Publications by authors named "Qi Gao"

638 Publications

Increasing urinary podocyte mRNA excretion and progressive podocyte loss in kidney contribute to the high risk of long-term renal disease caused by preterm birth.

Sci Rep 2021 Oct 19;11(1):20650. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Department of Neonatology, Tianjin Central Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology, No. 156 Nan Kai San Ma Lu, Tianjin, 300000, People's Republic of China.

Podocyte abnormalities are common mechanism driving the progression of glomerular diseases, which account for most chronic kidney diseases (CKDs). However, the role of podocyte in the mechanism of high-risk long-term CKD caused by prematurity has not been well clarified. In present study, urine samples of 86 preterm infants and 32 full-term infants were collected, and podocyte-specific podocin mRNA levels in urine pellet were applied to indicate urinary podocyte mRNA excretion. In addition, in a preterm animal rat model, preterm rats were identified by delivery 2 days early. From the age of 3 weeks-12 months, urine samples were collected to examine podocyte mRNA excretion by measuring podocyte-specific podocin mRNA levels. Kidney samples at the age of 3 weeks, 2 months, and 12 months were collected from 8, 5 and 6 preterm rats and 9, 6 and 8 full-term rats, respectively, to examine podocyte density and podocyte area by measuring the podocyte specific nuclear marker WT-1 and the podocyte specific marker synaptopodin. As results, a more than threefold increase of urinary podocyte-specific podocin mRNA excretion rate was found in preterm infants compared with full-term infants. In addition, there was negative correlation between gestational age at birth and urinary podocin mRNA excretion. In preterm rats, a reduction in the total number of differentiated podocytes in glomeruli and an increased podocyte podocin mRNA excretion rate in urine were detected at the end of kidney differentiation. Moreover, long-term follow-up data in preterm rats showed there was an increased the risk of renal disease indicated by persistent podocyte mRNA loss, proteinuria, and enlarged glomeruli. In conclusion, increasing podocyte mRNA excretion in urine and podocyte loss in kidney led by prematurity drive the progression of long-term abnormal kidney function and could potentially explain the high risk of long-term CKD in preterm infants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-00130-yDOI Listing
October 2021

Knockdown of RREB1 inhibits cell proliferation via enhanced p16 expression in gastric cancer.

Cell Cycle 2021 Oct 19:1-11. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Department of General Surgery, Xi'an Children's Hospital, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.

Gastric cancer (GC) is the most common gastrointestinal malignancy worldwide. However, the molecular mechanisms of the progression of GC are not fully understood. Ras-responsive element binding protein 1 (RREB1) is an oncogene in many types of cancer that is involved in various biological processes, such as DNA damage repair, cell growth and proliferation, cell differentiation, fat development, and fasting glucose balance. In this study, we demonstrate the role of RREB1 in gastric cancer. First, by immunohistochemistry staining (IHC) and bioinformatics analysis, we demonstrated the expression of RREB1 in gastric cancer and paired normal gastric tissues. Then, we established RREB1 overexpression and knockdown cell lines via lentiviral transfection and detected cell proliferation by using MTT, colony-forming, cell cycle and apoptosis assays in vitro. We demonstrated the effect of RREB1 on cell proliferation in vivo by using a subcutaneous xenograft tumor model in nude mice. Finally, by using Western blotting and IHC, we demonstrated the possible mechanism by which RREB1 affects cell proliferation. The IHC and bioinformatics analyses demonstrated that RREB1 was highly expressed in gastric cancer and showed that RREB1-expressing patients had a larger tumor size and more lymphovascular invasion than RREB1-negative patients. Knockdown of RREB1 inhibited cell proliferation in vivo and in vitro. Knockdown of RREB1 enhanced p16 expression in vivo and in vitro, and p16 expression was negatively related to RREB1 in gastric cancer tissue. RREB1 was highly expressed in gastric cancer, and knockdown of RREB1 inhibited cell proliferation via enhanced p16 expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15384101.2021.1987676DOI Listing
October 2021

Cross-cultural adaptation and measurement properties of the VISA-A questionnaire for Chinese patients with Achilles Tendinopathy.

Phys Ther Sport 2021 Oct 14;52:256-262. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Department of Sports Medicine and Rehabilitation, Beijing Sport University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Objective: To culturally adapt the VISA-A into a simplified Chinese version (VISA-A-CHN) and test its measurement properties.

Design: Methodological study; SETTING: Hospital and university laboratory.

Participants: 240 subjects were divided into the healthy (n = 80), at-risk (n = 80), and tendinopathy groups (n = 80).

Main Outcomes Measures: The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, construct validity, and the floor and ceiling effect of the VISA-A-CHN.

Results: The VISA-A-CHN showed adequate internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.73, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.81), excellent test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.97, 95%CI = 0.95 to 0.98), standard error of measurement of 2.2 points, minimum detectable change of 6.0 points, with no floor and ceiling effects. Two factors (pain/symptoms and physical function/activity) were extracted in exploratory factor analysis. There were moderate associations of VISA-A-CHN score with scores of Lower Extremity Functional Scale and SF-36 physical components (r = 0.53-0.74, P < 0.01) but low associations with SF-36 mental components (r = 0.12-0.22, P > 0.05). VISA-A-CHN mean score of Achilles tendinopathy group was significantly lower than those of healthy and at-risk groups (P < 0.01).

Conclusions: The VISA-A-CHN is equivalent to the original version in terms of language and measurement properties. It can be used as the outcome measure for Chinese patients with Achilles tendinopathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ptsp.2021.10.006DOI Listing
October 2021

Metabolic engineering Yarrowia lipolytica for a dual biocatalytic system to produce fatty acid ethyl esters from renewable feedstock in situ and in one pot.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Oct 18. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai, 200237, People's Republic of China.

Given the grave concerns over increasing consumption of petroleum resources and dramatic environmental changes arising from carbon dioxide emissions worldwide, microbial biosynthesis of fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) biofuels as renewable and sustainable replacements for petroleum-based fuels has attracted much attention. As one of the most important microbial chassis, the nonconventional oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica has emerged as a paradigm organism for the production of several advanced biofuels and chemicals. Here, we report the engineering of Y. lipolytica for use as an efficient dual biocatalytic system for in situ and one-pot production of FAEEs from renewable feedstock. Compared to glucose with 5.7% (w/w) conversion rate to FAEEs, sunflower seed oil in the culture medium was efficiently used to generate FAEEs with 84% (w/w) conversion rate to FAEEs by the engineered Y. lipolytica strain GQY20 that demonstrates an optimized intercellular heterologous FAEE synthesis pathway. In particular, the titer of extracellular FAEEs from sunflower seed oil reached 9.9 g/L, 10.9-fold higher than that with glucose as a carbon source. An efficient dual biocatalytic system combining ex vivo and strengthened in vitro FAEE production routes was constructed by overexpression of a lipase (Lip2) variant in the background strain GQY20, which further increased FAEEs levels to 13.5 g/L. Notably, deleting the ethanol metabolism pathway had minimal impact on FAEE production. Finally, waste cooking oil, a low-cost oil-based substance, was used as a carbon source for FAEE production in the Y. lipolytica dual biocatalytic system, resulting in production of 12.5 g/L FAEEs. Thus, the developed system represents a promising green and sustainable process for efficient biodiesel production. KEY POINTS: • FAEEs were produced by engineered Yarrowia lipolytica. • A Lip2 variant was overexpressed in the yeast to create a dual biocatalytic system. • Waste cooking oil as a substrate resulted in a high titer of 12.5 g/L FAEEs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-021-11415-7DOI Listing
October 2021

The apparent inverse association between dietary carotene intake and risk of cardiovascular mortality disappeared after adjustment for other cardioprotective dietary intakes: The Japan collaborative cohort study.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Public Health, Department of Social Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita Shi, Osaka, 565-0871, Japan; Department of Public Health, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Kita 15 Nishi 7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-8638, Japan. Electronic address:

Background And Purpose: An effect of dietary carotenes on risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is uncertain. We aimed to investigate whether the association between dietary carotenes intake and risk of CVD mortality will persist after controlling for the intakes of potential cardioprotective dietary factors that correlate with dietary alpha- and/or beta-carotenes.

Methods And Results: We followed up a total of 58,646 Japanese between 1988 and 1990 and 2009. We used a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to determine the dietary intakes of carotenes, and estimated the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of CVD mortality in relation to carotene intake by the proportional hazard regression developed by David Cox. During 965,970 person-years of follow-up (median 19.3 years), we identified 3388 total CVD deaths. After adjusting for demographic and lifestyle factors, dietary intakes of alpha-carotene were significantly associated with the reduced risk of mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD); adjusted HR (95% CI) in the highest versus lowest quintiles of intake was 0.75 (0.58-0.96; P-trend = 0.02) and dietary intakes of beta-carotene were significantly associated with the reduced risk of mortality from CVD, CHD, and other CVD; adjusted HRs (95% CIs) were 0.88 (0.79-0.98; P-trend = 0.04), 0.78 (0.61-0.99; P-trend = 0.01), and 0.81 (0.67-0.98; P-trend = 0.04), respectively. However, after further adjusting for the dietary intakes of potassium, calcium, vitamins C, E, or K, these associations disappeared.

Conclusions: -Dietary alpha- and beta-carotene intakes were not associated with risk of CVD mortality after controlling for intakes of other potential cardioprotective nutrients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2021.07.026DOI Listing
July 2021

Screening Hit to Clinical Candidate: Discovery of BMS-963272, a Potent, Selective MGAT2 Inhibitor for the Treatment of Metabolic Disorders.

J Med Chem 2021 Oct 6;64(19):14773-14792. Epub 2021 Oct 6.

MGAT2 inhibition is a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of metabolic disorders. High-throughput screening of the BMS internal compound collection identified the aryl dihydropyridinone compound (hMGAT2 IC = 175 nM) as a hit. Compound had moderate potency against human MGAT2, was inactive vs mouse MGAT2 and had poor microsomal metabolic stability. A novel chemistry route was developed to synthesize aryl dihydropyridinone analogs to explore structure-activity relationship around this hit, leading to the discovery of potent and selective MGAT2 inhibitors , , and that are stable to liver microsomal metabolism. After triaging out due to its inferior potency, pharmacokinetics, and structure-based liabilities and tetrazole due to its inferior channel liability profile, (BMS-963272) was selected as the clinical candidate following demonstration of on-target weight loss efficacy in the diet-induced obese mouse model and an acceptable safety and tolerability profile in multiple preclinical species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.1c01356DOI Listing
October 2021

Investigation and Analysis of the Key Objectives of WFAS "Technical Specifications of Acupuncture and Moxibustion: General Rules for the Drafting".

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 22;2021:9508061. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Institute of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700, China.

Objective: To determine the key objectives of WFAS "Technical Specifications of Acupuncture and Moxibustion: General Rules for the Drafting" (hereinafter referred to as General Rules).

Methods: From the medical institutions, colleges, and scientific research organizations at major levels in China and overseas, leading researchers and experts in the field of acupuncture-moxibustion standardization, as well as some experienced foreign specialists in acupuncture-moxibustion, were selected as the respondents. The questionnaire was prepared by using the website of Questionnaire Star, and 60 links of the questionnaire were sent out through e-mail. Excel was used to set up the database and conduct statistical analysis.

Results: Fifty-one valid questionnaires were collected with effective recovery rate of 85%, involving 9 countries (China, South Korea, Italy, Spain, Sweden, Norway, Netherlands, United States, and Canada) from 3 continents. Most experts agreed with us on the target people, structural elements, and text structure proposed in General Rules and held that the General Rules should emphasize the safety and international applicability and should stipulate in details the common problems (contraindications, indications, taboo crowd, target people, therapeutic effects) of various techniques and the specific contents of technical operation (manipulating techniques, selection of patient's body position and treated areas, disinfection and environmental requirements, selection of acupuncture-moxibustion instruments, cautions, needle retention time, treatment frequency, precise location of the acupoints, treatment course) in order to enhance the practicality and operability.

Conclusion: The key objectives of General Rules mainly include target people, structural elements, text structure, safety requirements, common technical problems of acupuncture-moxibustion, and specific details of technical manipulations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/9508061DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8483902PMC
September 2021

Evaluation of gastric emptying in patients with gastroparesis by three-dimensional ultrasound.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Aug;9(16):1343

Department of Ultrasound, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Background: To diagnose gastroparesis, it is necessary to assess gastric emptying accurately. This study aims to investigate the role of three-dimensional ultrasonography (3-D US) on the measurement of gastric volume to evaluate gastric accommodation in healthy patients.

Methods: In this study, 21 volunteers, 46 patients with diabetic gastroparesis (DG), and 22 patients with postsurgical gastroparesis (PSG) underwent 3-D US after oral administration of 250 mL gastrointestinal contrast at 2, 30, 60, and 90 min. The volume of the contrast agent in the stomach was then calculated using the virtual organ computer-aided analysis (VOCAL) (Virtual Organ Computer-aided AnaLysis, General Electric Medical Systems, Kretztechnik, Zipf, Austria).

Results: In the DG group, the gastric residue volumes at postprandial 60 and 90 min were significantly higher than those in the healthy group (P<0.05), and the areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of these parameters were 0.830 and 0.957, respectively. There were significant differences between the PSG and healthy groups at 60 and 90 min; however, the AUC of gastric residue at 90 min (0.955) was higher than the AUC at 60 min (0.697).

Conclusions: Therefore, this study showed that the 3-D US is a powerful tool for assessing gastric emptying and provides a new strategy for diagnosing gastroparesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-21-3972DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8422084PMC
August 2021

Optimization of 4D flow MRI velocity field in the aorta with divergence-free smoothing.

Med Biol Eng Comput 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Structural Heart Disease, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Fuwai Hospital; State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Peking Union Medical College, 167 Beilishi Road, Xicheng District, 100037, Beijing, China.

Divergence-free smoothing with wall treatment (DFS) method is proposed for processing with four-dimensional (4D) flow magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of blood flows to enhance the quality of flow field with physical constraints. The new method satisfies the no-slip wall boundary condition and applies wall function of velocity profile for better estimating the velocity gradient in the near-wall region, and consequently improved wall shear stress (WSS) calculation against the issue of coarse resolution of 4D flow MRI. In the first testing case, blood flow field obtained from 4D flow MRI is well smoothed by DFS method. A great consistency is observed between the post-processed 4D flow MRI data and the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) data in the interested velocity field. WSS has an apparent improvement due to the proposed near-wall treatment with special wall function comparing to the result from original 4D flow MRI data or the DFS-processed data with no wall function. The other five cases also show the same performance that smoothed velocity field and improved WSS estimation are achieved on 4D flow MRI data optimized by DFS. The improvements will benefit the study of hemodynamics regarding the determination of location or the potential possibility of lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11517-021-02417-8DOI Listing
September 2021

The effect of genetically modified platelet-derived growth factor-BB over-expressing mesenchymal stromal cells during core decompression for steroid-associated osteonecrosis of the femoral head in rabbits.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 Sep 15;12(1):503. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, 300 Pasteur Drive, Edwards R155, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA.

Background: Approximately one third of patients undergoing core decompression (CD) for early-stage osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) experience progression of the disease, and subsequently require total hip arthroplasty (THA). Thus, identifying adjunctive treatments to optimize bone regeneration during CD is an unmet clinical need. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB plays a central role in cell growth and differentiation. The aim of this study was to characterize mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) that were genetically modified to overexpress PDGF-BB (PDGF-BB-MSCs) in vitro and evaluate their therapeutic effect when injected into the bone tunnel at the time of CD in an in vivo rabbit model of steroid-associated ONFH.

Methods: In vitro studies: Rabbit MSCs were transduced with a lentivirus vector carrying the human PDGF-BB gene under the control of either the cytomegalovirus (CMV) or phosphoglycerate (PGK) promoter. The proliferative rate, PDGF-BB expression level, and osteogenic differentiation capacity of unmodified MSCs, CMV-PDGF-BB-MSCs, and PGK-PDGF-BB-MSCs were assessed. In vivo studies: Twenty-four male New Zealand white rabbits received an intramuscular (IM) injection of methylprednisolone 20 mg/kg. Four weeks later, the rabbits were divided into four groups: the CD group, the hydrogel [HG, (a collagen-alginate mixture)] group, the MSC group, and the PGK-PDGF-BB-MSC group. Eight weeks later, the rabbits were sacrificed, their femurs were harvested, and microCT, mechanical testing, and histological analyses were performed.

Results: In vitro studies: PGK-PDGF-BB-MSCs proliferated more rapidly than unmodified MSCs (P < 0.001) and CMV-PDGF-BB-MSCs (P < 0.05) at days 3 and 7. CMV-PDGF-BB-MSCs demonstrated greater PDGF-BB expression than PGK-PDGF-BB-MSCs (P < 0.01). However, PGK-PDGF-BB-MSCs exhibited greater alkaline phosphatase staining at 14 days (P < 0.01), and osteogenic differentiation at 28 days (P = 0.07) than CMV-PDGF-BB-MSCs. In vivo: The PGK-PDGF-BB-MSC group had a trend towards greater bone mineral density (BMD) than the CD group (P = 0.074). The PGK-PDGF-BB-MSC group demonstrated significantly lower numbers of empty lacunae (P < 0.001), greater osteoclast density (P < 0.01), and greater angiogenesis (P < 0.01) than the other treatment groups.

Conclusion: The use of PGK-PDGF-BB-MSCs as an adjunctive treatment with CD may reduce progression of osteonecrosis and enhance bone regeneration and angiogenesis in the treatment of early-stage ONFH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13287-021-02572-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8444495PMC
September 2021

First Report of Causing Leaf Spot Disease on in China.

Plant Dis 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Guangxi University for Nationalities, 47874, Guangxi Colleges and Universities Key Laboratory of Utilization of Microbial and Botanical Resources, 188 Daxuedong Road, Nanning, Guangxi, China, 530006.

(Thunb.) Rchb. f. (Orchidaceae family, known as Baiji in Chinese) is a perennial herb and has been traditionally used for hemostasis and detumescence in China. In April of 2020, a leaf spot disease on was observed in plant nurseries (∼0.2 h) in Guilin, Guangxi Province, China. Approximately 20% of the plants were symptomatic, of which 150 plants were randomly selected for investigation. Initial symptoms include the appearance of small, circular or irregular light brown spots, randomly scattered on the edges and surfaces of the leaves, which progressively expand into large, suborbicular or irregular-shaped dark brown, necrotic areas. At the severe stage, the lesions coalesced into large necrotic areas and ultimately resulted in leaf abscission. To isolate the pathogen, three representative plants exhibiting symptoms were collected from the nurseries. Leaf tissues (5 × 5 mm) were cut from the margin of necrotic lesions (n = 18), surface-disinfected in 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution for 2 min, then rinsed three times in sterile water before isolation. The tissues were plated on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium, and incubated at 28°C (12-h photoperiod) for 3 days. Hyphal tips from recently germinated spores were transferred to PDA to obtain pure cultures. Nine fungal isolates with similar morphological characteristics were obtained. Three single-spore isolates, BJ23.1, BJ55.1, and BJ91.3, were subjected to further morphological and molecular characterisation. Colonies on PDA plates were villose, had a dense growth of aerial mycelia and appeared white (1A1) to yellowish white (3A2). Macroconidia were smooth, hyaline, straight to slightly curved, usually contained three or five septa, and measuring 23.3 to 42.1 × 3.0 to 6.2 μm (mean ± SD: 31.2 ± 5.1 × 4.2 ± 0.6 μm, n = 50). Microconidia were generally cylindrical, straight to slightly curved, aseptate, and measuring 7.2 to 18.8 × 2.5 to 4.3 μm (mean ± SD: 12.1 ± 2.8 × 3.3 ± 0.5 μm, n = 62). Morphological characteristics are similar to those of F. commune (Skovgaard et al. 2003). For molecular identification, the genomic DNA of the isolates BJ23.1, BJ55.1, and BJ91.3 were extracted using the CTAB method (Guo et al. 2000). The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA, partial translation elongation factor-1 alpha (TEF-1α), RNA polymerase second largest subunit (RPB2), and the mitochondrial small subunit rDNA (mtSSU) genes were amplified using primer pairs [ITS1/ITS4 (White et al. 1990), EF-1/EF-2 (O'Donnell et al. 1998), and 5f2/11ar (Liu et al. 1999, Reeb et al. 2004), MS1/MS2 (Li et al. 1994), respectively]. The obtained sequences were deposited in NCBI GenBank under the following accession numbers: ITS (MZ424697 to MZ424699), TEF-1α (MZ513467 to MZ513469), RPB2 (MZ513473 to MZ513475), and mtSSU (MZ513470 to MZ513472). BLAST analysis of the deposited sequences showed 99 to 100% identity with those of F. commune present in GenBank (Accession numbers: DQ016205, MH582348, MH582181, AF077383). In addition, a phylogenetic analysis using concatenated sequences of ITS, TEF-1α, mtSSU genes showed that BJ23.1, BJ55.1, and BJ91.3 located on the same clade with strains of . Therefore, based on morphological and molecular characteristics, the isolates were identified as (Skovgaard et al. 2003, Stewart et al. 2006). Pathogenicity was tested using 1.5-year-old plants. Healthy leaves on plants were inoculated with 5 × 5 mm mycelial discs of strains BJ23.1, BJ55.1, and BJ91.3 from 3-day-old PDA cultures, each isolate was inoculated onto three plants; three other plants inoculated with sterile PDA discs served as controls. All plants were enclosed in transparent plastic bags and incubated in a greenhouse at 28°C for 14 days (12-h photoperiod). Three days post-inoculation, leaf spot symptoms appeared on the inoculated leaves. No symptoms were detected on control plants. Experiments were replicated three times with similar results. To fulfill Koch's postulates, was consistently re-isolated from symptomatic tissue and confirmed by morphology and sequencing, whereas no fungus was isolated from the control plants. has been reported to cause diseases on some plants, including sugarcane (Wang et al. 2018), maize (Xi et al. 2019) and Wax Gourd (Zeng et al. 2020). To our knowledge, this is the first report of causing leaf spot disease on B. striata in China. Identification of this pathogen provides the information for further studies to develop management strategies to control the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-07-21-1486-PDNDOI Listing
September 2021

The Elderly Nutritional Index for Geriatric Malnutrition Assessment (ENIGMA): concurrent, construct and predictive validity in an external evaluation cohort of community-dwelling older persons.

Br J Nutr 2021 Sep 6:1-12. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Geriatric Education and Research Institute, Singapore, Singapore.

We previously developed a malnutrition risk index, the Elderly Nutritional Index for Geriatric Malnutrition Assessment (ENIGMA) with good predictive accuracy for mortality risk in an original population cohort (SLAS1). Herein, we further evaluate the concurrent and predictive validity of the ENIGMA construct in an external validation cohort (SLAS-2) of 2824 community-dwelling older adults aged 55+ years. They were assessed on the ENIGMA index, Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form (MNA-SF) and the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI), known correlates of malnutrition, and baseline and follow-up functional dependency and 10-year mortality risk. Higher ENIGMA risk categories were significantly associated (P < 0·001) with lower education, living alone, smoking, low physical activity, BMI < 18·5 kg/m2, poorer muscle strength and functional mobility, exhaustion, physical frailty, homocysteine, glomerular filtration rate, Hb, red and white blood cell counts, platelets, systemic inflammation indexes, metabolic syndrome, CVD, cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale ≥ 5). ENIGMA scores showed statistically significant (P < 0·001) correlations but low-to-moderate concordance with MNA-SF (r = 0·148, agreement = 45·9 %, kappa = 0·085) and GNRI scores (r = 0·156, agreement = 45·8 %, kappa = 0·096). Controlling for known correlates of malnutrition, only high-risk ENIGMA among the indexes significantly predicted baseline functional dependency (OR = 1·64, 95 % CI 1·01, 2·65) and mortality (hazard ratio = 1·65 (95 % CI 1·04, 2·62). ENIGMA marginally out-performed MNA-SF and GNRI in predicting baseline functional dependency (AUC: 0·625 v. 0·584 v. 0·526), follow-up functional dependency (AUC: 0·594 v. 0·525 v. 0·479) and 10-year mortality risk (AUC: 0·641 v. 0·596 v. 0·595). The concurrent and predictive validity of the ENIGMA construct is replicated in an external evaluation study of community-dwelling older persons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114521003433DOI Listing
September 2021

Malnutrition Risk, Physical Function Decline and Disability in Middle-Aged and Older Adults Followed Up in the Singapore Longitudinal Ageing Study.

Clin Interv Aging 2021 20;16:1527-1539. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Department of Psychological Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore.

Purpose: Malnutrition and population ageing are doubly global healthcare challenges. It is widely recognized that disability is a major contributor to malnutrition among older people, but the importance of reducing malnutrition risk (MR) for disability prevention is given little attention. We investigated the association between MR and risk of incident disability and functional decline among community-dwelling older persons.

Materials And Methods: Prospective cohort study of community-dwelling older adults aged 55 and above (Singapore Longitudinal Ageing Study) with 3-5 years follow-up. MR was measured at baseline using an appropriate and validated index (ENIGMA); physical and functional measures at baseline and follow-up included instrumental and basic activity of daily living (ADL), knee extension (KES), gait velocity (GV), timed up-and-go (TUG).

Results: Compared to low MR, mild-moderate MR (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.02-2.01) and severe MR (OR=1.74, 95% CI=1.10-2.74) were associated with higher risks of incident disability. Severe MR was associated with functional decline (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.11-2.57). Estimates were adjusted for demographic, social, lifestyle behaviour and health variables. In particular, eating difficulty was associated with incident disability and functional decline, and low lymphocyte with functional decline. Severe MR and low albumin were associated with 37% worse GV and 126% worse TUG declines; consuming few vegetables or fruits with 34% worse KES decline; polypharmacy with 56% worse TUG decline.

Conclusion: Malnutrition risk increased the risk of incident disability and functional decline in non-disabled persons, it worsened physical performance declines. Further studies should investigate the effectiveness of nutritional interventions in reducing the risk of disability among older people.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S322696DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8384148PMC
August 2021

Comparative transcriptome analysis of abnormal cap and healthy fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom Lentinula edodes.

Fungal Genet Biol 2021 Nov 13;156:103614. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Institute of Plant and Environment Protection, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Beijing Engineering Research Center for Edible Mushroom, 9 Shuguang Garden Zhonglu, Haidian District, Beijing 100097, China; College of Agriculture and Food Engineering, Baise University, 21 Zhongshan Second Street, Youjiang District, Guangxi 533000, China.

Lentinula edodes, a commercially important mushroom, is cultivated worldwide. Artificially cultivated L. edodes often present with abnormal symptoms in the fruiting body, which affect their commercial value and reduce production efficiency. In this study, we carried out a comparative transcriptome analysis of normal fruiting body pileus (LeNP), normal margin in abnormal fruiting body pileus (LeAPNM), and abnormal margin in abnormal fruiting body pileus (LeAPAM). Metabolic pathways such as those involved in transmembrane transport, ribosome production, tryptophan metabolism, arginine and proline metabolism, and the metabolism of other amino acids were significantly enriched in LeAPAM. F-box, short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases, the major facilitator superfamily, and the FMN_red superfamily are related to malformation in L. edodes. Genes encoding heat shock proteins, G protein, and β-1,3-glucanase in the GH5 family showed different expression patterns, suggesting that these genes are involved in the development of L. edodes fruiting bodies. In particular, CAZymes, which are involved in the development of cell walls in L. edodes, were highly expressed in LeAPAM. According to TEM observation, the cell wall of LeAPAM samples showed significant thickening compared to the other samples. These results suggested that cell wall anabolism in LeAPAM samples was more active than that in normal fruiting bodies, enhancing the environmental adaptability of the fungus. This study provides preliminary data for future research aimed at solving the phenomenon of abnormal fruiting bodies of L. edodes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fgb.2021.103614DOI Listing
November 2021

Inhibition of DNA methylation derepresses PPARγ and attenuates pulmonary fibrosis.

Br J Pharmacol 2021 Aug 11. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Organ Fibrosis and Remodeling Research Center, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Nanjing University School of Medicine, Nanjing, China.

Background And Purpose: Development of pulmonary fibrosis is associated with altered DNA methylation modifications of fibrogenic gene expressions; however, their causal relationships and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study investigates the critical role of DNA methylation aberration-associated suppression of PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma) in pulmonary fibrosis.

Experimental Approach: Expressions of PPARγ and bioactive DNA methyltranferases, and PPARγ promoter methylation status were examined from fibrotic lungs of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients and bleomycin (Blm)-treated mice. DNA demethylating agent 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5aza) and glycyrrhizic acid (GA) derived from medicinal plant were assessed for their PPARγ derepression and anti-pulmonary fibrosis activities. PPARγ knockout mice were created to determine the critical role of PPARγ in the protections.

Key Results: Lung PPARγ expressions were markedly suppressed in IPF patients and Blm mice, accompanied by increased methyltransferase (DNMT) 1/DNMT3a and PPARγ promoter hypermethylation. Administrations of 5aza and GA similarly demethylated PPARγ promoter, recovered the PPARγ loss and alleviated the fibrotic lung pathologies, including structural alterations and adverse expressions of fibrotic mediators and inflammatory cytokines. In cultured lung fibroblast and alveolar epithelial cells, GA alleviated the fibrotic PPARγ suppression in a gain of DNMT-sensitive manner, and in PPARγ knockout mice, the anti-fibrotic effects of 5aza and GA were significantly reduced, suggesting that PPARγ is a critical mediator of epigenetic pulmonary fibrogenesis.

Conclusion And Implications: Aberrant DNMT1/3a elevations and the resultant PPARγ suppression contribute significantly to the development of pulmonary fibrosis, and strategies targeting DNMT/PPARγ axis by synthetic or natural small compounds might benefit patients with pulmonary fibrotic disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.15655DOI Listing
August 2021

COVID-19 vaccine perceptions in New York State's intellectual and developmental disabilities community.

Disabil Health J 2021 Jul 31:101178. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Family and Social Medicine/Department of Pediatrics, Co-Director, University Center of Excellence in Developmental Disabilities, Einstein College of Medicine-Montefiore Medical Center, 1300 Morris Park Ave., Bronx, NY, 10461, United States. Electronic address:

Background: People with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are at disproportionate risk for severe COVID-19 outcomes, particularly those living in congregate care settings. Yet, there is limited data on vaccine perceptions in the disability community.

Objective: To explore COVID-19 vaccine perceptions in individuals with IDD, their family members, and those who work with them, to inform a statewide vaccine information and messaging project.

Methods: A national survey, adapted in five languages for the IDD community, was distributed to a convenience sample of IDD organizations throughout New York State. Constructs included vaccine intention, reasons for vaccine hesitancy, and trusted sources of vaccine information. Zip code data were used to map respondent location and vaccine preferences.

Results: Of n = 825 respondents, approximately 75% intended to or had received the vaccine across roles (i.e., people with developmental disabilities, family members, direct care workers) and racial/ethnic groups. Greater vaccine hesitancy was reported in younger individuals and those making decisions on behalf of a person with IDD. Concerns included side effects and the swiftness of vaccine development. Black and Hispanic participants had heightened concerns about being an "experiment" for the vaccine. Trusted sources of information included healthcare providers and family members. Respondents who intended to/received the vaccine were dispersed throughout the state.

Conclusions: Vaccine preferences in this New York State disability community sample align with national data. Identified concerns suggest the need for community education that addresses misperceptions. Age and race differences in perspectives highlight the need for tailored education, delivered by trusted messengers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dhjo.2021.101178DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8325377PMC
July 2021

Morphology, Morphogenesis, and Molecular Phylogeny of a New Freshwater Ciliate, n. sp. (Ciliophora, Hypotrichia).

Front Microbiol 2021 15;12:705826. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Laboratory of Protozoological Biodiversity and Evolution in Wetland, College of Life Sciences, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an, China.

The morphology and the regulation of cortical pattern associated with the cell size, division, and phylogenetic position of a new hypotrichous ciliate, n. sp. collected from a freshwater pond in southern China, were investigated. n. sp. is characterized as follows: size 60-115 μm × 25-45 μm; 19-21 adoral membranelles; buccal cirrus near anterior end of endoral and paroral; cirrus IV/3 at about level of buccal vertex; right marginal row begins ahead of buccal vertex; 11-16 right and 12-19 left marginal cirri; and dorsal cilia about 5 μm long. The basic morphogenetic process in n. sp. is consistent with that of the type species, . Phylogenetic analyses based on small subunit ribosomal DNA sequence data reveal that the systematic position of n. sp. is rather unstable with low support values across the tree and the genus is not monophyletic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.705826DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8319829PMC
July 2021

Gamma-Ray Observation of the Cygnus Region in the 100-TeV Energy Region.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Jul;127(3):031102

Institute of Modern Physics, SouthWest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, China.

We report observations of gamma-ray emissions with energies in the 100-TeV energy region from the Cygnus region in our Galaxy. Two sources are significantly detected in the directions of the Cygnus OB1 and OB2 associations. Based on their positional coincidences, we associate one with a pulsar PSR J2032+4127 and the other mainly with a pulsar wind nebula PWN G75.2+0.1, with the pulsar moving away from its original birthplace situated around the centroid of the observed gamma-ray emission. This work would stimulate further studies of particle acceleration mechanisms at these gamma-ray sources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.127.031102DOI Listing
July 2021

Tissue engineering of corneal stroma via melt electrowriting.

J Tissue Eng Regen Med 2021 Oct 5;15(10):841-851. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Ocular Surface Center, Department of Ophthalmology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA.

The cornea serves as the main refractive component of the eye with the corneal stroma constituting the thickest component in a stratified layered system of epithelia, stroma, and endothelium. Current treatment options for patients suffering from corneal diseases are limited to transplantation of a human donor cornea (keratoplasty) or to implantation of an artificial cornea (keratoprosthesis). Nevertheless, donor shortage and failure of artificial corneas to integrate with local tissue constitute important problems that have not been yet circumvented. Recent advances in biofabrication have made great progress toward the manufacture of tailored biomaterial templates with the potential of guiding partially or totally the regeneration process of the native cornea. However, the role of the corneal stroma on current tissue engineering strategies is often neglected. Here, we achieved a tissue-engineered corneal stroma substitute culturing primary keratocytes on scaffolds prepared via melt electrowriting (MEW). Scaffolds were designed to contain highly organized micrometric fibers to ensure transparency and encourage primary human keratocytes to self-orchestrate their own extracellular matrix deposition and remodeling. Results demonstrated reliable cell attachment and growth over a period of 5 weeks and confirmed the formation of a dense and highly organized de novo tissue containing collagen I, V, and VI as well as Keratocan, which resembled very closely the native corneal stoma. In summary, MEW brings us closer to the biofabrication of a viable corneal stroma substitute.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/term.3235DOI Listing
October 2021

Effective Adsorption of Methyl Orange on Organo-Silica Nanoparticles Functionalized by a Multi-Hydroxyl-Containing Gemini Surfactant: A Joint Experimental and Theoretical Study.

ACS Omega 2021 Jul 12;6(28):18014-18023. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Physics, Innovation Center of Materials for Energy and Environment Technologies, College of Science, Tibet University, Lhasa 850000, China.

A novel multi-hydroxyl-containing gemini surfactant (G) is first designed for modifying silica precursors (SiNPs), with the purpose of fabricating organic adsorbents targeted at methyl orange (MO). The purity of G and structural character of the resultant G-SiNPs are unveiled through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry-derivative thermogravimetry, scanning electron microscopy, and surface analysis (BET). Compared with SiNPs, G-SiNPs exhibit enhanced hydrophobicity, enlarged interlayer spacing, and increased thermal weight losses with the modifier availability reaching as high as 100%. Enhanced MO adsorption is obtained from the higher adsorption capacity of G-SiNPs (401.88 mg/g) than SiNPs (64.72 mg/g), which is more effective than most of the existing silica-based adsorbents. Pseudo-second-order and Langmuir models conform to all adsorption processes, indicating that the adsorption mainly relies on the availability of adsorption sites and characterized by a homogeneous adsorption form. By combining the experimental study and theoretical calculation methods, it can be demonstrated that the as-synthesized adsorbent G-SiNPs own multi-active sites that contribute to multi-adsorption mechanisms. The partition process, electrostatic interactions, and OH-π interactions are all responsible for the adsorption performance of G-SiNPs. This study throws light on the exploration of the superb MO adsorbent in aspects of not only the novel structured modifier and precursor but also theoretical analysis for gaining insights into the adsorption mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.1c01788DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8296568PMC
July 2021

The exposure-response association between humidex and bacillary dysentery: A two-stage time series analysis of 316 cities in mainland China.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Nov 2;797:148840. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan 250012, Shandong Province, People's Republic of China; Shandong University Climate Change and Health Center, Jinan 250012, Shandong Province, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Background: Many studies have reported the interactive effects between relative humidity and temperature on infectious diseases. However, evidence regarding the combined effects of relative humidity and temperature on bacillary dysentery (BD) is limited, especially for large-scale studies. To address this research need, humidex was utilized as a comprehensive index of relative humidity and temperature. We aimed to estimate the effect of humidex on BD across mainland China, evaluate its heterogeneity, and identify potential effect modifiers.

Methods: Daily meteorological and BD surveillance data from 2014 to 2016 were obtained for 316 prefecture-level cities in mainland China. Humidex was calculated on the basis of relative humidity and temperature. A multicity, two-stage time series analysis was then performed. In the first stage, a common distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) was established to obtain city-specific estimates. In the second stage, a multivariate meta-analysis was conducted to pool these estimates, assess the significance of heterogeneity, and explore potential effect modifiers.

Results: The pooled cumulative estimates showed that humidex could promote the transmission of BD. The exposure-response relationship was nearly linear, with a maximum cumulative relative risk (RR) of 1.45 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.29-1.63] at a humidex value of 40.94. High humidex had an acute adverse effect on BD. The humidex-BD relationship could be modified by latitude, urbanization rate, the natural growth rate of population, and the number of primary school students per thousand persons.

Conclusions: High humidex could increase the risk of BD incidence. Thus, it is suitable to incorporate humidex as a predictor into the early warning system of BD and to inform the general public in advance to be cautious when humidex is high. This is especially true for regions with higher latitude, higher urbanization rates, lower natural growth rates of population, and lower numbers of primary school students per thousand persons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148840DOI Listing
November 2021

Role of Flow Cytometric Immunophenotyping for Classic Hodgkin Lymphoma in Small Biopsy and Cytology Specimens.

Arch Pathol Lab Med 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

From the Hematopathology (Chan, Gao, Sigler, Baik, Roshal, Lin), Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

Context.—: The diagnosis of classic Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) traditionally requires surgical tissue biopsy because of the paucity of diagnostic Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells. Diagnosis can be challenging in small core needle and cytologic biopsies, which are increasingly used because of reduced costs and minimal invasiveness. Flow cytometric (FC) identification of Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells is possible, but FC test efficacy is not well studied outside of validation settings, especially in small specimens.

Objective.—: To assess the testing efficacy of FC performed on small biopsy and cytology specimens for the diagnosis of CHL.

Design.—: We reviewed 131 patients with CHL and 459 patients without CHL during a 3-year period who underwent a small biopsy procedure, including core biopsy and/or cytology evaluation, with concurrent routine clinical FC testing for CHL, assessing performance of FC in small specimens.

Results.—: Evaluating testing efficacy, sensitivity was 95.4% and specificity was 98.2%, whereas positive and negative predictive values were 92.2% and 99.0%, respectively. Although there were more false-positive results than compared with published validation studies, expert review identified distinct diagnostic pitfalls; awareness of these may improve testing efficacy.

Conclusions.—: Although FC diagnosis of CHL was historically considered unfeasible, our findings in a real-world clinical setting suggest that FC adds diagnostic value to small biopsy evaluation, reducing time to treatment, costs, and invasive excisional procedures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5858/arpa.2020-0795-OADOI Listing
July 2021

The New Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Outbreak May Mean That Existing Commercial Vaccines Are Not Enough to Fully Protect Against the Epidemic Strains.

Front Vet Sci 2021 5;8:697839. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China.

On October 30, 2020, piglets and sows in the farrowing house of a pig farm in Jiangxi showed clinical symptoms such as anorexia, watery diarrhea, and vomiting. Epidemiological test, clinical necropsy, and RT-PCR test were carried out on the pig farm for diagnosis. After comprehensive considerations, the disease was judged as porcine epidemic diarrhea virus infection. Thereafter, a series of comprehensive prevention and control measures such as emergency vaccination with autogenous vaccines were adopted. Half a month after inoculation with autogenous vaccines for the farm, the mortality rate of newborn piglets in the farrowing house began to decline, and production gradually returned to being stable. The second-generation sequencing analysis and phylogenetic analysis showed that the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) sequence obtained from the stool and small intestine samples of the diseased pigs on the farm was 97.8% homologous to the vaccine strain. At the same time, antibody testing found that the vaccinated pigs on the pig farm had satisfactory immune response. This case indicated that the PEDV outbreak on the pig farm might aggravate owing to the strain being mutated and could escape the immune protection of the existing vaccine. This case has accumulated technical data for the clinical prevention and control of porcine epidemic diarrhea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.697839DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8287018PMC
July 2021

[Analysis of the results of international demand survey on ].

Zhongguo Zhen Jiu 2021 Jul;41(7):799-804

Institute of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700, China.

The survey is conducted prior to the development of international standard, - () to determine the international demand. The survey includes 5 aspects, i.e. the application status of acupuncture and moxibustion abroad and the demand for the development of international standards, the priority of diseases developed by international standards, the necessity of the transformation of international standards from domestic standards, the key clinical problems to be solved by international standards, and the correlation between professional level and demand intention. The survey results show that the international demand of the is definite. Regarding the application range of acupuncture-moxibustion and the key clinical questions, the special consideration should be taken to the differences in the demands of the practitioners from different countries during the development of standard.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13703/j.0255-2930.20201101-k0003DOI Listing
July 2021

Clinical characteristics of macrophage activation syndrome in adult-onset Still's disease.

Clin Exp Rheumatol 2021 Sep-Oct;39 Suppl 132(5):59-66. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Rheumatology, the First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, China.

Objectives: Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is considered the most severe complication of adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD). This retrospective observational study was conducted to explore the clinical characteristics of AOSD-MAS patients, the risk factors for MAS in AOSD and prognostic factors in AOSD. Early changes in the clinical characteristics of AOSD-MAS were also studied.

Methods: 111 hospitalised AOSD patients were included in this retrospective analysis and analysed for the features of AOSD-MAS, selecting independent risk factors associated with MAS and the correlations between clinical characteristics and patient survival.

Results: Nine subjects (8.1%) developed MAS. AOSD-MAS patients had a higher incidence of jaundice (33.3% vs. 2.9%, p=0.007) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) greater than 5-fold (33.3% vs. 2.9%, p=0.007). Jaundice was associated with an increased risk of MAS (OR=16.50, 95% CI: 2.73-99.82, p=0.002). The AOSD-MAS group had a higher mortality rate (55.6% vs. 8.0%, p=0.001). MAS (HR=11.22, 95% CI: 3.46-36.38, p<0.001), and white blood cell (WBC) greater than 20 109/L (HR=5.80, 95% CI: 1.09-30.92, p=0.040) were independent prognostic factors for death in AOSD patients. In the AOSD-MAS group, transaminase, triglycerides (TGs) and serum ferritin (SF) were elevated in the early disease stage, sometimes earlier than changes in blood cells in MAS.

Conclusions: MAS occurrence significantly reduced the survival rate of patients with AOSD. The presence of jaundice was associated with MAS occurrence. MAS and a WBC count >20 109/L were associated with a high risk of AOSD-related death. AOSD should alert the possibility of MAS when elevated transaminase, TGs and SF cannot be explained.
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October 2021

Secondary Immunodeficiency and Hypogammaglobulinemia with IgG Levels of <5 g/L in Patients with Multiple Myeloma: A Retrospective Study Between 2012 and 2020 at a University Hospital in China.

Med Sci Monit 2021 Jul 9;27:e930241. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital, People's Hospital of Hangzhou Medical College, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND Infections are the main cause of mortality and morbidity in multiple myeloma (MM) patients. However, adult immunodeficiency specialists in China are lacking, and the care of secondary immunodeficiency (SID) and the prognostic role of hypogammaglobulinemia in MM is unknown. MATERIAL AND METHODS MM patients (295) were retrospectively analyzed between January 2012 and 2020 in Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital, Hangzhou Medical College. MM patients with immunoglobulin (Ig) G <5 g/L were defined as SID patients. The care of these patients and the prognostic role of IgG <5 g/L were analyzed RESULTS Forty-five of 295 MM patients with IgG <5 g/L were defined as SID patients. These 45 patients mainly had recurrent infections, especially pulmonary bacterial infections; 2 patients had them 5 times/year. The median survival time was significantly shorter in MM patients with SID (24 vs 66 months). More importantly, the multivariate and univariate analysis revealed that IgG <5 g/L was an independent prognostic factor for MM patients. CONCLUSIONS Ig replacement therapy or prophylactic antibiotics for MM patients with SID were lacking in this single retrospective study. IgG <5 g/L could be a prognostic marker for MM patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.930241DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8276618PMC
July 2021

First Report of Anthracnose on Caused by in China.

Plant Dis 2021 Jul 2. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Guangxi University for Nationalities, 47874, Guangxi Key Laboratory for Polysaccharide Materials and Modifications, Guangxi University for Nationalities, Nanning, Guangxi, China.

(Thunb.) Rchb. f. () is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant. In April 2018 and 2019, a leaf spot disease was observed on ∼20% of plants in two fields (∼1.4 h) in Guilin, Guangxi Province, China (Fig.1 A). Small, circular, brown spots were initially observed on the leaf surfaces, which progressively expanded into large, sunken, dark brown, necrotic areas. As the disease progressed, lesions merged into large, irregular spots, ultimately resulting in abscission. To determine the causal agent, small pieces (5 mm x 5 mm) were collected from the infected leaf tissues (n = 18), surface sterilized in 1% NaOCl for 2 min, and rinsed three times with sterile water. Then, the tissues were placed on potato dextrose agar (PDA) with chloramphenicol (0.1 g/L) and incubated under 12 h photoperiod at 26°C for 3 days. Seventeen isolates were obtained, of which twelve isolates with similar morphological characteristics were obtained from the germinated spores on PDA. Seven-day-old colonies on PDA appeared cottony, pale white to pale gray from above, and grayish-green from below. Conidia of strain BJ-101.3 were hyaline, aseptate, straight, and cylindrical, with rounded ends (Fig.1 E-G), measuring 11.3 to 15.9 μm × 4.0 to 6.4 μm (n = 50). Appressoria were brown to dark brown, with different shapes and a smooth edge (Fig.1 H-I), measuring 6.3 to 10.0 μm × 4.1 to 8.0 μm (n = 50). Morphological features were similar to species complex (Weir et al. 2012, Fuentes-Aragón et al. 2018). For molecular identification, DNA was extracted from two isolates BJ-101.3 and BJ-101.13, following the CTAB method (Guo et al. 2000). The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, partial actin (), calmodulin (), chitin synthase (), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (), manganese superoxide dismutase (), beta-tubulin (), glutamine synthetase (), and intergenic spacer and partial mating-type () genes were amplified by PCR and sequenced (Weir et al. 2012, Silva et al. 2012, Vieira et al. 2017). The obtained sequences were deposited in GenBank (MW386818, MW386819, MW403508 to MW403519, and MW888410 to MW888413). BLASTN analysis of the obtained sequences showed 99% identity with those of (JX010165,JX010033, FJ917508, FJ907426, JX009866, JX010095, JX010327, JX010405, JQ807838) (Weir et al. 2012, Liu et al. 2015). A phylogenetic tree based on the concatenated sequences confirmed the isolates as (Fig.2). Furthermore, pathogenicity tests were conducted on six 1.5-year-old plants. Healthy leaves on the plants were inoculated with the conidial suspensions (10 conidia/mL; 10 μL) of the strains BJ-101.3 and BJ101.13. The conidial suspension of each isolate was inoculated onto at least three leaves. Another three plants inoculated with sterile water served as the control. All plants were covered with transparent plastic bags and incubated in a greenhouse at 26°C for 14 days with a 12 h photoperiod. Nine days post-inoculation, the inoculated leaves showed leaf spot symptoms, while the control plants remained symptomless (Fig.1 B-C). The experiments repeated three times showed similar results. Finally, was consistently reisolated from the infected leaves and confirmed by morphology and sequencing, fulfilling Koch's postulates. The outcome of this study will help in developing effective management measures against anthracnose of .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-05-21-1008-PDNDOI Listing
July 2021

The efficacy of lapine preconditioned or genetically modified IL4 over-expressing bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells in corticosteroid-associated osteonecrosis of the femoral head in rabbits.

Biomaterials 2021 08 21;275:120972. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA; Bioengineering, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Cell-based therapy for augmentation of core decompression (CD) using mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is a promising treatment for early stage osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). Recently, the therapeutic potential for immunomodulation of osteogenesis using preconditioned (with pro-inflammatory cytokines) MSCs (pMSCs), or by the timely resolution of inflammation using MSCs that over-express anti-inflammatory cytokines has been described. Here, pMSCs exposed to tumor necrosis factor-alpha and lipopolysaccharide for 3 days accelerated osteogenic differentiation in vitro. Furthermore, injection of pMSCs encapsulated with injectable hydrogels into the bone tunnel facilitated angiogenesis and osteogenesis in the femoral head in vivo, using rabbit bone marrow-derived MSCs and a model of corticosteroid-associated ONFH in rabbits. In contrast, in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that genetically-modified MSCs that over-express IL4 (IL4-MSCs), established by using a lentiviral vector carrying the rabbit IL4 gene under the cytomegalovirus promoter, accelerated proliferation of MSCs and decreased the percentage of empty lacunae in the femoral head. Therefore, adjunctive cell-based therapy of CD using pMSCs and IL4-MSCs may hold promise to heal osteonecrotic lesions in the early stage ONFH. These interventions must be applied in a temporally sensitive fashion, without interfering with the mandatory acute inflammatory phase of bone healing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2021.120972DOI Listing
August 2021

Surgical Diagnosis and Treatment of Primary Retroperitoneal Liposarcoma.

Front Surg 2021 4;8:672669. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Jiaotong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai, China.

Primary retroperitoneal liposarcoma (PRPLS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma of the retroperitoneum with high recurrence rate and short overall survival (OS). A retrospective review of 51 patients with PRPLS, treated between September 1, 2009 and November 30, 2020, was conducted to evaluate clinical outcomes of PRPLS resection. Patient demographics, histopathologic subtypes, overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), disease recurrence rate, and tumor stage were reviewed and analyzed. Univariate analysis was done to identify factors potentially affecting OS and PFS of PRPLS patients. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to evaluate the impact of various clinicopathological factors on OS and PFS of PRPLS patients. Fifty-one PRPLS patients (28 Males, 23 Females; mean age 56.25 years) were evaluated. There was no significant effect of age, gender, contiguous organ resection, degree of differentiation and tumor size on the OS and PFS of the patients. Univariate analysis showed that negative surgical margin and early tumor stage significantly correlated with OS and PFS (all < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that tumor stage [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.177, = 0.001] was an independent predictors of poor progression-free survival, and surgical margins [HR = 4.0674 = 0.038] and tumor stage [HR = 1.167 = 0.001] were identified as independent predictors of poor overall survival. Negative surgical margin is a prognostic factor of OS, and can prolong the postoperative survival time of PRPLS patients. Tumor stage is a prognostic factor for OS and PFS, and can influence the survival of PRPLS patients. Earlier tumor stages of PRPLS are associated with significantly better outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fsurg.2021.672669DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8211986PMC
June 2021

Inhibiting HDAC3 (Histone Deacetylase 3) Aberration and the Resultant Nrf2 (Nuclear Factor Erythroid-Derived 2-Related Factor-2) Repression Mitigates Pulmonary Fibrosis.

Hypertension 2021 Aug 21;78(2):e15-e25. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

From the Center for Organ Fibrosis and Remodeling Research, Jiangsu Key Lab of Molecular Medicine, Nanjing University School of Medicine, China.

[Figure: see text].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.121.17471DOI Listing
August 2021
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