Publications by authors named "Qamar Abuhassan"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Structured solubility behaviour in bioequivalent fasted simulated intestinal fluids.

Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2022 Jul 20;176:108-121. Epub 2022 May 20.

Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, 161 Cathedral Street, Glasgow G4 0RE, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Drug solubility in intestinal fluid is a key parameter controlling absorption after the administration of a solid oral dosage form. To measure solubility in vitro simulated intestinal fluids have been developed, but there are multiple recipes and the optimum is unknown. This situation creates difficulties during drug discovery and development research. A recent study characterised sampled fasted intestinal fluids using a multidimensional approach to derive nine bioequivalent fasted intestinal media that covered over 90% of the compositional variability. These media have been applied in this study to examine the equilibrium solubility of twenty one exemplar drugs (naproxen, indomethacin, phenytoin, zafirlukast, piroxicam, ibuprofen, mefenamic acid, furosemide, aprepitant, carvedilol, tadalafil, dipyridamole, posaconazole, atazanavir, fenofibrate, felodipine, griseofulvin, probucol, paracetamol, acyclovir and carbamazepine) to determine if consistent solubility behaviour was present. The bioequivalent media provide in the majority of cases structured solubility behaviour that is consistent with physicochemical properties and previous solubility studies. For the acidic drugs (pKa < 6.3) solubility is controlled by media pH, the profile is identical and consistent and the lowest and highest pH media identify the lowest and highest solubility in over 70% of cases. For weakly acidic (pKa > 8), basic and neutral drugs solubility is controlled by a combination of media pH and total amphiphile concentration (TAC), a consistent solubility behaviour is evident but with variation related to individual drug interactions within the media. The lowest and highest pH × TAC media identify the lowest and highest solubility in over 78% of cases. A subset of the latter category consisting of neutral and drugs non-ionised in the media pH range have been identified with a very narrow solubility range, indicating that the impact of the simulated intestinal media on their solubility is minimal. Two drugs probucol and atazanavir exhibit unusual behaviour. The study indicates that the use of two appropriate bioequivalent fasted intestinal media from the nine will identify in vitro the maximum and minimum solubility boundaries for drugs and due to the media derivation this is probably applicable in vivo. These media could be applied during discovery and development activities to provide a solubility range, which would assist placement of the drug within the BCS/DCS and rationalise drug and formulation decisions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpb.2022.05.010DOI Listing
July 2022

Fasted intestinal solubility limits and distributions applied to the biopharmaceutics and developability classification systems.

Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2022 Jan 16;170:160-169. Epub 2021 Dec 16.

Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, 161 Cathedral Street, Glasgow G4 0RE, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

After oral administration, a drug's solubility in intestinal fluid is an important parameter influencing bioavailability and if the value is known it can be applied to estimate multiple biopharmaceutical parameters including the solubility limited absorbable dose. Current in vitro measurements may utilise fasted human intestinal fluid (HIF) or simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) to provide an intestinal solubility value. This single point value is limited since its position in relation to the fasted intestinal solubility envelope is unknown. In this study we have applied a nine point fasted equilibrium solubility determination in SIF, based on a multi-dimensional analysis of fasted human intestinal fluid composition, to seven drugs that were previously utilised to investigate the developability classification system (ibuprofen, mefenamic acid, furosemide, dipyridamole, griseofulvin, paracetamol and acyclovir). The resulting fasted equilibrium solubility envelope encompasses literature solubility values in both HIF and SIF indicating that it measures the same solubility space as current approaches with solubility behaviour consistent with previous SIF design of experiment studies. In addition, it identifies that three drugs (griseofulvin, paracetamol and acyclovir) have a very narrow solubility range, a feature that single point solubility approaches would miss. The measured mid-point solubility value is statistically equivalent to the value determined with the original fasted simulated intestinal fluid recipe, further indicating similarity and that existing literature results could be utilised as a direct comparison. Since the multi-dimensional approach covered greater than ninety percent of the variability in fasted intestinal fluid composition, the measured maximum and minimum equilibrium solubility values should represent the extremes of fasted intestinal solubility and provide a range. The seven drugs all display different solubility ranges and behaviours, a result also consistent with previous studies. The dose/solubility ratio for each measurement point can be plotted using the developability classification system to highlight individual drug behaviours. The lowest solubility represents a worst-case scenario which may be useful in risk-based quality by design biopharmaceutical calculations than the mid-point value. The method also permits a dose/solubility ratio frequency distribution determination for the solubility envelope which permits further risk-based refinement, especially where the drug crosses a classification boundary. This novel approach therefore provides greater in vitro detail with respect to possible biopharmaceutical performance in vivo and an improved ability to apply risk-based analysis to biopharmaceutical performance. Further studies will be required to expand the number of drugs measured and link the in vitro measurements to in vivo results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpb.2021.12.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8769049PMC
January 2022

Small scale in vitro method to determine a bioequivalent equilibrium solubility range for fasted human intestinal fluid.

Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2021 Nov 20;168:90-96. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, 161 Cathedral Street, Glasgow G4 0RE, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Drug solubility is a key parameter controlling oral absorption, but intestinal solubility is difficult to assess in vitro. Human intestinal fluid (HIF) aspirates can be applied but they are variable, difficult to obtain and expensive. Simulated intestinal fluids (SIF) are a useful surrogate but multiple recipes are available and the optimum is unknown. A recent study characterised fasted HIF aspirates using a multi-dimensional approach and determined nine bioequivalent SIF media recipes that represented over ninety percent of HIF compositional variability. In this study these recipes have been applied to determine the equilibrium solubility of twelve drugs (naproxen, indomethacin, phenytoin, piroxicam, aprepitant, carvedilol, zafirlukast, tadalafil, fenofibrate, griseofulvin, felodipine, probucol) previously investigated using a statistical design of experiment (DoE) approach. The bioequivalent solubility measurements are statistically equivalent to the previous DoE, enclose literature solubility values in both fasted HIF and SIF, and the solubility range is less than the previous DoE. These results indicate that the system is measuring the same solubility space as literature systems with the lower overall range suggesting improved equivalence to in vivo solubility, when compared to DoEs. Three drugs (phenytoin, tadalafil and griseofulvin) display a comparatively narrow solubility range, a behaviour that is consistent with previous studies and related to the drugs' molecular structure and properties. This solubility behaviour would not be evident with single point solubility measurements. The solubility results can be analysed using a custom DoE to determine the most statistically significant factor within the media influencing solubility. This approach has a lower statistical resolution than a formal DoE and is not appropriate if determination of media factor significance for solubilisation is required. This study demonstrates that it is possible to assess the fasted intestinal equilibrium solubility envelope using a small number of bioequivalent media recipes obtained from a multi-dimensional analysis of fasted HIF. The derivation of the nine bioequivalent SIF media coupled with the lower measured solubility range indicate that the solubility results are more likely to reflect the fasted intestinal solubility envelope than previous DoE studies and highlight that intestinal solubility is a range and not a single value.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpb.2021.08.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8491656PMC
November 2021
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