Publications by authors named "Preneet Cheema Brar"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Graves disease in infancy: a patient presentation and literature review.

Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2021 Jun 1;2021. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Icahn School of Medicine, Mount Sinai Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Kravis Children's Hospital, New York, NY, USA.

Summary: We describe a case of an infant who presented with clinical features of hyperthyroidism. The child was found to be tachycardic, hypertensive and diaphoretic, she was noted to have poor weight gain and difficulty in sleeping. The child was admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit for care. She was found to have biochemical evidence of hyperthyroidism with positive thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin. She responded well to methimazole and propranolol and had a remarkable recovery. She is the youngest patient to be diagnosed with Graves disease in the English literature, at 12 months of life.

Learning Points: Hyperthyroidism must always be considered even at very young age, for patient presenting with poor weight gain and hyperdynamic state. Autoimmune diseases are becoming more common in infancy. Craniosynostosis and increased height for age are well-documented consequences of untreated hyperthyroidism in developing children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EDM-20-0162DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8240725PMC
June 2021

Vaping, SARS-CoV-2, and Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome: A Perfect Storm.

Front Pediatr 2021 12;9:647925. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Molecular Pathobiology, New York University College of Dentistry, New York, NY, United States.

The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and vaping among adolescents has risen exponentially in the last decade. E-cigarette flavors has driven adolescents to use these convenient, USB-like devices, designed to create a desired social image, while being seemingly unaware of the serious health consequences of their behavior. Vaping impacts protective pulmonary barriers by attenuating the mucociliary clearance and by increasing peribronchial inflammation and fibrosis. The recent SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic has been characterized by a plethora of unusual disease presentations. Among them, a unique presentation seen exclusively in children and adolescents was multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C). Seventy percent of adolescents who had MIS-C also had acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and we speculate that there may exist common denominator that links MIS-C and adolescents: the use of e-cigarettes. The virus targets the angiotensin converting receptor (ACE receptor), and studies have shown nicotine-based e-cigarettes or vaping cause oxidative stress and resulting in the upregulation of ACE2, which might worsen ARDS in MIS-C. Our mini-review highlights that adolescents using e-cigarette have alterations in their pulmonary defenses against SARS-CoV-2: an upregulation of the ACE2 receptors, the primary target of SARS-CoV-2. Their compromised immune system makes them more uniquely vulnerable to Covid-19 related MIS-C, increasing their risk for ARDS and related morbidities. Currently, studies have shown an association between MIS-C and vaping, we speculate that adolescents who vape/smoke might be especially vulnerable to serious respiratory symptoms if they develop a hyper-inflammatory state MIS-C.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2021.647925DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8149601PMC
May 2021

Management and Appropriate Use of Diazoxide in Infants and Children with Hyperinsulinism.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2020 12;105(12)

Congenital Hyperinsulinism Center, Cook Children's Medical Center, Fort Worth, Texas.

Background: The diagnosis of hypoglycemia and the use of diazoxide have risen in the last decade. Diazoxide is the only Food and Drug Agency-approved pharmacologic treatment for neonatal hypoglycemia caused by hyperinsulinism (HI). Recent publications have highlighted that diazoxide has serious adverse effects (AEs) such as pulmonary hypertension (2-3%) and neutropenia (15%). Despite its increasing use, there is little information regarding dosing of diazoxide and/or monitoring for AEs.

Methods: We convened a working group of pediatric endocrinologists who were members of the Drug and Therapeutics Committee of the Pediatric Endocrine Society (PES) to review the available literature. Our committee sent a survey to its PES members regarding the use of diazoxide in their endocrine practices. Our review of the results concluded that there was substantial heterogeneity in usage and monitoring for AEs for diazoxide among pediatric endocrinologists.

Conclusions: Based on our extensive literature review and on the lack of consensus regarding use of diazoxide noted in our PES survey, our group graded the evidence using the framework of the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation Working Group, and has proposed expert consensus practice guidelines for the appropriate use of diazoxide in infants and children with HI. We summarized the information on AEs reported to date and have provided practical ideas for dosing and monitoring for AEs in infants treated with diazoxide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgaa543DOI Listing
December 2020

Impaired myocardial deformation and ventricular vascular coupling in obese adolescents with dysglycemia.

Cardiovasc Diabetol 2019 12 19;18(1):172. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

Helen B. Taussig Heart Center, The Johns Hopkins Hospital and School of Medicine, 1800 Orleans Street, Baltimore, MD, 21205-2196, USA.

Background: It is unknown that dysglycemia in obese adolescents has effects on myocardial deformation that are more pronounced when compared to obesity alone. We hypothesized that obesity associated abnormal glucose tolerance (dysglycemia) would have adverse effects on two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography derived longitudinal, radial and circumferential strain (LS, RS, CS) compared to age and gender lean controls. We also examined if changes in deformation would be reflected in abnormal ventricular vascular coupling indices (VVI).

Methods: In a prospective cross-sectional design 39 obese adolescents (15.9 ± 1.7 years; 101.5 ± 39 kg; female - 58%) were compared to age and gender matched lean controls (15.7 ± 1.8 yrs, 60 ± 12.8 kg). Based on results from an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), obese adolescents were categorized as obese normoglycemic (ONG, n = 25) or obese dysglycemic (ODG, n = 14). Left ventricular (LV) global and average LS, CS, RS and strain rate were measured. LV ejection fraction and mass index were measured and VVI approximated as ratio of arterial elasticity (Ea) and end-systolic elastance (Ees).

Results: Adolescents with ODG had significantly (P = 0.005) impaired global LS (- 20.98% ± 2.8%) compared to controls (- 23.01% ± 2.3%). A similar (P = 0.0027) reduction was observed in average LS for adolescents with ODG (18.87% ± 2.5%) compared to controls (20.49% ± 2%). Global CS was also decreased (P = 0.03) in ODG (- 23.95%) compared to ONG (- 25.80). A similar trend was observed in average CS after multivariate regression for BMI and blood pressure. CS correlated with HbA1c in both groups (P = 0.05). VVI had a negative correlation with both LS (r = - 0.4, P = 0.025) and CS rate (r = - 0.36, P = 0.04).

Conclusions: Myocardial strain and strain rate were significantly altered in obese adolescents. Unfavorable subclinical reductions in global and average CS were more pronounced in adolescents with dysglycemia compared to obese adolescents with normoglycemia and controls. These data indicate progressive worsening of subendocardial function across the spectrum of glucose tolerance. Strain rate was predictive of VVI in obese adolescents, suggesting strain rate may be a sensitive marker for cardiac remodeling in abnormal glucose homeostasis states.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12933-019-0976-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6921397PMC
December 2019

Characterization of the duration of treatment with diazoxide in infants with prolonged hyperinsulinism (PHI).

J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2019 Nov;32(11):1241-1245

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Background Prolonged neonatal hyperinsulinism (PHI) causes hypoglycemia in the neonatal period and is associated with perinatal stress. Even though diazoxide is an effective treatment option for PHI, it has serious adverse effects making an argument for safe yet expeditious wean off of diazoxide while ensuring normoglycemia. The objective of this study was to characterize clinical course, dose requirement and duration of treatment with diazoxide in our cohort of infants diagnosed with PHI. Methods A retrospective chart review of infants diagnosed with PHI during a 6-year period was done documenting the diagnostic workup and the duration of treatment with diazoxide. Results PHI was diagnosed (n = 20; mean ± standard deviation [SD]) at 14.3 ± 22.4 days. Elevated insulin (8.3 ± 8.4 mIU/L), normal cortisol (15.5 ± 6.6 μg/dL [6-21]), normal growth hormone (18.8 ± 15.7 ng/mL [0.1-6.2]) and inappropriate low serum free fatty acids (0.3 ± 0.2 mmol/L [>1.5]) levels were measured during hypoglycemia (plasma glucose <50 mg/dL). Detectable insulin at the time of hypoglycemia was measured in 17 of 20 infants while the same number (17/20) of infants had a positive glucagon stimulation test (GST). The dose of diazoxide was 10 ± 3.7 mg/kg/day and duration of treatment was 44.9 ± 27.9 days. Conclusions This study illustrates that the duration of treatment with diazoxide in infants with PHI can be shorter than previously reported in the literature. We speculate that active tapering of diazoxide started within a week after discharge from hospital as well an outpatient tapering of diazoxide based on glucose monitoring were possible reasons for this outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jpem-2019-0066DOI Listing
November 2019

Use of the microbiome in the management of children with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 08;31(4):524-530

Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Hassenfeld Children's Hospital, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY USA.

Purpose Of Review: The purpose of this review is to present recent data that defines our current understanding of the role of the gut microbiome in the development of T2DM.

Recent Findings: Recent studies focus on the physiology and molecular pathways of the gut microbiome-host interaction. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) derived from the fermentation of plant-based nonsoluble fiber bind to G-protein-coupled receptors (GPR) GPR 41 and GPR 43 to induce enteroendocrine molecules that control appetite, and to upregulate intestinal gluconeogenesis gene expression that controls glucose regulation. "Metabolic endotexemia" reflects a state of low-grade systemic inflammation that results from lipopolysaccharide (LPS) release from the gut into the systemic circulation in response to a high-fat diet. Inflammatory pathways induced by LPS, activation of toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4), and other inflammatory signaling pathways are mediators of systemic inflammation, insulin resistance and type II diabetes mellitus.

Summary: Recent scientific data support that derangements in the composition of the microbiota, termed "microbiome dysbiosis" is a factor in the development of "metabolic endotoxemia" and T2DM. Therapeutic options that target the gut microbiome in the treatment of T2DM are explored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000781DOI Listing
August 2019

Update on the current modalities used to screen high risk youth for prediabetes and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Ann Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2019 Jun 30;24(2):71-77. Epub 2019 Jun 30.

Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

The modalities currently employed to screen for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)/prediabetes are HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and 2-hour plasma glucose (PG) during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The purpose of this review is to highlight the positive qualities and pitfalls of these diagnostic modalities and reflect on the most reasonable and effective approach to screen high risk youth. Given its inherent preanalytical advantages, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) continues to be the preferred diagnostic modality used by pediatricians to screen high risk youth. However, when the three aforementioned tests are performed in youths of different races/ethnicities, discrepant results for T2DM/prediabetes are observed. The prevalence rates for T2DM vary from 0.53% in Chinese youth (including youth of all body mass indexes) to 18.3% in high-risk, overweight, obese Korean youth. Moreover, the FPG is abnormal (>100 less than <126 mg/dL) in 15% of Korean youth versus 8.7% of Chinese youth. The prevalence rates for prediabetes are 1.49% in Chinese youth versus 21% in Emirati youth (HbA1c, 5.7%-6.4%). The coefficient of agreement, k, between these screening tests for T2DM are fair, 0.45-0.5 across all youth. However, using HbA1c as a comparator, the agreement is weak with FPG (k=0.18 in German youth versus k=0.396 in Korean youth). The American Diabetes Association (ADA) Standards of Medical Care Guidelines define "high risk youth" who need to be tested for T2DM and/or prediabetes. OGTT and HbA1c do not always detect T2DM in similar individuals. HbA1c may not be an ideal test for screening Hispanic and African American youth. FPG and OGTT are suitable screening tests for youth of ethnic minorities and those with cystic fibrosis or hemoglobinopathies. Performing all three tests either together or sequentially may be the only way to encompass all youth who have aberrations in different aspects of glucose homeostasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6065/apem.2019.24.2.71DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6603607PMC
June 2019

Severe, persistent neonatal hypoglycemia as a presenting feature in patients with congenital hypopituitarism: a review of our case series.

J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2019 Jul;32(7):767-774

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Background Persistent hypoglycemia (PH) beyond 3 days of life warrants investigation which includes a critical sample. We report our case series of five neonates who presented with PH as the first sign of congenital hypopituitarism. Design This is a case series. Methods/Results This is a case series of five neonates evaluated at our academic institution in a 3-year period (2013-2016), who presented with persistent severe hypoglycemia and were subsequently diagnosed with congenital hypopituitarism. All neonates were full term (mean gestational age 39.8 ± 1.4 weeks) born by caesarian section with a mean weight of 3.5 ± 0.16 kg and a mean length of 51.2 ± 1.2 cm at birth. All five neonates had PH beyond 3 days with an average blood glucose (BG) <35 mg/dL at presentation, requiring a mean glucose infusion rate (GIR) of 7.22 ± 1.98 mg/kg/min. The average BG during the critical sample was 42 ± 0.16 mg/dL (three patients). The mean duration of requirement of the glucose infusion was 6.2 ± 3 days during the immediate neonatal period. Diagnosis of the hypopituitarism took 2-52 days from the initial presentation of hypoglycemia. Besides growth hormone (GH) deficiency, cortisol deficiency was diagnosed in all the five neonates. Neuroimaging findings in all the neonates were consistent with pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (hypoplastic anterior pituitary, ectopic posterior pituitary [EPP] and interrupted pituitary stalk). Conclusions Hypoglycemia is a common metabolic complication affecting an infant in the immediate neonatal period. Delay in the diagnosis of hypopituitarism presenting as hypoglycemia is the result of the lack of awareness among neonatologists and/or pediatricians. We propose that providers be cognizant that PH can be the only presentation of hypopituitarism in the neonatal period. Therefore, having a high index of suspicion about this condition can avoid a delay in the evaluation, diagnosis and treatment of hypopituitarism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jpem-2019-0075DOI Listing
July 2019

Clinical utility of stimulation tests in infants with suspected adrenal insufficiency (AI).

J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2019 May;32(5):529-531

Hassenfeld Childrens' Hospital, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, New York University School of Medicine, 135 E 31st street, L-2, New York 10016-6402, NY, USA.

Diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency (AI) in infants can be difficult. While a low random cortisol can signal AI, often confirmatory tests are required when clinical suspicion is strong but the cortisol levels are equivocal. Several studies have demonstrated that in sick preterm infants, there is relative adrenal insufficiency (RAI) defined as an inadequate cortisol production relative to the degree of stress or illness, a condition which can last for several weeks, while in term infants the adrenal axis is mature at birth (Bagnoli F, Mori A, Fommei C, Coriolani G, Badii S, et al. ACTH and cortisol cord plasma concentrations in preterm and term infants. J Perinatol 2013;33:520-4). Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) stimulation tests have been validated in infants in several studies. In light of recent reports of false-negative results of stimulation tests, it is imperative to highlight the pitfalls of these tests. The purpose of this communication is to bring attention to the accuracy of timing of these tests in infants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jpem-2019-0025DOI Listing
May 2019

Interpretation of androgen and anti-Mullerian hormone profiles in a Hispanic cohort of 5- to 8-year-old girls with premature adrenarche.

Ann Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2018 Dec 31;23(4):210-214. Epub 2018 Dec 31.

Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Purpose: Premature adrenarche (PA) often leads to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Higher anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) levels are reported in PCOS. We studied the androgen profile and AMH profiles in Hispanic girls with PA (aged 5-8 years) and age and body mass index (BMI) matched controls.

Methods: Retrospective review of electronic medical records of girls who met the inclusion criteria for premature adrenarche were done.

Results: PA girls (n=76) were matched to control girls (n=12) for age (mean±standard deviation) (6.7±1 years vs. 6.2±1.3 years) and BMI (20±10 kg/m2 vs. 17.8±2.7 kg/m2). Dehydroepiandrostenedione sulfate (63.3±51.3 μg/dL vs. 29.8±17.3 μg/dL, P<0.001) and testosterone levels (11.4±4.8 ng/dL vs. 8.2±2.9 ng/dL, P=0.001) were significantly higher in the PA group than controls. AMH values (<14 years: reference range, 0.49-3.15 ng/mL) were 3.2±2.2 ng/mL vs. 4.6± 3.2 ng/mL respectively in the PA and control groups and were not different (P=0.4). AMH did not show a correlation with bone age (P=0.1), and testosterone (P=0.9) in the PA group. 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels (17-OHP ng/dL) were 39.5±30.5 ng/dL vs. 36.8±19.8 ng/dL in PA versus control girls. The concentration of 17-OHP was not statistically different between the control and PA groups.

Conclusion: Higher AMH was not observed in PA girls and no correlation with BA and androgen levels was observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6065/apem.2018.23.4.210DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6312917PMC
December 2018

Effect of one time high dose "stoss therapy" of vitamin D on glucose homeostasis in high risk obese adolescents.

Arch Endocrinol Metab 2018 Mar-Apr;62(2):193-200. Epub 2018 Apr 5.

Bumrungrad International Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand.

Objective: To study the effect of using a one time high dose "stoss therapy" of vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol: VD2) on indices of insulin sensitivity {whole body sensitivity index: WBISI} and secretion {insulinogenic index: IGI} measured during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in obese adolescents with VDD (25 OHD; serum metabolite of vit D: < 30 ng/dL).

Subjects And Methods: In a randomized placebo controlled cross over design 20 obese adolescents with vitamin D deficiency (VDD) had baseline OGTT. Arm A received one time high dose 300,000 IU of ergocalciferol and Arm B received placebo. After 6 weeks the adolescents were reassigned to Arm A if they were in Arm B and vice versa. 25OHD, calcium, parathyroid hormone, comprehensive metabolic panel, urine calcium creatinine ratio were measured at each study visit. OGTTs to assess indices of sensitivity and secretion were done at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks respectively.

Results: Adolescents were obese and insulin resistant (mean ± SD: mean age = 15.1 ± 1.9 years; BMI: 32.7 ± 9.8; homeostatic model of insulin resistance: HOMA-IR: 4.2 ± 2.8). Stoss therapy with VD2 increased 25OHD from baseline (16.7 ± 2.9 to 19.5 ± 4.5; p = 0.0029) when compared to the placebo. WBISI (2.8 ± 1.9) showed a trend towards improvement in Rx group (p = 0.0577) after adjustment for covariates. IGI (3 ± 2.2) showed an improvement in both Rx and placebo groups.

Conclusions: Our study demonstrated that using a high dose of VD2 (300,000 IU) did not have any beneficial effect on insulin sensitivity (whole body sensitivity index {WBISI}) and secretory indices (insulinogenic index {IGI}) in obese adolescents. High dose "stoss therapy" of VD2 did not appear to have any beneficial effect on glucose homeostasis on obese adolescents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20945/2359-3997000000024DOI Listing
June 2018

Clinical Phenotype in a Toddler with a Novel Heterozygous Mutation of the Vitamin D Receptor.

Case Rep Endocrinol 2017 23;2017:3905905. Epub 2017 May 23.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

We present the clinical phenotype of a toddler who presented with vitamin D-resistant rickets, with one of the highest initial levels of alkaline phosphatase and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels reported in the literature. The toddler had novel compound heterozygous mutations in the ligand-binding site of the vitamin D receptor and had an excellent response to calcitriol (1,25(OH)2D).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2017/3905905DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5460444PMC
May 2017

The relationship between insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction in obese adolescents.

J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2017 May;30(6):635-642

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Background: Insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction share a reciprocal relationship that links the metabolic and cardiovascular sequelae of obesity. We characterized the brachial artery reactivity testing (BART) and carotid artery-intima media thickness (CIMT) in adolescents categorized as obese insulin resistant (OIR) and obese not insulin resistant (ONIR). Lipoprotein particle (p) analysis and inflammatory cytokines in OIR and ONIR groups were also analyzed.

Methods: Obese adolescents (n=40; mean body mass index [BMI] 35.6) were categorized as ONIR and OIR based on their homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) calculation (≤or> than 3.4). Ultrasound measured conduit arterial function BART, microvascular function (post-ischemic hyperemia) and conduit artery structure CIMT.

Results: BART did not differ according to IR status (mean±SD: 7.0±4.3% vs. 5.9±3.4% in ONIR and OIR, respectively, p=0.3, but post-ischemic hyperemia was significantly greater in the ONIR group (4.5±2.2 vs. 3.5±3, p=0.04). Atherogenic lipoprotein particles; large VLDL particles and small LDL particles were higher in the OIR compared to ONIR group.

Conclusions: OIR adolescents demonstrate an inflamed atherogenic milieu compared to the ONIR adolescents. Microvascular function, but not conduit vessel structure or function, was impaired in association with IR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jpem-2016-0404DOI Listing
May 2017

Myopathy in Pediatric Thyroid States: A Review of the Literature.

Pediatr Endocrinol Rev 2016 Dec;14(2):147-158

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

This review highlights the presentations of myopathy in children in both hypothyroid and hyperthyroid states with an emphasis on the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment. Based on our review of the literature data, myopathy should be considered in all children presenting with muscular weakness or altered muscle enzymes in the context of thyroid disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17458/PER.2016.DGC.MyopathyinPediatricDOI Listing
December 2016

Salivary Testosterone during the Minipuberty of Infancy
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Horm Res Paediatr 2017 10;87(2):111-115. Epub 2017 Jan 10.

Background: The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is transiently activated during the postnatal months in boys, a phenomenon termed "minipuberty" of infancy, when serum testosterone (T) increases to pubertal levels. Despite high circulating T there are no signs of virilization. We hypothesize that free T as measured in saliva is low, which would explain the absence of virilization.

Methods: We measured serum total T and free T in saliva using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in 30 infant boys, aged 1-6 months, and in 12 adolescents, aged 11-17 years.

Results: Total serum T in all infants was, as expected, high (172 ± 78 ng/dL) while salivary T was low (7.7 ± 4 pg/mL or 0.45 ± 0.20%). In contrast, salivary T in the adolescents was much higher (41 ± 18 pg/mL or 1.3 ± 0.36%) in relation to their total serum T (323 ± 117 ng/dL). We provide for the first time reference data for salivary T in infants.

Conclusion: Measurement of salivary T by LC-MS/MS is a promising noninvasive technique to reflect free T in infants. The low free T explains the absence of virilization. The minipuberty of infancy is more likely of intragonadal than peripheral significance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000454862DOI Listing
June 2017

Prediabetes in Obese Adolescents.

Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2017 02 8;56(2):115-116. Epub 2016 Dec 8.

1 New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0009922816681138DOI Listing
February 2017

Vascular phenotype of obese adolescents with prediabetes and/or Type 2 diabetes (T2DM): Review of the current literature.

Diabetes Metab Syndr 2016 Oct - Dec;10(4):250-256. Epub 2016 Jun 8.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2016.06.012DOI Listing
March 2017

Early presentation of bilateral gonadoblastomas in a Denys-Drash syndrome patient: a cautionary tale for prophylactic gonadectomy.

J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2013 ;26(9-10):971-4

Mutation of the Wilms tumor gene (WT1) is associated with two well-described syndromes called Denys-Drash (DDS) and Frasier (FS). Both are associated with nephropathy and ambiguous genitalia and have overlapping clinical and molecular features. The known risk of Wilms tumor in DDS and gonadoblastoma (GB) in FS patients requires tumor surveillance. The literature reports the occurrence of GB in DDS as lower than FS. This case highlights a very early presentation of bilateral GB in DDS and the consideration of early prophylactic gonadectomy at the time of diagnosis with DDS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jpem-2012-0409DOI Listing
August 2014

Suspected nonalcoholic Fatty liver disease is not associated with vitamin d status in adolescents after adjustment for obesity.

J Obes 2010 10;2010:496829. Epub 2011 Feb 10.

Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, New York University, New York, NY 10016, USA.

This study investigated a potential independent association between hypovitaminosis D and suspected nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in a nationally representative sample of the US adolescents. Data from 1630 subjects 12-19 years of age were examined using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001-2004. The vitamin D status of subjects was categorized into quartiles of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Subjects with serum ALT > 30 U/L were classified as having suspected NAFLD. Data regarding age, sex, race, BMI, and poverty level were also analyzed in bivariate and multivariate analyses using SAS and SUDAAN software. Suspected NAFLD was identified in 12.1% of adolescents in the lowest quartile compared to 6.9% of adolescents in the second quartile, 8.0% in the third quartile, and 13.17% in the highest quartile of serum 25(OH)D concentrations (P = .05). In analyses utilizing vitamin D as a continuous variable, no independent association was found between Vitamin D levels and rates of elevated ALT levels. In multivariate analyses, higher risks for suspected NAFLD were observed in males and overweight adolescents; however, vitamin D status was not found to be independently associated with suspected NAFLD after adjusting for obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/496829DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3038678PMC
July 2011
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