Publications by authors named "Preetpal S Sidhu"

9 Publications

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Parallel Chemistry Approach to Identify Novel Nuclear Receptor Ligands Based on the GW0742 Scaffold.

ACS Comb Sci 2017 10 5;19(10):646-656. Epub 2017 Sep 5.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Milwaukee Institute for Drug Discovery, University of Wisconsin , Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53211, United States.

We describe the parallel synthesis of novel analogs of GW0742, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) agonist. For that purpose, modified reaction conditions were applied, such as a solid-phase palladium-catalyzed Suzuki coupling. In addition, tetrazole-based compounds were generated as a bioisostere for carboxylic acid-containing ligand GW0742. The new compounds were investigated for their ability to activate PPARδ mediated transcription and their cross-reactivity with the vitamin D receptor (VDR), another member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. We identified many potent PPARδ agonists that were less toxic than GW0742, where ∼65 of the compounds synthesized exhibited partial PPARδ activity (23-98%) with EC values ranging from 0.007-18.2 μM. Some ligands, such as compound 32, were more potent inhibitors of VDR-mediated transcription with significantly reduced PPARδ activity than GW0742, however, none of the ligands were completely selective for VDR inhibition over PPARδ activation of transcription.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acscombsci.7b00066DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5643073PMC
October 2017

Genetic and pharmacological manipulation of glyoxalase 1 regulates voluntary ethanol consumption in mice.

Addict Biol 2017 Mar 22;22(2):381-389. Epub 2015 Dec 22.

Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, 60637, USA.

Previous studies have identified an association between the gene glyoxalase 1 (Glo1) and anxiety-like behavior in mice and have shown that the substrate of GLO1, methylglyoxal, is a competitive partial agonist at GABA receptors. Given the well-established role of GABA receptors in the behavioral effects of ethanol (EtOH), we investigated the role of Glo1 in voluntary EtOH consumption in mice using the drinking in the dark (DID) paradigm. Transgenic mice overexpressing Glo1 on both FVB/NJ (FVB) or C57BL/6J (B6) backgrounds showed increased voluntary EtOH consumption compared to their wild-type littermates in DID. Furthermore, transgenic Glo1 knockdown mice on a B6 background showed decreased voluntary EtOH consumption in DID. These genetic manipulations of Glo1 had no effect on sucrose, saccharin or water consumption. Finally, we found that a small molecule GLO1 inhibitor (S-bromobenzylglutathione cyclopentyl diester (pBBG; 6.25, 12.5 mg/kg)) reduced EtOH consumption compared to vehicle treated B6 mice without altering saccharin or water consumption. Sucrose consumption was only reduced by the higher (12.5 mg/kg) dose of pBBG. We did not observe differences in the loss of righting reflex (LORR) or EtOH-induced foot slips on the balance beam in response to acute EtOH administration (LORR: 4 g/kg, Balance Beam: 1.25 g/kg) in B6 or FVB mice overexpressing Glo1, nor in B6 mice treated with pBBG. These data are the first to implicate Glo1 in EtOH-related behaviors and suggest that GLO1 inhibitors may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of alcohol use disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/adb.12333DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4917470PMC
March 2017

Antitumor Activity of 3-Indolylmethanamines 31B and PS121912.

Anticancer Res 2015 Nov;35(11):6001-7

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, U.S.A. Milwaukee Institute of Drug Discovery, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, U.S.A.

Aim: To investigate the in vivo effects of 3-indolylmethanamines 31B and PS121912 in treating ovarian cancer and leukemia, respectively.

Materials And Methods: Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) and western blotting were applied to demonstrate the induction of apoptosis. Xenografted mice were investigated to show the antitumor effects of 3-indolylmethanamines. (13)C-Nuclear magnetic resource (NMR) and western blotting were used to demonstrate inhibition of glucose metabolism.

Results: 31B inhibited ovarian cancer cell proliferation and activated caspase-3, cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), and phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), JUN N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK/SAPK) and p38. 31B reduced ovarian cancer xenograft tumor growth and PS121912 inhibited the growth of HL-60-derived xenografts without any sign of toxicity. Compound 31B inhibited de novo glycolysis and lipogenesis mediated by the reduction of fatty acid synthase and lactate dehydrogenase-A expression.

Conclusion: 3-Indolylmethanamines represent a new class of antitumor agents. We have shown for the first time the in vivo anticancer effects of 3-indolylmethanamines 31B and PS121912.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4633305PMC
November 2015

Anticancer activity of VDR-coregulator inhibitor PS121912.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2014 Oct 9;74(4):787-98. Epub 2014 Aug 9.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI, 53211, USA.

Purpose: PS121912 has been developed as selective vitamin D receptor (VDR)-coregulator inhibitor starting from a high throughput screening campaign to identify new agents that modulate VDR without causing hypercalcemia. Initial antiproliferative effects of PS121912 were observed that are characterized herein to enable future in vivo investigation with this molecule.

Methods: Antiproliferation and apoptosis were determined using four different cancer cell lines (DU145, Caco2, HL-60 and SKOV3) in the presence of PS121912, 1,25-(OH)₂D₃, or a combination of 1,25-(OH)₂D₃ and PS121912. VDR si-RNA was used to identify the role of VDR during this process. The application of ChIP enabled us to determine the involvement of coregulator recruitment during transcription, which was investigated by RT-PCR with VDR target genes and those affiliated with cell cycle progression. Translational changes of apoptotic proteins were determined with an antibody array. The preclinical characterization of PS121912 includes the determination of metabolic stability and CYP3A4 inhibition.

Results: PS121912 induced apoptosis in all four cancer cells, with HL-60 cells being the most sensitive. At sub-micromolar concentrations, PS121912 amplified the growth inhibition of cancer cells caused by 1,25-(OH)₂D₃ without being antiproliferative by itself. A knockout study with VDR si-RNA confirmed the mediating role of VDR. VDR target genes induced by 1,25-(OH)₂D₃ were down-regulated with the co-treatment of PS121912. This process was highly dependent on the recruitment of coregulators that in case of CYP24A1 was SRC2. The combination of PS121912 and 1,25-(OH)₂D₃ reduced the presence of SRC2 and enriched the occupancy of corepressor NCoR at the promoter site. E2F transcription factors 1 and 4 were down-regulated in the presence of PS121912 and 1,25-(OH)₂D₃ that in turn reduced the transcription levels of cyclin A and D, thus arresting HL-60 cells in the S or G2/M phase. In addition, proteins with hematopoietic functions such as cyclin-dependent kinase 6, histone deacetylase 9 and transforming growth factor beta 2 and 3 were down-regulated as well. Elevated levels of P21 and GADD45, in concert with cyclin D1, also mediated the antiproliferative response of HL-60 in the presence of 1,25-(OH)₂D₃ and PS121912. Studies at higher concentration of P121912 identified a VDR-independent pathway of antiproliferation that included the enzymatic and transcriptional activation of caspase 3/7.

Conclusion: Overall, we conclude that PS121912 behaves like a VDR antagonist at low concentrations but interacts with more targets at higher concentrations leading to apoptosis mediated by caspase 3/7 activation. In addition, PS121912 showed an acceptable metabolic stability to enable in vivo cancer studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00280-014-2549-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4177010PMC
October 2014

Development of novel Vitamin D Receptor-Coactivator Inhibitors.

ACS Med Chem Lett 2014 Feb;5(2):199-204

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, WI 53211, USA.

Nuclear receptor coregulators are master regulators of transcription and selectively interact with the vitamin D receptor (VDR) to modulate cell differentiation, cell proliferation and calcium homeostasis. Herein, we report the syntheses and evaluation of highly potent and selective VDR-coactivator inhibitors based on a recently identified 3-indolylmethanamine scaffold. The most active compound, PS121912, selectively inhibited VDR-mediated transcription among eight other nuclear receptors tested. PS121912 is also selectively disrupting the binding between VDR and the third nuclear receptor interaction domain of the coactivator SRC2. Genetic studies revealed that PS121912 behaves like a VDR antagonist by repressing 1,25-(OH)D activated gene transcription. In addition, PS121912 induced apoptosis in HL-60.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ml400462jDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4007349PMC
February 2014

Glo1 inhibitors for neuropsychiatric and anti-epileptic drug development.

Biochem Soc Trans 2014 Apr;42(2):461-7

¶Department of Biochemistry, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02453, U.S.A.

Many current pharmacological treatments for neuropsychiatric disorders, such as anxiety and depression, are limited by a delayed onset of therapeutic effect, adverse side effects, abuse potential or lack of efficacy in many patients. These off-target effects highlight the need to identify novel mechanisms and targets for treatment. Recently, modulation of Glo1 (glyoxalase I) activity was shown to regulate anxiety-like behaviour and seizure-susceptibility in mice. These effects are likely to be mediated through the regulation of MG (methylglyoxal) by Glo1, as MG acts as a competitive partial agonist at GABA(A) (γ-aminobutyric acid A) receptors. Thus modulation of MG by Glo1 represents a novel target for treatment. In the present article, we evaluate the therapeutic potential of indirectly modulating MG concentrations through Glo1 inhibitors for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BST20140027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4036232PMC
April 2014

PT19c, Another Nonhypercalcemic Vitamin D2 Derivative, Demonstrates Antitumor Efficacy in Epithelial Ovarian and Endometrial Cancer Models.

Genes Cancer 2013 Nov;4(11-12):524-34

Molecular Therapeutics Laboratory, Program in Women's Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women and Infants' Hospital, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.

Hypercalcemia remains a major impediment to the clinical use of vitamin D in cancer treatment. Approaches to remove hypercalcemia and development of nonhypercalcemic agents can lead to the development of vitamin D-based therapies for treatment of various cancers. In this report, in vitro and in vivo anticancer efficacy, safety, and details of vitamin D receptor (VDR) interactions of PT19c, a novel nonhypercalcemic vitamin D derived anticancer agent, are described. PT19c was synthesized by bromoacetylation of PTAD-ergocalciferol adduct. Broader growth inhibitory potential of PT19c was evaluated in a panel of chemoresistant breast, renal, ovarian, lung, colon, leukemia, prostate, melanoma, and central nervous system cancers cell line types of NCI60 cell line panel. Interactions of PT19c with VDR were determined by a VDR transactivation assay in a VDR overexpressing VDR-UAS-bla-HEK293 cells, in vitro VDR-coregulator binding, and molecular docking with VDR-ligand binding domain (VDR-LBD) in comparison with calcitriol. Acute toxicity of PT19c was determined in nontumored mice. In vivo antitumor efficacy of PT19c was determined via ovarian and endometrial cancer xenograft experiments. Effect of PT19c on actin filament organization and focal adhesion formation was examined by microscopy. PT19c treatment inhibited growth of chemoresistant NCI60 cell lines (log10GI50 ~ -4.05 to -6.73). PT19c (10 mg/kg, 35 days) reduced growth of ovarian and endometrial xenograft tumor without hypercalcemia. PT19c exerted no acute toxicity up to 400 mg/kg (QDx1) in animals. PT19c showed weak VDR antagonism, lack of VDR binding, and inverted spatial accommodation in VDR-LBD. PT19c caused actin filament dysfunction and inhibited focal adhesion in SKOV-3 cells. PT19c is a VDR independent nonhypercalcemic vitamin D-derived agent that showed noteworthy safety and efficacy in ovarian and endometrial cancer animal models and inhibited actin organization and focal adhesion in ovarian cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1947601913507575DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3877664PMC
November 2013

Peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor δ agonist GW0742 interacts weakly with multiple nuclear receptors, including the vitamin D receptor.

Biochemistry 2013 Jun 10;52(24):4193-203. Epub 2013 Jun 10.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53211, USA.

A high-throughput screening campaign was conducted to identify small molecules with the ability to inhibit the interaction between the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and steroid receptor coactivator 2. These inhibitors represent novel molecular probes for modulating gene regulation mediated by VDR. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) δ agonist GW0742 was among the identified VDR-coactivator inhibitors and has been characterized herein as a pan nuclear receptor antagonist at concentrations of > 12.1 μM. The highest antagonist activity for GW0742 was found for VDR and the androgen receptor. Surprisingly, GW0742 behaved as a PPAR agonist and antagonist, activating transcription at lower concentrations and inhibiting this effect at higher concentrations. A unique spectroscopic property of GW0742 was identified as well. In the presence of rhodamine-derived molecules, GW0742 increased the fluorescence intensity and level of fluorescence polarization at an excitation wavelength of 595 nm and an emission wavelength of 615 nm in a dose-dependent manner. The GW0742-inhibited NR-coactivator binding resulted in a reduced level of expression of five different NR target genes in LNCaP cells in the presence of agonist. Especially VDR target genes CYP24A1, IGFBP-3, and TRPV6 were negatively regulated by GW0742. GW0742 is the first VDR ligand inhibitor lacking the secosteroid structure of VDR ligand antagonists. Nevertheless, the VDR-meditated downstream process of cell differentiation was antagonized by GW0742 in HL-60 cells that were pretreated with the endogenous VDR agonist 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bi400321pDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3724348PMC
June 2013

On scaffold hopping: challenges in the discovery of sulfated small molecules as mimetics of glycosaminoglycans.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2013 Jan 24;23(1):355-9. Epub 2012 Oct 24.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Institute for Structural Biology and Drug Discovery, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23219, United States.

The design of sulfated, small, nonsaccharide molecules as modulators of proteins is still in its infancy as standard drug discovery tools such as library of diverse sulfated molecules and in silico docking and scoring protocol have not been firmly established. Databases, such as ZINC, contain too few sulfate-containing nonsaccharide molecules, which severely limits the identification of new hits. Lack of a generally applicable protocol for scaffold hopping limits the development of sulfated small molecules as synthetic mimetics of the highly sulfated glycosaminoglycans. We explored a sequential ligand-based (LBVS) and structure-based virtual screening (SBVS) approach starting from our initial discovery of monosulfated benzofurans to discover alternative scaffolds as allosteric modulators of thrombin, a key coagulation enzyme. Screening the ZINC database containing nearly 1 million nonsulfated small molecules using a pharmacophore developed from the parent sulfated benzofurans followed by a genetic algorithm-based dual-filter docking and scoring screening identified a group of 10 promising hits, of which three top-scoring hits were synthesized. Each was found to selectively inhibit human alpha-thrombin suggesting the possibility of this approach for scaffold hopping. Michaelis-Menten kinetics showed allosteric inhibition mechanism for the best molecule and human plasma studies confirmed good anticoagulation potential as expected. Our simple sequential LBVS and SBVS approach is likely to be useful as a general strategy for identification of sulfated small molecules hits as modulators of glycosaminoglycan-protein interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2012.10.079DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3525718PMC
January 2013