Publications by authors named "Priya Balasubramanian"

70 Publications

IGF1R signaling regulates astrocyte-mediated neurovascular coupling in mice: implications for brain aging.

Geroscience 2021 Mar 6. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Vascular Cognitive Impairment and Neurodegeneration Program, Oklahoma Center for Geroscience and Healthy Brain Aging, Reynolds Oklahoma Center on Aging, Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 975 NE 10th Street, BRC 1311, Oklahoma City, OK, 73104, USA.

Aging is associated with a significant deficiency in circulating insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), which has an important role in the pathogenesis of age-related vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). Impairment of moment-to-moment adjustment of regional cerebral blood flow via neurovascular coupling (NVC) importantly contributes to VCI. Previous studies established a causal link between circulating IGF-1 deficiency and neurovascular dysfunction. Release of vasodilator mediators from activated astrocytes plays a key role in NVC. To determine the impact of impaired IGF-1 signaling on astrocytic function, astrocyte-mediated NVC responses were studied in a novel mouse model of astrocyte-specific knockout of IGF1R (GFAP-Cre/Igf1r) and accelerated neurovascular aging. We found that mice with disrupted astrocytic IGF1R signaling exhibit impaired NVC responses, decreased stimulated release of the vasodilator gliotransmitter epoxy-eicosatrienoic acids (EETs), and upregulation of soluble epoxy hydrolase (sEH), which metabolizes and inactivates EETs. Collectively, our findings provide additional evidence that IGF-1 promotes astrocyte health and maintains normal NVC, protecting cognitive health.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11357-021-00350-0DOI Listing
March 2021

Demonstration of age-related blood-brain barrier disruption and cerebromicrovascular rarefaction in mice by longitudinal intravital two-photon microscopy and optical coherence tomography.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2021 Apr 5;320(4):H1370-H1392. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Vascular Cognitive Impairment and Neurodegeneration Program, Oklahoma Center For Geroscience and Healthy Aging, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.

Age-related blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and cerebromicrovascular rarefaction contribute importantly to the pathogenesis of both vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent advances in geroscience research enable development of novel interventions to reverse age-related alterations of the cerebral microcirculation for prevention of VCID and AD. To facilitate this research, there is an urgent need for sensitive and easy-to-adapt imaging methods that enable longitudinal assessment of changes in BBB permeability and brain capillarization in aged mice and that could be used in vivo to evaluate treatment efficiency. To enable longitudinal assessment of changes in BBB permeability in aged mice equipped with a chronic cranial window, we adapted and optimized two different intravital two-photon imaging approaches. By assessing relative fluorescence changes over the baseline within a volume of brain tissue, after qualitative image subtraction of the brain microvasculature, we confirmed that, in 24-mo-old C57BL/6J mice, cumulative permeability of the microvessels to fluorescent tracers of different molecular masses (0.3 to 40 kDa) is significantly increased compared with that of 5-mo-old mice. Real-time recording of vessel cross-sections showed that apparent solute permeability of single microvessels is significantly increased in aged mice vs. young mice. Cortical capillary density, assessed both by intravital two-photon microscopy and optical coherence tomography was also decreased in aged mice vs. young mice. The presented methods have been optimized for longitudinal (over the period of 36 wk) in vivo assessment of cerebromicrovascular health in preclinical geroscience research. Methods are presented for longitudinal detection of age-related increase in blood-brain barrier permeability and microvascular rarefaction in the mouse cerebral cortex by intravital two-photon microscopy and optical coherence tomography.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00709.2020DOI Listing
April 2021

Obesity-induced cognitive impairment in older adults: a microvascular perspective.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2021 02 18;320(2):H740-H761. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Vascular Cognitive Impairment and Neurodegeneration Program, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Center for Geroscience and Healthy Brain Aging/Reynolds Oklahoma Center on Aging, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.

Over two-thirds of individuals aged 65 and older are obese or overweight in the United States. Epidemiological data show an association between the degree of adiposity and cognitive dysfunction in the elderly. In this review, the pathophysiological roles of microvascular mechanisms, including impaired endothelial function and neurovascular coupling responses, microvascular rarefaction, and blood-brain barrier disruption in the genesis of cognitive impairment in geriatric obesity are considered. The potential contribution of adipose-derived factors and fundamental cellular and molecular mechanisms of senescence to exacerbated obesity-induced cerebromicrovascular impairment and cognitive decline in aging are discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00736.2020DOI Listing
February 2021

Cerebrovascular Rejuvenation: Novel Strategies for Prevention of Vascular Cognitive Impairment.

Rejuvenation Res 2020 Dec;23(6):451-452

Vascular Cognitive Impairment and Neurodegeneration Program, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Oklahoma HSC, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/rej.2020.2402DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7757520PMC
December 2020

Spatially Adaptive Regularization in Total Field Inversion for Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping.

iScience 2020 Oct 12;23(10):101553. Epub 2020 Sep 12.

Department of Radiology, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY 10065, USA.

Adaptive Total Field Inversion is described for quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) reconstruction from total field data through a spatially adaptive suppression of shadow artifacts through spatially adaptive regularization. The regularization for shadow suppression consists of penalizing low-frequency components of susceptibility in regions of small susceptibility contrasts as estimated by R2∗ derived signal intensity. Compared with a conventional local field method and two previously proposed regularized total field inversion methods, improvements were demonstrated in phantoms and subjects without and with hemorrhages. This algorithm, named TFIR, demonstrates the lowest error in numerical and gadolinium phantom datasets. In COSMOS data, TFIR performs well in matching ground truth in high-susceptibility regions. For patient data, TFIR comes close to meeting the quality of the reference local field method and outperforms other total field techniques in both clinical scores and shadow reduction.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2020.101553DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7522736PMC
October 2020

Non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation attenuates proinflammatory cytokines and augments antioxidant levels in the brainstem and forebrain regions of Dahl salt sensitive rats.

Sci Rep 2020 10 16;10(1):17576. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Department of Medicine, Cardiovascular Section, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA.

The anti-inflammatory effects of vagus nerve stimulation are well known. It has recently been shown that low-level, transcutaneous stimulation of vagus nerve at the tragus (LLTS) reduces cardiac inflammation in a rat model of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). The mechanisms by which LLTS affect the central neural circuits within the brain regions that are important for the regulation of cardiac vagal tone are not clear. Female Dahl salt-sensitive rats were initially fed with either low salt (LS) or high salt (HS) diet for a period of 6 weeks, followed by sham or active stimulation (LLTS) for 30 min daily for 4 weeks. To study the central effects of LLTS, four brainstem (SP5, NAb, NTS, and RVLM) and two forebrain sites (PVN and SFO) were examined. HS diet significantly increased the gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines in the SP5 and SFO. LLTS reversed HS diet-induced changes at both these sites. Furthermore, LLTS augmented the levels of antioxidant Nrf2 in the SP5 and SFO. Taken together, these findings suggest that LLTS has central anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties that could mediate the neuromodulation of cardiac vagal tone in the rat model of HFpEF.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-74257-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7567801PMC
October 2020

Time-restricted feeding (TRF) for prevention of age-related vascular cognitive impairment and dementia.

Ageing Res Rev 2020 12 28;64:101189. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Vascular Cognitive Impairment and Neurodegeneration Program, Reynolds Oklahoma Center on Aging/Center for Geroscience and Healthy Brain Aging, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA; International Training Program in Geroscience, Doctoral School of Basic and Translational Medicine/Department of Public Health, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary; Department of Health Promotion Sciences, College of Public Health, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA. Electronic address:

Aging is the most significant risk factor for vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), and the number of individuals affected by VCI is expected to exponentially increase in the upcoming decades. Yet, there are no current preventative or therapeutic treatments available against the development and progression of VCI. Therefore, there is a pressing need to better understand the pathophysiology underlying these conditions, for the development of novel tools and interventions to improve cerebrovascular health and delay the onset of VCI. There is strong epidemiological and experimental evidence that lifestyle factors, including nutrition and dietary habits, significantly affect cerebrovascular health and thereby influence the pathogenesis of VCI. Here, recent evidence is presented discussing the effects of lifestyle interventions against age-related diseases which in turn, inspired novel research aimed at investigating the possible beneficial effects of dietary interventions for the prevention of cognitive decline in older adults.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arr.2020.101189DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7710623PMC
December 2020

Metformin effectively restores the HPA axis function in diet-induced obese rats.

Int J Obes (Lond) 2021 Feb 19;45(2):383-395. Epub 2020 Sep 19.

Neuroscience Program, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 48824, USA.

Introduction: The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is perturbed in obesity. We previously reported presence of leptin resistance in the brainstem and uncoupling between central noradrenergic tone and the HPA axis in obesity-prone (DIO) rats. Metformin is shown to lower body weight and adiposity, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. We hypothesized that this is associated with restored HPA axis function.

Methods: Adult male DIO rats were placed on either a regular chow or HF diet for 7 weeks. Starting week 4, the animals were given either a low dose (60 mg/kg) or high dose (300 mg/kg) of metformin in drinking water. In addition to body weight and feeding, we examined different arms of the HPA axis to test if metformin can reinstate its function and coupling. To understand potential mechanisms, leptin signaling in the brainstem and circulating free fatty acid levels were also assessed.

Results: Metformin treatment lowered weight gain, fat mass, caloric intake, and serum leptin levels. HPA axis activity as determined by corticotropin-releasing hormone in the median eminence and serum corticosterone was decreased by metformin in a dose-dependent manner, and so was norepinephrine (NE) in the paraventricular nucleus. Importantly, metformin completely normalized the NE-HPA axis uncoupling. While brainstem pSTAT-3 and SOCS-3, key markers of leptin signaling, were not different between groups, circulating saturated and unsaturated free fatty acids were reduced in HF-fed, metformin-treated animals.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that oral metformin can successfully correct HPA axis dysfunction that is associated with lowered circulating free fatty acids in DIO rats, thereby uncovering a novel effect of metformin in the treatment of obesity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41366-020-00688-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7855162PMC
February 2021

Early Stage Markers of Late Delayed Neurocognitive Decline Using Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging of Temporal Lobe in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients.

J Cancer 2020 25;11(20):6168-6177. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Department of Radiology, Hainan General Hospital (Hainan Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical University), Haikou, China.

: To determine whether the early assessment of temporal lobe microstructural changes using diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) can predict late delayed neurocognitive decline after radiotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. : Fifty-four NPC patients undergoing intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) participated in a prospective DKI magnetic resonance (MR) imaging study. MR imaging was acquired prior to IMRT (-0), 1 month (-1), and 3 (-3) months after IMRT. Kurtosis (Kmean, Kax, Krad) and Diffusivity (Dmean, Dax, Drad) variables in the temporal lobe gray and white matter were computed. Neurocognitive function tests (MoCA) were administered pre-radiotherapy and at 2 years post-IMRT follow-up. All the patients were divided into neurocognitive function decline (NFD group) and neurocognitive function non-decline groups (NFND group) according to whether the MoCA score declined ≥3 2 years after IMRT. All the DKI metrics were compared between the two groups, and the best imaging marker was chosen for predicting a late delayed neurocognitive decline. : Kurtosis (Kmean-1, Kmean-3, Kax-1, Kax-3, Krad-1, and Krad-3) and Diffusivity (Dmean-1 and Dmean-3) of white matter were significantly different between the two groups (<0.05). Axial Kurtosis (Kax-1, Kax-3) of gray matter was significantly different between the two groups (<0.05). By receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, Kmean-1 of white matter performed best in predicting of MoCA scores delayed decline (<0.05). The radiation dose was also significantly different between NFD and NFND group (=0.031). : Temporal lobe white matter is more vulnerable to microstructural changes and injury following IMRT in NPC. Metrics derived from DKI should be considered as imaging markers for predicting a late delayed neurocognitive decline. Both temporal lobe white and gray matter show microstructural changes detectable by DKI. The Kmean early after radiotherapy has the best prediction performance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.48759DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7477416PMC
August 2020

Variability and change over time of weight and BMI among adolescents and adults with Prader-Willi syndrome: a 6-month text-based observational study.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2020 09 3;15(1):233. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Foundation for Prader-Willi Research, 340 S. Lemon Ave, #3620, Walnut, CA, 91789, USA.

Background: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder in which hyperphagia (excessive appetite) is a hallmark feature. Understanding how weight changes over time in this population is important for capturing the contemporary natural history of the disorder as well as assessing the impact of new treatments for hyperphagia. Therefore, we aimed to determine the feasibility of a remote assessment of weight change over time in PWS.

Methods: We developed a text message-based, prospective cohort study of adolescents and adults with PWS to assess changes in weight and body mass index (BMI) over a six-month period. Weight was collected weekly, while changes in height, living situation, access to food, activity level, and medication were collected at three-month intervals.

Results: One hundred and sixty-five participants enrolled in the study, with a mean age of 19.7 years (range 12-48). There was considerable variability in weight across participants (range: 76.8-207.7 kg). Thirty-three percent of the participants were normal weight, while 15% were overweight and 52% were obese. Overall, the weight of the study participants increased over the study period (mean weight change + 2.35%), while BMI was relatively stable, albeit high (mean BMI of 31.4 at baseline, mean BMI percent change + 1.42%). Changes in living situation, activity, food access, and medication had limited impact on weight and BMI changes. Multivariable analysis found that time, sex, age, and percentage of life on growth hormone (GH) therapy were statistically significant fixed effects. Participants submitted more than 95% of possible weight data points across the 26 weeks of the study.

Conclusions: This remote, observational study of weight change in PWS showed small increases in weight and BMI over a six-month period. Participants were highly compliant with this text message-based study, suggesting that mobile technology-based data collection was manageable for the participants. We anticipate that the results of this study will inform clinical trials for hyperphagia/obesity related therapies in PWS and provide a basis for understanding the efficacy of new therapies for hyperphagia in the real-world setting.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-020-01504-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7469274PMC
September 2020

Oleic acid stimulates monoamine efflux through PPAR-α: Differential effects in diet-induced obesity.

Life Sci 2020 Aug 30;255:117867. Epub 2020 May 30.

Neuroendocrine Research Laboratory, Department of Veterinary Biosciences and Diagnostic Imaging, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30606, USA. Electronic address:

Obesity continues to be a growing health concern around the world, and elevated levels of free fatty acids as a result of high-fat intake might play a role in neuroendocrine alterations leading to obesity. However, it is unclear how fatty acids affect neuroendocrine functions and energy metabolism. Since hypothalamic monoamines play a crucial role in regulating neuroendocrine functions relating to energy balance, we investigated the direct effects of oleic acid on hypothalamic monoamines and hypothesized that oleic acid would activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-α), a nuclear transcription factor involved with fatty acid metabolism, to affect monoamines. We also hypothesized that this response would be subdued in diet-induced obesity (DIO). To test these hypotheses, hypothalami from Sprague Dawley and DIO rats were incubated with 0 (Control), 0.00132 mM, 0.132 mM, 1.32 mM oleic acid, 50 μM MK 886 (a selective PPAR- α antagonist), or oleic acid + MK 886 in Krebs Ringers Henseleit (KRH) solution. HPLC-EC was used to measure monoamine levels in perfusates. Oleic acid produced a significant increase in norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin levels in a dose-dependent manner, and incubation with MK886 blocked these effects. The effect of oleic acid on hypothalamic monoamines was attenuated in DIO rats. These findings suggest that PPARα probably plays an essential role in fatty acid sensing in the hypothalamus, by affecting monoamine efflux and DIO rats are resistant to the effects of oleic acid.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2020.117867DOI Listing
August 2020

Phase I Study of Veliparib on an Intermittent and Continuous Schedule in Combination with Carboplatin in Metastatic Breast Cancer: A Safety and [18F]-Fluorothymidine Positron Emission Tomography Biomarker Study.

Oncologist 2020 08 17;25(8):e1158-e1169. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Stefanie Spielman Comprehensive Breast Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Background: Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPis) are U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for treatment of BRCA-mutated metastatic breast cancer. Furthermore, the BROCADE studies demonstrated benefit of adding an oral PARPi, veliparib, to carboplatin and paclitaxel in patients with metastatic breast cancer harboring BRCA mutation. Given multiple possible dosing schedules and the potential benefit of this regimen for patients with defective DNA repair beyond BRCA, we sought to find the recommended phase II dose (RP2D) and schedule of veliparib in combination with carboplatin in patients with advanced breast cancer, either triple-negative (TNBC) or hormone receptor (HR)-positive, human epidermal growth receptor 2 (HER2) negative with defective Fanconi anemia (FA) DNA-repair pathway based on FA triple staining immunofluorescence assay.

Materials And Methods: Patients received escalating doses of veliparib on a 7-, 14-, or 21-day schedule with carboplatin every 3 weeks. Patients underwent [18]fluoro-3'-deoxythymidine ( FLT) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging.

Results: Forty-four patients (39 TNBC, 5 HR positive/HER2 negative with a defective FA pathway) received a median of 5 cycles (range 1-36). Observed dose-limiting toxicities were grade (G) 4 thrombocytopenia (n = 4), G4 neutropenia (n = 1), and G3 akathisia (n = 1). Common grade 3-4 toxicities included thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia, neutropenia, anemia, and fatigue. Of the 43 patients evaluable for response, 18.6% achieved partial response and 48.8% had stable disease. Median progression-free survival was 18.3 weeks. RP2D of veliparib was established at 250 mg twice daily on days 1-21 along with carboplatin at area under the curve 5. Patients with partial response had a significant drop in maximum standard uptake value (SUV ) of target lesions between baseline and early in cycle 1 based on FLT-PET (day 7-21; p  = .006).

Conclusion: The combination of continuous dosing of veliparib and every-3-week carboplatin demonstrated activity and an acceptable toxicity profile. Decrease in SUV on FLT-PET scan during the first cycle of this therapy can identify patients who are likely to have a response.

Implications For Practice: The BROCADE studies suggest that breast cancer patients with BRCA mutation benefit from addition of veliparib to carboplatin plus paclitaxel. This study demonstrates that a higher dose of veliparib is tolerable and active in combination with carboplatin alone. With growing interest in imaging-based early response assessment, the authors demonstrate that decrease in [18]fluoro-3'-deoxythymidine positron emission tomography (FLT-PET) SUV during cycle 1 of therapy is associated with response. Collectively, this study established a safety profile of veliparib and carboplatin in advanced breast cancer while also providing additional data on the potential for FLT-PET imaging modality in monitoring therapy response.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1634/theoncologist.2020-0039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7418347PMC
August 2020

Single-cell RNA sequencing identifies senescent cerebromicrovascular endothelial cells in the aged mouse brain.

Geroscience 2020 04 31;42(2):429-444. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Reynolds Oklahoma Center on Aging/Center for Geroscience and Healthy Brain Aging, Vascular Cognitive Impairment and Neurodegeneration Program, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 975 NE 10th Street, Oklahoma City, OK, 73104, USA.

Age-related phenotypic changes of cerebromicrovascular endothelial cells lead to dysregulation of cerebral blood flow and blood-brain barrier disruption, promoting the pathogenesis of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). In recent years, endothelial cell senescence has emerged as a potential mechanism contributing to microvascular pathologies opening the avenue to the therapeutic exploitation of senolytic drugs in preclinical studies. However, difficulties with the detection of senescent endothelial cells in wild type mouse models of aging hinder the assessment of the efficiency of senolytic treatments. To detect senescent endothelial cells in the aging mouse brain, we analyzed 4233 cells in fractions enriched for cerebromicrovascular endothelial cells and other cells associated with the neurovascular unit obtained from young (3-month-old) and aged (28-month-old) C57BL/6 mice. We define 13 transcriptomic cell types by deep, single-cell RNA sequencing. We match transcriptomic signatures of cellular senescence to endothelial cells identified on the basis of their gene expression profile. Our study demonstrates that with advanced aging, there is an increased ratio of senescent endothelial cells (~ 10%) in the mouse cerebral microcirculation. We propose that our single-cell RNA sequencing-based method can be adapted to study the effect of aging on senescence in various brain cell types as well as to evaluate the efficiency of various senolytic regimens in multiple tissues.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11357-020-00177-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7205992PMC
April 2020

Circulating anti-geronic factors from heterochonic parabionts promote vascular rejuvenation in aged mice: transcriptional footprint of mitochondrial protection, attenuation of oxidative stress, and rescue of endothelial function by young blood.

Geroscience 2020 04 15;42(2):727-748. Epub 2020 Mar 15.

Vascular Cognitive Impairment and Neurodegeneration Program, Reynolds Oklahoma Center on Aging/Center for Geroscience and Healthy Brain Aging, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 975 NE 10th Street, BRC 1311, Oklahoma City, OK, 73104, USA.

Aging-induced functional and phenotypic alterations of the vasculature (e.g., endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress) have a central role in morbidity and mortality of older adults. It has become apparent in recent years that cell autonomous mechanisms alone are inadequate to explain all aspects of vascular aging. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that age-related changes in circulating anti-geronic factors contribute to the regulation of vascular aging processes in a non-cell autonomous manner. To test this hypothesis, through heterochronic parabiosis we determined the extent, if any, to which endothelial function, vascular production of ROS, and shifts in the vascular transcriptome (RNA-seq) are modulated by the systemic environment. We found that in aortas isolated from isochronic parabiont aged (20-month-old) C57BL/6 mice [A-(A); parabiosis for 8 weeks] acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation was impaired and ROS production (dihydroethidium fluorescence) was increased as compared with those in aortas from young isochronic parabiont (6-month-old) mice [Y-(Y)]. The presence of young blood derived from young parabionts significantly improved endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation and attenuated ROS production in vessels of heterochronic parabiont aged [A-(Y)] mice. In aortas derived from heterochronic parabiont young [Y-(A)] mice, acetylcholine-induced relaxation and ROS production were comparable with those in aortas derived from Y-(Y) mice. Using RNA-seq we assessed transcriptomic changes in the aortic arch associated with aging and heterochronic parabiosis. We identified 347 differentially expressed genes in A-(A) animals compared with Y-(Y) controls. We have identified 212 discordant genes, whose expression levels differed in the aged phenotype, but have shifted back toward the young phenotype by the presence of young blood in aged A-(Y) animals. Pathway analysis shows that vascular protective effects mediated by young blood-regulated genes include mitochondrial rejuvenation. In conclusion, a relatively short-term exposure to young blood can rescue vascular aging phenotypes, including attenuation of oxidative stress, mitochondrial rejuvenation, and improved endothelial function. Our findings provide additional evidence supporting the significant plasticity of vascular aging and evidence for the existence of anti-geronic factors capable of exerting rejuvenating effects on the aging vasculature.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11357-020-00180-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7205954PMC
April 2020

GHz Ultrasonic Chip-Scale Device Induces Ion Channel Stimulation in Human Neural Cells.

Sci Rep 2020 02 20;10(1):3075. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, 14853, NY, USA.

Emergent trends in the device development for neural prosthetics have focused on establishing stimulus localization, improving longevity through immune compatibility, reducing energy re-quirements, and embedding active control in the devices. Ultrasound stimulation can single-handedly address several of these challenges. Ultrasonic stimulus of neurons has been studied extensively from 100 kHz to 10 MHz, with high penetration but less localization. In this paper, a chip-scale device consisting of piezoelectric Aluminum Nitride ultrasonic transducers was engineered to deliver gigahertz (GHz) ultrasonic stimulus to the human neural cells. These devices provide a path towards complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integration towards fully controllable neural devices. At GHz frequencies, ultrasonic wavelengths in water are a few microns and have an absorption depth of 10-20 µm. This confinement of energy can be used to control stimulation volume within a single neuron. This paper is the first proof-of-concept study to demonstrate that GHz ultrasound can stimulate neurons in vitro. By utilizing optical calcium imaging, which records calcium ion flux indicating occurrence of an action potential, this paper demonstrates that an application of a nontoxic dosage of GHz ultrasonic waves [Formula: see text] caused an average normalized fluorescence intensity recordings >1.40 for the calcium transients. Electrical effects due to chip-scale ultrasound delivery was discounted as the sole mechanism in stimulation, with effects tested at α = 0.01 statistical significance amongst all intensities and con-trol groups. Ionic transients recorded optically were confirmed to be mediated by ion channels and experimental data suggests an insignificant thermal contributions to stimulation, with a predicted increase of 0.03 C for [Formula: see text] This paper paves the experimental framework to further explore chip-scale axon and neuron specific neural stimulation, with future applications in neural prosthetics, chip scale neural engineering, and extensions to different tissue and cell types.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-58133-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7033194PMC
February 2020

Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) supplementation promotes neurovascular rejuvenation in aged mice: transcriptional footprint of SIRT1 activation, mitochondrial protection, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects.

Geroscience 2020 04 13;42(2):527-546. Epub 2020 Feb 13.

Vascular Cognitive Impairment and Neurodegeneration Program, Reynolds Oklahoma Center on Aging/Center for Geroscience and Healthy Brain Aging, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 975 NE 10th Street, BRC 1311, Oklahoma City, OK, 73104, USA.

Aging-induced structural and functional alterations of the neurovascular unit lead to impairment of neurovascular coupling responses, dysregulation of cerebral blood flow, and increased neuroinflammation, all of which contribute importantly to the pathogenesis of age-related vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). There is increasing evidence showing that a decrease in NAD availability with age plays a critical role in age-related neurovascular and cerebromicrovascular dysfunction. Our recent studies demonstrate that restoring cellular NAD levels in aged mice rescues neurovascular function, increases cerebral blood flow, and improves performance on cognitive tasks. To determine the effects of restoring cellular NAD levels on neurovascular gene expression profiles, 24-month-old C57BL/6 mice were treated with nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), a key NAD intermediate, for 2 weeks. Transcriptome analysis of preparations enriched for cells of the neurovascular unit was performed by RNA-seq. Neurovascular gene expression signatures in NMN-treated aged mice were compared with those in untreated young and aged control mice. We identified 590 genes differentially expressed in the aged neurovascular unit, 204 of which are restored toward youthful expression levels by NMN treatment. The transcriptional footprint of NMN treatment indicates that increased NAD levels promote SIRT1 activation in the neurovascular unit, as demonstrated by analysis of upstream regulators of differentially expressed genes as well as analysis of the expression of known SIRT1-dependent genes. Pathway analysis predicts that neurovascular protective effects of NMN are mediated by the induction of genes involved in mitochondrial rejuvenation, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic pathways. In conclusion, the recently demonstrated protective effects of NMN treatment on neurovascular function can be attributed to multifaceted sirtuin-mediated anti-aging changes in the neurovascular transcriptome. Our present findings taken together with the results of recent studies using mitochondria-targeted interventions suggest that mitochondrial rejuvenation is a critical mechanism to restore neurovascular health and improve cerebral blood flow in aging.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11357-020-00165-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7206476PMC
April 2020

Temporal lobe microstructural abnormalities in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma quantitatively evaluated by high-resolution DWI and DKI after concurrent chemoradiotherapy.

Clin Transl Radiat Oncol 2020 Mar 25;21:36-43. Epub 2019 Dec 25.

Department of Radiology, Hainan Hospital of Hainan Medical College (Hainan General Hospital), Haikou, China.

Purpose: To investigate temporal lobe microstructural abnormalities and neurocognitive function impairment after concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).

Methods: NPC patients who underwent CCRT were enrolled. High-resolution diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion-kurtosis imaging (DKI) MRI, were performed 5 times per patient (once pre-CCRT, 1 week post-CCRT, 3 months post-CCRT, 6 months post-CCRT, and 12 months post-CCRT). Neurocognitive function was evaluated by Montreal Neurocognitive Assessment (MoCA) twice per patient, once pre-CCRT, and once 12-months after CCRT.

Results: Of 111 patients, 56 completed the entire protocol. The MRI derived apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), mean of diffusion coefficient (Dmean) and fractional anisotropy (FA) values were significantly decreased ( < 0.05) over the 0-3 month period following CCRT and significantly increased ( < 0.05) over the 3-12 month period following CCRT. The mean of kurtosis coefficient (Kmean) continued to decline over a year post-CCRT. All parameters reveal more pronounced changes in white matter (WM) than in grey matter (GM). MoCA also declined after CCRT ( < 0.001). MoCA showed significant positive correlation with Kmean-WM-6 m, Kmean-WM-12 m and ΔKmean-WM.

Conclusions: High-resolution DWI and DKI should be considered as a promising method for the investigation of temporal lobe microstructural change in NPC patients after CCRT.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctro.2019.12.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6965203PMC
March 2020

Pharmacological or genetic depletion of senescent astrocytes prevents whole brain irradiation-induced impairment of neurovascular coupling responses protecting cognitive function in mice.

Geroscience 2020 04 20;42(2):409-428. Epub 2020 Jan 20.

Vascular Cognitive Impairment and Neurodegeneration Program, Reynolds Oklahoma Center on Aging/Oklahoma Center for Geroscience, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 975 N. E. 10th Street - BRC 1303, Oklahoma City, OK, 731042, USA.

Whole brain irradiation (WBI, also known as whole brain radiation therapy or WBRT) is a mainstream therapy for patients with identifiable brain metastases and as a prophylaxis for microscopic malignancies. WBI accelerates brain aging, causing progressive cognitive dysfunction in ~ 50% of surviving patients, thus compromising quality of life. The mechanisms responsible for this WBI side effect remain obscure, and there are no effective treatments or prevention strategies. Here, we test the hypothesis that WBI induces astrocyte senescence, which contributes to impaired astrocytic neurovascular coupling (NVC) responses and the genesis of cognitive decline. To achieve this goal, we used transgenic p16-3MR mice, which allows the detection and selective elimination of senescent cells. We subjected these mice to a clinically relevant protocol of fractionated WBI (5 Gy twice weekly for 4 weeks). WBI-treated and control mice were tested for spatial memory performance (radial arm water maze), astrocyte-dependent NVC responses (whisker-stimulation-induced increases in cerebral blood flow, assessed by laser speckle contrast imaging), NVC-related gene expression, astrocytic release of eicosanoid gliotransmitters and the presence of senescent astrocytes (by flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry and gene expression profiling) at 6 months post-irradiation. WBI induced senescence in astrocytes, which associated with NVC dysfunction and impaired performance on cognitive tasks. To establish a causal relationship between WBI-induced senescence and NVC dysfunction, senescent cells were depleted from WBI-treated animals (at 3 months post-WBI) by genetic (ganciclovir treatment) or pharmacological (treatment with the BCL-2/BCL-xL inhibitor ABT263/Navitoclax, a known senolytic drug) means. In WBI-treated mice, both treatments effectively eliminated senescent astrocytes, rescued NVC responses, and improved cognitive performance. Our findings suggest that the use of senolytic drugs can be a promising strategy for preventing the cognitive impairment associated with WBI.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11357-020-00154-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7205933PMC
April 2020

Obesity-induced sympathoexcitation is associated with Nrf2 dysfunction in the rostral ventrolateral medulla.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2020 02 11;318(2):R435-R444. Epub 2019 Dec 11.

Department of Physiological Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma.

Increases in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) have been implicated in obesity-induced risk for cardiovascular diseases, especially hypertension. Previous studies indicate that oxidative stress in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), a key brain stem region that regulates sympathetic outflow to peripheral tissues, plays a pathogenic role in obesity-mediated sympathoexcitation. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not clear. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that regulates the expression of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory genes and confers cytoprotection against oxidative stress. The present study was designed to investigate whether Nrf2 dysfunction was associated with obesity-induced oxidative stress in the RVLM and sympathoexcitation. C57BL/6J mice were fed with chow or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 wk. Blood pressure parameters were assessed by radiotelemeters in conscious freely moving mice. SNA was measured by heart rate variability analysis and also through assessment of depressor response to ganglionic blockade. The RVLM was microdissected for gene expression and protein analysis (Western blot analysis and activity assay) related to Nrf2 signaling. Our results showed that HFD-induced obesity resulted in significant increases in SNA, although we only observed a mild increase in mean arterial pressure. Obesity-induced oxidative stress in the RVLM was associated with impaired Nrf2 signaling marked by decreased Nrf2 activity, downregulation of mRNA, its target genes [NAD(P)H quinone dehyrogenase 1 () and superoxide dismutase 2 ()], and inflammation. Our findings suggest that obesity results in Nrf2 dysfunction, which likely causes maladaptation to oxidative stress and inflammation in the RVLM. These mechanisms could potentially contribute to obesity-induced sympathoexcitation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.00206.2019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7052598PMC
February 2020

Astrocyte senescence contributes to cognitive decline.

Geroscience 2020 02 26;42(1):51-55. Epub 2019 Nov 26.

Vascular Cognitive Impairment and Neurodegeneration Program, and Reynolds Oklahoma Center on Aging, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11357-019-00140-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7031460PMC
February 2020

Cerebral venous congestion promotes blood-brain barrier disruption and neuroinflammation, impairing cognitive function in mice.

Geroscience 2019 10 5;41(5):575-589. Epub 2019 Nov 5.

Vascular Cognitive Impairment and Neurodegeneration Program, Oklahoma Center for Geroscience, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 975 NE 10th Street, BRC 1311, Oklahoma City, OK, 73104, USA.

Cognitive impairment is one of the most common co-occurring chronic conditions among elderly heart failure patients (incidence: up to ~ 80%); however, the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. It is hypothesized that in addition to decreased cardiac output, increases in central-and consequentially, cerebral-venous pressure (backward failure) also contribute significantly to the genesis of cognitive impairment. To test this hypothesis and elucidate the specific pathogenic role of venous congestion in the brain, we have established a novel model of increased cerebral venous pressure: mice with jugular vein ligation (JVL). To test the hypothesis that increased venous pressure in the brain contributes to the development of cognitive deficits by causing blood-brain barrier disruption, dysregulation of blood flow, and/or promoting neuroinflammation, in C57BL/6 mice, the internal and external jugular veins were ligated. Cognitive function (radial arm water maze), gait function (CatWalk), and motor coordination (rotarod) were tested post-JVL. Neurovascular coupling responses were assessed by measuring changes in cerebral blood flow in the whisker barrel cortex in response to contralateral whisker stimulation by laser speckle contrast imaging through a closed cranial window. Blood-brain barrier integrity (IgG extravasation) and microglia activation (Iba1 staining) were assessed in brain slices by immunohistochemistry. Neuroinflammation-related gene expression profile was assessed by a targeted qPCR array. After jugular vein ligation, mice exhibited impaired spatial learning and memory, altered motor coordination, and impaired gait function, mimicking important aspects of altered brain function observed in human heart failure patients. JVL did not alter neurovascular coupling responses. In the brains of mice with JVL, significant extravasation of IgG was detected, indicating blood-brain barrier disruption, which was associated with histological markers of neuroinflammation (increased presence of activated microglia) and a pro-inflammatory shift in gene expression profile. Thus, cerebral venous congestion per se can cause blood-brain barrier disruption and neuroinflammation, which likely contribute to the genesis of cognitive impairment. These findings have relevance to the pathogenesis of cognitive decline associated with heart failure as well as increased cerebal venous pressure due to increased jugular venous reflux in elderly human patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11357-019-00110-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6885079PMC
October 2019

Treatment with the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor PJ-34 improves cerebromicrovascular endothelial function, neurovascular coupling responses and cognitive performance in aged mice, supporting the NAD+ depletion hypothesis of neurovascular aging.

Geroscience 2019 10 2;41(5):533-542. Epub 2019 Nov 2.

Vascular Cognitive Impairment and Neurodegeneration Program, Oklahoma Center for Geroscience, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma 975 NE 10th Street, BRC 1311, Oklahoma City, OK, 73104, USA.

Adjustment of cerebral blood flow (CBF) to neuronal activity via neurovascular coupling (NVC) plays an important role in the maintenance of healthy cognitive function. Strong evidence demonstrates that age-related cerebromicrovascular endothelial dysfunction and consequential impairment of NVC responses contribute importantly to cognitive decline. Recent studies demonstrate that NAD availability decreases with age in the vasculature and that supplemental NAD precursors can ameliorate cerebrovascular dysfunction, rescuing NVC responses and improving cognitive performance in aged mice. The mechanisms underlying the age-related decline in [NAD] in cells of the neurovascular unit are likely multifaceted and may include increased utilization of NAD by activated poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP-1). The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that inhibition of PARP-1 activity may confer protective effects on neurovascular function in aging, similar to the recently demonstrated protective effects of treatment with the NAD+ precursor nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN). To test this hypothesis, 24-month-old C57BL/6 mice were treated with PJ-34, a potent PARP inhibitor, for 2 weeks. NVC was assessed by measuring CBF responses (laser speckle contrast imaging) in the somatosensory whisker barrel cortex evoked by contralateral whisker stimulation. We found that NVC responses were significantly impaired in aged mice. Treatment with PJ-34 improved NVC responses by increasing endothelial NO-mediated vasodilation, which was associated with significantly improved spatial working memory. PJ-34 treatment also improved endothelium-dependent acetylcholine-induced relaxation of aorta rings. Thus, PARP-1 activation, likely by decreasing NAD availability, contributes to age-related endothelial dysfunction and neurovascular uncoupling, exacerbating cognitive decline. The cerebromicrovascular protective effects of pharmacological inhibition of PARP-1 highlight the preventive and therapeutic potential of treatments that restore NAD+ homeostasis as effective interventions in patients at risk for vascular cognitive impairment (VCI).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11357-019-00101-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6885075PMC
October 2019

Assessment of age-related decline of neurovascular coupling responses by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in humans.

Geroscience 2019 10 2;41(5):495-509. Epub 2019 Nov 2.

Vascular Cognitive Impairment and Neurodegeneration Program, Oklahoma Center for Geroscience and Healthy Brain Aging, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 975 NE 10th Street, BRC 1311, Oklahoma City, OK, 73104, USA.

Preclinical studies provide strong evidence that age-related impairment of neurovascular coupling (NVC) plays a causal role in the pathogenesis of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). NVC is a critical homeostatic mechanism in the brain, responsible for adjustment of local cerebral blood flow to the energetic needs of the active neuronal tissue. Recent progress in geroscience has led to the identification of critical cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in neurovascular aging, identifying these pathways as targets for intervention. In order to translate the preclinical findings to humans, there is a need to assess NVC in geriatric patients as an endpoint in clinical studies. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a non-invasive neuroimaging technique that enables the investigation of local changes in cerebral blood flow, quantifying task-related changes in oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin concentrations. In the present overview, the basic principles of fNIRS are introduced and the application of this technique to assess NVC in older adults with implications for the design of studies on the mechanistic underpinnings of VCI is discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11357-019-00122-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6885078PMC
October 2019

Nrf2 dysfunction and impaired cellular resilience to oxidative stressors in the aged vasculature: from increased cellular senescence to the pathogenesis of age-related vascular diseases.

Geroscience 2019 12 26;41(6):727-738. Epub 2019 Oct 26.

Vascular Cognitive Impairment and Neurodegeneration Program, Reynolds Oklahoma Center on Aging, Oklahoma Center for Geroscience, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA.

Aging is associated with increased oxidative stress in vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells, which contribute to the development of a wide range of diseases affecting the circulatory system in older adults. There is growing evidence that in addition to increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), aging critically impairs pathways determining cellular resilience to oxidative stressors. In young organisms, the evolutionarily conserved nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant response pathway maintains cellular reduction-oxidation homeostasis and promotes a youthful cellular phenotype by regulating the transcription of an array of cytoprotective (antioxidant, pro-survival, anti-inflammatory and macromolecular damage repair) genes. A critical mechanism by which increased ROS production and Nrf2 dysfunction promote vascular aging and exacerbate pathogenesis of age-related vascular diseases is induction of cellular senescence, an evolutionarily conserved cellular stress response mechanism. Senescent cells cease dividing and undergo distinctive phenotypic alterations, contributing to impairment of angiogenic processes, chronic sterile inflammation, remodeling of the extracellular matrix, and barrier dysfunction. Herein, we review mechanisms contributing to dysregulation of Nrf2-driven cytoprotective responses in the aged vasculature and discuss the multifaceted role of Nrf2 dysfunction in the genesis of age-related pathologies affecting the circulatory system, including its role in induction of cellular senescence. Therapeutic strategies that restore Nrf2 signaling and improve vascular resilience in aging are explored to reduce cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in older adults.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11357-019-00107-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6925097PMC
December 2019

Fusogenic liposomes effectively deliver resveratrol to the cerebral microcirculation and improve endothelium-dependent neurovascular coupling responses in aged mice.

Geroscience 2019 12 25;41(6):711-725. Epub 2019 Oct 25.

Vascular Cognitive Impairment and Neurodegeneration Program, Reynolds Oklahoma Center on Aging/Oklahoma Center for Geroscience, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA.

Adjustment of cerebral blood flow (CBF) to the increased oxygen and nutrient demands of active brain regions via neurovascular coupling (NVC) has an essential role in maintenance of healthy cognitive function. In advanced age, cerebromicrovascular oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction impair neurovascular coupling, contributing to age-related cognitive decline. Recently we developed a resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene)-containing fusogenic liposome (FL-RSV)-based molecular delivery system that can effectively target cultured cerebromicrovascular endothelial cells, attenuating age-related oxidative stress. To assess the cerebromicrovascular protective effects of FL-RSV in vivo, aged (24-month-old) C57BL/6 mice were treated with FL-RSV for four days. To demonstrate effective cellular uptake of FL-RSV, accumulation of the lipophilic tracer dyes in cells of the neurovascular unit was confirmed using two-photon imaging (through a chronic cranial window). NVC was assessed by measuring CBF responses (laser speckle contrast imaging) evoked by contralateral whisker stimulation. We found that NVC responses were significantly impaired in aged mice. Treatment with FL-RSV significantly improved NVC responses by increasing NO-mediated vasodilation. These findings are paralleled by the protective effects of FL-RSV on endothelium-dependent relaxation in the aorta. Thus, treatment with FL-RSV rescues endothelial function and NVC responses in aged mice. We propose that resveratrol containing fusogenic liposomes could also be used for combined delivery of various anti-geronic factors, including proteins, small molecules, DNA vectors and mRNAs targeting key pathways involved in microvascular aging and neurovascular dysfunction for the prevention/treatment of age-related cerebromicrovascular pathologies and development of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) in aging.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11357-019-00102-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6925096PMC
December 2019

Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) supplementation promotes anti-aging miRNA expression profile in the aorta of aged mice, predicting epigenetic rejuvenation and anti-atherogenic effects.

Geroscience 2019 08 28;41(4):419-439. Epub 2019 Aug 28.

Vascular Cognitive Impairment and Neurodegeneration Program, Reynolds Oklahoma Center on Aging/Department of Geriatric Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 975 NE 10th Street, BRC 1311, Oklahoma City, OK, 73104, USA.

Understanding molecular mechanisms involved in vascular aging is essential to develop novel interventional strategies for treatment and prevention of age-related vascular pathologies. Recent studies provide critical evidence that vascular aging is characterized by NAD+ depletion. Importantly, in aged mice, restoration of cellular NAD+ levels by treatment with the NAD+ booster nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) exerts significant vasoprotective effects, improving endothelium-dependent vasodilation, attenuating oxidative stress, and rescuing age-related changes in gene expression. Strong experimental evidence shows that dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) has a role in vascular aging. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that age-related NAD+ depletion is causally linked to dysregulation of vascular miRNA expression. A corollary hypothesis is that functional vascular rejuvenation in NMN-treated aged mice is also associated with restoration of a youthful vascular miRNA expression profile. To test these hypotheses, aged (24-month-old) mice were treated with NMN for 2 weeks and miRNA signatures in the aortas were compared to those in aortas obtained from untreated young and aged control mice. We found that protective effects of NMN treatment on vascular function are associated with anti-aging changes in the miRNA expression profile in the aged mouse aorta. The predicted regulatory effects of NMN-induced differentially expressed miRNAs in aged vessels include anti-atherogenic effects and epigenetic rejuvenation. Future studies will uncover the mechanistic role of miRNA gene expression regulatory networks in the anti-aging effects of NAD+ booster treatments and determine the links between miRNAs regulated by NMN and sirtuin activators and miRNAs known to act in the conserved pathways of aging and major aging-related vascular diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11357-019-00095-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6815288PMC
August 2019

Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) treatment attenuates oxidative stress and rescues angiogenic capacity in aged cerebromicrovascular endothelial cells: a potential mechanism for the prevention of vascular cognitive impairment.

Geroscience 2019 10 29;41(5):619-630. Epub 2019 May 29.

Vascular Cognitive Impairment and Neurodegeneration Program, Reynolds Oklahoma Center on Aging, Department of Geriatric Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 975 NE 10th Street, BRC 1311, Oklahoma City, OK, 73104, USA.

Age-related impairment of angiogenesis likely has a critical role in cerebromicrovascular rarefaction and development of vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) in the elderly. Recently, we demonstrated that aging is associated with NAD depletion in the vasculature and that administration of NAD precursors exerts potent anti-aging vascular effects, rescuing endothelium-mediated vasodilation in the cerebral circulation and improving cerebral blood supply. The present study was designed to elucidate how treatment with nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), a key NAD intermediate, impacts age-related impairment of endothelial angiogenic processes. Using cerebromicrovascular endothelial cells (CMVECs) isolated from young and aged F344xBN rats, we demonstrated that compared with young cells, aged CMVECs exhibit impaired proliferation, cellular migration (measured by a wound-healing assay using electric cell-substrate impedance sensing [ECIS] technology), impaired ability to form capillary-like structures, and increased oxidative stress. NMN treatment in aged CMVECs significantly improved angiogenic processes and attenuated HO production. We also found that pre-treatment with EX-527, a pharmacological inhibitor of SIRT1, prevented NMN-mediated restoration of angiogenic processes in aged CMVECs. Collectively, we find that normal cellular NAD levels are essential for normal endothelial angiogenic processes, suggesting that age-related cellular NAD depletion and consequential SIRT1 dysregulation may be a potentially reversible mechanism underlying impaired angiogenesis and cerebromicrovascular rarefaction in aging. We recommend that pro-angiogenic effects of NAD boosters should be considered in both preclinical and clinical studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11357-019-00074-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6885080PMC
October 2019

Lysyl oxidases as driving forces behind age-related macrovascular rigidity.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2019 Jul 17;317(1):H37-H38. Epub 2019 May 17.

Vascular Cognitive Impairment and Neurodegeneration Program, Reynolds Oklahoma Center on Aging/Department of Geriatric Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center , Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00264.2019DOI Listing
July 2019

Chemically induced carcinogenesis in rodent models of aging: assessing organismal resilience to genotoxic stressors in geroscience research.

Geroscience 2019 04 29;41(2):209-227. Epub 2019 Apr 29.

Department of Geriatric Medicine Vascular Cognitive Impairment and Neurodegeneration Program, Reynolds Oklahoma Center on Aging, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 975 NE 10th Street, BRC 1311, Oklahoma City, OK, 73104, USA.

There is significant overlap between the cellular and molecular mechanisms of aging and pathways contributing to carcinogenesis, including the role of genome maintenance pathways. In the field of geroscience analysis of novel genetic mouse models with either a shortened, or an extended, lifespan provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the synergistic roles of longevity assurance pathways in cancer resistance and regulation of lifespan and to develop novel targets for interventions that both delay aging and prevent carcinogenesis. There is a growing need for robust assays to assess the susceptibility of cancer in these models. The present review focuses on a well-characterized method frequently used in cancer research, which can be adapted to study resilience to genotoxic stress and susceptibility to genotoxic stress-induced carcinogenesis in geroscience research namely, chemical carcinogenesis induced by treatment with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA). Recent progress in understanding how longer-living mice may achieve resistance to chemical carcinogenesis and how these pathways are modulated by anti-aging interventions is reviewed. Strain-specific differences in sensitivity to DMBA-induced carcinogenesis are also explored and contrasted with mouse lifespan. The clinical relevance of inhibition of DMBA-induced carcinogenesis for the pathogenesis of mammary adenocarcinomas in older human subjects is discussed. Finally, the potential role of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in the regulation of pathways responsible for cellular resilience to DMBA-induced mutagenesis is discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11357-019-00064-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6544731PMC
April 2019

Age-related decline in peripheral vascular health predicts cognitive impairment.

Geroscience 2019 04 27;41(2):125-136. Epub 2019 Apr 27.

Translational Geroscience Laboratory, Reynolds Oklahoma Center on Aging/Department of Geriatric Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 975 NE 10th street, BRC 1311, Oklahoma City, OK, 73104, USA.

Preclinical studies demonstrate that generalized endothelial cell dysfunction and microvascular impairment are potentially reversible causes of age-related vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID). The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that severity of age-related macro- and microvascular dysfunction measured in the peripheral circulation is an independent predictor of cognitive performance in older adults. In this study, we enrolled 63 healthy individuals into young (< 45 years old) and aged (> 65 years old) groups. We used principal component analysis (PCA) to construct a comprehensive peripheral vascular health index (VHI) encompassing peripheral microvascular reactivity, arterial endothelial function, and vascular stiffness, as a marker of aging-induced generalized vascular dysfunction. Peripheral macrovascular and microvascular endothelial function were assessed using flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and laser speckle contrast imaging tests. Pulse waveform analysis was used to evaluate the augmentation index (AIx), a measure of arterial stiffness. Cognitive function was measured using a panel of CANTAB cognitive tests, and PCA was then applied to generate a cognitive impairment index (CII) for each participant. Aged subjects exhibited significantly impaired macrovascular endothelial function (FMD, 5.6 ± 0.7% vs. 8.3 ± 0.6% in young, p = 0.0061), increased arterial stiffness (AIx 29.3 ± 1.8% vs 4.5 ± 2.6% in young, p < 0.0001), and microvascular dysfunction (2.8 ± 0.2 vs 3.4 ± 0.1-fold change of perfusion in young, p = 0.032). VHI showed a significant negative correlation with age (r = - 0.54, p < 0.0001) and CII significantly correlated with age (r = 0.79, p < 0.0001). VHI significantly correlated with the CII (r = - 0.46, p = 0.0003). A decline in peripheral vascular health may reflect generalized vascular dysfunction and predict cognitive impairment in older adults.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11357-019-00063-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6544701PMC
April 2019