Publications by authors named "Preetham Putha"

2 Publications

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Artificial intelligence matches subjective severity assessment of pneumonia for prediction of patient outcome and need for mechanical ventilation: a cohort study.

Sci Rep 2021 01 13;11(1):858. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and the Harvard Medical School, 75 Blossom Court, Suite 248, Boston, MA, 02114, USA.

To compare the performance of artificial intelligence (AI) and Radiographic Assessment of Lung Edema (RALE) scores from frontal chest radiographs (CXRs) for predicting patient outcomes and the need for mechanical ventilation in COVID-19 pneumonia. Our IRB-approved study included 1367 serial CXRs from 405 adult patients (mean age 65 ± 16 years) from two sites in the US (Site A) and South Korea (Site B). We recorded information pertaining to patient demographics (age, gender), smoking history, comorbid conditions (such as cancer, cardiovascular and other diseases), vital signs (temperature, oxygen saturation), and available laboratory data (such as WBC count and CRP). Two thoracic radiologists performed the qualitative assessment of all CXRs based on the RALE score for assessing the severity of lung involvement. All CXRs were processed with a commercial AI algorithm to obtain the percentage of the lung affected with findings related to COVID-19 (AI score). Independent t- and chi-square tests were used in addition to multiple logistic regression with Area Under the Curve (AUC) as output for predicting disease outcome and the need for mechanical ventilation. The RALE and AI scores had a strong positive correlation in CXRs from each site (r = 0.79-0.86; p < 0.0001). Patients who died or received mechanical ventilation had significantly higher RALE and AI scores than those with recovery or without the need for mechanical ventilation (p < 0.001). Patients with a more substantial difference in baseline and maximum RALE scores and AI scores had a higher prevalence of death and mechanical ventilation (p < 0.001). The addition of patients' age, gender, WBC count, and peripheral oxygen saturation increased the outcome prediction from 0.87 to 0.94 (95% CI 0.90-0.97) for RALE scores and from 0.82 to 0.91 (95% CI 0.87-0.95) for the AI scores. AI algorithm is as robust a predictor of adverse patient outcome (death or need for mechanical ventilation) as subjective RALE scores in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79470-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7807029PMC
January 2021

Deep learning in chest radiography: Detection of findings and presence of change.

PLoS One 2018 4;13(10):e0204155. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Background: Deep learning (DL) based solutions have been proposed for interpretation of several imaging modalities including radiography, CT, and MR. For chest radiographs, DL algorithms have found success in the evaluation of abnormalities such as lung nodules, pulmonary tuberculosis, cystic fibrosis, pneumoconiosis, and location of peripherally inserted central catheters. Chest radiography represents the most commonly performed radiological test for a multitude of non-emergent and emergent clinical indications. This study aims to assess accuracy of deep learning (DL) algorithm for detection of abnormalities on routine frontal chest radiographs (CXR), and assessment of stability or change in findings over serial radiographs.

Methods And Findings: We processed 874 de-identified frontal CXR from 724 adult patients (> 18 years) with DL (Qure AI). Scores and prediction statistics from DL were generated and recorded for the presence of pulmonary opacities, pleural effusions, hilar prominence, and enlarged cardiac silhouette. To establish a standard of reference (SOR), two thoracic radiologists assessed all CXR for these abnormalities. Four other radiologists (test radiologists), unaware of SOR and DL findings, independently assessed the presence of radiographic abnormalities. A total 724 radiographs were assessed for detection of findings. A subset of 150 radiographs with follow up examinations was used to asses change over time. Data were analyzed with receiver operating characteristics analyses and post-hoc power analysis.

Results: About 42% (305/ 724) CXR had no findings according to SOR; single and multiple abnormalities were seen in 23% (168/724) and 35% (251/724) of CXR. There was no statistical difference between DL and SOR for all abnormalities (p = 0.2-0.8). The area under the curve (AUC) for DL and test radiologists ranged between 0.837-0.929 and 0.693-0.923, respectively. DL had lowest AUC (0.758) for assessing changes in pulmonary opacities over follow up CXR. Presence of chest wall implanted devices negatively affected the accuracy of DL algorithm for evaluation of pulmonary and hilar abnormalities.

Conclusions: DL algorithm can aid in interpretation of CXR findings and their stability over follow up CXR. However, in its present version, it is unlikely to replace radiologists due to its limited specificity for categorizing specific findings.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0204155PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6171827PMC
March 2019