Publications by authors named "Praveen Kumar"

1,025 Publications

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Change in Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology-II Measurements for Prediction of Mortality in Severely Septic Preterm Neonates.

Indian J Pediatr 2022 Jun 25. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, 160012, India.

Objective: To study the discriminatory ability of the change (delta) in the Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology-II (SNAP-II) for 14-d mortality in preterm neonates with severe sepsis.

Methods: Consecutively born neonates of < 34-wk gestation during the 1-y study period in a tertiary care neonatal unit were included. SNAP-II was recorded at the onset of severe sepsis (T0) and serially at 24 (T1), 48 (T2), and 72 (T3) h. Delta scores (Δ SNAP-II) were derived from the difference between the SNAP-II at baseline and each one of the subsequent time points.

Results: Seventy-one preterm neonates were enrolled. Baseline characteristics were similar in survivors (n = 53) and nonsurvivors (n = 18). Median SNAP-II at all the four time points were significantly higher in nonsurvivors (p < 0.001). Delta SNAP-II (T0-T2) was significantly different between nonsurvivors and survivors (mean difference: -14.7; 95% CI: -29, -0.9; p = 0.02), while the difference was not significant between T0-T1 and T0-T3. Initial SNAP-II had a significantly better discriminating ability than Δ SNAP-II at various time points (AUC, 95% CI: 0.59, 0.41-0.75 for T0-T1; 0.70, 0.50-0.87 for T0-T2; and 0.64; 0.38-0.89 for T0-T3).

Conclusions: Delta SNAP-II does not have a better discriminatory ability for mortality by 14 d in preterm neonates with severe sepsis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12098-022-04190-4DOI Listing
June 2022

Current Understanding of Transfusion-associated Necrotizing Enterocolitis: Review of Clinical and Experimental Studies and a Call for More Definitive Evidence.

Newborn (Clarksville) 2022 Jan-Mar;1(1):201-208. Epub 2022 Mar 31.

Global Newborn Society, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America.

Introduction: The association between red blood cell (RBC) transfusions and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), so-called transfusion-associated NEC (ta-NEC), was first described in 1987. However, further work is needed to confirm a causal relationship, elucidate underlying mechanisms, and develop possible strategies for prevention. We performed an extensive literature search in the databases PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus.

Areas Covered: Although multiple retrospective human studies have strongly suggested an association between blood transfusions and subsequent occurrence of NEC, meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) testing RBC transfusion thresholds or the use of recombinant erythropoiesis-stimulating growth factors did not confirm an association of anemia with ta-NEC. These conflicting data necessitated the development of an animal model to elucidate mechanisms and causal factors. Data from this recent mouse model of ta-NEC highlighted the importance of sequential exposure to severe anemia followed by transfusion for development of ta-NEC.

Expert Opinion: This review summarizes current human and experimental data, highlights open questions, and suggests avenues for further research aimed at preventing ta-NEC in preterm infants. Further studies are required to delineate whether there is a tipping point, in terms of the level and duration of anemia, and to develop an effective strategy for blood management and the quality of RBC transfusions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5005/jp-journals-11002-0005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9217573PMC
March 2022

Association between anthropometric criteria and body composition among children aged 6-59 months with severe acute malnutrition: a cross-sectional assessment from India.

BMC Nutr 2022 Jun 23;8(1):56. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

UNICEF India Country Office, 73, Lodi Estate, New Delhi, 110003, India.

A multicentric study is being conducted in which children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) aged 6-59 months are identified with only weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) < - 3 criteria. The present study aimed to assess associations of anthropometric parameters and body composition parameters, to improve treatment of SAM. We conducted a cross-section assessment using the enrolment data of children who participated in a multi-centric longitudinal controlled study from five Indian states. Fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) were determined by bio-electrical impedance analysis (BIA). Six hundred fifty-nine children were enrolled in the study using WHZ < -3 criteria. Available data shows that WHZ, WAZ and BMIZ were significantly associated with FFMI while MUACZ was significantly associated with both FMI and FFMI. Children with both severe wasting and severe stunting had significantly lower FFMI compared to those who were only severely wasted. All forms of anthropometric deficits appear to adversely impact FFM and FM.Trial registrationThe study is registered with Clinical Trial Registration of India (Registration No.: CTRI/2020/09/028013 dated 24/09/2020).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40795-022-00551-6DOI Listing
June 2022

Detection of IEMs by Mass Spectrometry Techniques in High-Risk Children: A Pilot Study.

Indian J Pediatr 2022 Jun 17. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Pediatric Biochemistry Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, 160012, India.

Objectives: To determine the incidence and types of inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) in high-risk children using mass spectrometry techniques.

Methods: Children considered high-risk for IEM were screened for metabolic diseases during a 3-y period. Dried blood spots and urine samples were analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GCMS). Samples with abnormal amino acids were confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

Results: Eight hundred and twenty-two suspected cases were evaluated; of which, 87 possible cases of IEMs were identified. Homocystinuria (n = 51) was the most common IEM detected followed by biotinidase deficiency (n = 7), glutaric aciduria type 1 (n = 7), and carnitine uptake defect (n = 6). Overall, there were 45 (51.7%) cases of organic acidemia, 31 cases (35.6%) of amino acid defect, 9 (10.3%) cases of fatty-acid oxidation disorders, and 2 (2.3%) cases of probable mitochondrial disorder.

Conclusion: IEMs are common in India, with a hospital-based incidence of 1 in approximately 6642 among high-risk children. Screening of high-risk children by mass spectrometry techniques is a valuable strategy for early diagnosis of IEMs where universal newborn screening is not yet available.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12098-022-04207-yDOI Listing
June 2022

Clinical characteristics & outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infected neonates presenting to paediatric emergency.

Indian J Med Res 2022 Jun 16. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Department of Hospital Administration, School of Public Health, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh, India.

Background & Objectives: Data on neonatal COVID-19 are limited to the immediate postnatal period, with a primary focus on vertical transmission in inborn infants. This study was aimed to assess the characteristics and outcome of COVID-19 in outborn neonates.

Methods: All neonates admitted to the paediatric emergency from August 1 to December 31, 2020, were included in the study. SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription- (RT)-PCR test was done on oro/nasopharyngeal specimens obtained at admission. The clinical characteristics and outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 positive and negative neonates were compared and the diagnostic accuracy of a selective testing policy was assessed.

Results: A total of 1225 neonates were admitted during the study period, of whom SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR was performed in 969. The RT-PCR test was positive in 17 (1.8%). Mean (standard deviation) gestation and birth weight of SARS-CoV-2-infected neonates were 35.5 (3.2) wk and 2274 (695) g, respectively. Most neonates (11/17) with confirmed COVID-19 reported in the first two weeks of life. Respiratory distress (14/17) was the predominant manifestation. Five (5/17, 29.4%) SARS-CoV-2 infected neonates died. Neonates with COVID-19 were at a higher risk for all-cause mortality [odds ratio (OR): 3.1; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1-8.9, P=0.03]; however, mortality did not differ after adjusting for lethal malformation (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 0.7-8.7). Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative likelihood ratios (95% CI) of selective testing policy for SARS-CoV-2 infection at admission was 52.9 (28.5-76.1), 83.3 (80.7-85.6), 82.8 (80.3-85.1), 3.17 (1.98-5.07), and 0.56 (0.34-0.93) per cent, respectively.

Interpretation & Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 positivity rate among the outborn neonates reporting to the paediatric emergency and tested for COVID-19 was observed to be low. The selective testing policy had poor diagnostic accuracy in distinguishing COVID-19 from non-COVID illness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_461_21DOI Listing
June 2022

CODEs with Hypogammaglobinemia Associated with WNT2B Heterozygous Mutation in an Infant.

Indian J Pediatr 2022 Jun 15. Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Department of Pediatrics, Lady Hardinge Medical College and associated Kalawati Saran Children Hospital, New Delhi, 110001, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12098-022-04251-8DOI Listing
June 2022

Effect of Mask on Doctor-Patient Relationship during COVID-19: Indian Perspective.

Ann Indian Acad Neurol 2022 Mar-Apr;25(2):270-271. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Department of Neurology, Institute of Neurosciences Kolkata, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/aian.aian_504_21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9175435PMC
October 2021

Future refrigerants with low global warming potential for residential air conditioning system: a thermodynamic analysis and MCDM tool optimization.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 Jun 11. Epub 2022 Jun 11.

CO2 Research and Green Technologies Centre, School of Mechanical Engineering, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, India.

Increasing CO emission due to the practicing of high global warming potential (GWP) refrigerant like R22 in split air conditioning (AC) units needs the best substitute to match with environment and safety protocols along with good energy efficiency. In this study, 14 alternative refrigerants have been chosen to replace R22 in a 1.5 TR capacity of split AC from the existing studies. The performance of each refrigerant has been analysed thermodynamically and compared their results with R22 by accounting for discharge temperature, power consumption, coefficient of performance (COP), total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) index, and life-time cost. Overall from this theoretical analysis, it was observed that the best refrigerant for each considered measure is not unique; for example, R290 was best in terms of refrigerant charge and discharge pressure, while R444B was chosen to be superior in terms of COP, TEWI, and life-time cost. Therefore, a multi-criteria decision-making methodology tool-based optimization has been carried out for selecting a single superior refrigerant for the future by considering thermal properties, COP, TEWI, and life-time cost. Results of the evaluation based on the distance from average solution envisage R290 and R1123 as superior and worst choices to replace R22.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-21263-1DOI Listing
June 2022

Recent Development of Morphology-Controlled Hybrid Nanomaterials for Triboelectric Nanogenerator: A Review.

Chem Rec 2022 Jun 10:e202200067. Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Indore, Simrol, Khandwa Road, Indore 453552, India.

Being cognizant of modern electronic devices, the scientists are continuing to investigate renewable green-energy resources for a decade. Amid different energy harvesting systems, the triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) have been found to be the most promising mechanical harvesting technology and have drawn attention to generate electrical energy. Thanks to its instant output power, choice to opt for wide-ranging materials, low maintenance cost, easy fabrication process and environmentally friendly nature. Due to numerous working modes of TENGs, it is dedicated to desired application at ambient conditions. In this review, an advance correlation of TENGs have been explained based on the variety of nanostructures, including 0D, 1D, 2D, 3D, metal organic frameworks (MOFs), coordination polymers (CPs), covalent organic frameworks (COFs), and perovskite materials. Moreover, an overview of previous and current perspectives of various nanomaterials, synthesis, fabrication and their applications in potential fields have been discussed in detail.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tcr.202200067DOI Listing
June 2022

The spectrum of ABO haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn in neonates born to group O mothers.

Vox Sang 2022 Jun 6. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Department of Transfusion Medicine, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India.

Background And Objectives: ABO haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) is a lesser recognized entity; however, the severity may vary in neonates. This prospective observational study was performed to determine the severity and risk of ABO-HDFN in neonates born to O group mothers.

Materials And Methods: A total of 260 neonates born to non-alloimmunized blood group O mothers were recruited. Blood group O neonates were excluded from the study. Neonatal direct antiglobulin test (DAT) was performed using the column agglutination technique. They were monitored for clinical and laboratory parameters and followed up at 6-8 weeks. The maternal anti-A and anti-B titres (IgM and IgG) were also done.

Results: A total of 176 neonates with blood group A (77/260; 29.6%) and B (99/260; 38.1%) were finally included in the study, and 15 (8.5%) of them were DAT positive. Overall, 26.7% (47/176) neonates received phototherapy, 172 (97.7%) survived and none required readmission. The median (inter-quartile range [IQR]) maternal IgG anti-B titre (32 [32-64]) was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than the IgG anti-A titre (16 [8-64]). The maximum total serum bilirubin in neonates had a significant positive association with neonatal birth weight (p = 0.045), positive DAT (p = 0.006) and requirement of phototherapy (p < 0.001). The relative risk (95% CI) of a DAT-positive neonate requiring phototherapy was 4.55 (3.12-6.33).

Conclusion: The frequency of ABO incompatibility in neonates born to group O mothers was 67.69% (176/260). The maternal IgG titre of ≥64 could be a good predictor for identifying the neonates at risk of developing hyperbilirubinaemia requiring phototherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vox.13327DOI Listing
June 2022

A prospective observational study to compare transfusion outcomes in ABO identical versus ABO non-identical single donor platelet concentrates: An experience from a tertiary healthcare center in India.

Transfus Clin Biol 2022 Jun 3. Epub 2022 Jun 3.

Transfusion Medicine & Blood centre, Jaypee Hospital, Noida, Delhi NCR, India.

ABO incompatible single donor platelet concentrates (SDPC) have a concern about unsatisfactory increments as well as possibility of hemolytic transfusion reaction. But from Indian population no study has commented on the clinical and laboratory outcome of ABO mismatched platelet transfusion. The aim of study was to compare transfusion outcomes in ABO identical versus ABO non-identical single donor platelet concentrates. In this prospective observational study, 400 SDPC transfusions among different patients were included. In group A (n=200), ABO identical SDPC transfusions and in group B (n=200) ABO non-identical SDPC transfusions were added. Corrective count increment (CCI), absolute count increment (ACI), percent platelet recovery (PPR) were calculated and incidents of hemolytic transfusion reactions were noted. In group A mean±SD of ACI, CCI and PPR were as 30.78±12.51, 15.10±6.677, 39,948.9±20,099.392. In group B, mean±SD of ACI, CCI and PPR were - 25.4±15.65, 12.509±5.906, 33,559.2±22,150.304. And when CCI, ACI, PPR were compared with group A and group B, statistically significant differences were noted (P<0.05). There was statistically significant difference in CCI, ACI and PPR in oncology patients and other prophylactic recipients except patients with dengue and other infectious disease. But there was no hemolytic transfusion reaction noted in any group. Our study clearly establish the potential benefits of ABO-identical PLT transfusion. It also points out that in emergency conditions or when there is a paucity in inventory, ABO non-identical SDPC transfusion may be lifesaving and clinically significant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tracli.2022.05.001DOI Listing
June 2022

(De)Lithiation and Strain Mechanism in Crystalline Ge Nanoparticles.

ACS Nano 2022 May 25. Epub 2022 May 25.

University Grenoble Alpes, CEA, IRIG, MEM, F-38054 Grenoble, France.

Germanium is a promising active material for high energy density anodes in Li-ion batteries thanks to its good Li-ion conduction and mechanical properties. However, a deep understanding of the (de)lithiation mechanism of Ge requires advanced characterizations to correlate structural and chemical evolution during charge and discharge. Here we report a combined X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Li solid-state NMR investigation performed on crystalline germanium nanoparticles (c-Ge Nps) based anodes during partial and complete cycling at C/10 Li metal. High-resolution XRD data, acquired along three successive partial cycles, revealed the formation process of crystalline core-amorphous shell particles and their associated strain behavior, demonstrating the reversibility of the c-Ge lattice strain, unlike what is observed in the crystalline silicon nanoparticles. Moreover, the crystalline and amorphous lithiated phases formed during a complete lithiation cycle are identified. Amorphous LiGe and LiGe are formed successively, followed by the appearance of crystalline LiGe (c-LiGe) at the end of lithiation. These results highlight the enhanced mechanical properties of germanium compared to silicon, which can mitigate pulverization and increase structural stability, in the perspective for developing high-performance anodes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.2c03839DOI Listing
May 2022

Novel concentration master curve and rheological characterization of recycled asphalt binders.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

Transportation Engineering Group, Civil Engineering Department, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee, Uttarakhand, 247667, India.

The recycling of asphalt pavements requires a good understanding of the material's characteristics. However, the rheological behavior of recycled binder is still not well understood. In this study, a novel method is introduced to construct the master curve of the recycled binders. The concentration of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) binder is used to find the shift factors of the master curve. This master curve is called the concentration master curve (CMC). To verify the applicability of the concept, the CMC was plotted for three different RAP sources procured from two states and the capital of India. The percentage of RAP binder content in the recycled binders was varied (0, 15, 25, 40, 65, 80, and 100%) by weight of the total binder. In all three cases, smooth master curves were obtained. To calculate the allowable RAP, an alternative approach based on the damping energy area (DEA) of recycled binders was proposed. It was found that the allowable RAP content based on the DEA criteria was 40-50% less compared to the conventional high PG temperature (PGH) criterion. An attempt is made to understand the rheological interaction between the RAP binder and RA using the recycled binder compatibility index (RBCI). It was observed that the RAP source is the determining factor behind the compatibility and interaction level between the RAP binder and RA in a recycled binder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-20478-6DOI Listing
May 2022

The association between the retail price of manufactured cigarettes and bidis on current smoking status in India.

Tob Induc Dis 2022 6;20:43. Epub 2022 May 6.

Department of Health Sciences, University of York, York, United Kingdom.

Introduction: In India, the retail prices of bidis and cigarettes varied between the two Global Adult Tobacco Surveys (GATS) conducted in 2009-2010 and 2016-2017. The relationship between the retail price of smoked tobacco products and their use is unclear for India. Our study thus aimed to use available datasets to investigate the association between the retail price and current smoking status of bidis and cigarettes in India.

Methods: Current smoking status data for bidis and cigarettes were obtained from the two GATS rounds. The average state-level retail prices of bidis and cigarettes were obtained from India's Consumer Price Index- Industrial Workers database. Descriptive statistics were used to describe current smoking status patterns. Generalized Linear Mixed Models were used to investigate the association between the retail prices and current smoking status of bidis and cigarettes.

Results: For cigarettes, an increase in the average retail price by one Indian Rupee was associated with a reduction in the odds of being a current smoker of 7% (OR=0.925; 95% CI: 0.918-0.932, p<0.001). For bidis, the association between the retail price and current smoking status was not statistically significant (OR=1.01; 95% CI: 1.00-1.02, p=0.082).

Conclusions: Current increases in the retail prices of tobacco products in India seem to have an impact on the use of cigarettes but not bidis. This highlights the need for tobacco product tax increases that result in sufficient retail prices increase to make all tobacco products less affordable and reduce their use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18332/tid/146904DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9074849PMC
May 2022

Strengthening tobacco control policies during the COVID-19 pandemic in India.

Clin Epidemiol Glob Health 2022 May-Jun;15:101057. Epub 2022 May 11.

UNICEF Field office, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

Problem Considered: The aim of this paper was to support policy makers to make informed decisions regarding public health response in general, and tobacco control interventions particularly, in the context of COVID-19.

Methods: An online cross-sectional survey using a semi-structured questionnaire was conducted in the year 2020 with stakeholders in tobacco control and public health experts from private and government organizations. Information pertaining to background characteristics of study participants and impact of pandemic on tobacco use and means to leverage tobacco control policy was collected. Data was analysed using Microsoft excel 2010 and results are presented as frequencies and percentages along with key responses from open ended questions.

Results: A total of 72 stakeholders were approached out of which, 46 (56.1%) responded and were included. About 32 (74.4%) of the participants thought that public health authorities had given advice on stopping tobacco use during COVID-19 pandemic. About 19 (43.2%) participants did not notice any change in level of interest in tobacco cessation during the pandemic while a majority 34(73.8%) agreed that COVID-19 pandemic had an impact on health seeking behaviour of patients with non-communicable diseases. Nearly half of participants, 21(48.8%) opined that tobacco industry was engaged in corporate social responsibilities during COVID-19.

Conclusion: The stakeholders expressed that there is a good opportunity to further strengthen tobacco control activities during COVID-19 pandemic and also emphasized need to closely monitor tobacco industry interference during this time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cegh.2022.101057DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9093079PMC
May 2022

Hand Hygiene Compliance in Pediatric Emergency of a Lower-Middle Income Country: A Quality Improvement Study.

Front Pediatr 2022 29;10:869462. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Department of Pediatrics, Advanced Pediatric Centre, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India.

Background: Prospective data on hand hygiene compliance in pediatric emergency department (PED) settings is limited. We studied the impact of quality improvement measures on the overall and health care personnel wise hand hygiene compliance rates in a busy PED.

Methods: The baseline hand hygiene compliance rates were audited from May-July 2018. The quality improvement interventions included various structural changes to the environment, administrative changes, education and training. During the interventions, auditing was continued for 2 months (August - September 2018). Statistical Process control charts were created.

Results: We observed a significant increase in overall compliance rates from 31.8 to 53.9% ( < 0.001). These improvements were observed in the children (29.6 to 46.4%, < 0.001) as well as neonatal area (35.7% to 59.7, < 0.001) of PED as well as amongst various health care personnel and in four out of the five moments of hand hygiene.

Conclusion: Hand hygiene compliance improved significantly in a busy PED of a lower middle-income country following quality improvement interventions. Such improvement was observed amongst all categories of health care personnel and different types of hand hygiene opportunities. This study demonstrates the feasibility and efficacy of simple quality improvement interventions in a challenging hospital environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2022.869462DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9099088PMC
April 2022

Nanotechnology Toolkit for Combating COVID-19 and Beyond.

ChemNanoMat 2022 Apr 10;8(4):e202100505. Epub 2022 Mar 10.

School of Basic Sciences Indian Institute of Technology Mandi Kamand Mandi Himachal Pradesh 175075 India.

The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 is unlikely to be contained anytime soon with conventional medical technology. This beckons an urgent demand for novel and innovative interventions in clinical protocols, diagnostics, and therapeutics; to manage the current "disease X" and to be poised to counter its successor of like nature if one were to ever arise. To meet such a demand requires more attention to research on the viral-host interactions and on developing expeditious solutions, the kinds of which seem to spring from promising domains such as nanotechnology. Inducing activity at scales comparable to the viruses themselves, nanotechnology-based preventive measures, diagnostic tools and therapeutics for COVID-19 have been rapidly growing during the pandemic. This review covers the recent and promising nanomedicine-based solutions relating to COVID-19 and how some of these are possibly applicable to a wider range of viruses and pathogens. We also discuss the type, composition, and utility of nanostructures which play various roles specifically under prevention, diagnosis, and therapy. Further, we have highlighted the adoption and commercialization of some the solutions by large and small corporations alike, as well as providing herewith an exhaustive list on nanovaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cnma.202100505DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9074423PMC
April 2022

Withania somnifera - a magic plant targeting multiple pathways in cancer related inflammation.

Phytomedicine 2022 Jul 2;101:154137. Epub 2022 May 2.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Ayurveda, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh 221005, India. Electronic address:

Background: Deregulated inflammatory responses are known to play a pivotal role in cancer initiation and progression. Tumor microenvironment is associated with the presence of a diverse array of inflammatory reactions, which further help tumor growth, metastasis and drug resistance. Withania somnifera is known to curb proliferation of cancer cells and lower inflammatory responses.

Purpose: In order to minimize the inflammation, cancer treatments often include immunomodulatory drugs. However, given the side effects of both of the cytotoxic cancer drugs and synthetic immunomodulatory agents, there is a need to develop novel anti-inflammatory agents for improved cancer therapy. A number of reports indicate that bioactive phytochemicals derived from W. somnifera exhibit anti-inflammatory capabilities in cancer. A deeper look into the underlying molecular mechanisms implicated in W. somnifera mediated anti inflammation is lacking, which is essential to fully understand the potential of this magical plant in cancer. Therefore, in the present review we are summarizing various reports, which describe mechanistic understanding of W. somnifera in cancer related inflammation.

Study Design And Methodology: In order to gather information on the molecular pathways affected by W. somnifera in cancer related inflammation, 'PubMed' and 'Science Direct' databases were searched using keywords Withania, cancer inflammation, and Withaferin A. Selected literature was analyzed to cover the role of inflammation in cancer, usage and side effects of anti-inflammatory drugs, W. somnifera as an immunomodulatory agent in cancer, molecular pathways modulated by W. somnifera in various preclinical models, and clinical trials using W. somnifera as an anti-inflammatory agent.

Results: Upon literature survey we found that both W. somnifera extracts and Withaferin-A, exhibit anti inflammatory activities in various preclinical cancer models. W. somnifera modulates a number of signaling pathways such as NF-kB, JAK-STAT and AP1 to reduce cancer related inflammation. Anti inflammatory properties of W. somnifera might be effective in the treatment of drug resistance in cancers. Based on its promising effects against cancer associated inflammation in preclinical studies, W. somnifera derived products are being tested in clinical trials.

Conclusion: Several preclinical studies demonstrated anti-inflammatory potential of W. somnifera in a variety of cancers. While a few clinical trials are investigating the role of W. somnifera in various diseases, focused studies on its role in cancer related inflammation are lacking. Additionally, its anti-inflammatory effects offer targeting of senescence associated secretory phenotype (SASP), which is speculated to play a critical role in chemoresistance. Apart from targeting cancer cell proliferation, anti-inflammatory effects of Withania provide double advantage in cancer management. Therefore, clinical trials to target cancer related inflammation using W. somnifera as a drug, should be performed to validate its advantages in cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2022.154137DOI Listing
July 2022

Gut microbial β-glucuronidases regulate host luminal proteases and are depleted in irritable bowel syndrome.

Nat Microbiol 2022 May 28;7(5):680-694. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Intestinal proteases mediate digestion and immune signalling, while increased gut proteolytic activity disrupts the intestinal barrier and generates visceral hypersensitivity, which is common in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, the mechanisms controlling protease function are unclear. Here we show that members of the gut microbiota suppress intestinal proteolytic activity through production of unconjugated bilirubin. This occurs via microbial β-glucuronidase-mediated conversion of bilirubin conjugates. Metagenomic analysis of faecal samples from patients with post-infection IBS (n = 52) revealed an altered gut microbiota composition, in particular a reduction in Alistipes taxa, and high gut proteolytic activity driven by specific host serine proteases compared with controls. Germ-free mice showed 10-fold higher proteolytic activity compared with conventional mice. Colonization with microbiota samples from high proteolytic activity IBS patients failed to suppress proteolytic activity in germ-free mice, but suppression of proteolytic activity was achieved with colonization using microbiota from healthy donors. High proteolytic activity mice had higher intestinal permeability, a higher relative abundance of Bacteroides and a reduction in Alistipes taxa compared with low proteolytic activity mice. High proteolytic activity IBS patients had lower fecal β-glucuronidase activity and end-products of bilirubin deconjugation. Mice treated with unconjugated bilirubin and β-glucuronidase-overexpressing E. coli significantly reduced proteolytic activity, while inhibitors of microbial β-glucuronidases increased proteolytic activity. Together, these data define a disease-relevant mechanism of host-microbial interaction that maintains protease homoeostasis in the gut.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41564-022-01103-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9081267PMC
May 2022

Novel Schiff base cobalt(ii) phthalocyanine with appliance of MWCNTs on GCE: enhanced electrocatalytic activity behaviour of α-amino acids.

RSC Adv 2021 Apr 6;11(27):16736-16746. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Studies and Research in Chemistry, Rani Channamma University Belagavi-591156 Karnataka India.

A novel tetra-4-{()-[(8-aminonaphthalen-1-yl)imino]methyl}-2-methoxyphenol Co(ii) phthalocyanine (CoTANImMMPPc) was synthesized using a precursor protocol and characterized electroanalytical and spectroscopic techniques. The FT-IR spectra of the synthesized compounds showed significant peaks corresponding to the functional groups of the precursors and phthalocyanine (Pc) compound. The mass and NMR spectra confirmed the formation of the target precursor compounds. A film of CoTANImMMPPc was deposited on the surface of an electrode and applied for the detection and monitoring of l-alanine and l-arginine. The cyclic voltammetric studies of l-alanine and l-arginine using the (CoTANImMMPPc/MWCNTs/GC) electrode showed a linear response in the range of 50-500 nM and the limit of detection was found to be 1.5 and 1.2 nM, respectively. Differential pulse voltammetry and chronoamperometry showed that the catalytic response for l-alanine and l-arginine is in the range of 50-500 nM with an LoD of 1.8 and 2.3 nM, respectively. The oxidation-active CoTANImMMPPc film significantly enhanced the current response in the chronoamperometric method and displayed a selective and sensitive response towards l-alanine and l-arginine in the presence of various other bio-molecules. The developed electrode showed good working stability and was applied for the analysis of real samples, which yielded satisfactory results. Therefore, CoTANImMMPPc-MWCNTs/GCE shows good analytical performance, is economical and produced a simple synthetic method and can be applied as a sensor for the detection of l-alanine and l-arginine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1ra01815aDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9032359PMC
April 2021

Amalgamation of diverse hydrodynamic effects with novel triple-sided membrane valves for developing a microfluidic device for filterless and continuous water purification.

RSC Adv 2021 Aug 25;11(46):28723-28734. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Department of Chemistry, University of Allahabad Allahabad 211002 India

The requirement for clean water has been increasing for several reasons, for instance, the fast industrialization of developing countries, climate change, environmental pollution, growth of biofuel use and the resulting growth in irrigation. To meet the requirements for contamination-free water, a cost-effective water treatment can substantially improve the developing world's health, largely for children, and there is predicted to be a huge market for this. Existing water treatment processes consist of various phases that are time-consuming as well as pricey. There is an essential demand for cost-effective point of use methods to purify drinking water to reduce the impact of diseases induced by numerous waterborne pathogens. The development of micro-devices, with different outcomes, can be a helpful solution to various problems. To make this reality, a novel microfluidic device for the purification of water, with multiple hydrodynamic effects, has been shown in this paper. In the proposed novel device, the network of interconnected microfluidic channels was created in such a way that an amalgamation of multiple effects, such as the Fåhræus effect, centrifugal force, the Zweifach-Fung effect and constriction followed by expansion, act together in the microchannel to separate suspended impurities ( bacteria and similar length scale particles present in water in the suspension form) from water. Furthermore, to improve the bacterial separation efficiency of the device, the pure water channel of the microdevice was designed with an encircled triple-sided film valve arrangement at a few points, which aided the modulation of the cross-sectional area of the pure water channel. Consecutively, the reduction of the cross-sectional area of the pure water channel caused a highly effective Zweifach-Fung effect, which aided the better separation of the suspended particles ( bacteria, dust particles ). The device was observed to have an average of 99.6% efficiency in the separation of suspended microparticles/microbes with dimensions in the range of 1-10 micrometres. The device performance indicated its potential for the separation of other similar suspended impurities, small dust particles, bacteria, fungi, viruses and similar particles present in water in the suspension form.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1ra04353fDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9038102PMC
August 2021

3D CoMoO nanoflake arrays decorated disposable pencil graphite electrode for selective and sensitive enzyme-less electrochemical glucose sensors.

Mikrochim Acta 2022 04 26;189(5):200. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Department of Physical Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, 625021, Tamil Nadu, India.

Three-dimensional (3D) cobalt molybdate (CoMoO) hierarchical nanoflake arrays on pencil graphite electrode (PGE) (CoMoO/PGE) are actualized via one-pot hydrothermal technique. The morphological features comprehend that the CoMoO nanoflake arrays expose the 3D, open, porous, and interconnected network architectures on PGE. The formation and growth mechanisms of CoMoO nanostructures on PGE are supported with different structural and morphological characterizations. The constructed CoMoO/PGE is operated as an electrocatalytic probe in enzyme-less electrochemical glucose sensor (ELEGS), confronting the impairments of cost- and time-obsessed conventional electrode polishing and catalyst amendment progressions and obliged the employment of a non-conducting binder. The wide-opened interior and exterior architectures of CoMoO nanoflake arrays escalate the glucose utilization efficacy, whilst the intertwined nanoflakes and graphitic carbon layers, respectively, of CoMoO and PGE articulate the continual electron mobility and catalytically active channels of CoMoO/PGE. It jointly escalates the ELEGS concerts of CoMoO/PGE including high sensitivity (1613 μA mM cm), wide linear glucose range (0.0003-10 mM), and low detection limit (0.12 µM) at a working potential of 0.65 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) together with the good recovery in human serum. Thus, the fabricated CoMoO/PGE extends exclusive virtues of modest electrode production, virtuous affinity, swift response, and excellent sensitivity and selectivity, exposing innovative prospects to reconnoitring the economically viable ELEGSs with binder-free, affordable cost, and expansible 3D electrocatalytic probes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00604-022-05270-0DOI Listing
April 2022

Regioselective Disulfide-Catalyzed Photocatalytic Oxidative Cleavage of 1-Arylbutadienes to Cinnamaldehydes.

Org Lett 2022 May 25;24(19):3435-3439. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076, Maharashtra, India.

This work discloses a simple, efficient, and environmentally benevolent disulfide-catalyzed photocatalytic regioselective oxidative cleavage of 1-arylbutadienes to cinnamaldehydes. This methodology illustrates mild reaction conditions, ambient temperature, excellent regioselectivity, and compatibility with wide range of functional groups (38 examples). The method gains significance, as few reports with limited substrate scope are available for such excellent photocatalytic oxidative cleavage of conjugated dienes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.2c00884DOI Listing
May 2022

Quantitative Proteogenomic Characterization of Inflamed Murine Colon Tissue Using an Integrated Discovery, Verification, and Validation Proteogenomic Workflow.

Proteomes 2022 Apr 14;10(2). Epub 2022 Apr 14.

Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.

Chronic inflammation of the colon causes genomic and/or transcriptomic events, which can lead to expression of non-canonical protein sequences contributing to oncogenesis. To better understand these mechanisms, mice were infected with to induce chronic inflammation of the cecum and the colon. Transcriptomic data from harvested proximal colon samples were used to generate a customized FASTA database containing non-canonical protein sequences. Using a proteogenomic approach, mass spectrometry data for proximal colon proteins were searched against this custom FASTA database using the Galaxy for Proteomics (Galaxy-P) platform. In addition to the increased abundance in inflammatory response proteins, we also discovered several non-canonical peptide sequences derived from unique proteoforms. We confirmed the veracity of these novel sequences using an automated bioinformatics verification workflow with targeted MS-based assays for peptide validation. Our bioinformatics discovery workflow identified 235 putative non-canonical peptide sequences, of which 58 were verified with high confidence and 39 were validated in targeted proteomics assays. This study provides insights into challenges faced when identifying non-canonical peptides using a proteogenomics approach and demonstrates an integrated workflow addressing these challenges. Our bioinformatic discovery and verification workflow is publicly available and accessible via the Galaxy platform and should be valuable in non-canonical peptide identification using proteogenomics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/proteomes10020011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9036229PMC
April 2022

Development and Validation of the RCOS Prognostic Index: A Bedside Multivariable Logistic Regression Model to Predict Hypoxaemia or Death in Patients with SARS-CoV-2 Infection.

Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis 2022 20;2022:2360478. Epub 2022 Apr 20.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Rural Development Trust Hospital, Bathalapalli, AP, India.

Introduction: Previous COVID-19 prognostic models have been developed in hospital settings and are not applicable to COVID-19 cases in the general population. There is an urgent need for prognostic scores aimed to identify patients at high risk of complications at the time of COVID-19 diagnosis.

Methods: The RDT COVID-19 Observational Study (RCOS) collected clinical data from patients with COVID-19 admitted regardless of the severity of their symptoms in a general hospital in India. We aimed to develop and validate a simple bedside prognostic score to predict the risk of hypoxaemia or death.

Results: 4035 patients were included in the development cohort and 2046 in the validation cohort. The primary outcome occurred in 961 (23.8%) and 548 (26.8%) patients in the development and validation cohorts, respectively. The final model included 12 variables: age, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, aspartate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, urea, C-reactive protein, sodium, lymphocyte count, neutrophil count, and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio. In the validation cohort, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROCC) was 0.907 (95% CI, 0.892-0.922), and the Brier Score was 0.098. The decision curve analysis showed good clinical utility in hypothetical scenarios where the admission of patients was decided according to the prognostic index. When the prognostic index was used to predict mortality in the validation cohort, the AUROCC was 0.947 (95% CI, 0.925-0.97) and the Brier score was 0.0188.

Conclusions: The RCOS prognostic index could help improve the decision making in the current COVID-19 pandemic, especially in resource-limited settings with poor healthcare infrastructure such as India. However, implementation in other settings is needed to cross-validate and verify our findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/2360478DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9020413PMC
April 2022

Spontaneous Formation of Structures with Micro- and Nano-Scopic Periodic Ripple Patterns.

ACS Omega 2022 Apr 3;7(14):12111-12119. Epub 2022 Apr 3.

Center for Nanoscience and Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, CV Raman Road, Bangalore 560012, India.

We report the first study on the formation of structures with micro- and nano-scopic periodic surface patterns created by the spontaneous flow of liquid metal over thin metallic solid films. Minute details of the flow of liquid gallium over gold are captured at very high magnifications using a scanning electron microscope, and a series of experiments and microstructural characterization are performed to understand the underlying principles of the liquid flow and the pattern formation. This phenomenon is solely driven by wetting, with little influence of gravity, and is aided by a tenacious semi-solidus envelope of the intermetallic compound formed due to the reaction between the liquid metal and the metallic substrate. This complex flow creates highly periodic patterns with features ranging from hundreds of nanometers to tens of micrometers, which can be tuned . We propose a model capturing the essential mechanics of the ripple formation and apply it to simulate the formation of a single ripple, along with its essential asymmetry, that forms the basis for generating the observed patterns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.2c00364DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9016874PMC
April 2022

A novel multi-modal depression detection approach based on mobile crowd sensing and task-based mechanisms.

Multimed Tools Appl 2022 Apr 11:1-34. Epub 2022 Apr 11.

Department of Applied Psychology, Central University of Tamil Nadu, Tamilnadu, India.

Depression has become a global concern, and COVID-19 also has caused a big surge in its incidence. Broadly, there are two primary methods of detecting depression: Task-based and Mobile Crowd Sensing (MCS) based methods. These two approaches, when integrated, can complement each other. This paper proposes a novel approach for depression detection that combines real-time MCS and task-based mechanisms. We aim to design an end-to-end machine learning pipeline, which involves multimodal data collection, feature extraction, feature selection, fusion, and classification to distinguish between depressed and non-depressed subjects. For this purpose, we created a real-world dataset of depressed and non-depressed subjects. We experimented with: various features from multi-modalities, feature selection techniques, fused features, and machine learning classifiers such as Logistic Regression, Support Vector Machines (SVM), etc. for classification. Our findings suggest that combining features from multiple modalities perform better than any single data modality, and the best classification accuracy is achieved when features from all three data modalities are fused. Feature selection method based on Pearson's correlation coefficients improved the accuracy in comparison with other methods. Also, SVM yielded the best accuracy of 86%. Our proposed approach was also applied on benchmarking dataset, and results demonstrated that the multimodal approach is advantageous in performance with state-of-the-art depression recognition techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11042-022-12315-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9000000PMC
April 2022

Enhanced photo-degradation of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP): Influence of matrix components, kinetic study and artificial neural network modelling.

J Hazard Mater 2022 07 31;434:128807. Epub 2022 Mar 31.

Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Ljubljana, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.

This study investigates the degradation of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) by UV-C and UV-C/PMS-treatment processes. The degradation of NMP was less than 2% by UV-C photolysis. To enhance the degradation, PMS was used as a source of sulphate (SO) and hydroxyl (HO) radicals in the UV-C photolysis treatment system. The operational parameters such as initial pH and concentration of NMP and PMS and water matrix elements were studied to understand their effects on degradation. At pH = 6.3, λ = 260 nm, initial concentration of NMP = 10 mg/L, PMS = 300 mg/L and carbonate ion = 150 mg/L, the degradation of NMP was found to be 97.5%, along with 26.86% of TOC removal. The bicarbonate ions, nitrate ions, and chloride ions showed the inhibitory effect on the degradation of NMP. The NMP degradation was governed by pseudo first order kinetics. SO was found to be the dominating degradation species through the radical quenching studies. The intermediates formed during the degradation were identified through LC-MS analysis, and a degradation pathway was proposed. The experimental data was successfully validated through the application of the developed ANN model. The R between expected and experimental outcomes was 0.97. The developed ANN model was successful in predicting the degradation of NMP in the given reaction conditions with the prediction accuracy of 90.91% and RMSE of 3.54.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2022.128807DOI Listing
July 2022

An Atypical Type of Monteggia Equivalent: A Case Report.

J Orthop Case Rep 2021 Oct;11(10):96-99

Department of Orthopaedics, MGM Medical college, Kamothe, Navi-Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Introduction: Management of Mmonteggia fractures has always been debatable; Nnumerous variants have been described in the literature since its first description in 1814. We report a new variant of classical Mmonteggia fracture in a 33-year-old male.

Case Presentation: A 33-year old male was brought to the emergency room with an alleged history of assault and was managed with an external wound. Antero-Pposterior and lateral radiographs showed segmental ulna fracture and radial head dislocation. The Ppatient was managed surgically with open reduction internal fixation with reconstruction plate for segmental ulna and closed reduction of radial head was attempted after achieving an anatomical reduction of the ulna. Close attention was paid to the early post-operative mobilization of the elbow joint with the help of a Hinged elbow brace and terminal functional outcome re re-evaluated at 6six months with a DASH score of 11 and MAYO score of 92.

Conclusion: We report a rare type 1 monteggia equivalent not described in the literature. Despite the variability of the monteggia equivalents, the principle of management remains the same. Early mobilization of the elbow is of utmost importance to avoid post-operative stiffness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13107/jocr.2021.v11.i10.2488DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8930309PMC
October 2021

Air pollution in five Indian megacities during the Christmas and New Year celebration amidst COVID-19 pandemic.

Stoch Environ Res Risk Assess 2022 Apr 2:1-31. Epub 2022 Apr 2.

Department of Civil Engineering, Karunya Institute of Science and Technology, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu India.

Urban air quality and COVID-19 have been considered significant issues worldwide in the last few years. The current study highlighted the variation in air pollutants (i.e., PM, PM, NO, and SO) profile between Christmas and new year celebrations in 2019, 2020, and 2021. It can be seen that the concentration of selected air pollutants shows a substantially higher concentration in celebration periods in all reported years. The results indicate that air pollutants values are always higher than permissible limits. This observation indicates that people gather and reunite during Christmas and new year celebrations than the preceding years (2020 and 2021) amidst the pandemic. In the pandemic year, a higher margin enhanced the transportation and firework-induced air pollutant load in urban city Jodhpur, Rajasthan. In all states, a significant tendency was observed to retain the concentration profile of air pollutants in baseline concentration for almost more than one week after the celebration. This study addresses the pandemic situation, but it also dealt with the air pollutant parameter that brings down the sustainable quality of the environment due to the high usage of private vehicles, and crackers. In addition, a study on COVID-19 (cases and death rate) indicates a clear picture of the increasing trend after the event in probably all states. Thus, this approach suggested that stringent law enforcement is needed to ameliorate gatherings/reunions and pollution levels due to such events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00477-022-02214-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8976463PMC
April 2022
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