Publications by authors named "Pravin Shende"

87 Publications

Human breast milk-based nutritherapy: A blueprint for pediatric healthcare.

J Food Drug Anal 2021 06 15;29(2):203-213. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Shobhaben Pratapbhai Patel School of Pharmacy and Technology Management, SVKM'S NMIMS, V.L. Mehta Road, Vile Parle (W), Mumbai, India.

Human Breast Milk (HBM) is a storehouse of micronutrients, macronutrients, immune factors, microbiota and numerous other bioactive macromolecules. Fulfilment of optimum nutritional requirements of more than 240 million malnourished infants worldwide is possible via adequate amount (570-900 mL/d) of breast milk administration to infants in first few years of life. Technological advancements enable study of multiple components of HBM like stem cells, bioactive proteins, micro RNAs, immunoglobulins and epithelial cells to understand their role in enhancement of nutritional value of HBM. Furthermore, immunological and protective functions of HBM against various illnesses like diabetes, anemia, respiratory and cardiovascular abnormalities, otitis media and gastrointestinal diseases prove superiority of HBM over artificial milk. Presence of major macronutrients like fatty acids, sphingomyelins, proteins, peptides, lactoferrin, lactalbumins, lysozymes, mucins, growth factors, oligosaccharides and cytokines increase nutritive value of HBM. In the future, HBM can serve as a carrier for delivery of drugs, vaccines and genes to infants and offer novel therapeutic applications to stimulate effective health, growth and development of infants. The review article highlights multimodal nutritional benefits of HBM, provides insight into preclinical and clinical studies of HBM-based therapeutics and encourages further research on HBM therapy to suffice nutritional needs of infants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.38212/2224-6614.3352DOI Listing
June 2021

Nucleic acid-conjugated carbohydrate nanobiosensors: A multimodal tool for disease diagnosis.

Curr Pharm Des 2022 Apr 27. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Shobhaben Pratapbhai Patel School of Pharmacy and Technology Management, SVKM\'S NMIMS, V. L. Mehta Road, Vile Parle (W), Mumbai, India.

Background: Nucleic acid-based carbohydrate sensors (NAbCSs) strategy with nucleic acids as recognition elements for the development of a unique, stable, sensitive, mono- or multimodal detection systems in the field of nanomedicine, gas sensing and gene therapy. Thus, this advance platform for next-generation investigation compromises of cost-effective, wearable, and noninvasive sensing devices as diagnostics in healthcare.

Objectives: This review article highlights the importance of NAbCSs and explores the novel applications of sensors fabricated via conjugation of nucleic acids and carbohydrates. Additionally, advances in smart portable devices like smartphones, printers, and digital multimeters are summarized, followed by the challenges involved in the development of futuristic sensing tools.

Methods: To emerge as a novel platform for detection of different chemical toxins (like aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A) and biomarkers (like miRNA in cancer) present in biosamples, food and as a biowarfare agents. To explore the potential applications of biosensing in the areas of miniaturization, reusability, rapid, point-of-care or portable for home analysis techniques, cost-effective, eco-friendly, high throughput and personalized sensors for qualitative analysis of target analyte/s in bio-fluids and food.

Conclusion: NAbCSs provide a real-time monitoring of biosamples qualitatively and semi-quantitatively (luminometer, fluorimeter, etc.) in the absence of trained personnel. Explorations of NAbCSs encompasses advantages in remote resource limited access areas with simultaneous monitoring via smart devices for multiple analytes with greater precision, sensitivity, and selectivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1381612828666220427140110DOI Listing
April 2022

Multi-strategic approaches for enhancing active transportation using self-emulsifying drug delivery system.

J Drug Target 2022 May 3:1-11. Epub 2022 May 3.

Shobhaben Pratapbhai Patel School of Pharmacy and Technology Management, SVKM'S Narsee Monjee Institute of Management Studies, Mumbai, India.

Oral delivery is the most desired route of drug administration and it can be more beneficial for patients suffering from chronic diseases wherein frequent parenteral administration of proteins such as insulin and calcitonin is required. The Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) class II drugs show low aqueous solubility and high permeability whereas BCS class IV drugs suffer from low aqueous solubility and low permeability. Additionally, biologic drugs are highly sensitive to presence of bioenzymes and bile salts when administered orally. Self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) is a thermodynamically stable lipid formulation that enhances oral absorption of active ingredients the opening of tight junctions, increasing the membrane fluidity and thus overcomes the physiological barriers like viscous mucus layer, strong acid conditions and enzymatic degradation. An understanding of different theories that govern SEDDS formation and drug release can help in formulating a highly stable and effective drug delivery system. Poorly permeable drugs such as chlorpromazine require modification using methods like hydrophobic ion pairing, complexation with phospholipids, etc. to enable high entrapment efficiency, which is discussed in the article. Additionally, the article gives an overview of the influence of polymers, length of fatty acids chain and zeta potential in enhancing permeation across the intestinal membrane.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1061186X.2022.2069783DOI Listing
May 2022

Diversified applications of self-assembled nanocluster delivery systems- A state-of-the- art review.

Curr Pharm Des 2022 Mar 1. Epub 2022 Mar 1.

Shobhaben Pratapbhai Patel School of Pharmacy and Technology Management, SVKM'S NMIMS, V. L. Mehta Road, Vile Parle (W), Mumbai, India.

Background: Self-assembled nanoclusters arrange the components into an organized structure for the nanoparticulate system and also in the transportation of cellular elements for the fabrication of microelectronic devices. Nanoclusters reduce transcytosis and increase endocytosis in intestinal mucin to strengthen the retrograde pathway that helped in the delivery of actives to the Golgi apparatus.

Objectives: This review article focuses on the self-assembled nanoclusters for cellular transportation, applications of self-assembled structures in the delivery of essential elements like the use of a peptide in targeted and stimuli-responsive drug delivery systems, self-assembly of tocopherol nanoclusters that promotes vitamin E delivery across the endothelial barrier. Methods Current innovation in the self-assembly of peptides includes the formation of nanostructures like vesicles, fibers, and rod-coil in the applications of wound healing, tissue engineering, treatment of atherosclerosis, in sensing heavy metals from biological and environmental samples and advanced drug delivery.

Results: Self-assembled biodegradable nanoclusters are used as biomimetic structures for synergistic effect. Improvement in the methods of preparation like the addition of a copolymer is used for temperature-triggered drug release nanoclusters.

Conclusion: Green synthesis of nanoclusters, nanocluster-based biosensor and artificial intelligence are the future concept in the manufacturing and the prevention of toxicity in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1381612828666220301125944DOI Listing
March 2022

Nose-to-brain lipid nanocarriers: An active transportation across BBB in migraine management.

Chem Phys Lipids 2022 03 2;243:105177. Epub 2022 Feb 2.

Shobhaben Pratapbhai Patel School of Pharmacy and Technology Management, SVKM'S NMIMS, V. L. Mehta Road, Vile Parle (W), Mumbai, India. Electronic address:

The present study focused on the development and evaluation of nanotechnology-based carrier systems of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) to enhance the permeation and bioavailability of zolmitriptan across blood-brain-barrier (BBB). SLNs are the emerging field of nanotechnology with numerous applications like cosmetics and pharmaceutical research. Zolmitriptan-loaded SLNs were prepared by high-pressure homogenization method for targeted drug delivery to the brain. The SLNs were found to be round in shape with particle size ranging from 110 to 200 nm and zeta potential upto - 24.83 ± 3.03 mV which indicates good colloidal stability. The maximum entrapment efficiency of zolmitriptan in SLNs was found to be 84.17 ± 12.24%. The in-vitro drug release and ex-vivo release studies exhibited 95.85 ± 2.44% and 82.06 ± 2.94% drug release, respectively for 24 h. In-vivo studies was performed on male Wistar rats wherein the concentration of zolmitriptan was estimated in cerebrospinal fluid by LC-MS method. The selected formulation incorporated with SLNs showed significant enhancement in pharmacokinetic parameters like AUC (37.05 ± 2.45 ng/mL), C (42.08 ± 1.32 ng/mL), T (30 min), and t (1.28 h). Zolmitriptan-loaded SLNs via intranasal administration offers a novel approach to effectively circumvent first-pass hepatic metabolism than conventional oral route with 4-fold alleviation in permeation and 2-fold improvement in bioavailability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemphyslip.2022.105177DOI Listing
March 2022

Surface patterning techniques for proteins on nano- and micro-systems: a modulated aspect in hierarchical structures.

J Mater Chem B 2022 02 23;10(8):1176-1195. Epub 2022 Feb 23.

Shobhaben Pratapbhai Patel School of Pharmacy and Technology Management, SVKM'S NMIMS, V. L. Mehta Road, Vile Parle (W), Mumbai, India.

The surface patterning of protein using fabrication or the external functionalization of structures demonstrates various applications in the biomedical field for bioengineering, biosensing and antifouling. This review article offers an outline of the existing advances in protein patterning technology with a special emphasis on the current physical and physicochemical methods, including stencil patterning, trap- and droplet-based microfluidics, and chemical modification of surfaces photolithography, microcontact printing and scanning probe nanolithography. Different approaches are applied for the biological studies of recent trends for single-protein patterning technology, such as robotic printing, stencil printing and colloidal lithography, wherein the concepts of physical confinement, electrostatic and capillary forces, as well as dielectrophoretics, are summarised to understand the design approaches. Photochemical alterations with diazirine, nitrobenzyl and aryl azide functional groups for the implication of modified substrates, such as self-assembled monolayers functionalized with amino silanes, organosilanes and alkanethiols on gold surfaces, as well as topographical effects of patterning techniques for protein functionalization and orientation, are discussed. Analytical methods for the evaluation of protein functionality are also mentioned. Regarding their selectivity, protein pattering methods will be readily used to fabricate modified surfaces and target-specific delivery systems for the transportation of macromolecules such as streptavidin, and albumin. Future applications of patterning techniques include high-throughput screening, the evaluation of intracellular interactions, accurate screening and personalized treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1tb02455hDOI Listing
February 2022

Multifaceted Applications of Genetically Modified Micro-organisms: A Biotechnological Revolution

Curr Pharm Des 2022 01 28. Epub 2022 Jan 28.

Shobhaben Pratapbhai Patel School of Pharmacy and Technology Management, SVKM's NMIMS, V.L. Mehta Road, Vile Parle (W), Mumbai, India.

Background: Genetically modified micro-organisms like bacteria, viruses, algae and fungi are novel approaches used in the field of healthcare due to better efficacy and targeted delivery in comparison to conventional approaches.

Objectives: This review article focuses on the applications of genetically modified micro-organisms in the treatment of cancer, obesity and HIV infection. The gut microbiome causes metabolic disorders, however, the use of genetically modified bacteria alters the gut microbiota and delivers therapeutically effective drugs in the treatment of obesity.

Methods: Enhancement of the therapeutic activity of different micro-organisms is required for multiple treatments in cancer, diabetes, etc., by incorporating their fragments into the microbial filaments with the help of genetic modification approaches. Various methods like amelioration of NAPE synthesis, silica immobilization, polyadenylation and electrochemical are used to integrate the strain into the bacteria and engineer a live virus with a peptide.

Results: The development of novel microbial strains using genetic modifications over core strains offers higher precision, greater molecular multiplicity, better prevention from the degradation of microbes in atmospheric temperature and significant reduction of side effects for therapeutic applications. Moreover, genetically modified micro-organisms are used in multidisciplinary sectors like generation of electricity, purification of water, bioremediation process, etc., indicating the versatility and scope of genetically engineered microbes.

Conclusion: The bioengineered micro-organisms with genetic modifications proved to be advantageous in various conditions like cancer, diabetes, malaria, organ regeneration, inflammatory bowel disease, etc. This article provides insight into various applications of genetically modified microbes in different sectors with their implementation for regulatory approval.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1381612828666220128102823DOI Listing
January 2022

Biotherapy using sperm cell-oriented transportation of therapeutics in female reproductive tract cancer.

Curr Pharm Biotechnol 2022 Jan 13. Epub 2022 Jan 13.

Shobhaben Pratapbhai Patel School of Pharmacy and Technology Management, SVKM' S NMIMS, V. L. Mehta Road, Vile Parle (W), Mumbai, India.

Female reproductive tract cancers like ovarian, cervical, vaginal, etc. have led to a serious concern for reproductive health as well as an increase in physical and psychological stresses amongst women. Various conventional techniques like surgery, radiation and chemotherapy are employed but possess limitations such as organ toxicity, infection, nausea, vomiting, etc. Also, several nanotechnology-based synthetic vehicle delivery systems like liposomes, nanoparticles, etc. are used but they lack targeting efficiency that results in poor propulsion and control. Therefore, there is a need for naturally-driven drug carriers to overcome such limitations. Sperm-based drug delivery is the new area for targeted delivery that offers self-propulsion to tumor sites, higher biocompatibility, longer lifespan and increased tissue penetration with enhanced localization. Drug-loaded sperm cells are harnessed with micro/nanomotor that will guide them to the intended target site. The critical analysis of the sperm-based drug delivery system was executed and summarized along with the current challenges. This article deals with the art of delivering the anticancer drug to female reproductive cancer sites with proof-of-concept-based research data and critical discussion on challenges in formulating the sperm-based delivery with a future perspective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389201023666220113111441DOI Listing
January 2022

Nanotech-based food: An initiative for alternative pharmaceuticals.

Curr Pharm Biotechnol 2022 Jan 14. Epub 2022 Jan 14.

Shobhaben Pratapbhai Patel School of Pharmacy and Technology Management, SVKM\'S NMIMS, V. L. Mehta Road, Vile Parle (W), Mumbai, India.

Nanotechnology opens many avenues in the food sector and offers applications associated with food production, processing, cultivation, and packaging. Nanofood employs nano-techniques like nano-encapsulation and conjugation of various phytochemicals, antioxidants, probiotics, minerals, vitamins, etc. into nanovehicles. Food fortification strategies are then implemented to incorporate nano-processed substances. Nanofood is mostly used for improving health and as a supplementation method in various diseases ranging from liver diseases to neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we focus on recent studies that exhibit comparable results for nanofood and conventional medicines and subsiding the limitations of traditional therapies. Nanofood hold a potential in management of various health problems and the possibilities of using nanofood as alternative to medicine in clinical conditions like cancers and inflammatory bowel disease. With further advances in nanotechnology and expansion in the scope of current nanofood industry in addition to proper regulations set in place, nanofood may offer a wide variety of advantages in safety, long-term stability, etc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389201023666220114163323DOI Listing
January 2022

Microneedles in diagnostic, treatment and theranostics: An advancement in minimally-invasive delivery system.

Biomed Microdevices 2021 12 8;24(1). Epub 2021 Dec 8.

Shobhaben Pratapbhai Patel School of Pharmacy and Technology Management, SVKM'S NMIMS, V. L. Mehta Road, Vile Parle (W), Mumbai, India.

Microneedle (MN) technology plays an important role in biomedical engineering for their less intrusive access to the skin due to minimally or painless penetration, enhancement of drug permeability, improvement of detectability of biomolecules in the epidermal and dermal layers with therapeutic efficacy and safety. Furthermore, MNs possess some major disadvantages like difficulty in scale-up technique, variation in drug delivery pattern with respect to external environment of skin, blockage of arrays due to dermal tissues, induction of inflammation or allergy at the site of administration and restriction of dosing range based on the size of active. Additionally, microneedle acts as a transdermal theranostic device for monitoring the physiological parameters in clinical studies. The investigation of drug transfer mechanisms through microneedles includes coat and poke, poke and flow, poke and patch and poke and release method. This review article discusses different categories of microneedles with fabrication methods such as photolithography, laser cutting, 3D printing, etc. in therapeutic applications for treating cancer, diabetes, arthritis, obesity, neurological disorders, and glaucoma. Biosensing devices based on microneedles may detect target analytes directly in the interstitial fluid by penetrating the stratum corneum of the skin and thus microneedles-based devices can be considered as a single tool in diagnostic sensing and therapeutic administration of drugs inside the body. Moreover, the clinical status and commercial availability of microneedle devices are discussed in this review article to offer new insights to researchers and scientists. Continuous monitoring particularly for the determination of blood glucose concentration is one of the most important requirements for the development of next-generation healthcare devices. The aim of this review article focuses mainly on the theranostic applications of microneedles in various medical conditions such as malaria, glaucoma, cancer, etc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10544-021-00604-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8651504PMC
December 2021

Biomacromolecule-Functionalized Nanoparticle-Based Conjugates for Potentiation of Anticancer Therapy.

Curr Cancer Drug Targets 2022 ;22(1):31-48

SVKM\'S NMIMS, V.L. Mehta Road, Vile Parle (W), Mumbai, India.

Cancer is a rapidly growing life-threatening disease that affected 18.1 million people worldwide in 2018. Various conventional techniques like surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy are considered as a mainstream treatment for patients but show some limitations like cytotoxicity due to off-targeted action, poor intra-tumor localization, development of multi-drug resistance by tumor cells, physical and psychological stresses, etc. Such limitations have motivated the scientists to work towards more patient-centric and precision therapy using advanced drug delivery systems like liposomes, nanoparticles, nanoconjugates, etc. However, these carriers also face limitations like poor biocompatibility, lesser payload capacity, leakage of encapsulated drug, and short-term stability. So, this review article explores the profound insights for the development of biomacromolecule- functionalized nanoconjugates to potentiate the anticancer activity of therapeutic agents for various cancers like lung, colorectal, ovarian, breast and liver cancer. Researchers have shown interest in biofunctionalized nanoconjugates because of advantages like biocompatibility, site-specificity with better localization, higher entrapment with long-term stability and lesser off-target toxicity. The progressive trend of biomacromolecule nanoconjugates will encourage further research for the development of effective transport of drugs, nutraceuticals and phytoconstituents for on-site effect at cancer microenvironment and tumor cells with higher safety profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1568009621666211206102942DOI Listing
May 2022

3D Printed Personalized Medicine for Cancer: Applications for Betterment of Diagnosis, Prognosis and Treatment.

AAPS PharmSciTech 2021 Dec 1;23(1). Epub 2021 Dec 1.

Shobhaben Pratapbhai Patel School of Pharmacy and Technology Management, SVKM's NMIMS, Vile Parle (West), Mumbai, India.

Cancer treatment is challenging due to the tumour heterogeneity that makes personalized medicine a suitable technique for providing better cancer treatment. Personalized medicine analyses patient-related factors like genetic make-up and lifestyle and designs treatments that offer the benefits of reduced side effects and efficient drug delivery. Personalized medicine aims to provide a holistic way for prevention, diagnosis and treatment. The customization desired in personalized medicine is produced accurately by 3D printing which is an established technique known for its precision. Different 3D printing techniques exhibit their capability in producing cancer-specific medications for breast, liver, thyroid and kidney tumours. Three-dimensional printing displays major influence on cancer modelling and studies using cancer models in treatment and diagnosis. Three-dimensional printed personalized tumour models like physical 3D models, bioprinted models and tumour-on-chip models demonstrate better in vitro and in vivo correlation in drug screening, cancer metastasis and prognosis studies. Three-dimensional printing helps in cancer modelling; moreover, it has also changed the facet of cancer treatment. Improved treatment via custom-made 3D printed devices, implants and dosage forms ensures the delivery of anticancer agents efficiently. This review covers recent applications of 3D printed personalized medicine in various cancer types and comments on the possible future directions like application of 4D printing and regularization of 3D printed personalized medicine in healthcare.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1208/s12249-021-02153-0DOI Listing
December 2021

Role of lipopolysaccharides in potential applications of nanocarrier systems.

Curr Pharm Des 2021 Nov 23. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

Shobhaben Pratapbhai Patel School of Pharmacy and Technology Management, SVKM'S NMIMS, V. L. Mehta Road, Vile Parle (W), Mumbai. India.

Background: Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are considered the main molecular component in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. The LPS molecule in the bacterial cell wall acts as a primary physical barrier and protects gram-negative bacteria from the surrounding environment. LPS (endotoxins) show immunomodulatory therapeutic properties as well as toxicity to the host cell, whereas potential applications encompass.

Objective: This review article aims to describe the recent developments of lipopolysaccharides in nanocarrier systems for various applications such as vaccination, cancer chemotherapy and immune stimulants action. Different nanocarriers like cubosomes, niosomes, dendrimers and metal nanoparticles used in the delivery of actives are employed to decorate lipopolysaccharide molecules superficially.

Methods: A narrative review of all the relevant papers known to the author was conducted.

Conclusion: Commercially available lipid nanoparticles contribute to many advances as promising nanocarriers in cancer therapy and are used as a vaccine adjuvant by improving the immune response due to their properties such as size, shape, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. Whereas lipopolysaccharide-decorated nanoparticles change the host's tolerability and increase the effectiveness of molecule in cancer immunotherapy. These nanoconjugate systems enhance overall immunogenic response and effectiveness in vaccine immunotherapy and targeted therapy, not only limited to humans application but also for poultry and aquaculture. Newer opportunities using lipopolysaccharides for the treatment and management of diseases with unique characteristics like the presence of lipoprotein that act as an alternative for bacterial infections over conventional dosage forms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1381612827666211124094302DOI Listing
November 2021

Block copolymers in Alzheimer's disease therapy: A perceptive to revolutionize biomaterials.

J Control Release 2021 12 8;340:271-281. Epub 2021 Nov 8.

Shobhaben Pratapbhai Patel School of Pharmacy and Technology Management, SVKM'S NMIMS, V. L. Mehta Road, Vile Parle (W), Mumbai, India. Electronic address:

Alzheimer's disease is a fatal illness associated with two persistent problems in treatment i. ineffective drug transportation across the bio-membranes and ii. on-site targeting. Such problems originate from the combinational factors for non-specific targets, physicochemical limitations in the delivery of the active agents and insignificant permeability across blood-brain-barrier. In this context, block copolymers such as PLGA-PEG, PEG-PLA, Poloxamers, PLGA-PEG-PLGA triblock copolymers, etc. present interesting potential in the development of nano-sized carrier systems like polymerosomes, polymeric micelles, etc. for the management and treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Modifications of block copolymers display improvement in solubility and reduction in toxicity due to the process of complexation, functionalization, dose reduction and modification of kinetics for the rate of release. This review article focuses on new insights into different copolymers and their superiority over conventional polymers in Alzheimer's disease for long-term therapy in the body. Association of block copolymers to therapy of Alzheimer's disease overcome the limitations of drug delivery by offering attributes such as smaller molecular size (less than 150 nm), higher solubility owing to hydrophilic interactions between polymeric components and systemic environment, better entrapment efficiency (above 80%) due to large effective surface area and long-term stability for sensitive actives such as peptides, monoclonal antibodies, curcumin, resveratrol, catechins, etc. With such multifunctional features, block copolymers actively permeate the bio-membrane as polymeric nanoparticles, nanomicelles and polymerosomes using different mechanisms such as transcellular- and receptor-mediated transportation to reach target neural network as well as extra-neuronal amyloid-β plaques for anti-Alzheimer's disease activity with neuroprotective action. These polymers emerge as important components for personalized therapy with potential applications in biosensing, drug delivery, theranostics, etc. for qualitative and quantitative predictions in the detection and treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2021.11.007DOI Listing
December 2021

Microneedle system: a modulated approach for penetration enhancement.

Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2021 Aug 22;47(8):1183-1192. Epub 2021 Oct 22.

Shobhaben Pratapbhai Patel School of Pharmacy and Technology Management, SVKM'S NMIMS, Mumbai, India.

The microneedles show advantages over transdermal drug delivery systems on account of better skin permeation bypassing the stratum corneum. To increase the flux of permeation, penetration enhancement techniques like physical and chemical methods are combined with a trans-epidermal delivery system across the skin causing minimal pain. These techniques include iontophoresis, sonophoresis, and electroporation for physical enhancement of drug delivery topical route by either disrupting the structure of the stratum corneum or by creating pores/micro-channels within the skin. The use of chemical penetrants such as ethanol, lipids, surfactants, and terpenes improves the release kinetics by mechanisms like fluidization of lipids, denaturation of proteins, etc. A combination of microneedles and these techniques show a significant increase in the permeability of drugs across the skin by 5-10 times compared to microneedles alone. This review article focuses on various advanced strategies like the use of drug-polymer complexes, application of ultrasound frequency or tolerable electric current, formation of nano-formulations, etc. with microneedle delivery for transportation of high payload of actives, macromolecules, antibodies, gene, proteins, and peptides. In the near future, microneedle systems will offer potential targeted drug delivery, self-sealable administration across the skin, and minimally invasive vaccine transportation in cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer's, and cardiovascular diseases.HighlightsPhysical penetration enhancement techniques: iontophoresis, electroporation, and sonophoresis.Chemical penetration enhancers: polymers, lipids, surfactants.Strategies to use microneedle system with penetration enhancement techniques.The significant difference in the penetration ability of high payload actives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03639045.2021.1992421DOI Listing
August 2021

Experimental aspects of NPY-decorated gold nanoclusters using randomized hybrid design against breast cancer cell line.

Biotechnol J 2021 Dec 13;16(12):e2100319. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Shobhaben Pratapbhai Patel School of Pharmacy and Technology Management, SVKM'S NMIMS, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) are potential carrier system for bioactive like proteins and peptides used in various therapeutics against various ailments. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is consists of 36 amino acids used to treat depression, obesity, epilepsy, and so on. but possess instability at higher temperatures causing its limited usage. The present study focused on the NPY-decorated AuNCs prepared using desolvation reduction technique and optimized through randomized hybrid design. ATR-FTIR, H NMR and CD spectroscopic studies confirmed the AuNCs structure interaction with NPY. The optimized NPY-decorated AuNCs possessed 85.6 ± 2.08% of entrapment efficiency with 85.32 ± 7.55% of NPY release for 24 h. It displayed dose-dependent cell cytotoxicity, IC value of 0.7 ± 0.05 μg mL and apoptosis of 68.48 ± 7.35% with controlled cell migration causing G0G1 cell arrest by penetrating cancer cell membrane on MCF-7 cell line. Furthermore, the AuNCs caused surface disruption of the cancerous cell further interrupting the protein synthesis by MAPK pathway leading to cell death. The AuNCs were stable for 3 months at 25 ± 2°C due to steric hindrance. Hence, NPY-decorated AuNCs were found to be effective on MCF-7 cell line with a significant anti-apoptotic effect, further emerging as a novel therapeutic delivery system in the management of breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/biot.202100319DOI Listing
December 2021

Quercetin-loaded platelets as a potential targeted therapy for glioblastoma multiforme cell line U373-MG.

Biotechnol J 2021 Dec 12;16(12):e2100271. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Shobhaben Pratapbhai Patel School of Pharmacy and Technology Management, SVKM's NMIMS, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Over the globe, the incidence of glioblastoma multiforme (GM) is very low, that is, 1-4 cases per 100,000, but it is fatal and cancer grows very fast inside the brain tissues, namely astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Because of the rapid growth, it is difficult to halt the dissemination of tumor in adjacent tissues. Although temozolomide (TMZ) is a currently approved standard of care, it develops resistance over the period. Therefore, there is a need to develop a novel drug delivery system. In this work, authors have developed platelets as drug delivery carriers-loaded with quercetin (QCT) for targeting GM. The effect of QCT and QCT-platelet was assessed on the U373-MG cell line. Natural human platelets were used as carriers for drug loading and drug delivery. Platelets possess an open canalicular system that allows the uptake of drug molecules in the platelet cytoplasm. The study showed that the maximum encapsulation efficiency of QCT-platelet was 93.96 ± 0.12% and the maximum drug release in 24 h was 76.26 ± 0.13% in-vitro at pH 5.5 that mimics the tumor microenvironment. In this work, there is a three-fold enhancement of solubility of QCT. The cytotoxic activity of QCT-platelets was studied in the U373-MG human astrocytoma glioblastoma cell line and the cell viability was 14.52 ± 1.53% after 48 h. Thus, platelets were proved as good carriers for therapeutic moieties and can be effectively used to target the glioblastoma tumor in the near future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/biot.202100271DOI Listing
December 2021

Cyclodextrins-modified metallic nanoparticles for effective cancer therapy.

J Control Release 2021 11 21;339:41-50. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Shobhaben Pratapbhai Patel School of Pharmacy and Technology Management, SVKM'S NMIMS, V. L. Mehta Road, Vile Parle (W), Mumbai, India. Electronic address:

Cancer, a disease of unknown origin is the second most common reason of death worldwide after heart attacks and therefore is a major threat to human beings. Currently, chemotherapy is the only approach for delivering anti-cancer drugs but shows severe systemic toxicities such as alopecia, loss of appetite, anemia, gastric irritation, neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Additionally, chemotherapeutics fails to achieve the expected therapeutic outcome due to their limited solubility, in-vivo instability and lack of targeting efficiency. Encapsulating drugs in metallic nanoparticles like gold, silver and metal oxides (magnetic) help to overcome limitations of chemotherapy and transports anti-cancer drugs effectively at the targeted site due to the advantages such as optimal size, surface morphology, higher conductivity and in-vivo stability. Moreover, these metals can be triggered externally using NIR radiations or magnetic field thereby improving the drug release kinetics. Some frequently used chemotherapeutic agents such as doxorubicin, paclitaxel, methotrexate, etc. degrade rapidly due to their hydrophobic nature and show in-vivo instability. Cyclodextrin offers structural compatibility for encapsulating such hydrophobic drugs and improves their loading capacity, solubility and stability without showing any systemic toxicities. Therefore, researchers designed cyclodextrin-complexed metallic nanoparticles as a novel platform to overcome pitfalls of conventional chemotherapy like gastric irritation, hair loss, neurotoxicity, etc. This review article provides detail insight of metallic nanocarriers containing cyclodextrin-encapsulated anti-cancer agents for effective cancer therapy. It can be concluded that this novel approach holds a great potential for clinical application in cancer diagnosis, treatment with minimum toxicity and maximum efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2021.09.025DOI Listing
November 2021

Polyplexes of retinoic acid: an in vitro study of complex nanostructures against colorectal cancer cell line (HCT-15).

J Mater Sci Mater Med 2021 Sep 14;32(9):122. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Shobhaben Pratapbhai Patel School of Pharmacy and Technology Management, SVKM'S NMIMS, V. L. Mehta Road, Vile Parle (W), Mumbai, India.

Despite recent advances in the treatment of human colon cancer, the chemotherapeutic efficacy against colon cancer is still unsatisfactory. The complexity in colorectal cancer treatment leads to new research in combination therapy to overcome multidrug resistance in cancer and increase apoptosis. The objective of the present research work was to develop polyplexes for co-delivery of plasmid DNA with retinoic acid against colorectal cancer cell line (HCT-15). Plain polyplexes were prepared using chitosan and hyaluronic acid solution (0.1% w/v), whereas retinoic acid polyplexes were prepared using ethanol: water (1:9 v/v) system. The particle size was observed in the order of chitosan solution > blank polyplex > retinoic acid-loaded polyplex. Encapsulation efficiency of retinoic acid was found to be 81.51 ± 4.33% for retinoic acid-loaded polyplex formulation. The drug release was observed to be in a controlled pattern with 72.23 ± 1.32% release of retenoic acid from polyplex formulation. Cell line studies of the formulation displayed better cell inhibition and low cytotoxicity for the retinoic acid-loaded polyplexes in comparison to pure retinoic acid, thus demonstrating better potential action against colorectal cancer cell line HCT-15. Retinoic acid-loaded polyplexes indicated higher potential for the delivery of the active whereas the cell line studies displayed the efficacy of the formulation against colorectal cancer cell line HCT-15.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10856-021-06571-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8440295PMC
September 2021

Strategies for the delivery of antidiabetic drugs via intranasal route.

Int J Pharm 2021 Oct 1;608:121068. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Shobhaben Pratapbhai Patel School of Pharmacy and Technology Management, SVKM'S NMIMS, V.L. Mehta Road, Vile Parle (W), Mumbai, India. Electronic address:

Diabetes is a metabolic disorder defined by higher blood glucose levels in the body generally controlled by antidiabetic agents (oral) and insulin (subcutaneous). To avoid the limitations of the conventional routes such as lower bioavailability and pain at the site of injection in case of parenteral route modified delivery systems are proposed like transdermal, pulmonary and inhalation delivery and among the other delivery systems nasal drug delivery system that shows the advantages such as reduced frequency of dose, higher patient compliance, safety, ease of administration, prolonged residence time, improved absorption of drug in the body, higher bioavailability and stability. This review article discusses the strategies adopted for the delivery of antidiabetic drugs by the intranasal delivery system. The insulin and glucagon-like peptides on experimentation show results of improved therapeutic levels and patient compliance. The drugs are transported by the paracellular route and absorbed through the epithelial tight junctions successfully by utilising different strategies. The limitations of the nasal delivery such as irritation or burning on administration, degradation by the enzymes, mucociliary clearance, lesser volume of the nasal cavity and permeation through the nasal mucosa. To overcome the challenges different strategies for the nasal administration are studied such as polymers, particulate delivery systems, complexation with peptides and smart delivery using glucose-responsive systems. A vast scope of intranasal preparations exists for antidiabetic drugs in the future for the management of diabetes and more clinical studies are the requirement for the societal impact to battle against diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2021.121068DOI Listing
October 2021

Adsorption of Cisplatin on Oxidized Graphene Nanoribbons for Improving the Uptake in Non-small Cell Lung Carcinoma Cell Line A549.

Curr Drug Deliv 2022 ;19(6):697-705

Shobhaben Pratapbhai Patel School of Pharmacy and Technology Management, Mumbai, India.

Background: Graphene nanoribbons are nanosized strips of graphene with unique physicochemical properties like higher drug loading capacity and affinity for tumor cells.

Objective: The principal objective of this research was to develop oxidized graphene nanoribbons (O-GNRs)-based delivery system for cisplatin against non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line A549 by selective endocytosis.

Methods: The O-GNRs prepared using various synthetic steps like oxidative unzipping were evaluated for various parameters like morphology, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) study, % adsorption efficacy, Differential scanning colometric (DSC) study and in-vitro efficacy studies.

Results: Graphene nanoribbons with the length of 200-250 nm and width of 20-40 nm were obtained. The FTIR spectrum of drug-loaded O-GNRs exhibited a characteristic peak at 1550 cm-1 (- N-H group) of cisplatin. The DSC indicated the presence of sharp endothermic peaks at 59°C (PEG), 254°C (-C-NH) and 308.6°C (-C-Pt). The % adsorption efficiency was found to be 74.56 ± 0.798% with in-vitro release in controlled manner (63.36% ± 0.489%) for 24 h.

Conclusion: The nanoformulation showed an average inhibition of 22.72% at a lower dose of cisplatin (> 25%) by passive targeting on cell line A549 by DNA alkylation. In the near future, graphene-based systems will establish potential nanosystems in cancer treatment due to the additive effect of graphene with various therapeutic agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1567201818666210708124424DOI Listing
May 2022

Enhancement of immunopotentiation using tetanus toxoid-based nanoparticulate dissolvable microneedles.

Biomed Microdevices 2021 06 28;23(3):32. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Shobhaben Pratapbhai Patel School of Pharmacy and Technology Management, SVKM's NMIMS, V. L. Mehta Road, Vile Parle (W), Mumbai, India.

The main objective of the present study was to prepare and evaluate dissolvable microneedle patch containing nanoparticles of tetanus toxoid without the use of any adjuvant and its immunopotentiation activity. Immunization with microneedles is a novel approach in vaccines delivery with advantages such as convenience, simple, and non-invasive therapy. The gelatin nanoparticles were prepared by a layer-by-layer coating method using polystyrene sulfonate (PSS), polyallylamine hydrochloride (PLA), and PLGA. The filtered gelatin nanoparticles were later dispersed in the aqueous PVP K10 solution and integrated into a mold to develop microneedles. The nanoparticles and their dissolvable microneedle patches were evaluated using particle size, surface charge, entrapment efficiency, SEM analysis, in-vitro, and in-vivo studies. The particle size was found in the order of PLGA-coated nanoparticles > layered gelatin nanoparticles > aminated gelatin nanoparticles > gelatin nanoparticles and aminated gelatin nanoparticles showed maximum entrapment efficiency (92.6 ± 3.25%). The microscopic SEM images showed the spherical-shaped particle formation, verifies that the nanoparticles were formed. The gelatin nanoparticles followed the prolonged release for the period of 8 h whereas the nanoparticle-loaded dissolvable microneedles showed the controlled release pattern for 24 h. Aminated nanoparticulate microneedle showed the highest antibody production against tetanus toxoid. Hence, the nanoparticulate dissolvable microneedles-based immunopotentiation can be used as an alternative for delivery of tetanus toxoid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10544-021-00571-2DOI Listing
June 2021

Tailoring of P-glycoprotein for effective transportation of actives across blood-brain-barrier.

J Control Release 2021 07 2;335:398-407. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Shobhaben Pratapbhai Patel School of Pharmacy and Technology Management, SVKM'S NMIMS, V. L. Mehta Road, Vile Parle (W), Mumbai, India. Electronic address:

P-Glycoprotein serves as a gatekeeper in the blood-brain-barrier wherein, it shows a vital part in the elimination of xenobiotics, drugs, foreign molecules etc. and guards the central nervous system from infections and external toxic molecules by functioning as an efflux transporter. It plays an essential role in various brain-related conditions like Parkinsonism, Alzheimer's disease, depression, cancer, etc. and terminates the entry of therapeutic agents across blood-brain-barrier which remains a significant challenge serving as major hindrance in pharmacotherapy of disease. The physiological structure and topology of P-glycoprotein and its relation with blood-brain-barrier and central nervous system gives an idea for targeting nanocarriers across the barrier into brain. This review article provides an overview of current understanding of the nanoformulations-based P-gp trafficking strategies like nanocarriers, stem cell therapy, drugs, substrates, polymeric materials, chemical compounds as well as naturally occurring active constituents for improving drug transport in brain across blood-brain-barrier and contributing in effective nanotherapeutic development for treatment of CNS disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2021.05.046DOI Listing
July 2021

Strategic conceptualization and potential of self-healing polymers in biomedical field.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 Jun 16;125:112099. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Shobhaben Pratapbhai Patel School of Pharmacy and Technology Management, SVKM'S NMIMS, V. L. Mehta Road, Vile Parle (W), Mumbai, India. Electronic address:

Smart polymeric materials and hydrogels derived from acrylate, epoxy resins, etc. mimic the healing ability of natural organisms and biological cells by showing shape memory and tissue regenerative properties wherein, the healing ability in some of the materials is triggered by external stimuli like temperature, pH and light. This article provides an overview of various conceptual strategies and chemical and mechanical interactions involved in the different types of biomimetic self-healing materials to regain the deformed structure by repairing the cracked shape which play important role in contributing to the structural properties and functional recovery. Also, different chemical bonding like π-π interaction, ligand-metal, hydrogen bonding, etc. takes place at the molecular level for replenishing the damaged structure with greater bond strength. The regeneration ability of artificial self-healing polymeric materials not only shows use in material sciences, engineering but also exhibits a wide range of applications in site-specific drug delivery, skin grafting, implantation, dentistry and bone and tissue regeneration to restore injured surfaces with better biocompatibility, healing efficiency and higher tensile strength to serve as a next-generation material for amplifying the use in biomedical field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2021.112099DOI Listing
June 2021

Magnetic-core-based silibinin nanopolymeric carriers for the treatment of renal cell cancer.

Life Sci 2021 Jun 20;275:119377. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Shobhaben Pratapbhai Patel School of Pharmacy and Technology Management, SVKM's NMIMS, V. L. Mehta Road, Vile Parle (W), Mumbai, India. Electronic address:

Aims: Silibinin offers potential anticancer effect with less aqueous solubility and high permeability. The present study aimed to develop biocompatible magnetic-core-based nanopolymeric carriers of poly (D, l-lactide-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) encapsulated silibinin for the sustained release action on renal cancerous cell.

Main Methods: The synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared by precipitation method via encapsulation of silibinin in PLGA network using double emulsion method. The nanoparticle formulations were characterized for morphological, physicochemical properties (HRTEM, FTIR, Raman Spectroscopy and VSM), in vitro drug release and cytotoxicity study on kidney cancer cells (A-498). The safety of magnetic-core-based silibinin nanopolymeric carriers was conducted by i.v. administration at a dose of 50 mg/kg in mice.

Key Findings: The mean particle size, zeta potential and % encapsulation efficiency of magnetic-core-based silibinin nanopolymeric carriers were found to be 285.9 ± 0.28 nm, -14.71 ± 0.15 mV and 84.76 ± 1.29%, respectively. The saturation magnetization of magnetic core and optimized nanoparticles were reported as 36.35 emu/g and 12.78 emu/g, respectively. HRTEM analyses revealed the spherical shapes of the particles with uniform size distribution. The in vitro release profile of silibinin from the nanoparticles exhibited a sustained delivery for 15 days and displayed better cytotoxicity against human kidney cancer cells (A-498) than silibinin. In vivo study showed the safety of magnetic-core-based silibinin nanopolymeric carriers in mice.

Significance: The magnetic-core-based silibinin nanopolymeric carriers will act as a potential carrier for targeted transportation of actives in cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119377DOI Listing
June 2021

Role of lipid nanocarriers for enhancing oral absorption and bioavailability of insulin and GLP-1 receptor agonists.

J Drug Target 2021 09 10;29(8):834-847. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Shobhaben Pratapbhai Patel School of Pharmacy and Technology Management, SVKM'S NMIMS, Mumbai, India.

Growing demand for insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA) is observed, considering the progressive nature of diabetes and the potential therapeutic role of peptides in its treatment. However, chronic parenteral administration is responsible for pain and rashes at the site of injection. Oral delivery of insulin and GLP-1 RA promises better patient compliance owing to their ease of administration and reduction in chances of peripheral hypoglycaemia and weight gain. The review article discusses the potential of lipid carriers in combination with different strategies such as absorption enhancers, PEGylation, lipidisation, etc. The lipid nanocarriers improve the membrane permeability and oral bioavailability of high molecular weight peptides. Additionally, the clinical status of different nanocarriers for anti-diabetic peptides is discussed. Previous research on nanocarriers showed significant hypoglycaemic activity and safety in animal studies; however, extrapolation of the same in human subjects is not validated. With the rising global burden of diabetes, the lipid nanocarriers show the potential to revolutionise treatment with oral delivery of insulin and GLP-1 RA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1061186X.2021.1894434DOI Listing
September 2021

Integration of Internet of Things with Quantum Dots: A State-of-the-art of Medicine.

Curr Pharm Des 2021 ;27(17):2068-2075

Shobhaben Pratapbhai Patel School of Pharmacy and Technology Management, SVKM'S NMIMS, Vile Parle (W), Mumbai, India.

Internet of Things (IoT) emerges as disruptive innovation and development in the fields of drug delivery and biomedical sciences using on-target active transportation, sensors, wearable devices, real-time diagnostics, etc. Semiconducting fluorescence emitting material, quantum dots on integration with IoT displayed interesting results in the healthcare sector, especially in hospitals and pathological laboratories. Presently, the integrated system is used to improve productivity without the interference of human and offer a cost-effective system. This integrated system can be used for the detection of various diseases like epilepsy, cancer, diabetes, etc., and various biomedical applications like energy storage, lights, sensor technology, light filters, etc. The integrated technology is implemented into the field of medicine for simplifying the approaches in therapeutics and diagnostic applications. The collected and analyzed data are further useful for healthcare professionals to find patient-centric solutions. Artificial Intelligence-aided IoT emerges as a novel technology for transmitting and securing health data. Despite some of the limitations like e-waste and the risk of hacking, an IoT-based QD system will be considered as a modern healthcare provider with life-saving products for enriching the medical quality and real-time accessibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1381612827666210222113740DOI Listing
August 2021

Carbohydrate-based magnetic nanocomposites for effective cancer treatment.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Apr 8;175:281-293. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Shobhaben Pratapbhai Patel School of Pharmacy and Technology Management, SVKM'S NMIMS, V. L. Mehta Road, Vile Parle (W), Mumbai, India.

The treatment of cancer includes several conventional therapies like surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, etc. but mostly associated with limitations like off-targeted action, fatigue and organ toxicity. The emergence of nanotechnology-enabled drug delivery systems shows revolutionary development to overcome the limitations of such therapies. Magnetic nanocomposites are the new area of research that consists of nanoscale magnetic materials for triggering the release of active in response to an external magnetic field. For targeted drug delivery and enhancing the biocompatibility, effective functionalization of magnetic nanocomposites is required. Therefore, several biological molecules like carbohydrate polymers, proteins, nucleic acids, antibodies, etc. are used. This review article focuses on the insights of advances in the development of carbohydrate-based magnetic nanocomposites for safe and effective cancer treatment. Carbohydrate-based magnetic nanocomposites offer significant advantages like greater stability, higher biocompatibility and lower toxicity with better physicochemical properties such as higher magnetic moments and anisotropy, larger heating properties, etc. Magnetic nanocomposites explore in almost all the areas of cancer therapeutics for drug delivery carrier, as antineoplastic and MRI contrast agents and in photothermal, photodynamic and in combinational therapies for the development of safer nanocarriers. Such progressive trend of carbohydrate-based magnetic nanocomposites will encourage the researchers for better site-specific delivery with higher safety profile in cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.02.044DOI Listing
April 2021

Graphene nanoribbons: A state-of-the-art in health care.

Int J Pharm 2021 Feb 21;595:120269. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Shobaben Pratapbhai Patel School of Pharmacy and Technology Management, SVKM'S NMIMS, V. L. Mehta Road, Vile Parle (W), Mumbai, India.

Graphene nanoribbons are thin strips of single sheet graphene used in diagnoses and treatments of cancer, inflammation and Alzheimer's disease and considered as a good nanocarrier in gene, photo-thermal, anti-microbial therapies, etc. This review article focuses on the overview of bio-conjugation and molecular interaction of graphene nanoribbons with different biomolecules present in body like enzymes and peptides. The use of graphene nanoribbons as biosensor, artificial receptor and cellular device extends their applications in theranostic and drug delivery. The relationship between graphene and biological molecules like RNA, DNA, etc. using molecular dynamics related to the electronic properties are discussed for site-specific action. The biodegradation and use of graphene nanoribbons in safe concentration are important aspects for the prevention of toxicity in living cells and body environment. Graphene nanoribbons display various applications in bio-imaging, green chemistry and material sciences due to electro-mechanical properties such as higher surface area, greater loading capacity, elevated thermal capacity, etc. The functionalized graphene nanoribbons demonstrated better adsorption and adhesive binding properties to mammalian cells which make them ideal bio-carrier for gene transfection and nucleic acid delivery. Further, research and development of graphene nanoribbons for novel drug delivery is currently necessary to overcome barriers like environmental toxicity and extensive cost.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2021.120269DOI Listing
February 2021

3D Printed Bioconstructs: Regenerative Modulation for Genetic Expression.

Stem Cell Rev Rep 2021 08 16;17(4):1239-1250. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

Shobhaben Pratapbhai Patel School of Pharmacy and Technology Management, SVKM'S NMIMS, V. L. Mehta Road, Vile Parle (W), Mumbai, India.

Layer-by-layer deposition of cells, tissues and similar molecules provided by additive manufacturing techniques such as 3D bioprinting offers safe, biocompatible, effective and inert methods for the production of biological structures and biomimetic scaffolds. 3D bioprinting assisted through computer programmes and software develops mutli-modal nano- or micro-particulate systems such as biosensors, dosage forms or delivery systems and other biological scaffolds like pharmaceutical implants, prosthetics, etc. This review article focuses on the implementation of 3D bioprinting techniques in the gene expression, in gene editing or therapy and in delivery of genes. The applications of 3D printing are extensive and include gene therapy, modulation and expression in cancers, tissue engineering, osteogenesis, skin and vascular regeneration. Inclusion of nanotechnology with genomic bioprinting parameters such as gene conjugated or gene encapsulated 3D printed nanostructures may offer new avenues in the future for efficient and controlled treatment and help in overcoming the limitations faced in conventional methods. Moreover, expansion of the benefits from such techniques is advantageous in real-time delivery or in-situ production of nucleic acids into the host cells. Aspects of 3D bioprinting in gene delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12015-021-10120-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7811392PMC
August 2021
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