Publications by authors named "Prem Sharma"

108 Publications

Computational study of novel inhibitory molecule, 1-(4-((2,3)-3-amino-2-hydroxy-4-phenylbutyl)piperazin-1-yl)-3-phenylurea, with high potential to competitively block ATP binding to the RNA dependent RNA polymerase of SARS-CoV-2 virus.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2021 Jun 21:1-19. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Laboratory for Translational Chemistry and Drug Discovery, Department of Chemistry, Hansraj College, University of Delhi, Delhi, India.

For coronaviruses, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is an essential enzyme that catalyses the replication from RNA template and therefore remains an attractive therapeutic target for anti-COVID drug discovery. In the present study, we performed a comprehensive screening for 16,776 potential molecules from recently established drug libraries based on two important pharmacophores (3-amino-4-phenylbutan-2-ol and piperazine). Based on initial assessment, 4042 molecules were obtained suitable as drug candidates, which were following Lipinski's rule. Molecular docking implemented for the analysis of molecular interactions narrowed this number of compounds down to 19. Subsequent to screening filtering criteria and considering the critical parameters docking score and MM-GBSA binding free energy, 1-(4-((2,3)-3-amino-2-hydroxy-4-phenylbutyl)piperazin-1-yl)-3-phenylurea (compound ) was accomplished to score highest in comparison to the remaining 18 shortlisted drug candidates. Notably, compound displayed higher docking score (-8.069 kcal/mol) and MM-GBSA binding free energy (-49.56 kcal/mol) than the control drug, remdesivir triphosphate, the active form of remdesivir as well as adenosine triphosphate. Furthermore, a molecular dynamics simulation was carried out (100 ns), which substantiated the candidacy of compound as better inhibitor. Overall, our systematic study predicts the potential of compound to exhibit a more favourable specific activity than remdesivir triphosphate. Hence, we suggest compound 1 as a novel potential drug candidate, which should be considered for further exploration and validation of its potential against SARS-CoV-2 in wet lab experimental studies.Communicated by Ramasawamy H. Sarma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07391102.2021.1940281DOI Listing
June 2021

Synthesis of alkynylated 1,2,4-oxadiazole/1,2,3-1H-triazole glycoconjugates: Discovering new compounds for use in chemotherapy against lung carcinoma and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Eur J Med Chem 2021 Aug 18;220:113472. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Department of Chemistry, Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, Dois Irmãos, 52171-900, Recife, Brazil. Electronic address:

A total of forty-three compounds were synthesized, including thirty-two new ones. Among those compounds, seventeen were selected and tested on human tumor cell lines: PC-3 (prostate adenocarcinoma), HCT-116 (colorectal tumor), NCIH-460 (lung carcinoma), SKMEL-103 (melanoma) and AGP-01 (gastric tumor). Alkynylated 1,2,4-oxadiazoles 2m, 3g and 3k exhibited antiproliferative activities against NCIH-460 in culture. Alkynylated N-cyclohexyl-1,2,4-oxadiazoles 3a-m and bis-heterocycle glucoglycero-1,2,3-triazole-N-cyclohexyl-1,2,4-oxadiazole derivatives 5a-k and 6-11 were evaluated for their in vitro efficacy towards Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) HRa and HRv strains. In general, glycerosugars conjugated to 1,2,4-oxadiazole via a 1,2,3-triazole linkage (5a, 5e, 5j, 5k, and 7) showed in vitro inhibitory activity against Mtb (HRv). The largest molecules bis-triazoles 10 and 11, proved inactive against TB. Probably, the absence of the N-cyclohexyl group in compound 8 and 1,2,4-oxadiazole nucleus in compound 9 were responsible for its low activity. Glucoglycero-triazole-oxadiazole derivatives 5e (10 μM) and 7 (23.9 μM) were the most promising antitubercular compounds, showing a better selective index than when tested against RAW 264.7 and HepG2 cells. Vero cell were used to investigate cytotoxicity of compounds 5a, 5h, 5j, 5k, and these compounds showed good cell viability. Further, in silico studies were performed for most active compounds (5e and 7) with potential drug targets, DprE1 and InhA of Mtb to understand possible interactions aided with molecular dynamic simulation (100ns).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2021.113472DOI Listing
August 2021

validation of novel inhibitors of malarial aspartyl protease, plasmepsin V and antimalarial efficacy prediction.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2021 Apr 19:1-13. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Laboratory for Translational Chemistry and Drug Discovery, Department of Chemistry, Hansraj College, University of Delhi, Delhi, India.

Plasmepsin V (Plm V) is an essential aspartic protease required for survival of the malaria parasite, . Plm V is required for cleaving the PEXEL motifs of many proteins and its inhibition leads to a knockout effect, indicating its suitability as potential drug target. To decipher new inhibitors of Plm V, molecular docking of four HIV-1 protease inhibitors active against PlmV was performed on Glide module of Schrödinger suite that supported saquinavir as a lead drug, and therefore, selected as a control. Saquinavir contains an important hydroxyethylamine (HEA) pharmacophore, which was utilized as backbone coupled with piperazine scaffold to build new library of compounds. Newly designed HEA compounds were screened virtually against Plm V. Molecular docking led to a few hits ( and ) with higher docking score over the control drug. Notably, compound showed the highest docking score (-11.90 kcal/mol) and XP Gscore (-11.948 kcal/mol). The Prime MMGBSA binding free energy for compound (-60.88 kcal/mol) and (-50.96 kcal/mol) was higher than saquinavir (-37.51 kcal/mol). The binding free energy for the last frame of molecular dynamic simulation supported compound (-92.88 kcal/mol) as potent inhibitor of Plm V over saquinavir (-72.77 kcal/mol), and thus, deserves experimental validations in culture and subsequently in animal models.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07391102.2021.1911855DOI Listing
April 2021

Enhanced Ion Cluster Size of Sulfonated Poly (Arylene Ether Sulfone) for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Application.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Mar 31;13(7). Epub 2021 Mar 31.

School of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746, Gyeonggi, Korea.

A successful approach towards enhancement in ion cluster size of sulfonated poly (arylene ether sulfone) (SPAES)-based membranes has been successfully carried out by encapsulating basic pendent branches as side groups. Modified SPAES was synthesized by condensation polymerization followed by bromination with N-bromosuccinamide (NBS) and sulfonation by ring opening reaction. Various molar ratios of branched polyethyleneimine (PEI) were added to the SPAES and the developed polymer was designated as SPAES-x-PEI-y, where denoted the number of sulfonating acid group per polymer chain and y represents the amount of PEI concentration. Polymer synthesis was characterized by H-NMR (Nuclear magnetic resonance) and FT-IR (Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy) analysis. A cumulative trend involving enhanced proton conductivity of the membranes with an increase in the molar ratio of PEI has been observed, clearly demonstrating the formation of ionic clusters. SPAES-140-PEI-3 membranes show improved proton conductivity of 0.12 Scm at 80 °C. Excellent chemical stability was demonstrated by the polymer with Fenton's test at 80 °C for 24 h without significant loss in proton conductivity, owing to the suitability of the synthesized hybrid membrane for electrochemical application. Moreover, a single cell degradation test was conducted at 80 °C showing a power density at a 140 mWcm value, proving the stable nature of synthesized membranes for proton exchange membrane fuel cell application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13071111DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8036791PMC
March 2021

Improved Oxidative Stability by Embedded Cerium into Graphene Oxide Nanosheets for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Application.

Membranes (Basel) 2021 Mar 28;11(4). Epub 2021 Mar 28.

School of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746, Gyeonggi, Korea.

Investigation of the collaborative effect of cerium particles embedded in graphene oxide to enhance the chemical stability of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) has been carried out. Synthesis of composite membranes (Nafion-GO/Ce-x) with Nafion solution as a polymer is synthesized by a solution casting method where (x = concentration of composite). The developed hybrid material was characterized by FT-IR and X-ray diffraction (XRD) for its phase identification while the chemical structure was characterized by XPS analysis. The enhancement in the chemical stability of the incorporated hybrid material is characterized by Fenton's test showing a radical scavenging effect. It was found that the residual weight for Nafion was 92.50% after 24 h and it was 94.32% for Nafion-GO/Ce-2 and 96.49% for Nafion-GO/Ce-4, proving the suitability of composite membranes for fuel cell applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/membranes11040238DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8067057PMC
March 2021

Vascular patterns on narrow band imaging (NBI) video bronchoscopy of lung cancer patients and its relationship with histology: an analytical cross-sectional study.

Adv Respir Med 2021 ;89(1):30-36

All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rajasthan, Jodhpur, India.

Introduction: Narrow band imaging (NBI) video bronchoscopy provides better visualisation of submucosal vascular patterns in malignant airway lesions compared to white light bronchoscopy. This analytical cross-sectional study was aimed to look for any relationship between these NBI vascular patterns and the histologic type of lung cancer.

Material And Methods: After screening 78 patients with suspected lung cancer, 53 subjects underwent video bronchoscopy. Thirty-two patients showing abnormal bronchial mucosa or endobronchial growth with any of the NBI vascular patterns on bronchoscopy were enrolled in the study. These abnormal areas were then biopsied and sent for histologic examination.

Results: NBI bronchoscopy revealed a dilated tortuous vascular pattern in 54.8% of the patients, a non-specific pattern in 32%, a dotted pattern in 9.7% and an abrupt ending vessels pattern in 3.2% of the patients. We did not find any statistically significant relationship between a dilated tortuous pattern and squamous-cell carcinoma (p = 0.48), adenocarcinoma (p = 0.667) or small-cell carcinoma (p = 1); between a dotted pattern and squamous-cell carcinoma (p = 1), adenocarcinoma (p = 0.54) or small-cell carcinoma (p = 1), and between an abrupt ending capillary pattern and squamous-cell carcinoma (p = 1), adenocarcinoma (p = 1) or small-cell carcinoma (p =1).

Conclusion: No relationship exists between NBI vascular patterns and the histology of lung cancer. Endobronchial lesions showing any vascular pattern on NBI needs to be adequately sampled for proper histologic and molecular studies in lung cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/ARM.a2021.0014DOI Listing
January 2021

Delineation of Mitochondrial DNA Variants From Exome Sequencing Data and Association of Haplogroups With Obesity in Kuwait.

Front Genet 2021 11;12:626260. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Genetics and Bioinformatics Department, Dasman Diabetes Institute, Kuwait City, Kuwait.

Background/objectives: Whole-exome sequencing is a valuable tool to determine genetic variations that are associated with rare and common health conditions. A limited number of studies demonstrated that mitochondrial DNA can be captured using whole-exome sequencing. Previous studies have suggested that mitochondrial DNA variants and haplogroup lineages are associated with obesity. Therefore, we investigated the role of mitochondrial variants and haplogroups contributing to the risk of obesity in Arabs in Kuwait using exome sequencing data.

Subjects/methods: Indirect mitochondrial genomes were extracted from exome sequencing data from 288 unrelated native Arab individuals from Kuwait. The cohort was divided into obese [body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m] and non-obese (BMI < 30 kg/m) groups. Mitochondrial variants were identified, and haplogroups were classified and compared with other sequencing technologies. Statistical analysis was performed to determine associations and identify mitochondrial variants and haplogroups affecting obesity.

Results: Haplogroup R showed a protective effect on obesity [odds ratio (OR) = 0.311; = 0.006], whereas haplogroup L individuals were at high risk of obesity (OR = 2.285; = 0.046). Significant differences in mitochondrial variants between the obese and non-obese groups were mainly haplogroup-defining mutations and were involved in processes in energy generation. The majority of mitochondrial variants and haplogroups extracted from exome were in agreement with technical replica from Sanger and whole-genome sequencing.

Conclusions: This is the first to utilize whole-exome data to extract entire mitochondrial haplogroups to study its association with obesity in an Arab population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.626260DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7920096PMC
February 2021

Multi-targeting approach for nsp3, nsp9, nsp12 and nsp15 proteins of SARS-CoV-2 by Diosmin as illustrated by molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation methodologies.

Methods 2021 Feb 25. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Chemistry, Miranda House, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007, India. Electronic address:

Novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2continues tospread rapidly worldwide and causing serious health and economic loss. In the absence of any effective treatment, various in-silico approaches are being explored towards the therapeutic discovery against COVID-19. Targeting multiple key enzymes of SARS-CoV-2 with a single potential drug could be an important in-silico strategy to tackle the therapeutic emergency. A number of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drugs entered into clinical stages were originated from multi-target approaches with an increased rate, 16-21% between 2015 and 2017. In this study, we selected an FDA-approved library (Prestwick Chemical Library of 1520 compounds) and implemented in-silico virtual screening against multiple protein targets of SARS-CoV-2 on the Glide module of Schrödinger software (release 2020-1). Compounds were analyzed for their docking scores and the top-ranked against each targeted protein were further subjected to Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations to assess the binding stability of ligand-protein complexes. A multi-targeting approach was optimized that enabled the analysis of several compounds' binding efficiency with more than one protein targets. It was demonstrated that Diosmin (6) showed the highest binding affinity towards multiple targets with binding free energy (kcal/mol) values of -63.39 (nsp3); -62.89 (nsp9); -31.23 (nsp12); and -65.58 (nsp15). Therefore, our results suggests that Diosmin (6) possesses multi-targeting capability, a potent inhibitor of various non-structural proteins of SARS-CoV-2, and thus it deserves further validation experiments before using as a therapeutic against COVID-19 disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymeth.2021.02.017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7904494PMC
February 2021

In silico identification of potential inhibitor for TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

3 Biotech 2021 Mar 7;11(3):117. Epub 2021 Feb 7.

Amity Institute of Molecular Medicine and Stem Cell Research (AIMMSCR), Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Sec-125, Noida, 201313 India.

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the six most common cancer globally and most common cancer in men in India. The metabolic regulation is highly altered and is considered as a hall mark of HNSCC. TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR) plays very important role in the development and progression of HNSCC. The aim of our study is to identify a novel FDA approved anticancer inhibitor against mutated TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR) through drug repurposing approach. A library of 105 FDA approved anticancer compounds were screened using molecular docking approach against TIGAR (PDB: 3DCY) both Wild-Type (WT) and mutated (Mut). Specific mutations in TIGAR were identified using cBioPortal, a cancer genomics database and mutated structure was modelled using SWISS-MODEL. Out of 510 sequenced cases/patients samples, 17(3%) patients showed alteration in TIGAR [TIGAR and TIGAR]. The virtual drug screening showed 45 drugs out of 105 high binding affinity with TIGAR, Trabectedin showed highest binding affinity with both TIGAR (- 13.3 kcal/mol) as well as TIGAR (- 13.8 kcal/mol). The molecular docking studies were validated using molecular dynamics simulation (MD Simulation) of protein-ligand complex of TIGAR and Trabectedin for 100 ns. The MD Simulation of Trabectedin complex showed more stable with TIGAR compared to TIGAR. Moreover, the string analysis revealed that metabolic-related genes, HK2, PFKFB1, PFKM, PFKP, PFKL, FBP1 are closely associated with TIGAR in HNSCC. Our findings suggest that Trabectedin can be proposed as an inhibitor for [TIGAR] which can be used to target metabolic signalings in HNSCC. However, further investigation and in vitro and in vivo validation our findings required to understand the molecular mechanisms of regulation of Trabectedin in HNSCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13205-021-02665-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7868312PMC
March 2021

Viral Ribonucleic Acid Shedding and Transmission Potential of Asymptomatic and Paucisymptomatic Coronavirus Disease 2019 Patients.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2021 Jan 8;8(1):ofaa599. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Department of Microbiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India.

We studied the pattern and duration of viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) shedding in 32 asymptomatic and 11 paucisymptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 cases. Viral RNA shedding in exhaled breath progressively diminished and became negative after 6 days of a positive reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction test. Therefore, the duration of isolation can be minimized to 6 days.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofaa599DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7798607PMC
January 2021

Tobacco, alcohol use and other risk factors for developing symptomatic COVID-19 vs asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection: a case-control study from western Rajasthan, India.

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2021 Jan 14. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Director, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, Rajasthan 342005, India.

Background: Understanding risk factors of symptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vis-à-vis asymptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, severe disease and death is important.

Methods: An unmatched case-control study was conducted through telephonic interviews among individuals who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in Jodhpur, India from 23 March to 20 July 2020. Contact history, comorbidities and tobacco and alcohol use were elicited using standard tools.

Results: Among 911 SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals, 47.5% were symptomatic, 14.1% had severe COVID-19 and 41 (4.5%) died. Older age, working outside the home, cardiac and respiratory comorbidity and alcohol use were found to increase the risk of symptomatic disease as compared with asymptomatic infection. Current tobacco smoking (odds ratio [OR] 0.46 [95% confidence interval {CI} 0.26 to 0.78]) but not smokeless tobacco use (OR 0.81 [95% CI 0.55 to 1.19]) appeared to reduce the risk of symptomatic disease. Age ≥60 y and renal comorbidity were significantly associated with severe COVID-19. Age ≥60 y and respiratory and cardiac comorbidity were found to predispose to mortality.

Conclusions: The apparent reduced risk of symptomatic COVID-19 among tobacco smokers could be due to residual confounding owing to unknown factors, while acknowledging the limitation of recall bias. Cross-protection afforded by frequent upper respiratory tract infection among tobacco smokers could explain why a similar association was not found for smokeless tobacco use, thereby being more plausible than the 'nicotinic hypothesis'. Those with comorbidities and age ≥60 y should be prioritized for hospital admission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/trstmh/traa172DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7928693PMC
January 2021

Intercalated Poly (2-Acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic Acid) into Sulfonated Poly (1,4-Phenylene ether-ether-sulfone) Based Proton Exchange Membrane: Improved Ionic Conductivity.

Molecules 2020 Dec 31;26(1). Epub 2020 Dec 31.

School of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi 440-746, Korea.

A series of hybrid proton exchange membranes were synthesized via in situ polymerization of poly (2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid) PMPS with sulfonated poly (1,4-phenylene ether-ether-sulfone) (SPEES). The insertion of poly (2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid) PMPS, between the rigid skeleton of SPEES plays a reinforcing role to enhance the ionic conductivity. The synthesized polymer was chemically characterized by fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance H NMR spectroscopy to demonstrate the successful grafting of PMPS with the pendent polymer chain of SPEES. A variety of physicochemical properties were also investigated such as ion exchange capacity (IEC), proton conductivity, water uptake and swelling ratio to characterize the suitability of the formed polymer for various electrochemical applications. SP-PMPS-03, having the highest concentration of all PMPS, shows excellent proton conductivity of 0.089 S cm at 80 °C which is much higher than SPEES which is ~0.049 S cm. Optimum water uptake and swelling ratio with high conductivity is mainly attributed to a less ordered arrangement polymer chain with high density of the functional group to facilitate ionic transport. The residual weight was 93.35, 92.44 and 89.56%, for SP-PMPS-01, 02 and 03, respectively, in tests with Fenton's reagent after 24 h. In support of all above properties a good chemical and thermal stability was also achieved by SP-PMPS-03, owing to the durability for electrochemical application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26010161DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7795994PMC
December 2020

Adult Diabetes and Prediabetes Prevalence in Kuwait: Data from the Cross-Sectional Kuwait Diabetes Epidemiology Program.

J Clin Med 2020 Oct 25;9(11). Epub 2020 Oct 25.

Dasman Diabetes Institute, Kuwait City 15462, Kuwait.

Background: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes in adults in Kuwait.

Methods: The Kuwait Diabetes Epidemiology Program was a nationally representative, cross-sectional study of diabetes and obesity in Kuwait conducted between 2011 and 2014. The survey sampled 4937 adults in Kuwait aged 20 years or more and recorded participants' demographics, behaviours, medical history, physical measurements and blood biochemical measurements. Prediabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose between 6.1 and 6.9 mmol/L or HbA1c between 6 and 6.4% (42-47 mmol/mol). Diabetes was defined as self-reported history with prescribed glucose-lowering medication or FPG ≥7mmol/L or HbA1c level ≥6.5% (≥48 mmol/mol).

Results: The overall adjusted prevalence of diabetes was 19.1%. The overall adjusted prevalence of prediabetes was 13.5%. Diabetes prevalence was 5.4%, 14.2%, 38.7% and 64.8% in adults aged 20-29, 30-44, 45-59 and 60 years or more, respectively. Diabetes prevalence was 22.4% in men and 14.4% in women. Prediabetes prevalence was 14.8% in men and 11.5% in women. In Kuwaitis, diabetes and prediabetes prevalence was 21.8% and 11.1%, respectively, while prevalence in non-Kuwaitis was 18.2% for diabetes and 14.3% for prediabetes.

Conclusion: These findings illustrate the severe public health challenge posed by diabetes in Kuwait.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9113420DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7694112PMC
October 2020

Effect of peer educator-PRAGATI (PeeR Action for Group Awareness through Intervention) on knowledge, attitude, and practice of menstrual hygiene in adolescent school girls.

J Family Med Prim Care 2020 Jul 30;9(7):3593-3599. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Department of Community Medicine and Family Medicine, AIIMS, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India.

Context: Majority of the adolescent girls all over the world, suffer from anxiety, shame, discomfort, and isolation during menstruation. Awareness about menstrual hygiene and health can help them to overcome this situation.

Aims: The study aims to elicit the existing knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding menstruation and to assess the effectiveness of a structured training program through peer educators-PRAGATI (PeeR Action for Group Awareness through Intervention) on menstrual hygiene among adolescent school girls.

Subjects And Methods: This was a prospective interventional study. A structured training program through peer educators (PRAGATI) was used on adolescent females for evaluating menstrual hygiene awareness and practices through pre- and posttest. McNemar's test was used for paired nominal data and the difference between pretest and posttest was assessed by the paired -test.

Results: In the pretest, only 20.5% had adequate knowledge, 32.5% had poor knowledge, while 48.7% of girls had moderate knowledge about menstruation and menstrual hygiene. Post-intervention, 56.41% girls gained adequate knowledge (an increase of ~36%), 30.76% had moderate knowledge, and only 12.8% of them (a reduction of ~20%) still had poor knowledge. The mean increase of knowledge on menstrual hygiene in pretest and posttest analysis was statistically significant with < 0.01.

Conclusion: The training by the peer educators (PRAGATI) in creating awareness about menstrual hygiene and bringing about a significant change in attitude and practice is an effective method of spreading awareness among adolescents on menstrual hygiene related sensitive issues. However, repeated sessions are required to create momentum and enthusiasm for learning new things.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_309_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7567287PMC
July 2020

Blood lead levels in antenatal women and its association with iron deficiency anemia and adverse pregnancy outcomes.

J Family Med Prim Care 2020 Jun 30;9(6):3106-3111. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Biostatistics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India.

Objectives: Lead is one of the most toxic heavy metal prevalent in the environment, which affects almost all major organs including heart, brain, intestines, kidneys as well as reproductive organs. It has been known that serum iron deficiency is associated with increased serum lead levels as lead is a particularly pernicious element to iron metabolism. Lead is also known to freely cross the placenta too; hence, this study was planned to determine any association between antenatal iron deficiency anemia (IDA), raised blood lead levels (BPb), and adverse pregnancy outcomes.

Materials And Methods: This was an observational study done on 99 antenatal women with IDA and 41 nonanemic antenatal women. Lead levels were assessed in these 140 antenatal women and they were followed for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Chi-square test was used to find a difference in quantitative variables and Pearson's correlation test was used to assess association between BPb and hemoglobin levels.

Results: We found that in 11 out of 99 (11.11%) women with IDA, BPb levels were high as compared to high BPb levels in only 1 out of 41 (2.4%) women without IDA and the high BPb levels ranged from 4 μg/dl-16.9 μg/dl with a mean BPb of 8.1 μg/dl. The difference in BPb among anemic and nonanemic antenatal women was significant ( < 0.05) and there was a negative dose effect relationship between BPb levels and hemoglobin levels. This difference in antenatal outcomes among women with and without high BPb levels was also significant with increased incidence of pre-eclampsia, FGR, and preterm deliveries in women with raised BPb levels. The incidence of NICU admission was also higher in the neonates of mothers with high BPb levels.

Conclusions: We propose screening of high-risk women based on their social, occupational, environmental, and personal factors, with serum lead levels in the preconception period itself. All public and personal measures must be taken to reduce lead consumption and exposure in the preconception and antenatal period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_78_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7491757PMC
June 2020

Prevalence and factors associated with effective helmet use among motorcyclists in Mysuru City of Southern India.

Environ Health Prev Med 2020 Sep 4;25(1):47. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Mysore Medical College and Research Institute (MMCRI), Mysore, Karnataka, India.

Background: Helmet use reduces the risk and severity of head injury and death due to road traffic crash among motorcyclists. The protective efficacy of different types of helmets varies. Wearing firmly fastened full-face helmet termed as effective helmet use provides greatest protection. This study estimates the prevalence and factors associated with effective helmet use among motorcyclists in Mysuru, a tier II city in Southern India.

Methods: Cross-sectional road side observational study of 3499 motorcyclists (2134 motorcycle riders and 1365 pillion riders) at four traffic intersections was done followed by interview of random sample of 129 of the above riders. Effective helmet use proportion and effective helmet use per 100 person-minute of observation was calculated. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to identify factors associated with effective helmet use.

Results: Prevalence of effective helmet use was 28 per 100 riders and 19.5 per 100 person-minute of observation in traffic intersections. Prevalence rates of effective helmet use was higher among riders (34.5% vs pillion riders 18.1%), female riders (51.3% vs male riders 26.8%), and male pillion riders (30.5% vs female pillion riders 13.7%). Riders commuting for work and school and those ever stopped by the police in the past 3 months had significantly higher odds of effective helmet use.

Conclusion: Despite helmet use being compulsory by law for motorcyclists, the effective helmet use was low in Mysore. Strict enforcement and frequent checks by the police are necessary to increase the effective helmet use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12199-020-00888-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7487705PMC
September 2020

Structure-based drug repurposing for targeting Nsp9 replicase and spike proteins of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2020 Aug 24:1-14. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Amity Institute of Molecular Medicine & Stem Cell Research (AIMMSCR), Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Noida, India.

Drug re-purposing might be a fast and efficient way of drug development against the novel coronavirus disease 2019 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We applied a bioinformatics approach using molecular dynamics and docking to identify FDA-approved drugs that can be re-purposed to potentially inhibit the non-structural protein 9 (Nsp9) replicase and spike proteins in SARS-CoV-2. We performed virtual screening of FDA-approved compounds, including antiviral, anti-malarial, anti-parasitic, anti-fungal, anti-tuberculosis, and active phytochemicals against the Nsp9 replicase and spike proteins. Selected hit compounds were identified based on their highest binding energy and favorable absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) profile. Conivaptan, an arginine vasopressin antagonist drug exhibited the highest binding energy (-8.4 Kcal/mol) and maximum stability with the amino acid residues present at the active site of the Nsp9 replicase. Tegobuvir, a non-nucleoside inhibitor of the hepatitis C virus, also exhibited maximum stability along with the highest binding energy (-8.1 Kcal/mol) at the active site of the spike proteins. Molecular docking scores were further validated by molecular dynamics using Schrodinger, which supported the strong stability of ligands with the proteins at their active sites through water bridges, hydrophobic interactions, and H-bonding. Our findings suggest Conivaptan and Tegobuvir as potential therapeutic agents against SARS-CoV-2. Further and validation and evaluation are warranted to establish how these drug compounds target the Nsp9 replicase and spike proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07391102.2020.1811773DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7484568PMC
August 2020

Discovery of New Hydroxyethylamine Analogs against 3CL Protein Target of SARS-CoV-2: Molecular Docking, Molecular Dynamics Simulation, and Structure-Activity Relationship Studies.

J Chem Inf Model 2020 12 18;60(12):5754-5770. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Laboratory for Translational Chemistry and Drug Discovery, Hansraj College, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007, India.

The novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has caused a recent pandemic called COVID-19 and a severe health threat around the world. In the current situation, the virus is rapidly spreading worldwide, and the discovery of a vaccine and potential therapeutics are critically essential. The crystal structure for the main protease (M) of SARS-CoV-2, 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CL), was recently made available and is considerably similar to the previously reported SARS-CoV. Due to its essentiality in viral replication, it represents a potential drug target. Herein, a computer-aided drug design (CADD) approach was implemented for the initial screening of 13 approved antiviral drugs. Molecular docking of 13 antivirals against the 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CL) enzyme was accomplished, and indinavir was described as a lead drug with a docking score of -8.824 and a XP Gscore of -9.466 kcal/mol. Indinavir possesses an important pharmacophore, hydroxyethylamine (HEA), and thus, a new library of HEA compounds (>2500) was subjected to virtual screening that led to 25 hits with a docking score more than indinavir. Exclusively, compound with a docking score of -8.955 adhered to drug-like parameters, and the structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis was demonstrated to highlight the importance of chemical scaffolds therein. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation analysis performed at 100 ns supported the stability of within the binding pocket. Largely, our results supported that this novel compound binds with domains I and II, and the domain II-III linker of the 3CL protein, suggesting its suitability as a strong candidate for therapeutic discovery against COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jcim.0c00326DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7304236PMC
December 2020

Impact of Oral Submucous Fibrosis on Quality of Life: A Multifactorial Assessment.

J Maxillofac Oral Surg 2020 Jun 25;19(2):251-256. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

5Trauma and Emergency, AIIMS Jodhpur, Jodhpur, Rajasthan India.

Background: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) has been extensively researched for its etiopathogenesis, malignant potential, and various available treatment modalities, but its effect on different domains of patient's life has not been thoroughly investigated. The present study aimed to clearly construe the effects of OSMF like severity and demographic variables on different domains of quality of life in OSMF patients.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Dentistry, AIIMS Jodhpur, India. A total of 200 patients (after informed consent) were selected and detailed proforma filled including patient's demographics, habits, clinical features, and quality of life using a World Health Organization Quality of life-BREF tool (WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire). Thereafter, interpretation and statistics were done by a separate trained examiner minimizing the risk of assessment bias.

Result: Quality of life (QOL) scores differed significantly according to age, site affected, habit duration, and severity of OSMF. It, however, did not differ according to gender.

Conclusion: In this study, there has been a statistically significant deterioration of quality of life in OSMF patients in all the domains. Realization of this would increase our chance to bring the focus of the society and its policy makers to confront the growing menace of OSMF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12663-019-01190-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7176758PMC
June 2020

Assessing oral glucose and intravenous insulin loading protocol in F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography cardiac viability studies.

World J Nucl Med 2020 Jan-Mar;19(1):1-7. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait City, Kuwait.

Oral glucose and intravenous insulin (G/I) loading protocols are commonly used in F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) cardiac viability studies. Although the amount of insulin to be given per blood glucose range has been well described in guidelines, the amount of glucose to be given is not detailed well. In this retrospective study, we aimed to assess if certain parameters, particularly the amount of glucose and insulin given, may affect F-FDG uptake in the hibernating myocardium and also determine the problems with this protocol. F-FDG PET cardiac viability study with G/I loading protocols was performed in 49 patients. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), amount of glucose given, blood glucose level after glucose load, amount of insulin given, and blood glucose level at the time of F-FDG injection were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed to determine if there is any difference in the above values in PET viable and PET nonviable groups and also in subgroups assessing F-FDG uptake also in normal myocardium. For G/I loading, we used our local protocol in 43 patients, and other protocols in six. F-FDG PET showed viability in 31 patients, and it was negative for viability in 18. In 22 patients, mainly in PET viable group, there was varying degree of reduced F-FDG uptake in normal myocardium. There was no significant difference in FBG, amount of glucose given, blood glucose level after glucose load, amount of insulin given, and blood glucose level at the time of F-FDG injection in PET viable and PET nonviable groups and also in subgroups. The problems with G/I loading protocol included deciding on the amounts of glucose and insulin given, maximum amount of insulin to be given, handling diabetics, optimal time to measure blood glucose after insulin administration, and interpretation of findings in cases with diffusely reduced F-FDG uptake. Further improvements in current guidelines are necessary to obtain images in optimal conditions for accurate results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/wjnm.WJNM_58_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7067136PMC
February 2020

Normal reference ranges for the left ventricular mass and left ventricular mass index in preterm infants.

Ann Pediatr Cardiol 2020 Jan-Mar;13(1):25-30. Epub 2019 Oct 9.

Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Chest Diseases Hospital, Ministry of Health, Kuwait City, Kuwait.

Objective: The objective of this study is to establish normal reference ranges for the left ventricular mass (LVM) and LVM index (LVMI) in preterm infants according to the body surface area (BSA) and assess their correlation with body weight and gestational age.

Subjects And Methods: In a prospective study, 268 preterm babies who fulfilled the criteria for inclusion were examined. Echocardiograms were performed to measure the LVM and LVMI on 0-6 day (s) of life and at weekly intervals until the babies reached 36 weeks. The preterm infants were divided into six groups according to their BSA: 0.07-0.08 m2, 0.09-0.10 m2, 0.11-0.12 m2, 0.13-0.14 m2, 0.15-0.16 m2, and 0.17-0.19 m2.

Results: The mean gestational age was 29.8 (±2.38 standard deviation [SD]) weeks, ranging from 24 to 35 weeks. The mean body weight was 1479 (±413 SD) g, ranging from 588 to 3380 g, and the mean BSA was 0.13 m2, ranging from 0.07 to 0.19 m2. The LVM correlated well with the gestational age, body weight, and BSA. The LVMI correlated well with body weight and BSA. Reference ranges with the mean ± SD, range, and interquartile range were calculated for the LVM and LVMI according to the BSA. A significant gradual increase was observed in a LVM with increasing BSA. Overall, a progressive and significant increase in the LVM was observed during the first 9 weeks of life.

Conclusion: The LVM and LVMI exhibited a significant correlation with the BSA and body weight. This study provides reference data that can be used as a normal reference tool for the LVM and LVMI for preterm infants based on the BSA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/apc.APC_171_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6979023PMC
October 2019

Synthesis and Bioactivity of Phthalimide Analogs as Potential Drugs to Treat Schistosomiasis, a Neglected Disease of Poverty.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2020 02 3;13(2). Epub 2020 Feb 3.

Laboratory for Translational Chemistry and Drug Discovery, Department of Chemistry, Hansraj College, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007, India.

The neglected tropical disease, schistosomiasis, is caused by trematode blood flukes of the genus and infects approximately 200 million people worldwide. With just one partially effective drug available for disease treatment, new drugs are urgently needed. Herein, a series of 47 phthalimide (Pht) analogues possessing high-value bioactive scaffolds (i.e., benzimidazole and 1,2,3,-triazoles) was synthesized by click-chemistry. Compounds were evaluated for anti-schistosomal activity in culture against somules (post-infective larvae) and adults of Schistosoma mansoni, their predicted ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) properties, and toxicity vs. HepG2 cells. The majority showed favorable parameters for surface area, lipophilicity, bioavailability and Lipinski score. Thirteen compounds were active at 10 µM against both somules and adults (, , -, -, , , and ). Against somules, the majority caused degeneracy and/or death after 72 h; whereas against adult parasites, five compounds (, , , and ) elicited degeneracy, tegumental (surface) damage and/or death. Strongest potency against both developmental stages was recorded for compounds possessing n-butyl or isobutyl as a linker, and a pentafluorophenyl group on triazole. Apart from five compounds for which anti-parasite activity tracked with toxicity to HepG2 cells, there was apparently no toxicity to HepG2 cells (EC values ≥50 µM). The data overall suggest that phthaloyl-triazole compounds are favorable synthons for additional studies as anti-schistosomals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ph13020025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7169845PMC
February 2020

Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in Kuwaiti Children and Adolescents: Results From the Childhood-Onset Diabetes Electronic Registry (CODeR).

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2019 4;10:836. Epub 2019 Dec 4.

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait City, Kuwait.

Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) in children and adolescents has become an important public health concern due to the increase in childhood obesity worldwide. The urgency to address T2D is evident as children and adolescents are at a higher risk of complications due to prolonged disease duration. We aimed to estimate the incidence rate (IR) of T2D in Kuwaiti children and adolescents aged 14 years and younger between 2011 and 2013 and to describe their clinical characteristics at the time of diagnosis. All newly diagnosed patients were registered through the Childhood-Onset Diabetes electronic Registry implemented in Kuwait. Cases who met the 2018 ISPAD guidelines for diagnosis of T2D were included. A total of 32 patients were included, equally distributed gender-wise, with a mean age 12.2 years (±1.7 SD), lower for females than males (11.5 vs. 12.2, < 0.025). Data ascertainment was 94.1% (95%CI; 91.6-96.6%). Overall IR was 2.56 (95% CI; 1.78-3.56) per 100,000 Kuwaiti children and adolescents per year. Most of the patients ( = 30; 93.8%) presented with T2D between the ages 10-14 years, with age-specific IR of 8.0 (95%CI; 5.5-11.3). No statistically significant difference between males and females with regards to BMI z scores or HbA1C at diagnosis. The true incidence of T2D in Kuwaiti children and adolescents is expected to be considerably higher as we have reported only symptomatic cases. Future research should focus on screening children and adolescents at risk to enable accurate estimates. More efforts are needed to better understand the clinical course of T2D early in life to improve management, prevent complications and improve quality of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2019.00836DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6904274PMC
December 2019

The Effect of Transversus Abdominis Plane Block for Analgesia in Patients Undergoing Liver Transplantation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Turk J Anaesthesiol Reanim 2019 Oct 24;47(5):359-366. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Department of Pulmonary and Sleep Medicine, Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India.

Objective: Ultrasound-guided regional anaesthesia using transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a newer and safer method that can be used in patients undergoing liver transplant surgeries. This systematic review and meta-analysis was done to quantify the analgesic potential and opioid-sparing capability of TAP block in these patients.

Methods: The studies comparing TAP-block to conventional analgesic regimens for liver transplant were searched. The studies evaluating the comparative 24-h morphine consumption during postoperative period in patients undergoing liver transplant surgeries were searched and included as the primary outcome in the analysis.

Results: We found two randomised controlled trials and two retrospective studies that on meta-analysis showed that TAP block group had significantly lower requirement of morphine (WMD=27.59 mg; 95% CI: 33.47-21.70) at 24 h for pain mitigation. Also, postoperative nausea and vomiting was lower (RR=0.76; 95% CI: 0.47-1.22) but not statistically significant.

Conclusion: Ultrasound-guided TAP block provides postoperative analgesic efficacy in patients undergoing liver transplant surgeries. This study was registered in International prospective register of systematic reviews [PROSPERO: CRD42018094595].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5152/TJAR.2019.60251DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6756312PMC
October 2019

Long-term follow-up and outcomes of discrete subaortic stenosis resection in children.

Ann Pediatr Cardiol 2019 Sep-Dec;12(3):212-219

Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Ministry of Health, Chest Diseases Hospital, Kuwait City, Kuwait.

Background: Studies of long-term outcomes of discrete subaortic stenosis (DSS) are rare. Therefore, we reviewed the long-term outcomes of subaortic membrane resection in children with isolated DSS over 16 years from a single institution.

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients ( = 27) who underwent resection of DSS between 2000 and 2017. Patients with major concomitant intracardiac anomalies were excluded. Indications for surgery were mean left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT), Doppler gradient >30 mmHg, and/or progressive aortic insufficiency.

Results: The mean age at diagnosis was 3.77 ± 3.49 years (range, 0.25-13 years) and the mean age at surgery was 6.36 ± 3.69 years (range, 1-13 years). All patients underwent resection of subaortic membrane. The mean LVOT Doppler gradient decreased from 40.52 ± 11.41 mmHg preoperatively to 8.48 ± 5.06 mmHg postoperatively ( < 0.001). The peak instantaneous LVOT Doppler gradient decreased from 75.41 ± 15.22 mmHg preoperatively to 18.11 ± 11.44 mmHg postoperatively ( < 0.001). At the latest follow-up, the peak gradient was 17.63 ± 8.93 mmHg. The mean follow-up was 7.47 ± 3.53 years (median 6.33 years; range 2.67-16 years). There was no operative mortality or late mortality. Recurrence of subaortic membrane occurred in 7 (25.92%, 7/27) patients who underwent primary DSS operation. Four (14.81%, 4/27) patients required reoperation for DSS recurrence at a median time of 4.8 years (3.1-9.1 years) after the initial repair. Risk factors for reoperation were age <6 years at initial repair. Eighteen (66.66%, 18/27) patients had AI preoperatively and progression of AI occurred in 70.37% (19/27). This included 4 (22.22%, 4/18) patients who had worsening of their preoperative AI. Short valve-to-membrane distance was found to be prognostically unfavorable. One (3.7%, 1/27) patient had an iatrogenic ventricular septal defect, and 2 (7.4%, 2/27) patients had complete AV block following membrane resection.

Conclusions: Resection of subaortic membrane in children is associated with low mortality. Higher LVOT gradient, younger age at initial repair, and shorter valve-to-membrane distance were found to be associated with adverse outcome. Recurrence and reoperation rates are high, and progression of aortic insufficiency following subaortic membrane resection is common. Therefore, these patients warrant close follow-up into adult life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/apc.APC_120_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6716322PMC
September 2019

Semi-Interpenetrating Network-Type Cross-Linked Amphoteric Ion-Exchange Membrane Based on Styrene Sulfonate and Vinyl Benzyl Chloride for Vanadium Redox Flow Battery.

ACS Omega 2018 Aug 24;3(8):9872-9879. Epub 2018 Aug 24.

CSIR-Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute (CSIR-CSMCRI), Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR), Gijubhai Badheka Marg, Bhavnagar 364 002, Gujarat, India.

Clean energy is the main requirement for human life. Redox flow battery may be an alternative to fossil fuels. An ion-exchange membrane is the heart of the redox flow battery. In the present study, we synthesize semi-interpenetrating cross-linked copolymer amphoteric ion-exchange membranes (AIEMs) with a partially rigid backbone. The styrene sulfonate and vinyl benzyl chloride monomers are used as the cationic and anionic moieties into the AIEMs. Three different types of quaternizing agents are used to convert a primary amine into a quaternary amine group. Here, we avoid the use of the carcinogenic chemical CMME, commonly used for the synthesis of anion-exchange membranes. The prepared membranes exhibit good electrochemical and physicochemical properties with a high acidic stability. The membranes also show moderate water uptake and dimensional change. The ZWMO membrane shows better properties among the AIEMs, with an ionic conductivity of 3.12 × 10 S cm and 5.49 water molecules per functional group. The anion and cation-exchange capacities of the ZWMO membranes are calculated to be 1.11 and 0.62 mequiv/g. All AIEMs show good thermal and mechanical stabilities, calculated by differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic mechanical analysis, and universal testing machine analysis. The membranes show low vanadium ion permeability than the commercial membrane Nafion for their use in vanadium redox flow batteries. Further, the AIEMs are applied in redox flow batteries as separators and deliver good results with the charging and discharging phenomena, with 87% voltage efficiency and 91% current efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.8b01215DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6644876PMC
August 2018

Development and evaluation of novel bio-safe filter paper-based kits for sputum microscopy and transport to directly detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis and associated drug resistance.

PLoS One 2019 13;14(8):e0220967. Epub 2019 Aug 13.

Center for Bio-design and Diagnostics, Translational Health Science and Technology Institute, NCR Biotech Science Cluster, 3rd Milestone, Faridabad-Gurgaon Expressway, Faridabad, India.

India has the highest burden of Tuberculosis (TB) and multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) worldwide. Innovative technology is the need of the hour to identify these cases that remain either undiagnosed or inadequately diagnosed due to the unavailability of appropriate tools at primary healthcare settings. We developed and evaluated 3 kits, namely 'TB Detect' (containing BioFM-Filter device), 'TB Concentration and Transport' (containing Trans-Filter device) and 'TB DNA Extraction' kits. These kits enable bio-safe equipment-free concentration of sputum on filters and improved fluorescence microscopy at primary healthcare centres, ambient temperature transport of dried inactivated sputum filters to central laboratories and molecular detection of drug resistance by PCR and DNA sequencing (Mol-DST). In a 2-site evaluation (n = 1190 sputum specimens) on presumptive TB patients, BioFM-Filter smear exhibited a significant increase in positivity of 7% and 4% over ZN smear and LED-FM smear (p<0.05), respectively and an increment in smear grade status (1+ or 2+ to 3+) of 16% over ZN smear and 20% over LED-FM smear. The sensitivity of Mol-DST in presumptive MDR-TB and XDR-TB cases (n = 148) was 90% for Rifampicin (95% confidence interval [CI], 78-96%), 84% for Isoniazid (95% CI, 72-92%), 83% for Fluoroquinolones (95% CI, 66-93%) and 75% for Aminoglycosides (95% CI, 35-97%), using phenotypic DST as the reference standard. Test specificity was 88-93% and concordance was ~89-92% (κ value 0.8-0.9). The patient-friendly kits described here address several of the existing challenges and are designed to provide 'Universal Access' to rapid TB diagnosis, including drug-resistant disease. Their utility was demonstrated by application to sputum at 2 sites in India. Our findings pave the way for larger studies in different point-of-care settings, including high-density urban areas and remote geographical locations.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0220967PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6692035PMC
March 2020

Smartphone use by government dermatology practitioners in Kuwait: a self-reported questionnaire based cross-sectional study.

BMC Med Inform Decis Mak 2019 08 5;19(1):155. Epub 2019 Aug 5.

Dermatology Trainee, Asad Alhamad Dermatology Center, Al-Sabah Health Region, Kuwait.

Background: The potential for smartphones to revolutionize the way that medical doctors practice has become a reality, particularly in specialities where visual examination is a principal step in assessing a medical case, like dermatology. Smartphones as devices hold similar capabilities to personal computers and laptops and could play an important role in supporting medical practitioners in clinical practice at the point of care and beyond. This study aimed to assess the role of smartphone technology use in dermatology practice in Kuwait, together with the potential of digital photography and users' concerns.

Methods: This cross-sectional survey involved a population of dermatology practitioners of all levels working in 11 dermatology centers distributed across six health regions in Kuwait. A validated self-reported questionnaire was used to collect data from the participants about their smartphone use. Quantitative analytical methods were undertaken to analyse the questionnaire responses.

Results: A total of 210 dermatologists were approached in their workplaces. Of these, 101 (48%) responded to the survey questionnaire, with a mean age of 39.1 years (±10.7 SD) and equal representation from both genders. All the respondents were using smartphone technology, wherein 94.1% used it to access medical information through various Internet search engines. The most prevalent applications used were medical and drug reference applications (69.3 and 66.3%, respectively). In all, 65% of the dermatologists were using smartphones to take clinical photographs of patients for special purposes, and this type of usage was significantly higher (p < 0.05) among females and those older than 40.

Conclusion: This study concludes that smartphone technology has an impactful role in dermatology practice, and many of its functions can be employed to achieve better practice and better patient care. Recommendations are suggested for clinicians using smartphones in dermatology practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12911-019-0883-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6683410PMC
August 2019

Effect of Sudarshan Kriya Yoga on anxiety, depression, and quality of life in people with type 2 diabetes: A pilot study in Kuwait.

Diabetes Metab Syndr 2019 May - Jun;13(3):1995-1999. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

Dasman Diabetes Institute, Kuwait.

Aim: This pilot study in Kuwait was aimed to assess the effect of Sudarshan kriya yoga (SKY) on anxiety, depression and total quality of life in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Methods: 26 T2DM patients aged greater than 30, male and female visiting the outpatient clinic of Dasman Diabetes Institute were enrolled for the study. Pre and post 5 day SKY intervention responses of participants on psychosocial problems were evaluated using four questionnaires (Hamilton anxiety, patient health questionnaire (PHQ-9), Hospital anxiety depression and WHO total quality of life (QOL). Biochemical parameters; such as lipid profile, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were measured at baseline and after 15 weeks of SKY practice.

Results: The mean age of the participants was 56.7 (±11.4 SD) years, and mean duration of diabetes 15.0 (±9.3 SD) years. Comparison of responses before and after intervention indicated a significant improvement in the QOL, depression, anxiety and insomnia. But no significant improvement in glycemic control.

Conclusion: Results indicate that SKY can be potentially beneficial for treating anxiety, insomnia, and depression associated in people with T2DM and in improving the quality of life in people with T2DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2019.04.038DOI Listing
December 2019

Mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequencing reveals obesity variants in an Arab population.

Appl Clin Genet 2019 24;12:63-70. Epub 2019 May 24.

Genetics and Bioinformatics Department, Dasman Diabetes Institute, Dasman, 15462, Kuwait.

The association of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variations with obesity has been investigated in diverse populations across the world. However, such obesity-associated mtDNA examinations are rarely conducted in Arab populations. We re-sequenced mtDNA displacement loop (D-loop) region of 395 Arab individuals of Kuwait. We categorized the individuals based on their BMI scores as obese (n=232; BMI ≥30 kg/m), overweight (n=110; BMI ≥25 kg/m and <30 kg/m), and lean (n=53; BMI <25 kg/m). We performed all the statistical tests by combining obese and overweight individuals in one group. Association analyses were conducted applying Fisher's exact test and logistic regression model. We identified that the mtDNA variations m.73A>G, and m.523delAC were positively correlated with obesity, while m.310T>C, and m.16318A>T were negatively associated. All these variants, except m.16318A>T, remain statistically significant after adjusting for age and gender. We found that the variant m.73A>G increases the likelihood of being obese by 6-fold, whereas haplogroup H decreases the probability of being obese in Arab individuals of Kuwait. Haplotype analysis revealed that a haplotype, A263G-C309CT-T310C, defining the H2a clade of H haplogroup, reduces the probability of being obese. Our study reports, for the first time, the obesity-related mtDNA variants in Arabs of Kuwait. Based on the mtDNA D-loop region variations, we detected particular variants and haplogroup that are related with increased and decreased probability of being obese in the Kuwait Arab population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/TACG.S198593DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6541754PMC
May 2019