Publications by authors named "Pulak Maitra"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A secondary approach with conventional medicines and supplements to recuperate current COVID-19 status.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Oct 27;142:111956. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

School of Pharmacy, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710061, China. Electronic address:

Novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) is a zoonosis that revised the global economic and societal progress since early 2020. The SARS-CoV-2 has been recognized as the responsible pathogen for COVID-19 with high infection and mortality rate potential. It has spread in 192 countries and infected about 1.5% of the world population, and still, a proper therapeutic approach is not unveiled. COVID-19 indication starts with fever to shortness of breathing, leading to ICU admission with the ventilation support in severe conditions. Besides the symptomatic mainstay clinical therapeutic approach, only Remdesivir has been approved by the FDA. Several pharmaceutical companies claimed different vaccines with exceptionally high efficacy (90-95%) against COVID-19; how long these vaccines can protect and long-term safety with the new variants are unpredictable. After the worldwide spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, numerous clinical trials with different phases are being performed to find the most appropriate solution to this condition. Some of these trials with old FDA-approved drugs showed promising results. In this review, we have precisely compiled the efforts to curb the disease and discussed the clinical findings of Ivermectin, Doxycycline, Vitamin-D, Vitamin-C, Zinc, and cannabidiol and their combinations. Additionally, the correlation of these molecules on the prophylactic and diseased ministration against COVID-19 has been explored.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111956DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8313489PMC
October 2021

Critical Assessment of Mycotoxins in Beverages and Their Control Measures.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 04 30;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

SIBS-UGENT-SJTU Joint Laboratory of Mycotoxin Research, CAS Key Laboratory of Nutrition, Metabolism and Food Safety, Shanghai Institute of Nutrition and Health, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China.

Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of filamentous fungi that contaminate food products such as fruits, vegetables, cereals, beverages, and other agricultural commodities. Their occurrence in the food chain, especially in beverages, can pose a serious risk to human health, due to their toxicity, even at low concentrations. Mycotoxins, such as aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA), patulin (PAT), fumonisins (FBs), trichothecenes (TCs), zearalenone (ZEN), and the alternaria toxins including alternariol, altenuene, and alternariol methyl ether have largely been identified in fruits and their derived products, such as beverages and drinks. The presence of mycotoxins in beverages is of high concern in some cases due to their levels being higher than the limits set by regulations. This review aims to summarize the toxicity of the major mycotoxins that occur in beverages, the methods available for their detection and quantification, and the strategies for their control. In addition, some novel techniques for controlling mycotoxins in the postharvest stage are highlighted.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins13050323DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8145492PMC
April 2021

Soil fungal diversity and community assembly: affected by island size or type?

FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2021 05;97(5)

State Key Laboratory of Mycology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China.

Fungi have a huge biodiversity and play important roles in soil biogeochemical cycling in island ecosystems. Although island biogeography has been widely studied for macroorganisms, fungal community assembly in true islands and its relationship with island area are less documented. We examined soil fungal communities in 18 oceanic islands of two types (eight non-coral islands and 10 coral islands) using the Illumina MiSeq sequencing technique. Our results showed that fungal α-diversity (species richness) was substantially different among the oceanic islands, with a higher value in non-coral islands than in coral islands. Fungal α-diversity was significantly affected by soil potassium and magnesium (Mg) and plant communities in non-coral islands, whereas only soil Mg significantly affected it in coral islands. Soil fungal community composition was significantly different in the non-coral and coral islands and was influenced by soil property, plant community and spatial distance. The ecological stochasticity model showed that the fungal community assembly was mainly governed by deterministic processes regardless of island type. Fungal β-diversity, but not α-diversity, increased significantly with increasing island area. These findings have implications for the better prediction of soil fungal community dynamics in island systems and biodiversity conservation in fragmented habitats.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsec/fiab062DOI Listing
May 2021

Response of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community in soil and roots to grazing differs in a wetland on the Qinghai-Tibet plateau.

PeerJ 2020 19;8:e9375. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

State Key Laboratory of Mycology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Grazing as one of the most important disturbances affects the abundance, diversity and community composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in ecosystems, but the AM fungi in response to grazing in wetland ecosystems remain poorly documented. Here, we examined AM fungi in roots and soil in grazing and non-grazing plots in Zoige wetland on the Qinghai-Tibet plateau. Grazing significantly increased AM fungal spore density and glomalin-related soil proteins, but had no significant effect on the extra radical hyphal density of AM fungi. While AM fungal richness and community composition differed between roots and soil, grazing was found to influence only the community composition in soil. This study shows that moderate grazing can increase the biomass of AM fungi and soil carbon sequestration, and maintain the AM fungal diversity in the wetland ecosystem. This finding may enhance our understanding of the AM fungi in response to grazing in the wetland on the Qinghai-Tibet plateau.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.9375DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7307571PMC
June 2020

Community Assembly of Endophytic Fungi in Ectomycorrhizae of Betulaceae Plants at a Regional Scale.

Front Microbiol 2019 21;10:3105. Epub 2020 Jan 21.

State Key Laboratory of Mycology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

The interaction between aboveground and belowground biotic communities drives community assembly of plants and soil microbiota. As an important component of belowground microorganisms, root-associated fungi play pivotal roles in biodiversity maintenance and community assembly of host plants. The Betulaceae plants form ectomycorrhizae with soil fungi and widely distribute in various ecosystems. However, the community assembly of endophytic fungi in ectomycorrhizae is less investigated at a large spatial scale. Here, we examined the endophytic fungal communities in ectomycorrhizae of 22 species in four genera belonging to Betulaceae in Chinese forest ecosystems, using Illumina Miseq sequencing of internal transcribed spacer 2 amplicons. The relative contribution of host phylogeny, climate and soil (environmental filtering) and geographic distance (dispersal limitation) on endophytic fungal community was disentangled. In total, 2,106 endophytic fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained at a 97% sequence similarity level, dominated by Leotiomycetes, Agaricomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, and Sordariomycetes. The endophytic fungal OTU richness was significantly related with host phylogeny, geographic distance, soil and climate. The endophytic fungal community composition was significantly affected by host phylogeny (19.5% of variation explained in fungal community), geographic distance (11.2%), soil (6.1%), and climate (1.4%). This finding suggests that environmental filtering by plant and abiotic variables coupled with dispersal limitation linked to geographic distance determines endophytic fungal community assembly in ectomycorrhizae of Betulaceae plants, with host phylogeny being a stronger determinant than other predictor variables at the regional scale.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.03105DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6986194PMC
January 2020

Phyllosphere epiphytic and endophytic fungal community and network structures differ in a tropical mangrove ecosystem.

Microbiome 2019 04 9;7(1):57. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

State Key Laboratory of Mycology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, People's Republic of China.

Background: Revealing the relationship between plants and fungi is very important in understanding biodiversity maintenance, community stability, and ecosystem functioning. However, differences in the community and network structures of phyllosphere epiphytic and endophytic fungi are currently poorly documented. In this study, we examined epiphytic and endophytic fungal communities associated with the leaves of six mangrove species using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequences.

Results: A total of 635 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of endophytic and epiphytic fungi were obtained at a 97% sequence similarity level; they were dominated by Dothideomycetes and Tremellomycetes. Plant identity had a significant effect on the OTU richness of endophytic fungi, but not on epiphytic fungi. The community composition of epiphytic and endophytic fungi was significantly different, and plant identity had a greater effect on endophytic fungi than on epiphytic fungi. Network analysis showed that both epiphytic and endophytic network structures were characterized by significantly highly specialized and modular but lowly connected and anti-nested properties. Furthermore, the endophytic network had higher levels of specialization and modularity but lower connectance and stronger anti-nestedness than the epiphytic network.

Conclusions: This study reveals that the phyllosphere epiphytic and endophytic fungal communities differ, and plant identity has a greater effect on the endophytic fungi than on epiphytic fungi. These findings demonstrate the role of host plant identity in driving phyllosphere epiphytic and endophytic community structure.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40168-019-0671-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6456958PMC
April 2019
-->