Publications by authors named "Q Carradec"

11 Publications

Dual RNAseq highlights the kinetics of skin microbiome and fish host responsiveness to bacterial infection.

Anim Microbiome 2021 May 7;3(1):35. Epub 2021 May 7.

Ifremer, IRD, Institut Louis-Malardé, Univ Polynésie Française, EIO, F-98719 Taravao, Tahiti, Polynésie Française.

Background: Tenacibaculum maritimum is a fish pathogen known for causing serious damage to a broad range of wild and farmed marine fish populations worldwide. The recently sequenced genome of T. maritimum strain NCIMB 2154 provided unprecedented information on the possible molecular mechanisms involved in the virulence of this species. However, little is known about the dynamic of infection in vivo, and information is lacking on both the intrinsic host response (gene expression) and its associated microbiota. Here, we applied complementary omic approaches, including dual RNAseq and 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding sequencing using Nanopore and short-read Illumina technologies to unravel the host-pathogen interplay in an experimental infection system using the tropical fish Platax orbicularis as model.

Results: We showed that the infection of the host is characterised by an enhancement of functions associated with antibiotic and glucans catabolism functions but a reduction of sulfate assimilation process in T. maritimum. The fish host concurrently displays a large panel of immune effectors, notably involving innate response and triggering acute inflammatory response. In addition, our results suggest that fish activate an adaptive immune response visible through the stimulation of T-helper cells, Th17, with congruent reduction of Th2 and T-regulatory cells. Fish were, however, largely sensitive to infection, and less than 25% survived after 96 hpi. These surviving fish showed no evidence of stress (cortisol levels) or significant difference in microbiome diversity compared with controls at the same sampling time. The presence of T. maritimum in resistant fish skin and the total absence of any skin lesions suggest that these fish did not escape contact with the pathogen, but rather that some mechanisms prevented pathogens entry. In resistant individuals, we detected up-regulation of specific immune-related genes differentiating resistant individuals from controls at 96 hpi, which suggests a possible genomic basis of resistance, although no genetic variation in coding regions was found.

Conclusion: Here we focus in detail on the interplay between common fish pathogens and host immune response during experimental infection. We further highlight key actors of defence response, pathogenicity and possible genomic bases of fish resistance to T. maritimum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s42523-021-00097-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8106148PMC
May 2021

A framework for in situ molecular characterization of coral holobionts using nanopore sequencing.

Sci Rep 2020 09 28;10(1):15893. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Génomique Métabolique, Genoscope, Institut François Jacob, CEA, CNRS, Univ Evry, Université Paris-Saclay, 91057, Evry, France.

Molecular characterization of the coral host and the microbial assemblages associated with it (referred to as the coral holobiont) is currently undertaken via marker gene sequencing. This requires bulky instruments and controlled laboratory conditions which are impractical for environmental experiments in remote areas. Recent advances in sequencing technologies now permit rapid sequencing in the field; however, development of specific protocols and pipelines for the effective processing of complex microbial systems are currently lacking. Here, we used a combination of 3 marker genes targeting the coral animal host, its symbiotic alga, and the associated bacterial microbiome to characterize 60 coral colonies collected and processed in situ, during the Tara Pacific expedition. We used Oxford Nanopore Technologies to sequence marker gene amplicons and developed bioinformatics pipelines to analyze nanopore reads on a laptop, obtaining results in less than 24 h. Reef scale network analysis of coral-associated bacteria reveals broadly distributed taxa, as well as host-specific associations. Protocols and tools used in this work may be applicable for rapid coral holobiont surveys, immediate adaptation of sampling strategy in the field, and to make informed and timely decisions in the context of the current challenges affecting coral reefs worldwide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-72589-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7522235PMC
September 2020

Transcriptome reconstruction and functional analysis of eukaryotic marine plankton communities via high-throughput metagenomics and metatranscriptomics.

Genome Res 2020 04 23;30(4):647-659. Epub 2020 Mar 23.

Metabolic Genomics, Genoscope, Institut de Biologie François Jacob, CEA, CNRS, Univ Evry, Université Paris Saclay, 91000 Evry, France.

Large-scale metagenomic and metatranscriptomic data analyses are often restricted by their gene-centric approach, limiting the ability to understand organismal and community biology. De novo assembly of large and mosaic eukaryotic genomes from complex meta-omics data remains a challenging task, especially in comparison with more straightforward bacterial and archaeal systems. Here, we use a transcriptome reconstruction method based on clustering co-abundant genes across a series of metagenomic samples. We investigated the co-abundance patterns of ∼37 million eukaryotic unigenes across 365 metagenomic samples collected during the Oceans expeditions to assess the diversity and functional profiles of marine plankton. We identified ∼12,000 co-abundant gene groups (CAGs), encompassing ∼7 million unigenes, including 924 metagenomics-based transcriptomes (MGTs, CAGs larger than 500 unigenes). We demonstrated the biological validity of the MGT collection by comparing individual MGTs with available references. We identified several key eukaryotic organisms involved in dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) biosynthesis and catabolism in different oceanic provinces, thus demonstrating the potential of the MGT collection to provide functional insights on eukaryotic plankton. We established the ability of the MGT approach to capture interspecies associations through the analysis of a nitrogen-fixing haptophyte-cyanobacterial symbiotic association. This MGT collection provides a valuable resource for analyses of eukaryotic plankton in the open ocean by giving access to the genomic content and functional potential of many ecologically relevant eukaryotic species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/gr.253070.119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7197479PMC
April 2020

Worldwide Occurrence and Activity of the Reef-Building Coral Symbiont Symbiodinium in the Open Ocean.

Curr Biol 2018 11 8;28(22):3625-3633.e3. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Sorbonne Université, CNRS, Station Biologique de Roscoff, AD2M, UMR 7144, 29680 Roscoff, France; Research Federation for the study of Global Ocean Systems Ecology and Evolution, FR2022/GOSEE, 3 rue Michel-Ange, 75016 Paris, France. Electronic address:

The dinoflagellate microalga Symbiodinium sustains coral reefs, one of the most diverse ecosystems of the biosphere, through mutualistic endosymbioses with a wide diversity of benthic hosts [1]. Despite its ecological and economic importance, the presence of Symbiodinium in open oceanic waters remains unknown, which represents a significant knowledge gap to fully understand the eco-evolutionary trajectory and resilience of endangered Symbiodinium-based symbioses. Here, we document the existence of Symbiodinium (i.e., now the family Symbiodiniaceae [2]) in tropical- and temperate-surface oceans using DNA and RNA metabarcoding of size-fractionated plankton samples collected at 109 stations across the globe. Symbiodinium from clades A and C were, by far, the most prevalent and widely distributed lineages (representing 0.1% of phytoplankton reads), while other lineages (clades B, D, E, F, and G) were present but rare. Concurrent metatranscriptomics analyses using the Tara Oceans gene catalog [3] revealed that Symbiodinium clades A and C were transcriptionally active in the open ocean and expressed core metabolic pathways (e.g., photosynthesis, carbon fixation, glycolysis, and ammonium uptake). Metabarcodes and expressed genes of clades A and C were detected in small and large plankton size fractions, suggesting the existence of a free-living population and a symbiotic lifestyle within planktonic hosts, respectively. However, high-resolution genetic markers and microscopy are required to confirm the life history of oceanic Symbiodinium. Overall, the previously unknown, metabolically active presence of Symbiodinium in oceanic waters opens up new avenues for investigating the potential of this oceanic reservoir to repopulate coral reefs following stress-induced bleaching.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2018.09.024DOI Listing
November 2018