Publications by authors named "Prem Prakash Sharma"

20 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Vascular patterns on narrow band imaging (NBI) video bronchoscopy of lung cancer patients and its relationship with histology: an analytical cross-sectional study.

Adv Respir Med 2021 ;89(1):30-36

All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rajasthan, Jodhpur, India.

Introduction: Narrow band imaging (NBI) video bronchoscopy provides better visualisation of submucosal vascular patterns in malignant airway lesions compared to white light bronchoscopy. This analytical cross-sectional study was aimed to look for any relationship between these NBI vascular patterns and the histologic type of lung cancer.

Material And Methods: After screening 78 patients with suspected lung cancer, 53 subjects underwent video bronchoscopy. Thirty-two patients showing abnormal bronchial mucosa or endobronchial growth with any of the NBI vascular patterns on bronchoscopy were enrolled in the study. These abnormal areas were then biopsied and sent for histologic examination.

Results: NBI bronchoscopy revealed a dilated tortuous vascular pattern in 54.8% of the patients, a non-specific pattern in 32%, a dotted pattern in 9.7% and an abrupt ending vessels pattern in 3.2% of the patients. We did not find any statistically significant relationship between a dilated tortuous pattern and squamous-cell carcinoma (p = 0.48), adenocarcinoma (p = 0.667) or small-cell carcinoma (p = 1); between a dotted pattern and squamous-cell carcinoma (p = 1), adenocarcinoma (p = 0.54) or small-cell carcinoma (p = 1), and between an abrupt ending capillary pattern and squamous-cell carcinoma (p = 1), adenocarcinoma (p = 1) or small-cell carcinoma (p =1).

Conclusion: No relationship exists between NBI vascular patterns and the histology of lung cancer. Endobronchial lesions showing any vascular pattern on NBI needs to be adequately sampled for proper histologic and molecular studies in lung cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/ARM.a2021.0014DOI Listing
January 2021

Multi-targeting approach for nsp3, nsp9, nsp12 and nsp15 proteins of SARS-CoV-2 by Diosmin as illustrated by molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation methodologies.

Methods 2021 Feb 25. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Chemistry, Miranda House, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007, India. Electronic address:

Novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2continues tospread rapidly worldwide and causing serious health and economic loss. In the absence of any effective treatment, various in-silico approaches are being explored towards the therapeutic discovery against COVID-19. Targeting multiple key enzymes of SARS-CoV-2 with a single potential drug could be an important in-silico strategy to tackle the therapeutic emergency. A number of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drugs entered into clinical stages were originated from multi-target approaches with an increased rate, 16-21% between 2015 and 2017. In this study, we selected an FDA-approved library (Prestwick Chemical Library of 1520 compounds) and implemented in-silico virtual screening against multiple protein targets of SARS-CoV-2 on the Glide module of Schrödinger software (release 2020-1). Compounds were analyzed for their docking scores and the top-ranked against each targeted protein were further subjected to Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations to assess the binding stability of ligand-protein complexes. A multi-targeting approach was optimized that enabled the analysis of several compounds' binding efficiency with more than one protein targets. It was demonstrated that Diosmin (6) showed the highest binding affinity towards multiple targets with binding free energy (kcal/mol) values of -63.39 (nsp3); -62.89 (nsp9); -31.23 (nsp12); and -65.58 (nsp15). Therefore, our results suggests that Diosmin (6) possesses multi-targeting capability, a potent inhibitor of various non-structural proteins of SARS-CoV-2, and thus it deserves further validation experiments before using as a therapeutic against COVID-19 disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymeth.2021.02.017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7904494PMC
February 2021

In silico identification of potential inhibitor for TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

3 Biotech 2021 Mar 7;11(3):117. Epub 2021 Feb 7.

Amity Institute of Molecular Medicine and Stem Cell Research (AIMMSCR), Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Sec-125, Noida, 201313 India.

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the six most common cancer globally and most common cancer in men in India. The metabolic regulation is highly altered and is considered as a hall mark of HNSCC. TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR) plays very important role in the development and progression of HNSCC. The aim of our study is to identify a novel FDA approved anticancer inhibitor against mutated TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR) through drug repurposing approach. A library of 105 FDA approved anticancer compounds were screened using molecular docking approach against TIGAR (PDB: 3DCY) both Wild-Type (WT) and mutated (Mut). Specific mutations in TIGAR were identified using cBioPortal, a cancer genomics database and mutated structure was modelled using SWISS-MODEL. Out of 510 sequenced cases/patients samples, 17(3%) patients showed alteration in TIGAR [TIGAR and TIGAR]. The virtual drug screening showed 45 drugs out of 105 high binding affinity with TIGAR, Trabectedin showed highest binding affinity with both TIGAR (- 13.3 kcal/mol) as well as TIGAR (- 13.8 kcal/mol). The molecular docking studies were validated using molecular dynamics simulation (MD Simulation) of protein-ligand complex of TIGAR and Trabectedin for 100 ns. The MD Simulation of Trabectedin complex showed more stable with TIGAR compared to TIGAR. Moreover, the string analysis revealed that metabolic-related genes, HK2, PFKFB1, PFKM, PFKP, PFKL, FBP1 are closely associated with TIGAR in HNSCC. Our findings suggest that Trabectedin can be proposed as an inhibitor for [TIGAR] which can be used to target metabolic signalings in HNSCC. However, further investigation and in vitro and in vivo validation our findings required to understand the molecular mechanisms of regulation of Trabectedin in HNSCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13205-021-02665-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7868312PMC
March 2021

Viral Ribonucleic Acid Shedding and Transmission Potential of Asymptomatic and Paucisymptomatic Coronavirus Disease 2019 Patients.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2021 Jan 8;8(1):ofaa599. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Department of Microbiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India.

We studied the pattern and duration of viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) shedding in 32 asymptomatic and 11 paucisymptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 cases. Viral RNA shedding in exhaled breath progressively diminished and became negative after 6 days of a positive reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction test. Therefore, the duration of isolation can be minimized to 6 days.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofaa599DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7798607PMC
January 2021

Tobacco, alcohol use and other risk factors for developing symptomatic COVID-19 vs asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection: a case-control study from western Rajasthan, India.

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2021 Jan 14. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Director, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, Rajasthan 342005, India.

Background: Understanding risk factors of symptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vis-à-vis asymptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, severe disease and death is important.

Methods: An unmatched case-control study was conducted through telephonic interviews among individuals who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in Jodhpur, India from 23 March to 20 July 2020. Contact history, comorbidities and tobacco and alcohol use were elicited using standard tools.

Results: Among 911 SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals, 47.5% were symptomatic, 14.1% had severe COVID-19 and 41 (4.5%) died. Older age, working outside the home, cardiac and respiratory comorbidity and alcohol use were found to increase the risk of symptomatic disease as compared with asymptomatic infection. Current tobacco smoking (odds ratio [OR] 0.46 [95% confidence interval {CI} 0.26 to 0.78]) but not smokeless tobacco use (OR 0.81 [95% CI 0.55 to 1.19]) appeared to reduce the risk of symptomatic disease. Age ≥60 y and renal comorbidity were significantly associated with severe COVID-19. Age ≥60 y and respiratory and cardiac comorbidity were found to predispose to mortality.

Conclusions: The apparent reduced risk of symptomatic COVID-19 among tobacco smokers could be due to residual confounding owing to unknown factors, while acknowledging the limitation of recall bias. Cross-protection afforded by frequent upper respiratory tract infection among tobacco smokers could explain why a similar association was not found for smokeless tobacco use, thereby being more plausible than the 'nicotinic hypothesis'. Those with comorbidities and age ≥60 y should be prioritized for hospital admission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/trstmh/traa172DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7928693PMC
January 2021

Effect of peer educator-PRAGATI (PeeR Action for Group Awareness through Intervention) on knowledge, attitude, and practice of menstrual hygiene in adolescent school girls.

J Family Med Prim Care 2020 Jul 30;9(7):3593-3599. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Department of Community Medicine and Family Medicine, AIIMS, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India.

Context: Majority of the adolescent girls all over the world, suffer from anxiety, shame, discomfort, and isolation during menstruation. Awareness about menstrual hygiene and health can help them to overcome this situation.

Aims: The study aims to elicit the existing knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding menstruation and to assess the effectiveness of a structured training program through peer educators-PRAGATI (PeeR Action for Group Awareness through Intervention) on menstrual hygiene among adolescent school girls.

Subjects And Methods: This was a prospective interventional study. A structured training program through peer educators (PRAGATI) was used on adolescent females for evaluating menstrual hygiene awareness and practices through pre- and posttest. McNemar's test was used for paired nominal data and the difference between pretest and posttest was assessed by the paired -test.

Results: In the pretest, only 20.5% had adequate knowledge, 32.5% had poor knowledge, while 48.7% of girls had moderate knowledge about menstruation and menstrual hygiene. Post-intervention, 56.41% girls gained adequate knowledge (an increase of ~36%), 30.76% had moderate knowledge, and only 12.8% of them (a reduction of ~20%) still had poor knowledge. The mean increase of knowledge on menstrual hygiene in pretest and posttest analysis was statistically significant with < 0.01.

Conclusion: The training by the peer educators (PRAGATI) in creating awareness about menstrual hygiene and bringing about a significant change in attitude and practice is an effective method of spreading awareness among adolescents on menstrual hygiene related sensitive issues. However, repeated sessions are required to create momentum and enthusiasm for learning new things.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_309_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7567287PMC
July 2020

Blood lead levels in antenatal women and its association with iron deficiency anemia and adverse pregnancy outcomes.

J Family Med Prim Care 2020 Jun 30;9(6):3106-3111. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Biostatistics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India.

Objectives: Lead is one of the most toxic heavy metal prevalent in the environment, which affects almost all major organs including heart, brain, intestines, kidneys as well as reproductive organs. It has been known that serum iron deficiency is associated with increased serum lead levels as lead is a particularly pernicious element to iron metabolism. Lead is also known to freely cross the placenta too; hence, this study was planned to determine any association between antenatal iron deficiency anemia (IDA), raised blood lead levels (BPb), and adverse pregnancy outcomes.

Materials And Methods: This was an observational study done on 99 antenatal women with IDA and 41 nonanemic antenatal women. Lead levels were assessed in these 140 antenatal women and they were followed for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Chi-square test was used to find a difference in quantitative variables and Pearson's correlation test was used to assess association between BPb and hemoglobin levels.

Results: We found that in 11 out of 99 (11.11%) women with IDA, BPb levels were high as compared to high BPb levels in only 1 out of 41 (2.4%) women without IDA and the high BPb levels ranged from 4 μg/dl-16.9 μg/dl with a mean BPb of 8.1 μg/dl. The difference in BPb among anemic and nonanemic antenatal women was significant ( < 0.05) and there was a negative dose effect relationship between BPb levels and hemoglobin levels. This difference in antenatal outcomes among women with and without high BPb levels was also significant with increased incidence of pre-eclampsia, FGR, and preterm deliveries in women with raised BPb levels. The incidence of NICU admission was also higher in the neonates of mothers with high BPb levels.

Conclusions: We propose screening of high-risk women based on their social, occupational, environmental, and personal factors, with serum lead levels in the preconception period itself. All public and personal measures must be taken to reduce lead consumption and exposure in the preconception and antenatal period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_78_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7491757PMC
June 2020

Prevalence and factors associated with effective helmet use among motorcyclists in Mysuru City of Southern India.

Environ Health Prev Med 2020 Sep 4;25(1):47. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Mysore Medical College and Research Institute (MMCRI), Mysore, Karnataka, India.

Background: Helmet use reduces the risk and severity of head injury and death due to road traffic crash among motorcyclists. The protective efficacy of different types of helmets varies. Wearing firmly fastened full-face helmet termed as effective helmet use provides greatest protection. This study estimates the prevalence and factors associated with effective helmet use among motorcyclists in Mysuru, a tier II city in Southern India.

Methods: Cross-sectional road side observational study of 3499 motorcyclists (2134 motorcycle riders and 1365 pillion riders) at four traffic intersections was done followed by interview of random sample of 129 of the above riders. Effective helmet use proportion and effective helmet use per 100 person-minute of observation was calculated. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to identify factors associated with effective helmet use.

Results: Prevalence of effective helmet use was 28 per 100 riders and 19.5 per 100 person-minute of observation in traffic intersections. Prevalence rates of effective helmet use was higher among riders (34.5% vs pillion riders 18.1%), female riders (51.3% vs male riders 26.8%), and male pillion riders (30.5% vs female pillion riders 13.7%). Riders commuting for work and school and those ever stopped by the police in the past 3 months had significantly higher odds of effective helmet use.

Conclusion: Despite helmet use being compulsory by law for motorcyclists, the effective helmet use was low in Mysore. Strict enforcement and frequent checks by the police are necessary to increase the effective helmet use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12199-020-00888-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7487705PMC
September 2020

Structure-based drug repurposing for targeting Nsp9 replicase and spike proteins of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2020 Aug 24:1-14. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Amity Institute of Molecular Medicine & Stem Cell Research (AIMMSCR), Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Noida, India.

Drug re-purposing might be a fast and efficient way of drug development against the novel coronavirus disease 2019 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We applied a bioinformatics approach using molecular dynamics and docking to identify FDA-approved drugs that can be re-purposed to potentially inhibit the non-structural protein 9 (Nsp9) replicase and spike proteins in SARS-CoV-2. We performed virtual screening of FDA-approved compounds, including antiviral, anti-malarial, anti-parasitic, anti-fungal, anti-tuberculosis, and active phytochemicals against the Nsp9 replicase and spike proteins. Selected hit compounds were identified based on their highest binding energy and favorable absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) profile. Conivaptan, an arginine vasopressin antagonist drug exhibited the highest binding energy (-8.4 Kcal/mol) and maximum stability with the amino acid residues present at the active site of the Nsp9 replicase. Tegobuvir, a non-nucleoside inhibitor of the hepatitis C virus, also exhibited maximum stability along with the highest binding energy (-8.1 Kcal/mol) at the active site of the spike proteins. Molecular docking scores were further validated by molecular dynamics using Schrodinger, which supported the strong stability of ligands with the proteins at their active sites through water bridges, hydrophobic interactions, and H-bonding. Our findings suggest Conivaptan and Tegobuvir as potential therapeutic agents against SARS-CoV-2. Further and validation and evaluation are warranted to establish how these drug compounds target the Nsp9 replicase and spike proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07391102.2020.1811773DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7484568PMC
August 2020

Discovery of New Hydroxyethylamine Analogs against 3CL Protein Target of SARS-CoV-2: Molecular Docking, Molecular Dynamics Simulation, and Structure-Activity Relationship Studies.

J Chem Inf Model 2020 12 18;60(12):5754-5770. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Laboratory for Translational Chemistry and Drug Discovery, Hansraj College, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007, India.

The novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has caused a recent pandemic called COVID-19 and a severe health threat around the world. In the current situation, the virus is rapidly spreading worldwide, and the discovery of a vaccine and potential therapeutics are critically essential. The crystal structure for the main protease (M) of SARS-CoV-2, 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CL), was recently made available and is considerably similar to the previously reported SARS-CoV. Due to its essentiality in viral replication, it represents a potential drug target. Herein, a computer-aided drug design (CADD) approach was implemented for the initial screening of 13 approved antiviral drugs. Molecular docking of 13 antivirals against the 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CL) enzyme was accomplished, and indinavir was described as a lead drug with a docking score of -8.824 and a XP Gscore of -9.466 kcal/mol. Indinavir possesses an important pharmacophore, hydroxyethylamine (HEA), and thus, a new library of HEA compounds (>2500) was subjected to virtual screening that led to 25 hits with a docking score more than indinavir. Exclusively, compound with a docking score of -8.955 adhered to drug-like parameters, and the structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis was demonstrated to highlight the importance of chemical scaffolds therein. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation analysis performed at 100 ns supported the stability of within the binding pocket. Largely, our results supported that this novel compound binds with domains I and II, and the domain II-III linker of the 3CL protein, suggesting its suitability as a strong candidate for therapeutic discovery against COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jcim.0c00326DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7304236PMC
December 2020

Impact of Oral Submucous Fibrosis on Quality of Life: A Multifactorial Assessment.

J Maxillofac Oral Surg 2020 Jun 25;19(2):251-256. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

5Trauma and Emergency, AIIMS Jodhpur, Jodhpur, Rajasthan India.

Background: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) has been extensively researched for its etiopathogenesis, malignant potential, and various available treatment modalities, but its effect on different domains of patient's life has not been thoroughly investigated. The present study aimed to clearly construe the effects of OSMF like severity and demographic variables on different domains of quality of life in OSMF patients.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Dentistry, AIIMS Jodhpur, India. A total of 200 patients (after informed consent) were selected and detailed proforma filled including patient's demographics, habits, clinical features, and quality of life using a World Health Organization Quality of life-BREF tool (WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire). Thereafter, interpretation and statistics were done by a separate trained examiner minimizing the risk of assessment bias.

Result: Quality of life (QOL) scores differed significantly according to age, site affected, habit duration, and severity of OSMF. It, however, did not differ according to gender.

Conclusion: In this study, there has been a statistically significant deterioration of quality of life in OSMF patients in all the domains. Realization of this would increase our chance to bring the focus of the society and its policy makers to confront the growing menace of OSMF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12663-019-01190-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7176758PMC
June 2020

Synthesis and Bioactivity of Phthalimide Analogs as Potential Drugs to Treat Schistosomiasis, a Neglected Disease of Poverty.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2020 02 3;13(2). Epub 2020 Feb 3.

Laboratory for Translational Chemistry and Drug Discovery, Department of Chemistry, Hansraj College, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007, India.

The neglected tropical disease, schistosomiasis, is caused by trematode blood flukes of the genus and infects approximately 200 million people worldwide. With just one partially effective drug available for disease treatment, new drugs are urgently needed. Herein, a series of 47 phthalimide (Pht) analogues possessing high-value bioactive scaffolds (i.e., benzimidazole and 1,2,3,-triazoles) was synthesized by click-chemistry. Compounds were evaluated for anti-schistosomal activity in culture against somules (post-infective larvae) and adults of Schistosoma mansoni, their predicted ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) properties, and toxicity vs. HepG2 cells. The majority showed favorable parameters for surface area, lipophilicity, bioavailability and Lipinski score. Thirteen compounds were active at 10 µM against both somules and adults (, , -, -, , , and ). Against somules, the majority caused degeneracy and/or death after 72 h; whereas against adult parasites, five compounds (, , , and ) elicited degeneracy, tegumental (surface) damage and/or death. Strongest potency against both developmental stages was recorded for compounds possessing n-butyl or isobutyl as a linker, and a pentafluorophenyl group on triazole. Apart from five compounds for which anti-parasite activity tracked with toxicity to HepG2 cells, there was apparently no toxicity to HepG2 cells (EC values ≥50 µM). The data overall suggest that phthaloyl-triazole compounds are favorable synthons for additional studies as anti-schistosomals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ph13020025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7169845PMC
February 2020

The Effect of Transversus Abdominis Plane Block for Analgesia in Patients Undergoing Liver Transplantation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Turk J Anaesthesiol Reanim 2019 Oct 24;47(5):359-366. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Department of Pulmonary and Sleep Medicine, Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India.

Objective: Ultrasound-guided regional anaesthesia using transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a newer and safer method that can be used in patients undergoing liver transplant surgeries. This systematic review and meta-analysis was done to quantify the analgesic potential and opioid-sparing capability of TAP block in these patients.

Methods: The studies comparing TAP-block to conventional analgesic regimens for liver transplant were searched. The studies evaluating the comparative 24-h morphine consumption during postoperative period in patients undergoing liver transplant surgeries were searched and included as the primary outcome in the analysis.

Results: We found two randomised controlled trials and two retrospective studies that on meta-analysis showed that TAP block group had significantly lower requirement of morphine (WMD=27.59 mg; 95% CI: 33.47-21.70) at 24 h for pain mitigation. Also, postoperative nausea and vomiting was lower (RR=0.76; 95% CI: 0.47-1.22) but not statistically significant.

Conclusion: Ultrasound-guided TAP block provides postoperative analgesic efficacy in patients undergoing liver transplant surgeries. This study was registered in International prospective register of systematic reviews [PROSPERO: CRD42018094595].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5152/TJAR.2019.60251DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6756312PMC
October 2019

Development and evaluation of novel bio-safe filter paper-based kits for sputum microscopy and transport to directly detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis and associated drug resistance.

PLoS One 2019 13;14(8):e0220967. Epub 2019 Aug 13.

Center for Bio-design and Diagnostics, Translational Health Science and Technology Institute, NCR Biotech Science Cluster, 3rd Milestone, Faridabad-Gurgaon Expressway, Faridabad, India.

India has the highest burden of Tuberculosis (TB) and multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) worldwide. Innovative technology is the need of the hour to identify these cases that remain either undiagnosed or inadequately diagnosed due to the unavailability of appropriate tools at primary healthcare settings. We developed and evaluated 3 kits, namely 'TB Detect' (containing BioFM-Filter device), 'TB Concentration and Transport' (containing Trans-Filter device) and 'TB DNA Extraction' kits. These kits enable bio-safe equipment-free concentration of sputum on filters and improved fluorescence microscopy at primary healthcare centres, ambient temperature transport of dried inactivated sputum filters to central laboratories and molecular detection of drug resistance by PCR and DNA sequencing (Mol-DST). In a 2-site evaluation (n = 1190 sputum specimens) on presumptive TB patients, BioFM-Filter smear exhibited a significant increase in positivity of 7% and 4% over ZN smear and LED-FM smear (p<0.05), respectively and an increment in smear grade status (1+ or 2+ to 3+) of 16% over ZN smear and 20% over LED-FM smear. The sensitivity of Mol-DST in presumptive MDR-TB and XDR-TB cases (n = 148) was 90% for Rifampicin (95% confidence interval [CI], 78-96%), 84% for Isoniazid (95% CI, 72-92%), 83% for Fluoroquinolones (95% CI, 66-93%) and 75% for Aminoglycosides (95% CI, 35-97%), using phenotypic DST as the reference standard. Test specificity was 88-93% and concordance was ~89-92% (κ value 0.8-0.9). The patient-friendly kits described here address several of the existing challenges and are designed to provide 'Universal Access' to rapid TB diagnosis, including drug-resistant disease. Their utility was demonstrated by application to sputum at 2 sites in India. Our findings pave the way for larger studies in different point-of-care settings, including high-density urban areas and remote geographical locations.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0220967PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6692035PMC
March 2020

Impact of Oral Submucous Fibrosis on Quality of Life: A Cross-Sectional Study.

J Maxillofac Oral Surg 2019 Jun 4;18(2):260-265. Epub 2018 May 4.

4Department of Public Health Dentistry, AIIMS, Jodhpur, Rajasthan India.

Background: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a chronic disease of the oral cavity which presents clinically with burning sensation, leathery consistency of oral mucosa with palpable fibrous bands leading to reduced mouth opening. Though the evaluation of quality of life (QOL) in health care is gaining importance, researches regarding the evaluation of QOL in OSMF individuals are very sparse.

Aim: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the QOL assessment in OSMF patients through WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire.

Methodology: The study includes a total of 300 participants recruited from the outpatient department. The quality of life was assessed using the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. The raw scores for the physical health, psychological health, social relationships and environmental health domains were done on 4-20 scale suggested by the WHOQOL procedural manual. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for the simultaneous comparison of mean scores for the four domains, and independent test was used for the comparison of two means of domain scores.

Results: The participants with OSMF have a significant negative impact on the quality of life when compared with the participants without OSMF ( = 0.002). The environmental factors in the WHOQOL-BREF have shown a significant difference in the QOL of participants with OSMF than without OSMF ( = 0.001).

Conclusion: The oral submucous fibrosis has a negative impact on the quality of life in participants with OSMF specifically in social and environmental domains of the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12663-018-1114-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6441450PMC
June 2019

Prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis among adults in selected slums of Delhi city.

Indian J Tuberc 2018 Apr 22;65(2):130-134. Epub 2017 Aug 22.

Epidemiology & Research Division, National Tuberculosis Institute, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

Background: A survey was carried out to estimate the point prevalence of bacteriologically positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) among persons ≥15 years of age residing in Jhuggi-Jhopri (JJ) colonies - urban slums in Delhi, India implementing Directly Observed Treatment strategy since 1998.

Methods: Among 12 JJ colonies selected by simple random sampling, persons having persistent cough for ≥2 weeks at the time of the survey or cough of any duration along with history of contact/currently on ant-TB treatment/known HIV positive were subjected to sputum examination - 2 specimens, by smear microscopy for Acid Fast Bacilli and culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Persons with at least one specimen positive were labelled as bacteriologically confirmed PTB. Prevalence was estimated after imputing missing values to correct bias introduced by incompleteness of data and corrected for non-screening by X-ray by a multiplication factor derived from recently conducted surveys.

Results: Of 40,756 persons registered, 40,529 (99.4%) were screened. Of them, 691 (2%) were eligible for sputum examination. Spot specimens were collected from 659 (99.2%) and early morning sputum specimens from 647 (98.1%). Using screening by interview alone, prevalence of bacteriologically positive PTB in persons ≥15 years of age was estimated at 160.4 (123.7-197.1) per 100,000 populations and210.0 (CI: 162.5-258.2) after correcting for non-screening by X-ray.

Conclusion: Observed prevalence suggests further strengthening of TB control program in urban slums.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijtb.2017.08.007DOI Listing
April 2018

First and second line drug resistance among treatment naïve pulmonary tuberculosis patients in a district under Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) in New Delhi.

J Epidemiol Glob Health 2015 Dec 2;5(4):365-73. Epub 2015 May 2.

Department of Tuberculosis and Chest Diseases, National Institute of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases, New Delhi 110030, India. Electronic address:

There is limited information of level of drug resistance to first-line and second line anti-tuberculosis agents in treatment naïve pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients from the Indian region. Therefore, the present prospective study was conducted to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility to first-line and second line anti-TB drug resistance in such patients. Sputum samples from consecutive treatment naïve PTB cases registered in Lala Ram Sarup (LRS) district, under RNTCP containing 12 Directly Observed Treatment Centre's (DOTS), were enrolled using cluster sampling technology. A total of 453 samples were received from July 2011 to June 2012. All samples were cultured on solid medium followed by drug susceptibility to first and second line anti-tubercular drugs as per RNTCP guidelines. Primary multi-drug resistance (MDR) was found to be 18/453; (4.0%). Extensively drug resistance (XDR) was found in one strain (0.2%), which was found to be resistant to other antibiotics. Data of drug resistant tuberculosis among treatment naïve TB patients are lacking in India. The presence of XDR-TB and high MDR-TB in small population studied, calls for conducting systematic multi-centric surveillance across the country.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jegh.2015.04.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7320499PMC
December 2015

Self-assembled peptide nanoarchitectures: applications and future aspects.

Curr Top Med Chem 2015 ;15(13):1268-89

Department of Chemistry of Heterocyclic Compounds, State Scientific Institution "Institute for Single Crystals", National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Leninaave. 60, Kharkiv, 61001, Ukraine.

Among the diversity of natural and synthetic compounds being studied and applied for human welfare, peptides able to develop nanostructures are currently under special attention of scientists. In this review, we focus on such properties of peptides and various kinds of intramolecular interactions allowing their ability to form different shapes of nanoassemblies. We have also discussed the applications of self-assembled peptides in various biomedical fields where they can be employed as cargo to target delivery of drugs, genes, in tissue engineering, regenerative medicines, and biosensors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1568026615666150408105711DOI Listing
February 2016

SGO/SPES-based highly conducting polymer electrolyte membranes for fuel cell application.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2014 Apr 15;6(8):5595-601. Epub 2014 Apr 15.

CSIR-Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute (CSIR-CSMCRI), and ‡Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, CSIR-Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute (CSIR-CSMCRI), Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR) , Gijubhai Badheka Marg, Bhavnagar 364 002, Gujarat, India.

Proton-exchange membranes (PEMs) consisting of sulfonated poly(ether sulfone) (SPES) with enhanced electrochemical properties have been successfully prepared by incorporating different amount of sulfonated graphene oxide (SGO). Composite membranes are tested for proton conductivity (30-90 °C) and methanol crossover resistance to expose their potential for direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) application. Incorporation of SGO considerably increases the ion-exchange capacity (IEC), water retention and proton conductivity and reduces the methanol permeability. Membranes have been characterized by FTIR, XRD, DSC, SEM, TEM, and AFM techniques. Intermolecular interactions between the components in composite membranes are established by FTIR. The distribution of SGO throughout the membrane matrix has been examined using SEM and TEM and found to be uniform. The maximum proton conductivity has been found in 5% SGO composite with higher methanol crossover resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/am5000504DOI Listing
April 2014