Publications by authors named "Prithvi S Shirahatti"

10 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Design, synthesis, docking, Hirshfeld surface analysis and DFT calculations of 2-methylxanthen-9-with the FtsZ protein from Staphylococcus aureus.

Bioinformation 2021 31;17(3):393-403. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Chemistry, Yuvaraja's College (Autonomous), University of Mysore, Mysuru - 570 005, karnataka, India.

It is of interest to document the design, synthesis, docking, Hirshfeld surface analysis and DFT calculations of 2-methylxanthen-9-with the FtsZ protein (PDB ID: 3VOB) from Staphylococcus aureus for antimicrobial applications. We report the quantitative structure function data in this context.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6026/97320630017393DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8131576PMC
March 2021

Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem) as a contraceptive: An evidence-based review on its pharmacological efficiency.

Phytomedicine 2021 Jul 19;88:153596. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Biotechnology, Sri Jayachamarajendra College of Engineering, JSS Science and Technology University, JSS Technical Institutional Campus, Mysore, 570006, Karnataka, India.

Background: Azadirachta indica A. Juss. is an Indian medicinal plant with innumerable pharmacological properties. Studies have proven that the phytochemicals from neem possess remarkable contraceptive abilities with limited knowledge on its mechanism of action.

Purpose: The present review aims to summarize the efficiency of A. indica treatment as a contraceptive.

Methods: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were used. Published scientific articles on antifertility, antispermatogenic, antiovulation, hormone altering, contraceptive, and abortifacient activities of A. indica were collected from reputed Journals from 1980 to 2020 using electronic databases. Specific keywords search was completed to collect numerous articles with unique experiment design and significant results. This was followed by the selection of the requisite articles based on the criteria designed by the authors. Data extraction was based on the common research elements included in the articles.

Results: A total of 27 studies were considered for reviewing, which included key pharmacological investigations. In the beginning, authors evaluated a number of publications on the contraceptive properties of A. indica, in which it was revealed that most of the publications were made between 2005 and 2009. All the collected articles were categorised and reviewed as antifertility, antispermatogenic, antiovulation, hormone altering, contraceptive, and abortifacient. Authors also assessed studies based on the plant parts used for pharmacological evaluations including leaves, seeds, stem-bark, and flowers. The article was primarily divided into different sections based on the previous works of authors on phytochemistry and pharmacological review articles.

Conclusion: Although A. indica is not reported with the complete alleviation of reproductive system in both male and female animal models, studies have proven its efficacy as a contraceptive. Extracts and phytochemicals from neem neither reduced the libido nor retarded the growth of secondary sexual characters, thus indicating only a temporary and reversible contraceptive activity. However, there is a dearth for clinical studies to prove the efficacy of A. indica as a herbal contraceptive.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2021.153596DOI Listing
July 2021

A systematic review on ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and pharmacological aspects of Linn.

Heliyon 2021 May 18;7(5):e07054. Epub 2021 May 18.

Departments of Clinical Sciences, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, 66506-5606, USA.

Linn. is a medicinal and culinary herb from the Southern European region known for its anti-infective, cardioprotective, gastroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory activities since the Egyptian era. The reported pharmacological activities of L. include antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and anti-cancerous activities. In this review, a comprehensive approach is put forth to scrutinize and report the available data on phytochemistry, ethnopharmacology, pharmacology, and toxicology of the plant. The different extracts and essential oil obtained from the plant have been assessed and reported to treat ailments like microbial infections, inflammation, non-communicable diseases like cancer, and sexually transmitted diseases like HIV-1 and Herpes. The literature review has also indicated the use of volatile oils, phenolic acids, terpenoids, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, tannins, alkaloids, and polysaccharides in pharmacotherapy. Applications of these compounds including antidiabetic, anti-Alzheimer's, cardio, neuro and hepatoprotective, anti-osteoporosis, sedative, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, anti-tyrosinase, antispasmodic, antinociceptive, gastroprotective, anticonvulsant, antihypertensive, antidepressant, anti-amnesia, and anti-helminthic activities have been mentioned. Further, based on research gaps, recommendations have been provided to evaluate L. systematically to develop plant-based drugs, nutraceuticals, and to evaluate their clinical efficiency and safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e07054DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8141878PMC
May 2021

Toxicopathological studies on the effects of T-2 mycotoxin and their interaction in juvenile goats.

PLoS One 2020 26;15(3):e0229463. Epub 2020 Mar 26.

Division of Molecular Biology, Department of Water & Health Sciences-Faculty of Life Sciences, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research (Deemed to be University), Mysuru, India.

Food and feeds contaminated with mycotoxins have been a threat to the rearing industry by causing some of the most fatal toxic reactions not only in the farm animals but also in humans who consume them. Toxicity to juvenile goats was induced by feed contamination with T-2 toxin (at 10 and 20 ppm dosage; group I and II, respectively). The toxicity impact was assessed on days 15 and 30 post treatment with respect to growth performance, oxidative stress, apoptotic studies and detailed pathomorphology. The study revealed that apart from the obvious clinical toxicosis (weakness, lethargy, and retardation in growth), the toxin fed groups also exhibited significant haematological (reduced hemoglobin, total leukocyte and thrombocyte counts) and biochemical changes (increased levels of oxidative stress markers with concomitant decrease in levels of serum and tissue catalase and superoxide dismutase). The pathomorphological and histological alterations suggested that the liver and intestine were the most affected organs. Ultra-structurally, varying degrees of degeneration, cytoplasmic vacuolations and pleomorphic mitochondria were observed in the hepatocytes and the enterocytes of the intestine. Kidney also revealed extensive degeneration of the cytoplasmic organelles with similar condensation of the heterochromatin whereas the neuronal degeneration was characterized by circular, whirling structures. In addition, the central vein and portal triad of the hepatocytes, cryptic epithelial cells of the intestine, MLNs in the lymphoid follicles, PCT and DCT of the nephronal tissues and the white pulp of the spleen exhibited extensive apoptosis. In this study, it was also observed that the expression of HSPs, pro-apoptotic proteins and pro-inflammatory cytokines were significantly upregulated in response to the toxin treatment. These results suggest that the pathogenesis of T-2 toxicosis in goats employs oxidative, apoptotic and inflammatory mechanisms.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0229463PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7098593PMC
June 2020

Assessment of Nutritional Quality and Global Antioxidant Response of Banana ( sp. CV. Nanjangud Rasa Bale) Pseudostem and Flower.

Pharmacognosy Res 2017 Dec;9(Suppl 1):S74-S83

Department of Biotechnology, Sri Jayachamarajendra College of Engineering, Mysore, India.

Background: The assessment of the nutritional composition and phytochemical screening of banana pseudostem (PB) and flower (FB) advocate this nonconventional food source for routine consumption, considering its various health benefits.

Objectives: The aim is to assess the proximate nutrient composition, fatty acids, minerals, amino acid profile, and global antioxidant response (GAR) of PB and FB.

Methods: Standard analytical procedures were used to determine the nutritional quality and GAR of PB and FB.

Results: The chemical analysis illustrated that functional profile (water holding capacity, oil holding capacity, swelling power, and solubility), and proximate (ash, moisture, protein, fat, dietary fiber, and carbohydrate) contents were substantially high in FB than PB. With a well-proportionate amino acid profile, PB (0.56) and FB (0.54) comprised of a high ratio of essential to nonessential amino acids than those of FAO/WHO requirement (0.38). The mineral analysis revealed that PB and FB were rich in macro and micro minerals in the order K > Ca > Mg > P > Na and K > Mg > Na > Ca > P, respectively. Linoleic acid was found to be the major component in PB and FB. Besides, total antioxidant activity conducted for PB and FB by GAR method, measuring both bio-accessible and insoluble fractions, revealed that the soluble fraction fared better than the chemical extracts.

Conclusion: The results revealed high nutritional qualities of the byproducts of banana and the low cost of its production promotes their use as a prospective nonconventional food resource with high nutraceutical value.

Summary: AOAC: Association of Analytical CommunitiesFAO/WHO: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World health organization Banana flower was more potent than banana pseudostem in terms of its nutritional quality and total antioxidant capacity affirming their usefulness (of both the secondary products) in the pharmaceutical sector as a nutritional supplement due to the health-related properties of dietary fibre and associated bioactive compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/pr.pr_67_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5757331PMC
December 2017

Investigation of Antihyperglycaemic Activity of Banana ( sp. Var. Nanjangud rasa bale) Flower in Normal and Diabetic Rats.

Pharmacogn Mag 2017 Oct 11;13(Suppl 3):S417-S423. Epub 2017 Oct 11.

Department of Biotechnology, Sri Jayachamarajendra College of Engineering, JSS Institution Camp, Manasagangothri, Mysore, Karnataka, India.

Background: The vital enzymes of starch digestion and absorption are intestinal α-glucosidases and their inhibition improves postprandial hyperglycaemia, constituting an effective mode of therapy in diabetes.

Objectives: The present study was designed to assess the inhibitory potential of ethanol extract of banana flower (EF) on mammalian α-glucosidases and its pharmacological effects on postprandial hyperglycaemia in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

Materials And Methods: EF was evaluated for its inhibitory potential and mode of inhibition on mammalian α-glucosidases. Further, the role of EF and its constituents Umbelliferone (C1) and Lupeol (C2) on glucose uptake using isolated rat hemi-diaphragm and insulinotropic activity using RINm5F (rat insulinoma) cell lines were determined. The phytocomponents in EF were also evaluated using GC-MS.

Results: EF illustrated a dose-dependent inhibition for rat intestinal sucrase, maltase and -nitrophenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside (pNPG) hydrolysis (IC values: 18.76±0.22, 25.54±0.10 and 76.42±1.12 µg/ml, respectively) and the mode of inhibition was non-competitive with low Ki values. Oral administration (100-200 mg/kg b.wt.) of EF significantly improved the maltose/glucose-induced postprandial hyperglycaemia in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. EF, C1 and C2 exhibited stimulation of glucose uptake and a dose-dependent glucose-induced insulin secretion at both 4.5 and 16.7 mM glucose concentrations. Further, GC-MS analysis revealed significant levels of steroids (25.61%), diazoprogesterone (21.31%), sesquiterpene (11.78%) and other phytocomponents.

Conclusion: EF inhibited α-glucosidases besides promoting glucose uptake and insulin secretion, resulting in antihyperglycaemic effect determining EF as a potent anti-diabetic agent. mg/dl: milligramsper deciliter, mM: millimolar, b.wt.: body weight.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0973-1296.216331DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5669076PMC
October 2017

The effect of a plant extract enriched in stigmasterol and β-sitosterol on glycaemic status and glucose metabolism in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

Food Funct 2016 Sep;7(9):3999-4011

Department of Biotechnology, Sri Jayachamarajendra College of Engineering, JSS Institution Camp, Manasagangothri, Mysore - 570 006, Karnataka, India.

Banana is an extensively cultivated plant worldwide, mainly for its fruit, while its ancillary product, the banana pseudostem, is consumed as a vegetable and is highly recommended for diabetics in the traditional Indian medicine system. The present study was aimed at elucidating the mechanism of antihyperglycaemia exerted by the ethanol extract of banana pseudostem (EE) and its isolated compounds viz., stigmasterol (C1) and β-sitosterol (C2), in an alloxan-induced diabetic rat model. Diabetic rats which were administered with C1, C2 and EE (100 and 200 mg per kg b. wt.) for 4 weeks showed reduced levels of fasting blood glucose and reversal of abnormalities in serum/urine protein, urea and creatinine in diabetic rats compared to the diabetic control group of rats. Diabetic symptoms such as polyphagia, polydipsia, polyuria, urine glucose and reduced body weight were ameliorated in the diabetic group of rats fed with EE, C1 and C2 (100 mg per kg b. wt., once daily) for 28 days. The levels of insulin and Hb were also increased, while the HbA1c level was reduced. The altered activities of hepatic marker enzymes viz., aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP); glycolytic enzyme (hexokinase); shunt enzyme (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase); gluconeogenic enzymes (glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase) and pyruvate kinase were significantly reverted to normal levels by the administration of EE, C1 and C2. In addition, increased levels of hepatic glycogen and glycogen synthase and the corresponding decrease of glycogen phosphorylase activity in diabetic rats illustrated the antihyperglycaemic potential of EE and its components. The histological observations revealed a marked regeneration of the β-cells in the drug treated diabetic rats. These findings suggest that EE might exert its antidiabetic potential in the presence of C1 and C2, attributable to the enhanced glycolytic activity, besides increasing the hepatic glucose utilization in diabetic rats by stimulating insulin secretion from the remnant β-cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c6fo00343eDOI Listing
September 2016

Assessment of In Vivo Antidiabetic Properties of Umbelliferone and Lupeol Constituents of Banana (Musa sp. var. Nanjangud Rasa Bale) Flower in Hyperglycaemic Rodent Model.

PLoS One 2016 22;11(3):e0151135. Epub 2016 Mar 22.

Department of Biotechnology, Sri Jayachamarajendra College of Engineering, JSS Technical Institutions Campus, Mysore - 570 006, Karnataka, India.

Banana is an extensively cultivated plant worldwide, mainly for its fruit, while its ancillary product, the banana flower is consumed as a vegetable and is highly recommended for diabetics in the traditional Indian medicine system. This study is based on an investigation of the in vivo antihyperglycaemic activity of Umbelliferone (C1) and Lupeol (C2) isolated from the ethanol extract of banana flower (EF) in alloxan induced diabetic rat model. Diabetic rats which were administered with C1, C2 and EF (100 and 200 mg/kg b. wt.) for 4 weeks showed deterioration in fasting hyperglycaemia and reversal of abnormalities in serum/urine protein, urea and creatinine, when compared to the diabetic control group of rats. The diabetic group of rats fed with EF, C1 and C2 (100 mg/kg b. wt.) once daily, for a period of 28 days resulted in a significant reduction of diabetic symptoms viz., polyphagia, polydipsia, polyuria and urine sugar together with an improved body weight. HbA1c extent was reduced whereas levels of insulin and Hb were increased. Both the extract and compounds wielded positive impacts in diabetic rats by reversal of altered activities of hepatic marker enzymes viz., aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP); glycolytic enzyme (hexokinase); shunt enzyme (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase); gluconeogenic enzymes (glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase) and pyruvate kinase. The characteristic diabetic complications such as hypercholesterolemia and hypertriacylglycerolemia also significantly reverted to normal in the serum/liver of diabetic rats. Besides these, the treatment increased the activities of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in the serum and liver. The histological observations revealed a marked regeneration of the β-cells in the drug treated diabetic rats. In conclusion, the present study illustrates that EF, C1 and C2 enhances the glycolytic activities, besides increasing the hepatic glucose utilization in diabetic rats by stimulating insulin secretion from the remnant β-cells along with potential enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant activities.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0151135PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4803188PMC
August 2016

Investigation of antihyperglycaemic activity of banana (Musa sp. var. Nanjangud rasa bale) pseudostem in normal and diabetic rats.

J Sci Food Agric 2015 Jan 21;95(1):165-73. Epub 2014 May 21.

Department of Biotechnology, Sri Jayachamarajendra College of Engineering, JSS Institution Camp, Manasagangothri, Mysore, - 570 006, Karnataka, India.

Background: Postprandial hyperglycaemia in diabetes could be ameliorated by inhibiting intestinal α-glucosidases, responsible for starch hydrolysis and its absorption. Different parts of banana have been in use in conventional medicinal formulations since ancient times. Its role as an antihyperglycaemic agent has also been studied. This study was aimed at explaining the mechanism of hypoglycaemic effect by ethanol extract of banana pseudostem (EE). Additionally, studies on the active components involved in the effect have also been attempted.

Results: EE significantly inhibited mammalian intestinal α-glucosidases and yeast α-glucosidase (IC50 , 8.11 ± 0.10 µg mL(-1) ). The kinetic studies showed that EE inhibited sucrase, maltase and and p-nitrophenyl-α-d-glucopyranoside hydrolysis by mixed-type inhibition. Further, in vivo studies identified that the oral administration (100-200 mg kg(-1) body weight) of EE significantly suppressed the maltose/glucose-induced postprandial plasma glucose elevation and wielded an antihyperglycaemic effect in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. GC-MS analysis of EE revealed high levels of β-sitosterol (29.62%), stigmasterol (21.91%), campesterol (10.85%) and other compounds.

Conclusion: These findings suggest that EE might exert an anti-diabetic effect by inhibition of α-glucosidases from the intestine, in turn suppressing the carbohydrate absorption into the bloodstream. Hence the results extend a foundation to the future prospects of the food-derived enzyme inhibitors in treatment of diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.6698DOI Listing
January 2015
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