Publications by authors named "Punit P Shah"

22 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Percutaneous delivery of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone for the treatment of imiquimod-induced psoriasis.

J Drug Target 2016 18;24(6):537-47. Epub 2015 Nov 18.

a College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences , Florida A&M University , Tallahassee , FL , USA .

Purpose: α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is an endogenous peptide hormone with anti-inflammatory responses. We developed topical formulation(s) of α-MSH to reduce psoriasis-related inflammation.

Methods: Transcutol (TC) and n-methyl 2-pyrrolidone (NMP) were used to formulate a gel for α-MSH. Skin permeation and dermal microdialysis of the solution and optimized gel were performed. The inflammatory response of α-MSH gel was investigated in imiquimod-induced psoriasis mouse model. Histology and immunohistochemistry were then performed on treated skin.

Results: Solution comprising 50%w/w TC and 10%w/w NMP showed higher (p < 0.05) skin retention (0.27 ± 0.024 µg of α-MSH/mg of skin) than solutions containing either 50% w/w TC or 10% w/w NMP at 24 h. Dispersion of α-MSH in Carbopol Ultrez 10 produced a uniform dispersion. α-MSH gel showed pseudoplastic flow with thixotropic behavior. Dermal microdialysis results suggested that skin permeation of gel after 5 h was 1.9-folds higher than the solution. Further, gel-treated psoriatic-like plaque skin sections showed significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the expression of a melanocortin receptor, in the psoriasis area and severity index score and transepidermal water loss compared to the solution.

Conclusion: TC, NMP and Carbopol Ultrez 10 form a stable gel with improved skin permeation of α-MSH for a reduction in psoriasis-associated inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/1061186X.2015.1103743DOI Listing
January 2017

Enhanced Percutaneous Delivery of 1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-chlorophenyl) Methane for Skin Cancer Chemoprevention.

J Biomed Nanotechnol 2015 Jul;11(7):1269-81

Skin cancer has high incidence in the United States and is mainly caused by ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation. In this study, we demonstrated the role of 1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-chlorophenyl) methane (DIM-D) in the prevention of skin photocarcinogenesis using an in vivo UVB-induced skin cancer model. We also evaluated the efficiency of oleic acid-modified nanostructured lipid carriers to deliver DIM-D across the skin barrier into the epidermis for chemopreventive activity. Nanocarriers were 203.00 ± 21.21 nm in diameter with polydispersity, zeta potential and entrapment efficiency of 0.33 ± 0.01, 37.17 ± 0.90 mV and 93.64 ± 0.65%, respectively. Oleic acid-modified nanocarriers were incorporated into Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose to form DIM-D-Nanogel (DIM-D-N). DIM-D-N pretreatment prior to UVB exposure delayed tumor initiation and reduced tumor multiplicity (p < 0.05) at the end of the study compared to Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) gel pretreatment. DIM-D-N pretreatment decreased UVB-induced damage to skin lipids and proteins (p < 0.05), respectively by 7.63 and 2.56-fold less than EGCG gel pretreatment and by 17.86 and 11.92-fold less than UVB-only treatment. Histology showed rete-ridge extension, epidermal thickening and hyperkeratosis for UVB-only treatment and EGCG gel pretreatment; DIM-D-N pretreatment showed similar features as the negative control. Western blot analysis showed increased Nurr1 expression (p < 0.05) for DIM-D-N pretreated group compared to EGCG gel (4.68-fold). DIM-D-N pretreatment reduced BCI-2 expression (p < 0.05) but increased Bax and cPARP. Knock down studies with Nurr1 siRNA reduced the expressions of Nurr1 and cPARP by 8.18 and 1.45-fold, respectively (p < 0.05). Our results suggest the role of DIM-D in skin cancer chemoprevention mediated by possible molecular therapeutic targets such as Nurr1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jbn.2015.2064DOI Listing
July 2015

Effect of combination of hydrophilic and lipophilic permeation enhancers on the skin permeation of kahalalide F.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2014 Jun 12;66(6):760-8. Epub 2014 Feb 12.

College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Florida A&M University, Tallahassee, FL, USA.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of combination of various lipophilic and hydrophilic chemical enhancers on skin delivery of kahalalide F (KF).

Methods: KF formulations comprising a combination of lipophilic and hydrophilic chemical enhancers with varied per cent were prepared and evaluated for skin permeation studies. In vitro skin permeation of KF formulations was performed using Franz diffusion cell. Stability studies of KF formulations were performed according to the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use guideline, and the therapeutic efficacy of KF formulation was evaluated using allergic contact dermatitis animal model.

Key Findings: The efficacy of KF formulations to improve skin delivery of KF was sequenced in the order of: formulation #4 > formulation #2 > formulation #1 > formulation #3, where formulation #4 contains labrasol (40% w/v), ethyl oleate (5% w/v) and span 80 (5% w/v) along with transcutol (40% w/v) and ethanol (10% w/v). Further, all the formulations were stable for 1 month when stored at 30°C/65% relative humidity.

Conclusions: The results of present study suggest that therapeutically effective concentrations of KF can be delivered in the skin using combination of lipophilic and hydrophilic chemical enhancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jphp.12206DOI Listing
June 2014

Design, synthesis of novel lipids as chemical permeation enhancers and development of nanoparticle system for transdermal drug delivery.

PLoS One 2013 12;8(12):e82581. Epub 2013 Dec 12.

College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Florida A&M University, Tallahassee, Florida, United States of America.

In the present study, we designed and developed novel lipids that include (Z)-1-(Octadec-9-en-1-yl)-pyrrolidine (Cy5T), 1, 1-Di-((Z)-octadec-9-en-1-yl)pyrrolidin-1-ium iodide (Cy5), (Z)-1-(Octadec-9-en-1-yl)-piperidine (Cy6T), and 1, 1-Di-((Z)-octadec-9-en-1-yl) piperidin-1-ium iodide (Cy6) to enhance the transdermal permeation of some selected drugs. Firstly, we evaluated the transdermal permeation efficacies of these lipids as chemical permeation enhancers in vehicle formulations for melatonin, ß-estradiol, caffeine, α-MSH, and spantide using franz diffusion cells. Among them Cy5 lipid was determined to be the most efficient by increasing the transdermal permeation of melatonin, ß-estradiol, caffeine, α-MSH, and spantide by 1.5 to 3.26-fold more at the epidermal layer and 1.3 to 2.5-fold more at the dermal layer, in comparison to either NMP or OA. Hence we developed a nanoparticle system (cy5 lipid ethanol drug nanoparticles) to evaluate any further improvement in the drug penetration. Cy5 lipid formed uniformly sized nanoparticles ranging from 150-200 nm depending on the type of drug. Further, Cy5 based nanoparticle system significantly (p<0.05) increased the permeation of all the drugs in comparison to the lipid solution and standard permeation enhancers. There were about 1.54 to 22-fold more of drug retained in the dermis for the Cy5 based nanoparticles compared to OA/NMP standard enhancers and 3.87 to 66.67-fold more than lipid solution. In addition, epifluorescent microscopic analysis in rhodamine-PE permeation studies confirmed the superior permeation enhancement of LEDs (detection of fluorescence up to skin depth of 340 μm) more than lipid solution, which revealed fluorescence up to skin depth of only 260 μm. In summary the present findings demonstrate that i) cationic lipid with 5 membered amine heterocyclic ring has higher permeating efficacy than the 6 membered amine hertocyclic ring. ii) The nanoparticle system prepared with Cy5 showed significant (p<0.05) increase in the permeation of the drugs than the control penetration enhancers, oleic acid and NMP.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0082581PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3861410PMC
October 2014

Chemoprevention of skin cancer with 1,1-Bis (3'-indolyl)-1-(aromatic) methane analog through induction of the orphan nuclear receptor, NR4A2 (Nurr1).

PLoS One 2013 7;8(8):e69519. Epub 2013 Aug 7.

College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Florida A&M University, Tallahassee, Florida, United States of America.

Background: The objective of this study was to demonstrate the anti-skin cancer and chemopreventive potential of 1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-chlorophenyl methane) (DIM-D) using an in vitro model.

Methods: In vitro cell cytotoxicity and viability assays were carried out in A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cell line and normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) respectively by crystal violet staining. Apoptosis induction in A431 cells (DIM-D treated) and NHEK cells pretreated with DIM-D (2 hr) prior to UVB irradiation, were assessed. The accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in DIM-D pretreated NHEK cells (2 hr) prior to UVB exposure was also determined. Immunocytochemistry and western blot analysis was performed to determine cleaved caspase 3 and DNA damage markers in DIM-D treated A431 cells and in DIM-D pretreated NHEK cells prior to UVB irradiation.

Results: The IC50 values of DIM-D were 68.7 ± 7.3, 48.3 ± 10.1 and 11.5 ± 3.1 μM whilst for Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) were 419.1 ± 8.3, 186.1 ± 5.2 and 56.7 ± 3.1 μM for 24, 48 and 72 hr treatments respectively. DIM-D exhibited a significantly (p<0.05) greater induction of DNA fragmentation in A431 cells compared to EGCG with percent cell death of 38.9. In addition, DIM-D induced higher expression in A431 cells compared to EGCG of cleaved caspase 3 (3.0-fold vs. 2.4-fold changes), Nurr1 (2.7-fold vs. 1.7-fold changes) and NFκB (1.3-fold vs. 1.1-fold changes). DIM-D also exhibited chemopreventive activity in UVB-irradiated NHEK cells by significantly (p<0.05) reducing UVB-induced ROS formation and apoptosis compared to EGCG. Additionally, DIM-D induced expression of Nurr1 but reduced expression of 8-OHdG significantly in UVB-irradiated NHEK cells compared to EGCG and UV only.

Conclusion: Our results suggest that DIM-D exhibits Nurr1-dependent transactivation in the induction of apoptosis in A431 cells and it protects NHEK cells against UVB-induced ROS formation and DNA damage.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0069519PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3737220PMC
August 2014

(31)P solid-state NMR based monitoring of permeation of cell penetrating peptides into skin.

Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2014 Feb 20;86(2):190-9. Epub 2013 May 20.

College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Florida A&M University, Tallahassee, USA. Electronic address:

The main objective of the current study was to investigate penetration of cell penetrating peptides (CPPs: TAT, R8, R11, and YKA) through skin intercellular lipids using (31)P magic angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR. In vitro skin permeation studies were performed on rat skin, and sections (0-60, 61-120, and 121-180μm) were collected and analyzed for (31)P NMR signal. The concentration-dependent shift of 0, 25, 50, 100, and 200mg/ml of TAT on skin layers, diffusion of TAT, R8, R11, and YKA in the skin and time dependent permeation of R11 was measured on various skin sections using (31)P solid-state NMR. Further, CPPs and CPP-tagged fluorescent dye encapsulate liposomes (FLip) in skin layers were tagged using confocal microscopy. The change in (31)P NMR chemical shift was found to depend monotonically on the amount of CPP applied on skin, with saturation behavior above 100mg/ml CPP concentration. R11 and TAT caused more shift in solid-state NMR peaks compared to other peptides. Furthermore, NMR spectra showed R11 penetration up to 180μm within 30min. The results of the solid-state NMR study were in agreement with confocal microscopy studies. Thus, (31)P solid-state NMR can be used to track CPP penetration into different skin layers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpb.2013.05.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3884066PMC
February 2014

Investigation of follicular and non-follicular pathways for polyarginine and oleic acid-modified nanoparticles.

Pharm Res 2013 Apr 29;30(4):1037-1049. Epub 2012 Nov 29.

College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Florida A&M University, 1520 S MLK Jr Blvd, Tallahassee, FL 32307, USA.

Purpose: To investigate the percutaneous permeation pathways of cell penetrating peptide modified lipid nanoparticles and oleic acid modified polymeric nanoparticles.

Methods: Confocal microscopy was performed on skin cultures (EpiDermFT™) for modified and un-modified nanoparticles. Differential stripping was performed following in vitro skin permeation of Ibuprofen (Ibu) encapsulated nanoparticles to estimate Ibu levels in different skin layers and receiver compartment. The hair follicles (HF) were blocked and in vitro skin permeation of nanoparticles was then compared with unblocked HF. The surface modified nanoparticles were investigated for response on allergic contact dermatitis (ACD).

Results: Surface modified nanoparticles showed a significant higher (p < 0.05) in fluorescence in EpiDermFT™ cultures compared to controls. The HF play less than 5% role in total nanoparticle permeation into the skin. The Ibu levels were significantly high (p < 0.05) for surface modified nanoparticles compared to controls. The Ibu levels in skin and receiver compartment were not significantly different when HF were open or closed. Modified nanoparticles showed significant improvement in treatment of ACD compared to solution.

Conclusions: Our studies demonstrate that increased skin permeation of surface modified nanoparticles is not only dependent on a follicular pathway but also occur through non-follicular pathway(s).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11095-012-0939-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3760706PMC
April 2013

Dermal microdialysis technique to evaluate the trafficking of surface-modified lipid nanoparticles upon topical application.

Pharm Res 2012 Sep 30;29(9):2587-600. Epub 2012 May 30.

College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Florida A&M University, Tallahassee, Florida 32307, USA.

Purpose: To evaluate the skin pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of cell penetrating peptides (CPP) modified nano-structured lipid carrier (NLC) using an in vivo dermal microdialysis (MD) technique.

Methods: Celecoxib (Cxb) encapsulated NLCs (CXBN), CPP modified CXBN (CXBN-CPP) and Cxb-Solution (CXBS) formulations were prepared and tested for in vitro skin distribution. MD was used to assess pharmacokinetic parameters of Cxb after topical application of Cxb formulations. The effect of pre-treatment with Cxb formulations was evaluated for expression of prostaglandin-E2 (PGE(2)) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) after exposure of xylene using MD. Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) model was used to confirm in vivo therapeutic response of Cxb formulations.

Results: The cumulative permeation of Cxb in MD dialysate after 24 h for CXBN-CPP was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than CXBN and CXBS. Further, pre-treatment with CXBN-CPP significantly inhibited PGE(2) and IL-6 expression compared to CXBS and CXBN (p < 0.001). In ACD model, CXBN-CPP showed significant reduction (p < 0.001) in ear thickness compared to controls.

Conclusions: Surface modification of NLC with CPPs can enhance the skin permeation of Cxb and MD can be used to investigate pharmacokinetics of Cxb nanoparticles in the skin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11095-012-0789-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3423188PMC
September 2012

Enhanced skin permeation using polyarginine modified nanostructured lipid carriers.

J Control Release 2012 Aug 14;161(3):735-45. Epub 2012 May 14.

College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Florida A&M University, Tallahassee, FL 32307, USA.

The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of polyarginine chain length on topical delivery of surface modified NLCs. Design of experiments (DOE) was used to optimize number of arginines required to deliver active drug into deeper skin layers. The NLCs were prepared by hot-melt technique and the surface of NLCs was modified with six-histidine tagged cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) or YKA. In vivo confocal microscopy and Raman confocal spectroscopy studies were performed using fluorescent dye encapsulated NLCs and NLC-CPPs. Spantide II (SP) and ketoprofen (KP) were used as model drugs for combined delivery. In vitro skin permeation and drug release studies were performed using Franz diffusion cells. Inflammatory response corresponding to higher skin permeation was investigated in allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) mouse model. NLCs had a particle size of 140±20nm with higher encapsulation efficiencies. The negative charge of NLC was reduced from -17.54 to -8.47 mV after surface modification with CPPs. In vivo confocal microscopy and Raman confocal spectroscopy studies suggested that a peptide containing 11 arginines (R11) had significant permeation enhancing ability than other polyarginines and TAT peptides. The amount of SP and KP retained in dermis after topical application of NLC-R11 was significantly higher than solution and NLC after 24 h of skin permeation. SP was not found in receiver compartment. However, KP was found in receiver compartment and the amount of KP present in receiver compartment was increased approximately 7.9 and 2.6 times compared to the control solution and NLCs, respectively. In an ACD mouse model, SP+KP-NLC-R11 showed significant reduction (p<0.05) in ear thickness compared to SP+KP solution and SP+KP-NLC. Our results strongly suggest that the surface modification of NLC with R11 improved transport of SP and KP across the deeper skin layers and thus results in reduction of inflammation associated with ACD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2012.05.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3412947PMC
August 2012

Effect of oleic acid modified polymeric bilayered nanoparticles on percutaneous delivery of spantide II and ketoprofen.

J Control Release 2012 Mar 21;158(2):336-45. Epub 2011 Nov 21.

College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Florida A&M University, Tallahassee, FL 32307, USA.

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of oleic acid modified polymeric bilayered nanoparticles (NPS) on combined delivery of two anti-inflammatory drugs, spantide II (SP) and ketoprofen (KP) on the skin permeation. NPS were prepared using poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and chitosan. SP and KP were encapsulated in different layers alone or/and in combination (KP-NPS, SP-NPS and SP+KP-NPS). The surface of NPS was modified with oleic acid (OA) ('Nanoease' technology) using an established procedure in the laboratory (KP-NPS-OA, SP-NPS-OA and SP+KP-NPS-OA). Fluorescent dyes (DiO and DID) containing surface modified (DiO-NPS-OA and DID-NPS-OA) and unmodified NPS (DiO-NPS and DID-NPS) were visualized in lateral rat skin sections using confocal microscopy and Raman confocal spectroscopy after skin permeation. In vitro skin permeation was performed in dermatomed human skin and HPLC was used to analyze the drug levels in different skin layers. Further, allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) model was used to evaluate the response of KP-NPS, SP-NPS, SP+KP-NPS, KP-NPS-OA, SP-NPS-OA and SP+KP-NPS-OA treatment in C57BL/6 mice. The fluorescence from OA modified NPS was observed up to a depth of 240μm and was significantly higher as compared to non-modified NPS. The amount of SP and KP retained in skin layers from OA modified NPS increased by several folds compared to unmodified NPS and control solution. In addition, the combination index value calculated from ACD response for solution suggested an additive effect and moderate synergism for NPS-OA. Our results strongly suggest that surface modification of bilayered nanoparticles with oleic acid improved drug delivery to the deeper skin layers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2011.11.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3294128PMC
March 2012

Skin permeating nanogel for the cutaneous co-delivery of two anti-inflammatory drugs.

Biomaterials 2012 Feb 26;33(5):1607-17. Epub 2011 Nov 26.

College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Florida A&M University, Tallahassee, FL 32307, USA.

The aim of this study was to develop an effective drug delivery system for the simultaneous topical delivery of two anti-inflammatory drugs, spantide II (SP) and ketoprofen (KP). To achieve this primary goal, we have developed a skin permeating nanogel system (SPN) containing surface modified polymeric bilayered nanoparticles along with a gelling agent. Poly-(lactide-co-glycolic acid) and chitosan were used to prepare bilayered nanoparticles (NPS) and the surface was modified with oleic acid (NPSO). Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and Carbopol with the desired viscosity were utilized to prepare the nanogels. The nanogel system was further investigated for in vitro skin permeation, drug release and stability studies. Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and psoriatic plaque like model were used to assess the effectiveness of SPN. Dispersion of NPSO in HPMC (SPN) produced a stable and uniform dispersion. In vitro permeation studies revealed increase in deposition of SP for the SP-SPN or SP+KP-SPN in the epidermis and dermis by 8.5 and 9.5 folds, respectively than SP-gel. Further, the deposition of KP for KP-SPN or SP+KP-SPN in epidermis and dermis was 9.75 and 11.55 folds higher, respectively than KP-gel. Similarly the amount of KP permeated for KP-SPN or SP+KP-SPN was increased by 9.92 folds than KP-gel. The ear thickness in ACD model and the expression of IL-17 and IL-23; PASI score and TEWL values in psoriatic plaque like model were significantly less (p < 0.001) for SPN compared to control gel. Our results suggest that SP+KP-SPN have significant potential for the percutaneous delivery of SP and KP to the deeper skin layers for treatment of various skin inflammatory disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2011.11.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3242008PMC
February 2012

Stable isotope-labeled excipients for drug product identification and counterfeit detection.

Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2011 Jan 19;37(1):88-92. Epub 2010 Jun 19.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA.

Purpose: Counterfeit drug products have become a major problem worldwide and a number of techniques to detect counterfeit products or reduce the potential for counterfeiting have been investigated. This study examined the use of stable isotope-labeled excipients in solid dosage forms as a method to identify drug products and to detect counterfeits.

Methods: (2)H- and (13)C-glucose were used as model excipients and incorporated in wet granulated formulations at a variety of different isotopic ratios. The ratios of (2)H/(1)H and (13)C/(12)C in each product were then determined by isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

Results: Results demonstrated the ability to detect the isotope-labeled glucose in both granules and tablets.

Conclusions: It was possible to use the isotope ratios to differentiate between specific batches of granules, demonstrating the potential of this technique for in-product, batch-specific identification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/03639045.2010.492397DOI Listing
January 2011

Palatable reconstitutable dry suspension of artemether for flexible pediatric dosing using cyclodextrin inclusion complexation.

Pharm Dev Technol 2010 Jun;15(3):276-85

Pharmacy Department, Center of Relevance and Excellence in NDDS, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Fatehgunj, Vadodara, Gujarat, India.

The present research was conducted to investigate the inclusion complexation of artemether (ARM) with beta-cyclodextrin (CD) with the aim of masking the bitterness along with improving the drug release and preparing a stable palatable formulation of ARM especially for pediatrics. A physical mixture and kneaded system were prepared to study the inclusion complexation. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were performed to identify the physicochemical interaction between drug and carrier, hence its effect on drug release. Reconstitutable dry suspension was evaluated for angle of repose, sedimentation characterization and pH. In vitro drug release studies for physical mixture and kneaded system were performed at pH, 1.2 and 6.8. Bitterness score was evaluated using gustatory sensation test. The FTIR, DSC and XRPD studies indicated inclusion complexation in physical mixture and kneaded system. In addition, physical mixture and kneaded system exhibited improved drug release at pH, 1.2 and 6.8. To formulate palatable reconstitutable dry suspension of ARM, the 1:20M physical mixture was selected based on bitterness score. Reconstitutable dry suspension prepared using physical mixture (DS4), showed complete bitter taste masking, good flowability and ease of redispersibility. Taste evaluation of reconstitutable dry suspension in human volunteers rated tasteless with a score of 0 to DS4 and 3 to DS5 (reconstitutable dry suspension prepared using pure ARM). This conclusively demonstrated a stable and palatable reconstitutable dry suspension of ARM using CD inclusion complexation for flexible pediatric dosing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10837450903188485DOI Listing
June 2010

Development and evaluation of sustained release gastroretentive minimatrices for effective treatment of H. pylori infection.

AAPS PharmSciTech 2009 21;10(2):459-67. Epub 2009 Apr 21.

Centre of Relevance and Excellence in Novel Drug Delivery systems, Pharmacy Department, The M.S. University of Baroda, Fatehgunj, Baroda, 390002, India.

In the present work, sustained release gastroretentive minimatrices of amoxicillin have been designed and optimized using central composite design. Effect of amount of xanthan gum, rate controlling polymers (HPMC K100M CR/PEO coagulant (1:1)), carbopol 974P, and gas generating couple (sodium bicarbonate/citric acid (3:1)) was studied on dependent (response) variables, i.e., buoyancy lag time, drug release at 1 h, time required for 95% drug release, swelling index, and bioadhesive strength. Minimatrices were prepared by non aqueous granulation method using solution of PVP K30 in isopropyl alcohol. All the formulations were found to contain 99.2% to 100.9% of amoxicillin per minimatrix. Optimum formulation (Formulation number AGT09) containing high level of the independent variables was having buoyancy lag time of 7 min and drug release at 1 h was 32.5%. It required 9.39 h for 95% drug release while swelling index and bioadhesive strength were 341 and 17.9 dyn/cm(2), respectively. This formulation was said to be optimum because it has minimum buoyancy lag time, requires maximum time for 95% drug release, and has higher bioadhesive capabilities. In vitro results of an optimized formulation indicate its sustained drug release and gastric retention capability, which may be very useful for effective treatment of H. pylori infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1208/s12249-009-9231-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2690794PMC
June 2009

Design and optimization of artemether microparticles for bitter taste masking.

Acta Pharm 2008 Dec;58(4):379-92

College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque New Mexico-87131, USA.

The objective of the present investigation was to reduce the bitterness of artemether (ARM). Microparticles were prepared by the coacervation method using Eudragit E 100 (EE) as polymer and sodium hydroxide solution as nonsolvent for the polymer. A 32 full factorial design was used for optimization wherein the amount of drug (A) and polymer (B) were selected as independent variables and the bitterness score, particle size and drug release at pH, 1.2 and 6.8 were selected as dependent variables. Optimization was carried out using the desirability function. The optimized microparticles batch was characterized by FTIR and DSC. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that reduced bitterness of ARM can be obtained by controlling the drug release of microparticles at pH 6.8 and increasing the amount of EE. The increase in the amount of polymer leads to reduction in drug release from microparticles at pH > 5 due to its insolubility and thus reduces bitterness. However, the increase in the amount of polymer results in improved dissolution, suggesting improved availability of ARM in stomach. Optimized microparticles prepared using 0.04 g of ARM and 15 mL of 1% (m/V) solution of EE showed complete bitter taste masking with improved drug release at pH 1.2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/v10007-008-0027-yDOI Listing
December 2008

Formulation and evaluation of primaquine phosphate taste-masked rapidly disintegrating tablet.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2008 Oct;60(10):1279-85

Center of Relevance and Excellence in NDDS, Pharmacy Department, The M. S. University of Baroda, Fatehgunj, Vadodara-390002, Gujarat, India.

This work investigates the complete bitter-taste-masking of primaquine phosphate (PRM) using a solid dispersion with mono ammonium glycyrrhyzinate pentahydrate (GLY). This work also describes the preparation of rapidly disintegrating tablets (RDTs) of PRM by a direct compression method using superdisintegrant, croscarmellose sodium. A solid dispersion was prepared by the solvent evaporation method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were performed to identify the physicochemical interaction between drug and carrier, hence its effect on dissolution. In-vitro drug release studies were performed for RDTs at both pH 1.2 and 6.8. Bitterness score was evaluated using a human gustatory sensation test. FTIR spectroscopy and DSC showed no interaction of PRM in GLY solid dispersion. RDTs prepared from solid dispersion showed complete bitter-taste-masking of PRM. RDTs containing solid dispersion exhibited a better dissolution profile, at both pH 1.2 and 6.8, than pure PRM. Thus, the solid dispersion technique can be successfully used for complete bitter taste masking of PRM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1211/jpp/60.10.0003DOI Listing
October 2008

Formulation and evaluation of taste masked oral reconstitutable suspension of primaquine phosphate.

AAPS PharmSciTech 2008 3;9(3):1025-30. Epub 2008 Sep 3.

Pharmacy Department, Center of Relevance and Excellence in NDDS, The M. S. University of Baroda, G H Patel building, Donor's Plaza, Fatehgunj, Vadodara, Gujarat, India.

The purpose of this research was to mask the intensely bitter taste of primaquine phosphate (PRM) and to formulate suspension powder (cachets) of the taste masked drug. Taste masking was done using beta-cyclodextrin. To characterize and formulate taste masked cachets of PRM, the 1:25 M physical mixture was selected based on bitterness score. Phase solubility studies, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) were performed to identify the physicochemical interaction between drug and carrier, hence its effect on dissolution. Cachets were evaluated for angle of repose, sedimentation characterization and pH. In vitro drug release studies for physical mixture and kneaded system were performed at pH, 1.2 and 6.8. Bitterness score was evaluated using gustatory sensation test. Phase solubility studies showed weak interaction between PRM and CD. The FTIR, DSC and XRPD studies indicated inclusion complexation in physical mixture and kneaded system. In addition, kneaded system and physical mixture exhibited better drug release at pH 1.2 and negligible effect at pH 6.8. Cachets prepared using physical mixture, (DS24), showed complete bitter taste masking and easy redispersibility. Taste evaluation of cachets in human volunteers rated tasteless with a score of 0 to DS24 and 3 to DS25. Thus, results conclusively demonstrated successful taste masking and formulation of cachets with taste masked drug.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1208/s12249-008-9137-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2977032PMC
May 2009

Influence of chitosan crosslinking on bitterness of mefloquine hydrochloride microparticles using central composite design.

J Pharm Sci 2009 Feb;98(2):690-703

Pharmacy Department, Center of Relevance and Excellence in NDDS, Donor's Plaza, The MS University of Baroda, Vadodara, Gujarat, India.

The present work examines the influence of various process and product parameters on mefloquine hydrochloride (MFL) entrapped in crosslinked chitosan microparticles for masking the bitterness. A central composite design (CCD) was employed to investigate the effect of three process and product variables, namely amount of MFL, chitosan and sodium hydroxide (crosslinking agent) on the incorporation efficiency, particle size, drug release at pH 6.8 and bitterness score. The microparticles were prepared by ionotropic gelation method, with a hardening time of 60 min. The optimum condition for process and product variables was evaluated using desirability function. The model is further cross validated for bias. The optimized microparticles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Bitterness score was evaluated by human gustatory sensation test. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the crosslinking of chitosan significantly affects incorporation efficiency, particle size, drug release and bitterness score. The bitterness score was decreased to zero compared to 3+ of pure MFL. It can be inferred that the proposed methodology can be used to prepare MFL microparticles for bitter taste masking.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jps.21456DOI Listing
February 2009

Design and optimization of mefloquine hydrochloride microparticles for bitter taste masking.

AAPS PharmSciTech 2008 20;9(2):377-89. Epub 2008 Feb 20.

Center of Relevance and Excellence in NDDS, Pharmacy Department, The M. S. University of Baroda, G H Patel building, Donor's Plaza, Fatehgunj, Vadodara, Gujarat, India.

The objective of the present investigation was to reduce the bitterness with improved dissolution, in acidic medium (pH 1.2), of mefloquine hydrochloride (MFL). Microparticles were prepared by coacervation method using Eudragit E (EE) as polymer and sodium hydroxide as precipitant. A 3(2) full factorial design was used for optimization wherein the drug concentration (A) and polymer concentration (B) were selected as independent variables and the bitterness score, particle size and dissolution at various pH were selected as the dependent variables. The desirability function approach has been employed in order to find the best compromise between the different experimental responses. The model is further cross validated for bias. The optimized microparticles were characterized by FT-IR, DSC, XRPD and SEM. Bitterness score was evaluated by human gustatory sensation test. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the reduced bitterness of MFL can be obtained by controlling the dissolution of microparticles at pH 6.8 and increasing the EE concentration. The increase in polymer concentration leads to reduction in dissolution of microparticles at pH > 5 due to its insolubility. However the dissolution studies at pH 1.2 demonstrated enhanced dissolution of MFL from microparticles might be due to the high porosity of the microparticles, hydrophilic nature of the EE, and improved wettability, provided by the dissolved EE. The bitterness score of microparticles was decreased to zero compared to 3+ of pure ARM. In conclusion the bitterness of MFL was reduced with improved dissolution at acidic pH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1208/s12249-008-9052-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2976944PMC
September 2008

Development and evaluation of artemether taste masked rapid disintegrating tablets with improved dissolution using solid dispersion technique.

AAPS PharmSciTech 2008 20;9(2):494-500. Epub 2008 Mar 20.

Center of Relevance and Excellence in NDDS, Pharmacy Department, The M. S. University of Baroda, G H Patel building, Donor's Plaza, Fatehgunj, Vadodara, Gujarat 390002, India.

The purpose of this research was to mask the intensely bitter taste of artemether (ARM) and to formulate a rapid-disintegrating tablet (RDT) of the taste-masked drug. Taste masking was done by solid dispersion with mono amino glycyrrhyzinate pentahydrate (GLY) by solvent evaporation method. To characterize and formulate taste masked rapid disintegrating tablets (RDTs) of ARM, the 1:1M solid dispersion was selected based on bitterness score. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) were performed to identify the physicochemical interaction between drug and carrier, hence its effect on dissolution. RDTs were evaluated for weight variation, disintegration time, hardness and friability. In vitro drug release studies were performed for RDTs at pH 1.2 and 6.8. Bitterness score was evaluated using mini-column method and compared with gustatory sensation test. FTIR spectroscopy and DSC showed no interaction while XRPD showed amorphization of ARM in GLY solid dispersion. RDTs prepared using solid dispersion, (RDT3), showed faster disintegration (within 28 s) and complete bitter taste masking of ARM. In addition, RDT3 exhibited better dissolution profile at both pH 1.2 and 6.8, than RDTs prepared from pure ARM (RDT5). Taste evaluation of RDTs in human volunteers rated tasteless with a score of 0 to RDT3 and 3 to RDT5. Mini-column revealed that RDT5 showed increase in number of persons who sensed bitterness with increased amount of ARM release while RDT3 sensed no bitterness. Thus, results conclusively demonstrated successful masking of taste and rapid disintegration of the formulated tablets in the oral cavity with improved dissolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1208/s12249-008-9066-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2976961PMC
September 2008

Effect of chitosan crosslinking on bitterness of artemether using response surface methodology.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2008 Apr;60(4):421-7

Center of Relevance and Excellence in NDDS, Pharmacy Department, The M. S. University of Baroda, Fatehgunj, Vadodara - 390 002, Gujarat, India.

This work examines the influence of various process parameters on artemether entrapped in crosslinked chitosan microparticles for masking bitterness. A central composite design was used to optimize the experimental conditions for bitterness masking. Critical parameters such as the amounts of artemether, chitosan and crosslinking agent have been studied to evaluate how they affect responses such as incorporation efficiency, particle size and drug release at pH 6.8. The desirability function approach has been used to find the best compromise between the experimental results. The optimized microparticles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Bitterness score was evaluated by human gustatory sensation test. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the crosslinking of chitosan significantly affects incorporation efficiency, particle size and drug release at pH 6.8. The bitterness score of microparticles was decreased to 0, compared with 3+ for pure artemether. The proposed method completed masked the bitter taste of artemether.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1211/jpp.60.4.0003DOI Listing
April 2008

Investigations on factors affecting chitosan for dissolution enhancement of oxcarbazepine by spray dried microcrystal formulation with an experimental design approach.

Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2007 Sep;33(9):1008-23

Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, The M S University of Baroda, Kalabhavan, Vadodara, Gujarat, India.

In the present work effect of chitosan on microcrystal formulation for dissolution enhancement of oxcarbazepine using controlled crystallization technique coupled with spray drying was explored. The work was extended for exploration of simplified approach for stable particle size reduction. The study was performed with an experimental design approach i. e. a fractional factorial design of resolution 5 (with all 2 factor interaction) for the screening of predefined independent variables drug concentration, chitosan concentration, feed rate, inlet temperature and percent aspiration for spray drying. Whereas percent drug dissolved, wettability time, flowability in terms of angle of repose and particle size were designated as response variables. Resultant models were analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis, which generated equation to plot response surface curves along with desirability function. Results showed that chitosan concentration had significant effect on dissolution enhancement of oxcarbazepine at a level of 2% w/v. Increase in drug concentration showed decreased dissolution rate however on particle size it did not show statistically significant effect. Topographical characterization was carried out by SEM which showed that feed rate, percent aspiration and inlet temperature had significant effect on particle morphology. For deriving optimized formulation results were analyzed using desirability function for the maximum percent drug dissolved and least drug polymer matrix particle size. DSC studies showed that drug was molecularly associated with chitosan matrix or particles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03639040601179749DOI Listing
September 2007
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