Publications by authors named "Qaiser Shakeel"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

and management of (Kofoid and White) Chitwood and (Taub.) Butler in cotton using organic's.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Jan 19;28(1):1-9. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Research Center for Advanced Materials Science (RCAMS), King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha 61413, Saudi Arabia.

Root-knot nematodes (Kofoid and White) Chitwood and (Taub.) Butler, fungus, are very dangerous root damaging pathogens. Present study was planned to establish a chemical control of these root deteriorating pathogens under lab conditions as well as in field. Maximum death rate of nematode juveniles and minimum numbers of nematode eggs hatched were recorded in plates treated with Cadusafos (Rugby® 100G) @12 g/100 ml and Cartap® (4% G) @9g/100 ml. Chemical treatment of with Trifloxystrobin + Tebuconazole (Nativo®) @0.2 g/100 ml and Mancozeb + Matalaxyl (Axiom) @0.25 g/100 ml significantly controlled the mycelial growth in plates. The best treatments tested in laboratory were applied in field as protective and curative treatments. Results proved that chemical control of root-knot nematode and root rot fungi by tested chemicals at recommended time and dose is a significant management technique under field conditions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.08.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7785457PMC
January 2021

First report of brown leaf spot of rice caused by Bipolaris zeicola in Pakistan.

Plant Dis 2020 Aug 17. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

University of Agriculture Faisalabad, 66724, Entomology, Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan;

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the highly consumed cereal grain crops in Pakistan. In September 2017, leaf samples of cultivar Basmati-385 showing brown to dark brown spots (5 to 9 mm in diameter) that were oval or cylindrical in shape with a chlorotic yellow halo and grayish tan centers were collected from fields near the University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (31.43633 N 73.05981 E). Average disease incidence was 69% in six rice fields that were sampled for diseased plants with visible symptoms. To isolate the pathogen, from 20 diseased leaves, 5 mm2 segments from the margins of lesions were cut, rinsed with sterile distilled water (SDW), surface disinfected by 70% ethanol and again rinsed with SDW. The samples were dried on sterilized filter paper discs, plated on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and incubated at 27°C for 5 to 7 days. Twelve isolates were sub-cultured and single-sporing was performed to obtain pure cultures. Fungal isolates with light to dark gray in color, thick or fluffy aerial mycelium, circular and smooth margins were obtained after 7 days of incubation. Conidia were 47-83 μm × 10-17 μm (n=100), with 4 to 10 distosepta, dark or olivaceous brown, straight or moderately curved, and the cells at the ends occasionally looked paler than those in the middle. Conidiophore of the fungus were simple, smooth, cylindrical, septate, and straight to flexuous. These characteristics resembled those of Bipolaris zeicola (Stout) Shoemaker (Manamgoda et al. 2014). For molecular identification, genomic DNA (isolate SU-11) was extracted and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, large subunit (LSU) of ribosomal DNA, translation elongation factor (tef), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd), and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2) genes were amplified and sequenced by using the primers ITS1-F/ITS4-R (White et al. 1990), LROR-F/LR5-R (Schoch et al. 2012), EF1-983F/EF1-2218R (Rehner and Buckley 2005), GPD1F/GPD2R (Berbee et al. 1999), and 5F2/7CR (O'Donnell et al. 2007), respectively. BLASTn searches showed 100% homology with the LSU and rpb2 sequences of B. zeicola (GenBank Accession Nos. MH876201 and HF934842) and 98-99% similarity with ITS, tef, and gpd sequences of B. zeicola (GenBank Accession Nos. KM230398, KM093752 and KM034815). The sequences of ITS, LSU, tef, gpd, and rpb2 were deposited in GenBank with accession numbers MN871712, MN877767, MN867685, MN904511 and MT349837, respectively. To fulfill Koch's postulates, 25 greenhouse-grown rice plants (cv. Basmati-385) at 2- to 3-leaf stage were spray inoculated with a spore suspension (105 spores/ml; isolate SU-11) prepared in SDW. Plants were covered with plastic wraps to maintain humid conditions for 24 hours and incubated at 27°C for one week. Similarly, ten non-inoculated plants sprayed with SDW served as controls. After one week, observed symptoms were similar to those from natural infections and no disease symptoms were observed on the non-inoculated plants. The experiment was repeated twice and the pathogen was re-isolated from the infected leaves and characterized morphologically. Globally, B. zeicola has also been reported to cause the leaf spot of rice and maize plants (Sivanesan 1987; Kang et al. 2018). To our information, this is the first report of B. zeicola causing brown leaf spot of rice in Pakistan. The increasing risk of this fungal pathogen in the rice-growing areas of Pakistan need a rigorous exploration and outreach effort to develop effective management practices.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-04-20-0838-PDNDOI Listing
August 2020

Evaluating the combination of Metarhizium anisopliae and an enhanced form of diatomaceous earth (Grain-Guard) for the environmentally friendly control of stored grain pests.

Environ Monit Assess 2020 Mar 4;192(4):210. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Pakistan.

Stored grain pests cause great damage to various grain products, and protection against these pests is currently based on synthetic insecticides and fumigants. As a result, these chemicals cause problems, including grain contamination with chemical residues and the development of resistance by insect pests to these chemicals. Therefore, to combat this issue, in the present study, an enhanced form of diatomaceous earth (DE), Grain-Guard, and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (Ascomycota: Sordariomycetes) were evaluated alone and in combination against adults of Liposcelis paeta (Pearman) (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae), Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae), Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae), and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). M. anisopliae was used at a rate of 1.7 × 10 conidia kg grain alone as well as with two doses of DE (25 and 50 ppm) on wheat under different exposure time courses (4, 7, and 14 days). It is worth mentioning that the combination of M. anisopliae and DE was highly effective against the adults of L. paeta, C. ferrugineus, R. dominica, and T. castaneum after 14 days of exposure. When DE and M. anisopliae were applied alone, DE showed more effectiveness than fungal conidia. Progeny emergence was decreased when modified DE was applied at a high dose rate with the fungus and suppressed at a low dose. The cadavers of all species in the trials showed a maximum percentage of mycosis, and sporulation (conidia/ml) also showed the same result when the fungus was tested alone, while low mycosis and sporulation were achieved under the application of a mixture with a high dose of modified DE. Our findings indicate the best possible combination of DE (at low dose rates) along with a fungus that might contribute to lowering health and environmental risks.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-020-8189-2DOI Listing
March 2020

Physiological and anthocyanin biosynthesis genes response induced by vanadium stress in mustard genotypes with distinct photosynthetic activity.

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2018 Sep 13;62:20-29. Epub 2018 Jun 13.

School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

The present study aimed to elucidate the photosynthetic performance, antioxidant enzyme activities, anthocyanin contents, anthocyanin biosynthetic gene expression, and vanadium uptake in mustard genotypes (purple and green) that differ in photosynthetic capacity under vanadium stress. The results indicated that vanadium significantly reduced photosynthetic activity in both genotypes. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes were increased significantly in response to vanadium in both genotypes, although the purple exhibited higher. The anthocyanin contents were also reduced under vanadium stress. The anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were highly expressed in the purple genotype, notably the genes TT8, F3H, and MYBL2 under vanadium stress. The results indicate that induction of TT8, F3H, and MYBL2 genes was associated with upregulation of the biosynthetic genes required for higher anthocyanin biosynthesis in purple compared with the green mustard. The roots accumulated higher vanadium than shoots in both mustard genotypes. The results indicate that the purple mustard had higher vanadium tolerance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2018.06.003DOI Listing
September 2018

Biocontrol of on Peanut Kernels Using 3-10.

Front Microbiol 2018 23;9:1049. Epub 2018 May 23.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology and Hubei Key Laboratory of Plant Pathology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China.

The bacterium, 3-10, shows promise in the control of many phytopathogenic fungi. In this study, and its antifungal substances, culture filtrate (CF) and crude extracts (CE), were evaluated for their activity in reducing growth and aflatoxin AFB production by , both and on peanut kernels. The results showed that in dual culture conditions, reduced the mycelial growth of about 41% as compared to control. The mycelial growth of was completely inhibited on potato dextrose agar amended with CF at 3% (v/v) or CE at 2.5 μg/ml. In liquid culture experiments, growth inhibition ranged from 32.3 to 91.9% with reduction in AFB production ranging from 46.4 to 93.4% using different concentrations of CF or CE. For assays, CF at 0.133 ml/g (v/w) or CE at 13.3 μg/g (w/w) reduced the postharvest decay of peanut kernels by inhibiting visible growth of leading to an 89.4 or 88.1% reduction in AFB detected, respectively. Compared with the controls, CF and CE in shake culture significantly reduced expression levels of two AFB biosynthesis genes, and . Furthermore, electron microscopy observation showed that CF (2%, v/v) caused hyphae growth to be abnormal and shriveled, cell organelles to degenerate and collapse, large vacuoles to appear. These results suggest that 3-10 has potential as an alternative to chemical fungicides in protecting peanut kernels and other agricultural commodities against postharvest decay from .
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.01049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5974058PMC
May 2018

Structure characteristics for intestinal uptake of flavonoids in Caco-2 cells.

Food Res Int 2018 03 21;105:353-360. Epub 2017 Nov 21.

Key Laboratory of Environment Correlative Dietology (Huazhong Agricultural University), Ministry of Education, Wuhan 430070, PR China. Electronic address:

Flavonoids are a large group of polyphenols and widely distributed in plant foods. Flavonoids exhibit various biological activities, such as anti-cancer, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory while poor oral bioavailability has been considered as a major hurdle in their use as functional foods. Cellular uptake and efflux of flavonoid implicates their bioavailability. To investigate the cellular uptake and efflux of flavonoids, 27 flavonoids were measured for their cellular uptake in Caco-2 cells with (CUV) and without (CU) the inhibitor of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) verapamil. Then, a quantitative structure-absorption relationship (QSAR) model containing 21 compounds as training set was obtained from their corresponding CU. The model showed good robustness and predictivity with a high cross-validation coefficient (Q) value of 0.809 and Log of the octanol/water partition coefficient (SlogP) and atomic charge on carbon 5 (Q) were related to flavonoid uptake. The CUV of some flavonoids were significantly (p<0.05 or p<0.01) higher than their CU, suggesting that specific flavonoids are pumped out by P-gp. The structure-affinity relationship of flavonoids as substrates of P-gp was determined with the presence of 4'-OCH, 3'-OCH and the absence of 3'-OH, 3-OH and 4'-OH favorable for the affinity of flavonoids. These results provide valuable information for screening flavonoids with good absorption and low affinity with transporters.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2017.11.045DOI Listing
March 2018

Association of detoxification enzymes with butene-fipronil in larvae and adults of Drosophila melanogaster.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Apr 29;25(10):10006-10013. Epub 2018 Jan 29.

Education Ministry Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Crop Diseases and Pests, College of Plant Protection, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, China.

Insecticide resistance is a major challenge in successful insect pest control as the insects have the ability to develop resistance to various widely used insecticides. Butene-fipronil is a novel compound with high toxicity to insects and less toxicity to the non-target organisms. In the present study, the effect of butene-fipronil alone and in combination with three enzyme inhibitors, piperonyl butoxide (PBO), diethyl maleate (DEM), and triphenyl phosphate (TPP), was carried out on larvae and adults of Drosophilia melanogaster. Our results indicated that the co-toxicity indices of butene-fipronil + PBO, butene-fipronil + TPP, and butene-fipronil + DEM mixtures were 437.3, 335.0, and 210.3, respectively, in the second-instar larvae, while 186.6, 256.2, and 238.5, respectively, in the adults, indicating synergistic effects. Interestingly, butene-fipronil increased the expression of CYP28A5 in the larvae; CYP9F2, CYP304A1, CYP28A5, and CYP318A1 in the female adults; and CYP303A1 and CYP28A5 in the male adults. Furthermore, high-level expression of Est-7 was observed in the female adults compared to larvae and male adults. Our results suggest that there is no difference in butene-fipronil metabolism in larvae and male and female adults of D. melanogaster.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-1202-4DOI Listing
April 2018

Influence of entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae, alone and in combination with diatomaceous earth and thiamethoxam on mortality, progeny production, mycosis, and sporulation of the stored grain insect pests.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2017 Dec 10;24(36):28165-28174. Epub 2017 Oct 10.

University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

The stored grain insects cause great damage to grains under storage conditions. Synthetic insecticides and fumigants are considered as key measures to control these stored grain insect pests. However, the major issue with these chemicals is grain contamination with chemical residues and development of resistance by insect pests to these chemicals. Biological control is considered as a potential alternative to chemical control especially with the use of pathogens, alone or in combination with selective insecticides. The present study was conducted to evaluate the synergism of Metarhizium anisopliae with diatomaceous earth (DE) and thiamethoxam against four insect pests on the stored wheat grains. In the first bioassay, the M. anisopliae was applied at 1.4 × 10 and 1.4 × 10conidia/ml alone and in integration with two concentrations (250 and 500 ppm) of tested DE. The tested fungus when combined with DE and thiamethoxam possessed synergistic impact as compared to their individual efficacy. Adult mortality increased with respect to increased exposure interval and doses. In the second bioassay, M. anisopliae was applied at 1.4 × 10 conidia/ml individually and in combination with three concentrations (0.50, 0.75, and 1.00 ppm) of thiamethoxam. Results concluded that M. anisopliae integrated with DE and thiamethoxam provides more effective control of stored grain insect pests.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-0383-6DOI Listing
December 2017