processing software for patients with acute ischemic strokes in real-world.

Neuroradiology 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Neurosurgery, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, 110004, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Perfusion imaging generates multimaps of ischemic tissues and is a proven decision-making tool in patients with acute ischemic stroke. However, the reliability of perfusion post-processing outcomes has been debated, given disparate results of various software applications, especially for patients with small ischemic core volume. This study was undertaken to compare ischemic volume estimates determined by imSTROKE (a software with new imaging protocol) and RAPID computer applications, respectively.

Methods: A total of 611 patients qualified for study, each having met inclusion and exclusion criteria of the Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial of Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke in the Netherlands (MR CLEAN trial). Subjects were examined by computed tomography perfusion (CTP) imaging (n = 349) or perfusion-weighted (PWI) and diffusion-weighted (DWI) imaging (n = 262). Ischemic volumes estimated by imSTROKE and RAPID applications were then compared. We used Bland-Altman analysis and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) to ascertain agreement between applications. Accuracies of estimated core infarct and penumbra volumes were tested at specific thresholds (core: 25 mL, 50 mL, and 70 mL; penumbra: 45 mL, 90 mL, and 125 mL).

Results: Median core infarct volumes by imSTROKE and RAPID were 29.18 mL and 29.53 mL, respectively (ICC = 0.9880, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.9860-0.9898). Median penumbra volumes by imSTROKE and RAPID were 68.20 mL and 68.55 mL, respectively (ICC = 0.9885, 95% CI: 0.9865-0.9902).

Conclusion: In estimating core infarct and penumbra volumes, imSTROKE and RAPID applications showed high-level agreement. For patients with small ischemic core volume, compared with RAPID, imSTROKE may have better sensitivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00234-021-02771-2DOI Listing
July 2021

Photocatalytic degradation of tetracycline by metal-organic frameworks modified with BiWO nanosheet under direct sunlight.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 1;284:131386. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Key Laboratory of Water-Sediment Sciences and Water Disaster Prevention of Hunan Province, School of Hydraulic Engineering, Changsha University of Science & Technology, Changsha, 410004, PR China.

Porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with visible-light response have attracted much attention in the field of environmental purification and solar energy conversion. In this study, MIL-100(Fe) was modified with BiWO nanosheets by a facile hydrothermal method to fabricate a photocatalyst with direct Z-scheme heterojunction. When treating the tetracycline (TC) solution under natural sunlight, 12 wt%MIL-100(Fe)/BiWO obtained the highest apparent rate constant of (6.59 ± 0.52)✕10 L mg min, which was 16.1 and 3.9 times than that of pristine MIL-100(Fe) and BiWO, respectively. In addition to explore the feasibility of sunlight-activated MIL-100(Fe)/BiWO to remove TC under various conditions, the degradation intermediates and their possible transformation pathway were provided with the aid of three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix spectra and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry system. The results of Escherichia coli culture demonstrated that the biotoxicity variation of TC solution would first increase and then decrease with the photodegradation time. Ultimately, based on the results of bandgap calculation, radicals trapping and charge flow tracking experiments, the direct Z-scheme heterojunction between MIL-100(Fe) and BiWO nanosheets was confirmed and the photocatalytic mechanism for TC degradation was rationally proposed. This work enriched MOFs-based heterojunction photocatalysts and provided a promising method to eliminate hazardous TC from aqueous solution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131386DOI Listing
July 2021

In-depth research on percarbonate expediting zero-valent iron corrosion for conditioning anaerobically digested sludge.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jun 10;419:126389. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Centre for Technology in Water and Wastewater, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2007, Australia.

Anaerobically digested sludge (ADS) is commonly hard to dewater for the presence of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and the liberation of glutinous soluble microbic products during anaerobic digestion. Sodium percarbonate (SPC) expediting zero-valent iron (ZVI) corrosion (SPC/ZVI) process firstly conditioned ADS to amend its dewaterability. Results showed that SPC/ZVI conditioning decreased moisture content of dewatered cake from 90.5% (control) to 69.9% with addition of 0.10 g/g TS SPC and 0.20 g/g TS ZVI. Mechanistic research indicated that the enhanced ADS dewaterability mainly resulted from •OH and Fe(III)/iron polymers yielded in SPC/ZVI. •OH disrupted EPS, damaged cytoderm & cytomembrane, and lysed intracellular substances, unbinding the bound water. Meanwhile, the breakage and inactivation of microbe by •OH prompted the production of macro-pores in ADS. •OH adjusted the conformation of extracellular/intracellular proteins by intervening in the H-bonds and S-S bonds, availing the hydrophobicity and slight flocculation of ADS. •OH further facilitated the despiralization of α-helical to β-sheet structure in ADS pellets, benefiting cell-to-cell aggregation. Additionally, Fe(III)/iron polymers from ZVI corrosion accelerated to gather ADS and maintained its floc structure. Consequently, SPC/ZVI conditioning not only adjusted the natures of ADS and its EPS but also the features of residual pellets, which further induced the advancement of ADS dewaterability. In addition, SPC/ZVI conditioning possibly surmounts some limitations existing in ZVI/Peroxide or ZVI/Persulfate technique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126389DOI Listing
June 2021

The effects of total enteral nutrition via nasal feeding and percutaneous radiologic gastrostomy in patients with dysphagia following a cerebral infarction.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(6):6352-6361. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Interventional Oncology, Dahua Hospital Xuhui District, Shanghai 200237, China.

Objective: To explore the effects of total enteral nutrition (TEN) via nasal feeding and percutaneous radiologic gastrostomy (PRG) on the nutritional status, quality of life, and prognosis in long-term bedridden patients with dysphagia after cerebral infarction.

Methods: One hundred and sixty long-term bedridden patients with dysphagia after cerebral infarction were randomly divided into a control group (CG, n=80) and an observation group (OG, n=80). The CG was administered TEN via nasal feeding, and the OG was administered TEN via PRG. The two groups' results were compared.

Results: The Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) and Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) scores in the OG were lower than the corresponding scores in the CG at 3 and 6 months after the TEN ( < 0.05). The OG had a higher proportion of high compliance, but a lower proportion of both moderate and low compliance than the CG ( < 0.05). The total incidence of TEN intolerance was 8.75% in the OG, lower than the 20.00% in the CG ( < 0.05). The AST, ALB, ALT, TBIL, Scr, and BUN levels showed no significant differences between the OG and the CG at 3 and 6 months after the TEN ( > 0.05). The IgM, IgG, IgA, hemoglobin, total protein, albumin, and transferrin levels showed no significant differences between the OG and the CG at 3 and 6 months after the TEN ( > 0.05). The incidence of catheterization complications was 20.00% in the OG, higher than the 8.75% in the CG ( < 0.05). The OG had higher SF-36 scores than the CG at 6 months after the TEN ( < 0.05).

Conclusion: Both nasal feeding and TEN via PRG can effectively improve patients' nutritional status, enhance their immune function, and improve their liver and renal function, but TEN after PRG is more effective at reducing intolerance and promoting quality of life in long-term bedridden patients with dysphagia after cerebral infarction. However, TEN after PRG will also increase the occurrence of recent complications, complications that should get additional clinical attention.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8290671PMC
June 2021

Co-fermentation of succinic acid and ethanol from sugarcane bagasse based on full hexose and pentose utilization and carbon dioxide reduction.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Jul 19;339:125578. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

School of Chemical Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China; Zhengzhou Tuoyang Industrial Co, Ltd, Zhengzhou 450001, China; Zhengzhou University Industrial Technology Research Institute Co, Ltd, Zhengzhou 450001, China. Electronic address:

The full utilization of carbohydrates in lignocellulosic biomass is essential for an efficient biorefining process. In this study, co-fermentation was performed for processing ethanol and succinic from sugarcane bagasse. By optimizing the co-fermentation conditions, nutrition and feeding strategies, a novel process was developed to make full utilization of the glucose and xylose in the hydrolysate of sugarcane bagasse. The achieved concentrations of succinic acid and ethanol reached to 22.1 and 22.0 g/L, respectively, and could realize the conversion of 100 g SCB raw material into 8.6 g ethanol and 8.7 g succinic acid. It is worth mentioning that the CO released from S. cerevisiae in co-fermentation system was recycled by A. succinogenes to synthesize succinic acid, realized CO emission reduction in the process of lignocellulosic biomass biorefinery. This study provided a clue for efficient biorefinery of lignocellulosic biomass and reduction greenhouse gas emissions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125578DOI Listing
July 2021

Self-healing polyurethane-elastomer with mechanical tunability for multiple biomedical applications in vivo.

Nat Commun 2021 07 20;12(1):4395. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

The unique properties of self-healing materials hold great potential in the field of biomedical engineering. Although previous studies have focused on the design and synthesis of self-healing materials, their application in in vivo settings remains limited. Here, we design a series of biodegradable and biocompatible self-healing elastomers (SHEs) with tunable mechanical properties, and apply them to various disease models in vivo, in order to test their reparative potential in multiple tissues and at physiological conditions. We validate the effectiveness of SHEs as promising therapies for aortic aneurysm, nerve coaptation and bone immobilization in three animal models. The data presented here support the translation potential of SHEs in diverse settings, and pave the way for the development of self-healing materials in clinical contexts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-24680-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8292539PMC
July 2021

Emerging role of artificial intelligence in stroke imaging.

Expert Rev Neurother 2021 Jul 20:1-10. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Radiology, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria (A.O.U.), Di Cagliari - Polo Di Monserrato, S.s. 554 Monserrato (Cagliari), Italy.

: The recognition and therapy of patients with stroke is becoming progressively intricate as additional treatment choices become accessible and new associations between disease characteristics and treatment response are incessantly uncovered. Therefore, clinicians must regularly learn new skill, stay up to date with the literature and integrate advances into daily practice. The application of artificial intelligence (AI) to assist clinical decision making could diminish inter-rater variation in routine clinical practice and accelerate the mining of vital data that could expand recognition of patients with stroke, forecast of treatment responses and patient outcomes.: In this review, the authors provide an up-to-date review of AI in stroke, analyzing the latest papers on this subject. These have been divided in two main groups: stroke diagnosis and outcome prediction.: The highest value of AI is its capability to merge, select and condense a large amount of clinical and imaging features of a single patient and to associate these with fitted models that have gone through robust assessment and optimization with large cohorts of data to support clinical decision making.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14737175.2021.1951234DOI Listing
July 2021

MASiVar: Multisite, multiscanner, and multisubject acquisitions for studying variability in diffusion weighted MRI.

Magn Reson Med 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

Purpose: Diffusion-weighted imaging allows investigators to identify structural, microstructural, and connectivity-based differences between subjects, but variability due to session and scanner biases is a challenge.

Methods: To investigate DWI variability, we present MASiVar, a multisite data set consisting of 319 diffusion scans acquired at 3 T from b = 1000 to 3000 s/mm across 14 healthy adults, 83 healthy children (5 to 8 years), three sites, and four scanners as a publicly available, preprocessed, and de-identified data set. With the adult data, we demonstrate the capacity of MASiVar to simultaneously quantify the intrasession, intersession, interscanner, and intersubject variability of four common DWI processing approaches: (1) a tensor signal representation, (2) a multi-compartment neurite orientation dispersion and density model, (3) white-matter bundle segmentation, and (4) structural connectomics. Respectively, we evaluate region-wise fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and principal eigenvector; region-wise CSF volume fraction, intracellular volume fraction, and orientation dispersion index; bundle-wise shape, volume, fractional anisotropy, and length; and whole connectome correlation and maximized modularity, global efficiency, and characteristic path length.

Results: We plot the variability in these measures at each level and find that it consistently increases with intrasession to intersession to interscanner to intersubject effects across all processing approaches and that sometimes interscanner variability can approach intersubject variability.

Conclusions: This study demonstrates the potential of MASiVar to more globally investigate DWI variability across multiple levels and processing approaches simultaneously and suggests harmonization between scanners for multisite analyses should be considered before inference of group differences on subjects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrm.28926DOI Listing
July 2021

Recent progress in high-performance lithium sulfur batteries: The emerging strategies for advanced separators/electrolytes based on nanomaterials and corresponding interfaces.

Chem Asian J 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Tiangong University, 399 Binshui West Road, Xiqing District, Tianjin, CHINA.

Lithium sulfur(Li-S) batteries, possessing excellent theoretical capacities, low cost and nontoxicity, is one of the most promising energy storage battery systems. However, poor conductivity of elemental S and "shuttle effect" of lithium polysulfides hinder the commercialization of Li-S batteries. These problems are closely related to the interface problems between the cathodes, separators/electrolytes and anodes. The review focuses on interface issues for advanced separators/electrolytes based on nanomaterials in Li-S batteries. In the liquid electrolyte systems, electrolytes/separators and electrodes system can be decorated by nano materials coating for separators and electrospinning nanofiber separators. And, interface of anodes and electrolytes/separators can be modified by nano surface coating, nano composite metal lithium and lithium nano alloy, while the interface between cathodes and electrolytes/separators is designed by nano metal sulfide, nanocarbon-based and other nano materials. In all solid-state electrolyte systems, the focus is to increase the ionic conductivity of the solid electrolytes and reduce the resistance in the cathode/polymer electrolyte and Li/electrolyte interfaces through using nanomaterials. The basic mechanism of these interface problems and the corresponding electrochemical performance are discussed. Based on the most critical factors of the interfaces, we provide some insights on nanomaterials in high-performance liquid or state Li-S batteries in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/asia.202100765DOI Listing
July 2021

Topological Organization Alterations of Whole-Brain Functional Networks in Patients with Childhood Absence Epilepsy: Associations with Treatment Effects.

Dis Markers 2021 26;2021:2727596. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Department of Cardiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University, Taian, China.

Purpose: The purpose of the current study is to detect changes of topological organization of whole-brain functional networks and their relationship with the clinical treatment effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) for patients with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) using resting-state functional MRI (RS-fMRI). . RS-fMRI data from 30 CAE patients were collected and compared with findings from 30 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HCs). The patients were treated with first-line AEDs for 46.03 months before undergoing a second RS-fMRI scan.

Results: CAE children at baseline showed a reduced clustering coefficient (Cp) and local efficiency (El) than the HC group, implying the reduction of functional segregation. CAE children at baseline also showed smaller characteristic path length (Lp) and higher global efficiency (Eg) compared with the HC group, implying the impairment of functional segregation. However, those metrics showed no significant differences between CAE children at follow-up and the HC group which indicated a clear renormalization of topological organization after AED treatments. CAE at follow-up also showed significantly decreased connectivity between several network regions, with which the thalamus is mainly involved. Furthermore, the reduced connectivity change between the left superior parietal gyrus and the left thalamus is positively correlated with the symptom improvements after AED treatment.

Conclusion: We highlighted the convergence and divergence of brain functional network dysfunctions in CAE patients and provided crucial insights into pathophysiological mechanisms and the AED effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/2727596DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8257349PMC
June 2021

Gastric mucin phenotype indicates aggressive biological behaviour in early differentiated gastric adenocarcinomas following endoscopic treatment.

Diagn Pathol 2021 Jul 13;16(1):62. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Pathology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Background: The distribution of mucin phenotypes and their relationship with clinicopathological features in early differentiated gastric adenocarcinomas in a Chinese cohort are unknown. We aimed to investigate mucin phenotypes and analyse the relationship between mucin phenotypes and clinicopathological features, especially biological behaviours, in early differentiated gastric adenocarcinomas from endoscopic specimens in a Chinese cohort.

Methods: Immunohistochemical staining of CD10, MUC2, MUC5AC, and MUC6 was performed in 257 tissue samples from patients with early differentiated gastric adenocarcinomas. The tumour location, gross type, tumour size, histological type, depth of invasion, lymphovascular invasion, mucosal background and other clinicopathological parameters were evaluated. The relationship between mucin phenotypes and clinicopathological features was analysed with the chi-square test.

Results: The incidences of gastric, gastrointestinal, intestinal and null phenotypes were 21 %, 56 %, 20 and 3 %, respectively. The mucin phenotypes were related to histology classification (P < 0.05). The proportion of the gastric phenotype became greater during the transition from differentiated to undifferentiated (P < 0.05). Complete intestinal metaplasia was higher in the gastric and intestinal phenotypes than in the gastrointestinal phenotype (P < 0.05). Tumours with poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma were mainly of the gastric phenotype, which was significantly higher than that of purely differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma (P < 0.05), and the depth of invasion in the mixed type was deeper (P < 0.05). Neither recurrence nor metastasis was detected.

Conclusions: The mucin phenotype of early-differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma has clinical implications, and the gastric phenotype has aggressive biological behaviour in early differentiated gastric cancers, especially in those with poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma or papillary adenocarcinoma components.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13000-021-01122-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8276406PMC
July 2021

Linking genotype to phenotype in multi-omics data of small sample.

BMC Genomics 2021 Jul 13;22(1):537. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

School of Computer Science, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an, 710072, People's Republic of China.

Background: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) that link genotype to phenotype represent an effective means to associate an individual genetic background with a disease or trait. However, single-omics data only provide limited information on biological mechanisms, and it is necessary to improve the accuracy for predicting the biological association between genotype and phenotype by integrating multi-omics data. Typically, gene expression data are integrated to analyze the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on phenotype. Such multi-omics data integration mainly follows two approaches: multi-staged analysis and meta-dimensional analysis, which respectively ignore intra-omics and inter-omics associations. Moreover, both approaches require omics data from a single sample set, and the large feature set of SNPs necessitates a large sample size for model establishment, but it is difficult to obtain multi-omics data from a single, large sample set.

Results: To address this problem, we propose a method of genotype-phenotype association based on multi-omics data from small samples. The workflow of this method includes clustering genes using a protein-protein interaction network and gene expression data, screening gene clusters with group lasso, obtaining SNP clusters corresponding to the selected gene clusters through expression quantitative trait locus data, integrating SNP clusters and corresponding gene clusters and phenotypes into three-layer network blocks, analyzing and predicting based on each block, and obtaining the final prediction by taking the average.

Conclusions: We compare this method to others using two datasets and find that our method shows better results in both cases. Our method can effectively solve the prediction problem in multi-omics data of small sample, and provide valuable resources for further studies on the fusion of more omics data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-021-07867-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8278664PMC
July 2021

Polymorphism of Antifolate Drug Resistance in From Local Residents and Migrant Workers Returned From the China-Myanmar Border.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 24;11:683423. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Pathogen Biology and Immunology, Kunming Medical University, Kunming, China.

Drug-resistant  malaria impedes efforts to control, eliminate, and ultimately eradicate malaria in Southeast Asia. resistance to antifolate drugs derives from point mutations in specific parasite genes, including the dihydropteroate synthase (), dihydrofolate reductase (), and GTP cyclohydrolase I () genes. This study aims to investigate the prevalence and spread of drug resistance markers in populating the China-Myanmar border. Blood samples were collected from symptomatic patients with acute infection. Samples with single-clone infections were sequenced for and genesand genotyped for 6 flanking microsatellite markers. Copy number variation in the gene was also examined. Polymorphisms were observed in six different codons of the  gene (382, 383, 512, 549, 553, and 571) and six different codons of the  gene (13, 57, 58, 61, 99, 117) in two study sites. The quadruple mutant haplotypes 57I/L/58R/61M/117T of gene were the most common (comprising 76% of cases in Myitsone and 43.7% of case in Laiza). The double mutant haplotype 383G/553G of  gene was also prevalent at each site (40.8% and 31%). Microsatellites flanking the gene differentiated clinical samples from wild type and quadruple mutant genotypes ( = 0.259-0.3036), as would be expected for a locus undergoing positive selection. The lack of copy number variation of suggests that SP-resistant may harbor alternative mechanisms to secure sufficient folate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2021.683423DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8265503PMC
July 2021

[Analysis of genetic variants in four children with congenital hyperinsulinemia].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi 2021 Jul;38(7):635-638

Laboratory of Genetics and Metabolism, Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Birth Defects Prevention and Control Institute of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Nanning, Guangxi 530033, China.

Objective: To explore the genetic basis of four children with congenital hyperinsulinemia (CHI).

Methods: The four children were subjected to high-throughput whole exome sequencing (WES). Candidate variants were validated by Sanger sequencing.

Results: WES analysis has identified 4 variants in the ABCC8 gene and 1 variant in GLUD1, including a ABCC8 c.382G>A variant in case 1, compound heterozygous c.698T>C and c.4213G>A variants of the ABCC8 gene concomitant with a de novo 14.9 Mb microduplication of chromosome 15 in case 2, and ABCC8 c.331G>A variant in case 3, and de novo c.955T>C variant of the GLUD1 gene in case 4. Of these, c.698T>C of the ABCC8 gene and c.955T>C of the GLUD1 gene were unreported previously. Based on the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics guidelines, the c.382G>A(p.Glu128Lys), c.698T>C(p.Met233Thr) and c.4213G>A(p.Asp1405Asn) variants of ABCC8 gene and c.955T>C(p.Tyr319His) variant of GLUD1 gene were predicted to be likely pathogenic(PM1+PM2+PP3+PP4, PM1+PM2+PM5+PP3+PP4, PM1+PM2+PP3+PP4 and PS1+PM1+PM2+PP3), and the c.331G>A (p.Gly111Arg) variant of ABCC8 gene was predicted to be uncertain significance(PM1+PM2+PP4).

Conclusion: The variants of the ABCC8 and GLUD1 genes probably underlay the pathogenesis of CHI in the four patients. Above results have facilitated clinical diagnosis and genetic counseling for the affected families.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn511374-20200520-00358DOI Listing
July 2021

A Comparison Study of Fenton-like and Fenton Reactions in Dichloromethane Removal.

Environ Technol 2021 Jul 8:1-28. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Water Resources & Environmental Engineering, China University of Geosciences (Beijing), Beijing, 100083, P.R. China; Fax: 86-10-82321081.

Dichloromethane (DCM) as a low-chlorinated organic compound is hardly to be degraded through reductive dechlorination pathway. In this study, the removal of DCM in Fenton-like system using activated carbon fibers supported zero-valence Fe/Ni nanoparticles (ACF-Fe/Ni) as catalyst was investigated and compared with that of traditional Fenton system (Fe/HO). The influence of vital parameters including initial solution pH, DCM concentration, catalyst and HO dosages, temperature and cosolute on the removal of DCM was systematically studied. The results showed that 94.2% of DCM with an initial concentration of 5 mg/L could be removed in the Fenton-like reaction under the optimum condition: initial pH of 2.0, 0.4 g/L of ACF-Fe/Ni, 10 mM of HO and temperature of 30°C. In comparison, the removal of DCM in the Fenton-like system was faster than that of the Fenton system and the corresponding activation energies were 39.69 and 33.82 kJ/mol, respectively. The coexistence of solute was adverse to the removal of DCM in the both Fenton-like and Fenton systems. Moreover, the active species for DCM removal in the Fenton-like system was confirmed as hydroxyl radical (·OH) via the quenching experiment and EPR measurement. The incomplete mineralization (41.7%) of DCM after reaction indicated that the Fenton-like technology had a potential to realize DCM non-toxic and harmless conversion and organic intermediates formed needed to take longer to be decomposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2021.1954096DOI Listing
July 2021

Preparation of Barbed ZnO Fibers and the Selective Adsorption Behavior for BSA.

ACS Omega 2021 Jun 18;6(25):16438-16445. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Institute of Materials Physics and Chemistry, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110819, China.

ZnO electrospun nanofibers can act as seed fibers to fabricate multidentate barbed fibers perpendicular to the growth of the fibers using the chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. Fibers with a multirod morphology have a porous grid structure. The sample is easy to recover, and the nonpolar surface in the sample is sufficiently exposed. In the research of barbed fiber fabrication and adsorption on bovine serum albumin (BSA), the effects of different chemical bath conditions on the growth of ZnO nanorods were discussed. Barbed fibers with large slenderness ratios were obtained at a water content of 60 mL at 75 °C. Each milligram of barbed fibers can quickly adsorb about 162 μg of protein within 30 min. The adsorption activity of BSA between polar and nonpolar ZnO surfaces was also studied. The selective adsorption behavior of BSA on the nonpolar surface was revealed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.1c01454DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8246485PMC
June 2021

High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Black Blood Thrombus Imaging and Serum D-Dimer in the Confirmation of Acute Cortical Vein Thrombosis.

Front Neurol 2021 21;12:680040. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Cerebral cortical vein thrombosis (CCVT) is often misdiagnosed because of its non-specific diagnostic symptoms. Here, we analyzed a cohort of patients with CCVT in hopes of improving understandings and treatments of the disease. A total of 23 patients with CCVT (confirmed with high-resolution imaging), who had been diagnosed between 2017 and 2019, were enrolled in this cohort study. Baseline demographics, clinical manifestations, laboratory data, radiological findings, treatment, and outcomes were collected and analyzed. Fourteen females and nine males were enrolled (mean age: 32.7 ± 11.9 years), presenting in the acute (within 7 days, = 9), subacute (8-30 days, = 7), and chronic (over 1 month, = 7) stages. Headaches (65.2%) and seizures (39.1%) were the most common symptoms. Abnormally elevated plasma D-dimers were observed in the majority of acute stage patients (87.5%). The diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance venography (CE-MRV) and high-resolution magnetic resonance black-blood thrombus imaging (HR-MRBTI) in detecting CCVT were 57.1 and 100.0%, respectively. All patients had good functional outcomes after 6-month of standard anticoagulation (mRS 0-1) treatment. However, four CCVT patients that had cases involving multiple veins showed symptom relief after batroxobin therapy ( = 0.030). HR-MRBTI may be a fast and accurate tool for non-invasive CCVT diagnosis. HR-MRBTI combined with D-dimer can also precisely identify the pathological stage of CCVT. Batroxobin may safely accelerate cortical venous recanalization in combination with anticoagulation. Follow-up studies with larger sample sizes are suggested to evaluate the safety and efficacy of batroxobin for treating CCVT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.680040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8255931PMC
June 2021

Group 2 innate lymphoid cells are numerically and functionally deficient in the triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

J Neuroinflammation 2021 Jul 6;18(1):152. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Immunology and Microbial Disease, Albany Medical College, Albany, NY, 12208, USA.

Background: The immune pathways in Alzheimer's disease (AD) remain incompletely understood. Our recent study indicates that tissue-resident group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) accumulate in the brain barriers of aged mice and that their activation alleviates aging-associated cognitive decline. The regulation and function of ILC2 in AD, however, remain unknown.

Methods: In this study, we examined the numbers and functional capability of ILC2 from the triple transgenic AD mice (3xTg-AD) and control wild-type mice. We investigated the effects of treatment with IL-5, a cytokine produced by ILC2, on the cognitive function of 3xTg-AD mice.

Results: We demonstrate that brain-associated ILC2 are numerically and functionally defective in the triple transgenic AD mouse model (3xTg-AD). The numbers of brain-associated ILC2 were greatly reduced in 7-month-old 3xTg-AD mice of both sexes, compared to those in age- and sex-matched control wild-type mice. The remaining ILC2 in 3xTg-AD mice failed to efficiently produce the type 2 cytokine IL-5 but gained the capability to express a number of proinflammatory genes. Administration of IL-5, a cytokine produced by ILC2, transiently improved spatial recognition and learning in 3xTg-AD mice.

Conclusion: Our results collectively indicate that numerical and functional deficiency of ILC2 might contribute to the cognitive impairment of 3xTg-AD mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12974-021-02202-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8261980PMC
July 2021

Inflammation Disrupts the Brain Network of Executive Function After Cardiac Surgery.

Ann Surg 2021 Jul 2. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Anesthesiology, Xuzhou Central Hospital, Xuzhou, China Xuzhou clinical school, Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, China Department of Radiology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China Department of Cardiac Surgery, Xuzhou Central Hospital, Xuzhou, China Department of Medical Imaging, Xuzhou Central Hospital, Xuzhou, China Division of Anaesthetics, Pain Medicine and Intensive Care, Department of Surgery and Cancer, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London, UK.

Objective: To investigate postoperative functional connectivity alterations across impaired cognitive domains and their causal relationships with systemic inflammation.

Background: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction commonly occurs after cardiac surgery, and both systemic and neuroinflammation may trigger its development. Whether functional connectivity alterations underlying deficits in specific cognitive domains after cardiac surgery are affected by inflammation remain unclear.

Methods: Seventeen patients, who underwent cardiac valve replacement, completed a neuropsychological test battery and brain MRI scan before surgery and on days 7 and 30 after surgery compared to age-matched healthy controls. Blood samples were taken for TNF-α and IL-6 measurements. Seed-to-voxel FC of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) was examined. Bivariate correlation and linear regression models were used to determine the relationships among cognitive function, FC alterations and cytokines.

Results: Executive function was significantly impaired after cardiac surgery. At day 7 follow-up, the surgical patients, compared to the controls, demonstrated significantly decreased DLPFC functional connectivity with the superior parietal lobe and attenuated negative connectivity in the default mode network, including the angular gyrus and posterior cingulate cortex. The left DLPFC enhanced the connectivity in the right DLPFC and posterior cingulate cortex, all of which were related to the increased TNF-α and decreased executive function up to day 7 after cardiac surgery.

Conclusions: The decreased functional connectivity of executive control network and its anticorrelation with the default mode network may contribute to executive function deficits following cardiac surgery. Systemic inflammation may trigger these transient FC changes and executive function impairments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000005041DOI Listing
July 2021

Phase I study of daily and weekly regimens of the orally administered MDM2 antagonist idasanutlin in patients with advanced tumors.

Invest New Drugs 2021 Jun 28. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Aim The oral MDM2 antagonist idasanutlin inhibits the p53-MDM2 interaction, enabling p53 activation, tumor growth inhibition, and increased survival in xenograft models. Methods We conducted a Phase I study of idasanutlin (microprecipitate bulk powder formulation) to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, food effect, and clinical activity in patients with advanced malignancies. Schedules investigated were once weekly for 3 weeks (QW × 3), once daily for 3 days (QD × 3), or QD × 5 every 28 days. We also analyzed p53 activation and the anti-proliferative effects of idasanutlin. Results The dose-escalation phase included 85 patients (QW × 3, n = 36; QD × 3, n = 15; QD × 5, n = 34). Daily MTD was 3200 mg (QW × 3), 1000 mg (QD × 3), and 500 mg (QD × 5). Most common adverse events were diarrhea, nausea/vomiting, decreased appetite, and thrombocytopenia. Dose-limiting toxicities were nausea/vomiting and myelosuppression; myelosuppression was more frequent with QD dosing and associated with pharmacokinetic exposure. Idasanutlin exposure was approximately dose proportional at low doses, but less than dose proportional at > 600 mg. Although inter-patient variability in exposure was high with all regimens, cumulative idasanutlin exposure over the whole 28-day cycle was greatest with a QD × 5 regimen. No major food effect on pharmacokinetic exposure occurred. MIC-1 levels were higher with QD dosing, increasing in an exposure-dependent manner. Best response was stable disease in 30.6% of patients, prolonged (> 600 days) in 2 patients with sarcoma. Conclusions Idasanutlin demonstrated dose- and schedule-dependent p53 activation with durable disease stabilization in some patients. Based on these findings, the QD × 5 schedule was selected for further development. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01462175 (ClinicalTrials.gov), October 31, 2011.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10637-021-01141-2DOI Listing
June 2021

Emodin ameliorates acute pancreatitis-induced lung injury by suppressing NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated neutrophil recruitment.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Aug 9;22(2):857. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning 116011, P.R. China.

Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) activates the systemic inflammatory response and is potentially lethal. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of emodin on acute lung injury (ALI) in rats with SAP and investigate the role of the Nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome and its association with neutrophil recruitment. Sodium taurocholate (5.0%) was used to establish the SAP model. All animals were randomly assigned into four groups: Sham, SAP, emodin and dexamethasone (positive control drug) groups (n=10 mice per group). Histopathology observation of pancreatic and lung tissues was detected by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The levels of serum amylase, IL-1β and IL-18 were measured by ELISA. Single-cell suspensions were obtained from enzymatically digested lung tissues, followed by flow cytometric analysis for apoptosis. In addition, the expression levels of NLRP3 inflammasome-associated and apoptosis-associated proteins in lung tissues were measured by western blotting. Moreover, lymphocyte antigen 6 complex locus G6D (Ly6G) cell recruitment was detected using immunohistochemical analysis. The results revealed that emodin markedly improved pancreatic histological injury and decreased the levels of serum amylase, IL-1β and IL-18. Pulmonary edema and apoptosis were significantly alleviated by emodin. Additionally, the protein expression levels of intercellular adhesion molecule 1, NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD and cleaved caspase-1 were downregulated following emodin treatment. Moreover, emodin inhibited Ly6G cell recruitment in lung tissues. The present study demonstrated that emodin may offer protection against ALI induced by SAP via inhibiting and suppressing NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated neutrophil recruitment and may be a novel therapeutic strategy for the clinical treatment of ALI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.10289DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8220649PMC
August 2021

The chromosome-scale reference genome of Rubus chingii Hu provides insight into the biosynthetic pathway of hydrolysable tannins.

Plant J 2021 Jun 26. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Life Science College, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei, 230036, China.

Rubus chingii Hu (Fu-Pen-Zi), a perennial woody plant in the Rosaceae family, is a characteristic traditional Chinese medicinal plant because of its unique pharmacological effects. There are abundant hydrolysable tannin (HT) components in R. chingii that provide health benefits. Here, an R. chingii chromosome-scale genome and related functional analysis provide insights into the biosynthetic pathway of HTs. Sequence data totaling 231.21 Mb (155 scaffolds with an N50 of 8.2 Mb) were assembled into seven chromosomes with an average length of 31.4 Mb, and 33130 protein-coding genes were predicted, 89.28% of which were functionally annotated. Evolutionary analysis showed that R. chingii was most closely related to R. occidentalis, from which it was predicted to have diverged 22.46 million years ago. Comparative genomic analysis showed that there was a tandem gene cluster of UGT, CXE and SCPL genes on chromosome 02 of R. chingii, including 11 CXE, 8 UGT, and 6 SCPL genes, which may be critical for the synthesis of HTs. In vitro enzyme assays indicated that the proteins encoded by the CXE (LG02.4273) and UGT (LG02.4102) genes have tannin hydrolase and gallic acid glycosyltransferase functions, respectively. The genomic sequence of R. chingii will be a valuable resource for comparative genomic analysis within the Rosaceae family and will be useful for understanding the biosynthesis of HTs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tpj.15394DOI Listing
June 2021

Classifying Vulnerability to Sleep Deprivation Using Resting-State Functional MRI Graph Theory Metrics.

Front Neurosci 2021 7;15:660365. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Radiology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China.

Sleep deprivation (SD) has become very common in contemporary society, where people work around the clock. SD-induced cognitive deficits show large inter-individual differences and are trait-like with known neural correlates. However, few studies have used neuroimaging to predict vulnerability to SD. Here, resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data and psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) data were collected from 60 healthy subjects after resting wakefulness and after one night of SD. The number of PVT lapses was then used to classify participants on the basis of whether they were vulnerable or resilient to SD. We explored the viability of graph-theory-based degree centrality to accurately classify vulnerability to SD. Compared with during resting wakefulness, widespread changes in degree centrality (DC) were found after SD, indicating significant reorganization of sleep homeostasis with respect to activity in resting state brain network architecture. Support vector machine (SVM) analysis using leave-one-out cross-validation achieved a correct classification rate of 84.75% [sensitivity 82.76%, specificity 86.67%, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) 0.94] for differentiating vulnerable subjects from resilient subjects. Brain areas that contributed most to the classification model were mainly located within the sensorimotor network, default mode network, and thalamus. Furthermore, we found a significantly negative correlation between changes in PVT lapses and DC in the thalamus after SD. These findings suggest that resting-state network measures combined with a machine learning algorithm could have broad potential applications in screening vulnerability to SD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2021.660365DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8215264PMC
June 2021

Disparate trends of atherosclerotic plaque evolution in stroke patients under 18-month follow-up: a 3D whole-brain magnetic resonance vessel wall imaging study.

Neuroradiol J 2021 Jun 23:19714009211026920. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Biomedical Imaging Research Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, USA.

Purpose: The trend of atherosclerotic plaque feature evolution is unclear in stroke patients with and without recurrence. We aimed to use three-dimensional whole-brain magnetic resonance vessel wall imaging to quantify the morphological changes of causative lesions during medical therapy in patients with symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic disease.

Methods: Patients with acute ischemic stroke attributed to intracranial atherosclerotic disease were retrospectively enrolled if they underwent both baseline and follow-up magnetic resonance vessel wall imaging. The morphological features of the causative plaque, including plaque volume, peak normalized wall index, maximum wall thickness, degree of stenosis, pre-contrast plaque-wall contrast ratio, and post-contrast plaque enhancement ratio, were quantified and compared between the non-recurrent and recurrent groups (defined as the recurrence of a vascular event within 18 months of stroke).

Results: Twenty-nine patients were included in the final analysis. No significant differences were found in plaque features in the baseline scan between the non-recurrent ( = 22) and recurrent groups ( = 7). The changes in maximum wall thickness (-13.32% vs. 8.93%,  = 0.026), plaque-wall contrast ratio (-0.82% vs. 3.42%,  = 0.005) and plaque enhancement ratio (-11.03% vs. 9.75%,  = 0.019) were significantly different between the non-recurrent and recurrent groups. Univariable logistic regression showed that the increase in plaque-wall contrast ratio (odds ratio 3.22, 95% confidence interval 1.55-9.98,  = 0.003) was related to stroke recurrence.

Conclusion: Morphological changes of plaque features on magnetic resonance vessel wall imaging demonstrated distinct trends in symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic disease patients with and without stroke recurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/19714009211026920DOI Listing
June 2021

A chromosome-level genome assembly of rugged rose (Rosa rugosa) provides insights into its evolution, ecology, and floral characteristics.

Hortic Res 2021 Jun 18;8(1):141. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

College of Horticulture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, China.

Rosa rugosa, commonly known as rugged rose, is a perennial ornamental shrub. It produces beautiful flowers with a mild fragrance and colorful seed pods. Unlike many other cultivated roses, R. rugosa adapts to a wide range of habitat types and harsh environmental conditions such as salinity, alkaline, shade, drought, high humidity, and frigid temperatures. Here, we produced and analyzed a high-quality genome sequence for R. rugosa to understand its ecology, floral characteristics and evolution. PacBio HiFi reads were initially used to construct the draft genome of R. rugosa, and then Hi-C sequencing was applied to assemble the contigs into 7 chromosomes. We obtained a 382.6 Mb genome encoding 39,704 protein-coding genes. The genome of R. rugosa appears to be conserved with no additional whole-genome duplication after the gamma whole-genome triplication (WGT), which occurred ~100 million years ago in the ancestor of core eudicots. Based on a comparative analysis of the high-quality genome assembly of R. rugosa and other high-quality Rosaceae genomes, we found a unique large inverted segment in the Chinese rose R. chinensis and a retroposition in strawberry caused by post-WGT events. We also found that floral development- and stress response signaling-related gene modules were retained after the WGT. Two MADS-box genes involved in floral development and the stress-related transcription factors DREB2A-INTERACTING PROTEIN 2 (DRIP2) and PEPTIDE TRANSPORTER 3 (PTR3) were found to be positively selected in evolution, which may have contributed to the unique ability of this plant to adapt to harsh environments. In summary, the high-quality genome sequence of R. rugosa provides a map for genetic studies and molecular breeding of this plant and enables comparative genomic studies of Rosa in the near future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41438-021-00594-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8213826PMC
June 2021

Simple and precise characterization of differential modal group delay arising in few-mode fiber.

Opt Lett 2021 Jun;46(12):2856-2859

In this Letter, we propose a simple and high-precision differential modal group delay (DMGD) characterization method for few-mode fibers (FMF) by using the frequency-modulated continuous wave. Since the detected signals are located at the low-frequency range, our DMGD characterization method waives the use of expensive equipment, such as vector network or optical spectrum analyzers. Due to the high linearity of the used Mach-Zehnder modulator, our DMGD measurement is free from the complex auxiliary interferometer, leading to an improvement of characterization precision. Meanwhile, we propose a novel spectrum recovery algorithm to overcome the shortcoming that the traditional fast Fourier transform (FFT) method is incapable to deal with spectrum features arising in a periodic signal. Therefore, the characterization precision is no longer limited by the FFT length. When a commercial 23299.8 m two-mode fiber is used in the experiment, the DMGD measurement of mode relative to mode has a high precision of ±0.007/ over the C-band. Our proposed method shows the potential for characterizing the wavelength-dependent DMGD of FMF with more than two LP modes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.423950DOI Listing
June 2021

Fractal Model for Predicting Elemental Sulfur Saturation in the Presence of Natural Fracture.

ACS Omega 2021 Jun 21;6(22):14394-14398. Epub 2021 May 21.

Petroleum Engineering Department, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States.

Sour gas reservoirs are an important part of unconventional gas reservoirs, which are widely distributed in the world. However, elemental sulfur deposition, channel plugging, and productivity reduction consequentially occur in the development of high sour gas fields as pressure drops. The accurate prediction of sulfur deposition is a very important work for sour gas reservoirs. In this paper, a fractal model is presented for predicting elemental sulfur saturation in the presence of natural fracture. The model takes into consideration the effects of non-Darcy flow. In addition, the influence parameters such as fractal dimension, fractal index, and non-Darcy flow are studied. The results showed the following: (1) sulfur deposition was overestimated by Hu's model, and this paper model is more accurate for prediction of sulfur deposition; (2) elemental sulfur deposition decreases with the increase of the fractal dimension, while elemental sulfur deposition increases with the decrease of the fractal index; and (3) non-Darcy flow should be considered because it causes a faster rate of sulfur deposition. This research will provide a basis and reference for predicting elemental sulfur saturation in the presence of natural fracture for sour gas reservoirs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.1c01210DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8190922PMC
June 2021

Current status of antenatal care of pregnant women-8 provinces in China, 2018.

BMC Public Health 2021 06 14;21(1):1135. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

National Center for Women and Children's Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No.12, Dahuisi Road, Beijing, 100081, China.

Background: Antenatal care (ANC) played a crucial role in ensuring maternal and child safety and reducing the risk of complications, disability, and death in mothers and their infants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the current status of ANC emphasizing the number, timing, and content of examinations on a national scale.

Methods: The data was collected from maternal and newborn's health monitoring system at 8 provinces in China. After ethical approval, all pregnant women registered in the system at their first prenatal care visit, we included 49,084 pregnant women who had delivered between January 1, 2018 and December 31, 2018. Descriptive statistics of all study variables were calculated proportions and chi-square for categorical variables.

Results: Of the 49,084 women included in this study, the mean number of ANC visits was 6.95 ± 3.45. By percentage, 78.79% women received ANC examinations at least five times, 39.93% of the women received ANC examinations at least eight times and 16.66% of the women received ANC examinations at least 11 times. The proportion of first ANC examination in first trimester was 61.87%. The percentage of normative ANC examinations and the percentage of qualified ANC examinations were 30.98 and 8.03% respectively. Only 49.40% of the total women received all six kinds of examination items in first ANC examination: 91.47% received a blood test, 91.62% received a urine test, 81.56% received a liver function examination, 80.52% received a renal function examination, 79.07% received a blood glucose test, and 86.66% received a HIV/HBV/syphilis tests. 50.85% women received the first ANC examination in maternal and child health care (MCH) institutions, 14.07% in a general hospital, 18.83% in a township hospital, 13.15% in a community health services center, and 3.08% in an unspecified place. The proportion of women who received each of the ANC examination items in community health services center was the highest, but that in the MCH institutions was the lowest.

Conclusions: There is a big difference between the results of this study and the data in official reports, this study found the current status of antenatal care is not optimal in China, findings from this study suggest that the systematization, continuity and quality of ANC examinations need to be improved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-11154-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8201670PMC
June 2021
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