Publications by authors named "Praveen Kumar"

884 Publications

F-18 ML-104 tau PET imaging in mild cognitive impairment.

Nucl Med Commun 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Nuclear Medicine Department of Neurology, CN Centre Department of Geriatrics, AIIMS, New Delhi, India.

Objective: This study was undertaken to evaluate the tau distribution patterns in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) using PET radiotracer F-18 ML-104.

Materials And Methods: Thirty patients, clinically diagnosed as aMCI [mini mental state evaluation ≥24] in the neurology or geriatric memory clinics, were included in the study. Each aMCI patient underwent F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose and F-18 ML-104 tau PET. Standardized uptake value ratios for cortical gray matter regions were evaluated for F-18 ML-104 tau PET and compared with normal controls and with early Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients (used from a previous study).

Results: aMCI revealed significantly higher standardized uptake value ratios in both medial temporal cortices, precuneus and posterior cingulate cortices in comparison to normal controls and a significantly lesser binding in bilateral medial and lateral temporal, precuneus and posterior cingulate cortices in comparison to early AD. A negative correlation was noted between F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose uptake and F-18 ML-104 retention in the precuneus and posterior cingulate cortices in aMCI, while F-18 ML-104 retention and mini mental state evaluation scores revealed a moderate negative correlation in the posterior cingulate cortices.

Conclusion: We could demonstrate a significant increase in cortical tau deposition in aMCI patients in comparison to normal controls, thus providing in vivo evidence of the underlying pathological process in this subgroup of patients with high probability of conversion to AD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MNM.0000000000001415DOI Listing
April 2021

COVID-19 pandemic and health-care disruptions: count the most vulnerable.

Lancet Glob Health 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Division of Neonatology, Advanced Paediatric Centre, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh 160012, India.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(21)00098-XDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8012027PMC
March 2021

Early CT in COVID-19: Should I or Should I Not?

Indian J Crit Care Med 2021 Mar;25(3):251-252

Department of Critical Care Institute, Cleveland Clinic Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.

Govil D, Kumar GP. Early CT in COVID-19: Should I or Should I Not? Indian J Crit Care Med 2021;25(3):251-252.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23772DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7991759PMC
March 2021

ROP screening and treatment in four district-level special newborn care units in India: a cross-sectional study of screening and treatment rates.

BMJ Paediatr Open 2021 10;5(1):e000930. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Pediatrics, PGIMER, Chandigarh, Chandigarh, India.

Objective: Blindness from retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in middle-income countries is generally due to absence of screening or inadequate screening. The objective of this study was to assess uptake of services in an ROP programme in four district-level special newborn care units in India.

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Setting: All four neonatal units of a state in India where model programme for ROP had been introduced.

Patients: Infants eligible for screening and treatment of ROP between March and May 2017.

Intervention: Data on sex, birth weight and gestational age of eligible infants were collected and medical records reviewed for follow-up.

Main Outcome Measures: Proportion of eligible infants screened and for those screened, age at first screening, completion of screening, diagnosis and treatment received if indicated. The characteristics of infants screened and not screened were compared.

Results: 137 (18%) of the 751 infants eligible for screening were screened at least once, with no statistically significant difference by sex. The mean birth weight and gestational age of those screened were significantly lower than those not screened. Among those screened, 43% underwent first screening later than recommended and 44% had incomplete follow-up. Fourteen infants (11% of those screened) were diagnosed with ROP. Five were advised laser treatment and all complied.

Conclusion: Uptake, completion and timing of first screening was suboptimal. Some planned interventions including training of nursing staff, use of integrated data-management software and providing material for parent counselling, which have been initiated, need to be fully implemented to improve uptake of ROP screening services.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjpo-2020-000930DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7949437PMC
March 2021

Intraoperative immunoadsorption in ABO-incompatible liver transplant patient.

Asian J Transfus Sci 2020 Jul-Dec;14(2):206-207. Epub 2020 Dec 19.

Department of Transfusion Medicine and Molecular Biology, Jaypee Hospital, Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ajts.AJTS_20_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7983146PMC
December 2020

Optimization of deficit irrigation and nitrogen fertilizer management for peanut production in an arid region.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 9;11(1):5456. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

ICAR- Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur, 342003, India.

Deficit irrigation (DI) has been emerging as an important technique for enhancing crop water productivity (WP). However, advantage of DI under varying nitrogen (N) application rates remains unclear. Field experiments were conducted during 2012-2014 to investigate the impacts of six irrigation levels[FI (full irrigation), DI, DI, DI, DI and DI, with irrigation amount of 100, 90, 80, 70, 60 and 50% of ETc, respectively) and four N application rates (N, N, N and N, with 0, 10, 20 and 30 kg N ha, respectively) on WP, yield, quality, and net economic return of peanut in hot arid region of India. We used Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method to obtain the optimal combination of irrigation and N rates. Both irrigation level and nitrogen dose had significant effects on yield and quality parameters examined in the study. Relative to FI, DI and DI significantly reduced yield (40.2-62.1%), economic benefit (70.8-118.5%), WP (8.2-33.0%), and kernel oil content (7.5-11.9%), but DI increased WP by 17.1% with only marginal reduction in economic benefit (2.6%), and yield (3.2%). Compared to N, the N had 1.7, 1.1, and 1.6-folds increased yield, oil content in the kernel, and WP, respectively. Among all treatments, DIN had the greatest yield and net return; DIN had greatest WP and oil content in the kernel. TOPSIS analysis showed that DIN was optimal in balancing of WP, yield, net return, and quality of peanut in northwestern arid India. The results have direct implications for improving irrigation water and N management for irrigated crops in arid regions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-82968-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7943784PMC
March 2021

The microcephaly gene Donson is essential for progenitors of cortical glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons.

PLoS Genet 2021 Mar 19;17(3):e1009441. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany.

Biallelic mutations in DONSON, an essential gene encoding for a replication fork protection factor, were linked to skeletal abnormalities and microcephaly. To better understand DONSON function in corticogenesis, we characterized Donson expression and consequences of conditional Donson deletion in the mouse telencephalon. Donson was widely expressed in the proliferation and differentiation zones of the embryonic dorsal and ventral telencephalon, which was followed by a postnatal expression decrease. Emx1-Cre-mediated Donson deletion in progenitors of cortical glutamatergic neurons caused extensive apoptosis in the early dorsomedial neuroepithelium, thus preventing formation of the neocortex and hippocampus. At the place of the missing lateral neocortex, these mutants exhibited a dorsal extension of an early-generated paleocortex. Targeting cortical neurons at the intermediate progenitor stage using Tbr2-Cre evoked no apparent malformations, whereas Nkx2.1-Cre-mediated Donson deletion in subpallial progenitors ablated 75% of Nkx2.1-derived cortical GABAergic neurons. Thus, the early telencephalic neuroepithelium depends critically on Donson function. Our findings help explain why the neocortex is most severely affected in individuals with DONSON mutations and suggest that DONSON-dependent microcephaly might be associated with so far unrecognized defects in cortical GABAergic neurons. Targeting Donson using an appropriate recombinase is proposed as a feasible strategy to ablate proliferating and nascent cells in experimental research.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1009441DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8011756PMC
March 2021

Reusable MoS-Modified Antibacterial Fabrics with Photothermal Disinfection Properties for Repurposing of Personal Protective Masks.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Mar 9;13(11):12912-12927. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

School of Basic Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Kamand, Mandi, Himachal Pradesh 175005, India.

The current pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has seen a widespread use of personal protective equipment, especially face masks. This has created the need to develop better and reusable protective masks with built-in antimicrobial, self-cleaning, and aerosol filtration properties to prevent the transmission of air-borne pathogens such as the coronaviruses. Herein, molybdenum disulfide (MoS) nanosheets are used to prepare modified polycotton fabrics having excellent antibacterial activity and photothermal properties. Upon sunlight irradiation, the nanosheet-modified fabrics rapidly increased the surface temperature to ∼77 °C, making them ideal for sunlight-mediated self-disinfection. Complete self-disinfection of the nanosheet-modified fabric was achieved within 3 min of irradiation, making the fabrics favorably reusable upon self-disinfection. The nanosheet-modified fabrics maintained the antibacterial efficiency even after 60 washing cycles. Furthermore, the particle filtration efficiency of three-layered surgical masks was found to be significantly improved through incorporation of the MoS-modified fabric as an additional layer of protective clothing, without compromising the breathability of the masks. The repurposed surgical masks could filter out around 97% of 200 nm particles and 96% of 100 nm particles, thus making them potentially useful for preventing the spread of coronaviruses (120 nm) by trapping them along with antibacterial protection against other airborne pathogens.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c00083DOI Listing
March 2021

Cell-Surface Biomarkers, C-Reactive Protein and Haematological Parameters for Diagnosing Late Onset Sepsis in Pre-term Neonates.

J Trop Pediatr 2021 Jan;67(1)

Department of Pediatrics, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India.

Objective: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of white blood cell-surface biomarkers (CD64, CD11b and HLA-DR), C-reactive protein (CRP) and hematological parameters to diagnose definite sepsis among pre-term neonates presenting with suspected late-onset neonatal sepsis (LONS).

Design: This was a prospective, single-gate, diagnostic study in a Level III neonatal unit. Fifty-three neonates (gestation, <34 weeks) with LONS (onset, >72  age), were enrolled. Cell-surface biomarkers, CRP and haematological parameters were assayed at 0 and 48 h after onset. The reference standard was definite sepsis, defined as a positive blood culture with a non-contaminant organism. The index tests (cell-surface biomarkers, CRP and haematological parameters) were compared between subjects with or without 'definite sepsis'. The area under the receiver operator characteristics curves (AUC) generated for each index test at 0 and 48 h was compared.

Setting: Level III neonatal unit in a tertiary care institute.

Results: Of 53 enrolled pre-term infants, 24 had definite sepsis. Among all the index tests evaluated, CRP at 48 h had the highest AUC [0.82 (95% confidence interval, 0.69, 0.92)]. The expression of CD11b and HLA-DR was significantly reduced among the septic neonates. Among the cell-surface biomarkers, the maximum AUC was recorded for HLA-DR at 48  [0.68 (95% CI, 0.54, 0.81)]. Comparisons between index tests were not statistically significant.

Conclusion: C-reactive protein is superior to other sepsis screen biomarkers and white blood cell-surface biomarkers in diagnosing culture-positive LONS among pre-term infants. CD64, CD11b and HLA DR as diagnostic tests in this group have limited discriminatory value.

Lay Summary: The diagnosis of neonatal blood stream infections is a challenge. In response to bacterial blood stream infections, white blood cells are known to produce an excess of certain types of specialized proteins on their surface, including CD64, CD11b and HLA-DR. In this study we evaluated the concentration of these cell-surface proteins for diagnosing blood stream infections in pre-mature newborn babies, whose onset of infection was beyond 72 h of life. We compared these tests against standard tests that are currently in clinical use, such as C-reactive protein and blood white cell counts. All tests were performed at the time of initially suspecting the infection and 48 h later. The gold standard against which all these tests were evaluated was blood culture, in which the offending bacteria are grown in specialized laboratory media. Of 53 pre-mature babies with suspected infection, 24 had blood culture-proven infection. Among all tests, C-reactive protein at 48 h had the best ability to distinguish definite infection from no infection. The expression of CD11b and HLA-DR was significantly reduced among infected neonates. We conclude that C-reactive protein is superior to white blood cell-surface proteins and white cell count in diagnosing definite late-onset infections among pre-term infants.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/tropej/fmab016DOI Listing
January 2021

Comparative Evaluation of Preemptive Analgesia of Dextromethorphan and Ibuprofen in Third Molar Surgeries.

Ann Maxillofac Surg 2020 Jul-Dec;10(2):312-319. Epub 2020 Aug 16.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Sri Rajiv Gandhi College of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

Introduction: Postoperative pain following third molar removal is one of the most common and unpleasant complications encountered in routine surgical practice. Various methods have been advocated to minimize the postoperative pain: preemptive analgesia is one of those found to be effective.

Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the preemptive analgesic efficacy of Dextromethorphan (DM) and Ibuprofen in the third molar surgeries.

Material And Methods: Thirty-six patients reporting to our institution were included in the study. Patients were randomized into three groups of 12 patients each to receive either DM 30 mg, ibuprofen 100 mg, or placebo in the form of multivitamin syrup, 90 min before the procedure. The difficulty of removal of the teeth was assessed using Campbell difficulty score. The study objectives were to evaluate the time elapsed since surgery after which the patient took their first dose of aceclofenac, to evaluate the postoperative pain using visual analog scale score, and to record the number of aceclofenac tablets consumed postoperatively.

Results: The results of the study revealed that preemptive DM was significantly better than ibuprofen and placebo in the duration of time that elapsed before the patients consumed their first analgesic postoperatively. Preemptive DM also reduced the total number of aceclofenac tablets consumed on the day of surgery and on the 1 postoperative day, but the difference was not statistically significant. Between the two drugs, DM is better suited for providing preemptive analgesia. No side effects at a dose of 30 mg of DM were noted in any of the patients.

Conclusion: DM premedication is a viable preemptive analgesic in reducing postoperative pain.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ams.ams_252_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7944010PMC
August 2020

Effect of early withdrawal of phenobarbitone on the recurrence of neonatal seizures: An open-label randomized controlled trial.

Epilepsy Behav 2021 Apr 8;117:107875. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Advanced Pediatric Centre, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India.

Background: The long-term administration of phenobarbitone in neonates may be associated with adverse neurological outcome. The timing of stopping phenobarbitone maintenance after acute seizure control in neonates is a matter of debate.

Objectives: To study the effect of early withdrawal of phenobarbitone on recurrence of neonatal seizures.

Study Design: Open-label randomized controlled trial.

Participants: Outborn neonates (≥34 weeks of gestation to <28 days of postnatal period) with seizures (n = 221) admitted to Neonatal unit in Pediatric emergency of a tertiary care hospital in north India over 1 year.

Intervention: After a loading dose of phenobarbitone (20 mg/kg), neonates who remained seizure free for at least 12 h were enrolled after written informed consent from parents, and randomized (computer generated block randomization) to 'phenobarbitone withdrawal group' (n = 112) where phenobarbitone maintenance was stopped and 'phenobarbitone continued group' (n = 109) where phenobarbitone maintenance was continued until discharge and further as per clinician's discretion.

Outcomes: The primary outcome was seizure recurrence until discharge and secondary outcomes were time to reach full enteral feeds, duration of hospital stay, abnormal neurological status at discharge, and mortality in two groups.

Results: The baseline variables were comparable in 2 groups. The incidence of seizure recurrence was similar in the phenobarbitone withdrawal and phenobarbitone continued groups (50% vs. 37.6%, respectively, p = 0.078). Among secondary outcomes, the phenobarbitone withdrawal and continued groups had similar time to reach full enteral feeds (4.02 days vs. 4.2 days, p = 0.75), duration of hospital stay (6.3 days vs. 6.5 days, p = 0.23), abnormal neurological status at discharge (45.6% vs. 38%, p = 0.39), and mortality (11.6% vs. 8.3%, p = 0.50).

Conclusion: Early withdrawal of phenobarbitone in neonatal seizures does not lead to a significant increase in the rate of seizure recurrence.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2021.107875DOI Listing
April 2021

Effect of early withdrawal of phenobarbitone on the recurrence of neonatal seizures: An open-label randomized controlled trial.

Epilepsy Behav 2021 Apr 8;117:107875. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Advanced Pediatric Centre, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India.

Background: The long-term administration of phenobarbitone in neonates may be associated with adverse neurological outcome. The timing of stopping phenobarbitone maintenance after acute seizure control in neonates is a matter of debate.

Objectives: To study the effect of early withdrawal of phenobarbitone on recurrence of neonatal seizures.

Study Design: Open-label randomized controlled trial.

Participants: Outborn neonates (≥34 weeks of gestation to <28 days of postnatal period) with seizures (n = 221) admitted to Neonatal unit in Pediatric emergency of a tertiary care hospital in north India over 1 year.

Intervention: After a loading dose of phenobarbitone (20 mg/kg), neonates who remained seizure free for at least 12 h were enrolled after written informed consent from parents, and randomized (computer generated block randomization) to 'phenobarbitone withdrawal group' (n = 112) where phenobarbitone maintenance was stopped and 'phenobarbitone continued group' (n = 109) where phenobarbitone maintenance was continued until discharge and further as per clinician's discretion.

Outcomes: The primary outcome was seizure recurrence until discharge and secondary outcomes were time to reach full enteral feeds, duration of hospital stay, abnormal neurological status at discharge, and mortality in two groups.

Results: The baseline variables were comparable in 2 groups. The incidence of seizure recurrence was similar in the phenobarbitone withdrawal and phenobarbitone continued groups (50% vs. 37.6%, respectively, p = 0.078). Among secondary outcomes, the phenobarbitone withdrawal and continued groups had similar time to reach full enteral feeds (4.02 days vs. 4.2 days, p = 0.75), duration of hospital stay (6.3 days vs. 6.5 days, p = 0.23), abnormal neurological status at discharge (45.6% vs. 38%, p = 0.39), and mortality (11.6% vs. 8.3%, p = 0.50).

Conclusion: Early withdrawal of phenobarbitone in neonatal seizures does not lead to a significant increase in the rate of seizure recurrence.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2021.107875DOI Listing
April 2021

Updates on metaQuantome Software for Quantitative Metaproteomics.

J Proteome Res 2021 Apr 8;20(4):2130-2137. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Biophysics, University of Minnesota Twin Cities, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, United States.

metaQuantome is a software suite that enables the quantitative analysis, statistical evaluation. and visualization of mass-spectrometry-based metaproteomics data. In the latest update of this software, we have provided several extensions, including a step-by-step training guide, the ability to perform statistical analysis on samples from multiple conditions, and a comparative analysis of metatranscriptomics data. The training module, accessed via the Galaxy Training Network, will help users to use the suite effectively both for functional as well as for taxonomic analysis. We extend the ability of metaQuantome to now perform multi-data-point quantitative and statistical analyses so that studies with measurements across multiple conditions, such as time-course studies, can be analyzed. With an eye on the multiomics analysis of microbial communities, we have also initiated the use of metaQuantome statistical and visualization tools on outputs from metatranscriptomics data, which complements the metagenomic and metaproteomic analyses already available. For this, we have developed a tool named MT2MQ ("metatranscriptomics to metaQuantome"), which takes in outputs from the ASaiM metatranscriptomics workflow and transforms them so that the data can be used as an input for comparative statistical analysis and visualization via metaQuantome. We believe that these improvements to metaQuantome will facilitate the use of the software for quantitative metaproteomics and metatranscriptomics and will enable multipoint data analysis. These improvements will take us a step toward integrative multiomic microbiome analysis so as to understand dynamic taxonomic and functional responses of these complex systems in a variety of biological contexts. The updated metaQuantome and MT2MQ are open-source software and are available via the Galaxy Toolshed and GitHub.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jproteome.0c00960DOI Listing
April 2021

Modelling and process optimization for biodiesel production from Nannochloropsis salina using artificial neural network.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Jun 23;329:124872. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Vel Tech High Tech Dr. Rangarajan Dr. Sakunthala Engineering College, Chennai 600062, India. Electronic address:

In the present investigation, calcium oxide solid nanocatalyst derived from the egg shell and Nannochloropsis salina were used for the production of biodiesel. The morphological characteristics and functional groups of synthesized nanocatalyst was characterized by SEM and FTIR analysis. Process variables optimization for biodiesel production was studied using RSM and ANN. The R values for RSM and ANN was found to be 0.8751 and 0.957 which showed that the model was significantly fit with the experimental data. The maximum FAME conversion for the synthesized nanocatalyst CaO was found to be 86.1% under optimum process conditions (nanocatalyst amount: 3% (w/v); oil to methanol ratio 1:6 (v/v); reaction temperature: 60 °C; reaction time 55 min). Concentration of FAME present in biodiesel was identified by GC-MS analysis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.124872DOI Listing
June 2021

Assessment of Nutritional Status of Mothers of Children Under 3 Years of Age and Its Determinants.

Indian J Community Med 2020 Oct-Dec;45(4):440-444. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Department of Pediatrics, Lady Hardinge Medical College and Associated Kalawati Saran Children's Hospital, New Delhi, India.

Objective: The study was conducted to identify associated factors of severe wasting among mothers.

Methodology: A prospective 12 months' study was conducted in 30 randomly selected villages of Khutpani Block of West Singhbhum with a sample of 600 households with children between 0 and 3 years of age using the prevalence of wasting in West Singhbhum district National Family Health Survey, precision of 0.05, design effect of 2 and accounting for error of 10%. Data on socioeconomic status, maternal anthropometry mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) practices, gender-based violence, and food security were collected. Data collection was done between July 2017 and June 2018.

Results: Wasting and severe wasting prevalence using MUAC criteria among mothers were found to be 60% and 17%, respectively. The study showed higher rate of severe maternal wasting among households facing poverty, food insecurity, poor WASH practices especially related to hand washing and toilet use and women who faced gender-based violence.

Conclusion: Nonnutritional interventions addressing poverty, household food insecurity, gender violence, and WASH practices are required to address maternal wasting, in addition to existing nutritional programs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijcm.IJCM_480_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7877434PMC
October 2020

Harnessing mobile technology to deliver evidence-based maternal-infant care.

Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 Feb 13;26(1):101206. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

Divison of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

mHealth, the use of wireless and portable communication technology to improve the health status of the population, has seen widespread adoption in low- and middle-income countries. It has been used to increase awareness and knowledge of healthcare, to collect health-related data, to deliver healthcare information such as results of investigations or appointment reminders, to aid decision-making by healthcare providers, and to improve communication between various stakeholders of the health system. Developing countries face an immense challenge of periodically updating the professional knowledge of their huge pool of community and facility level healthcare workers. Nearly universal possession of mobile phones, low-cost internet data, and high growth rate of smartphones has facilitated the use of mHealth in delivering evidence-based guidelines and decision-aids to frontline healthcare workers. This review describes the current evidence on the use of mHealth educational interventions targeting maternal and neonatal healthcare providers in low- and middle-income countries. Recent efforts of the National Neonatology Forum of India in integration of mHealth for development and dissemination of clinical practice guidelines are also presented.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.siny.2021.101206DOI Listing
February 2021

Exclusive human milk diet and severe intraventricular hemorrhage.

Authors:
Praveen Kumar

J Perinatol 2021 Apr 16;41(4):909. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Pediatrics, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, Peoria, IL, USA.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41372-021-00938-6DOI Listing
April 2021

Clinical Relevance of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Genetic Testing in Autism: A Case Report of Successful Clinical Outcome.

Cureus 2021 Jan 9;13(1):e12586. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Department of General Medicine, GreenLife Hospital, Patna, IND.

Autism spectrum disorder is an emerging public health issue. The core features of autism spectrum disorder are persistent impairment in reciprocal social communication and interaction and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior or interests. We now know that it encompasses disorders previously referred to as early infantile autism, childhood autism, Kanner autism, high-functioning autism, atypical autism, Asperger disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. While it is agreed that the etiology of autism spectrum disorder is largely unknown, certain environmental and genetic factors may be responsible for the disease. In particular, emerging evidence has suggested the role of C677T polymorphism in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene as a possible risk factor. We present the case of a two-year-old boy with high risk for autism who was found on advanced investigation to have heterozygous polymorphism for MTHFR. This prompted us to add folic acid to his therapeutic regime. He was treated with high-dose folic acid along with conventional intervention, and went on to make excellent recovery. We conclude that pharmacological intervention has the potential to improve outcome in a subgroup of autistic children.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.12586DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7870120PMC
January 2021

Coeliac disease presenting atypically: A much wider spectrum.

Trop Doct 2021 Feb 11:49475521991348. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Director Professor, Genetic division, Department of Pediatrics, Maulana Azad Medical College, Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi, India.

Atypical coeliac disease in young children is frequently missed when it presents atypically as non-gastrointestinal presentations to different specialties. There was a greater delay (54 months) in establishing the diagnosis in those with atypical coeliac disease (p < 0.001). No difference was observed in the mode of delivery or duration of breast feeding, but significant difference was observed between gestational age at birth (p < 0.001). Most cases showed stunted growth and underweight. Irritability, anaemia, rickets, dermatitis herpetiformis, alopecia and intussusception were other common predictors of atypical coeliac disease. Because of a myriad spectrum of non-gastrointestinal symptoms, at any age with diverse presentation, a high index of suspicion is therefore required.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0049475521991348DOI Listing
February 2021

SARS-CoV-2 detection in human milk: a systematic review.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 Feb 8:1-8. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Pediatrics, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

Purpose: To synthesize the current evidence for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the human milk of mothers with confirmed COVID-19 and its potential role in neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Materials And Methods: Using terms related to novel coronavirus 2019 and human milk, a systematic search was performed in three electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science) for studies published between December 2019 and 15 October 2020. Published peer-reviewed studies reporting the results of RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 RNA in human milk in mothers with confirmed COVID-19 were included. Proportion meta-analysis of case series and prospective cohort studies was performed using STATA version 14.2 (StataCorp, College Station, TX) and pooled estimate (with 95% confidence interval) of overall incidence of SARS-CoV-2 transmission was calculated.

Results: We identified 936 records, of which 34 studies (24 case-reports, 10 cohort studies) were eligible for this systematic review. A total of 116 confirmed COVID-19 lactating women (88 in cohort and 28 in case-reports) underwent RT-PCR testing in human milk, and 10 (six in case reports) were detected to have SARS-CoV-2 RNA. The overall pooled proportion (from cohort studies) for SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection in human milk was 2.16% (95% CI: 0.0-8.81%, : 0%). Four studies (six patients) also reported the presence of SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies (along with RT-PCR) in human milk.

Conclusions: The limited low-quality evidence suggests that SARS-CoV-2 RNA is detected in human milk in an extremely low proportion, however, based on current evidence no conclusion can be drawn about its infectivity and impact on the infants. In concordance with World Health Organization recommendations, exclusive breastfeeding should be considered in all cases unless any other contraindication exists.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2021.1882984DOI Listing
February 2021

Molecular dynamics analysis of phytochemicals from against COVID-19 main protease (M) and human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).

Biocatal Agric Biotechnol 2021 Mar 27;32:101924. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Allahabad, 211007, India.

The outbreak of COVID-19 created unprecedented strain in the healthcare system. Various research revealed that COVID-19 main protease (M) and human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) are responsible for viral replication and entry into the human body, respectively. Blocking the activity of these enzymes gives a potential therapeutic target for the COVID-19. The objective of the study was to explore phytochemicals from against SARS-CoV-2 through studies. In this study, 34 phytochemicals of were docked with M and ACE2 through AutoDock Tools-1.5.6 and their binding affinity was studied. Phytochemicals with higher affinity have been chosen for further molecular dynamics simulations to determine the stability with target protein. Molecular dynamics simulations were studied on GROMACS 5.1.4 version. Furthermore, 5-β-glucosyl-7-demethoxy-encecalin (5GDE) and 2-oxocadinan-3,6(11)-dien-12,7-olide (BODO) were found to be potential blockers with excellent binding affinity with Mpro and ACE2 than their native inhibitors remdesivir and hydroxychloroquine respectively. The drug likeness study and pharmacokinetics of the phytoconstituents present in A. adenophora provide an excellent support for the lead drug discovery against COVID-19.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bcab.2021.101924DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7839396PMC
March 2021

Stability of Cu-islands formed on Si substrate via 'dewetting' under subsequent thermal cycling.

Nanotechnology 2021 May;32(19):195703

Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560012, India.

Very thin metallic films deposited on a substrate often dewet upon thermal exposure, forming discrete islands of micrometer and nanometer-sized metal particles. Herein, Cu islands on Si substrate, which were formed due to agglomeration (or 'dewetting') of Cu thin film at 600 °C, were exposed to thermal cycling, and the ensuing evolution in their morphology was monitored. Thermal cycling was performed between either -25 °C and 150 °C or 25 °C and 400 °C, using different heating and cooling rates. With faster heating-cooling rates, a change in the shape and size of the Cu islands was observed, whereas a slow heating-cooling rate did not induce noticeable effect on their morphology. Furthermore, the formation of new nano- and micro-sized particles, probably through the dewetting of the ultra-thin layer of Cu that was left intact during the initial agglomeration treatment, was observed during the thermal cycling performed at fast rates up to 400 °C. Finite element analysis, incorporating Anand's viscoplasticity model, revealed the existence of high strain energy density in the vicinity of the particle-Si interface when the thermal cycling is carried at a faster ramp rate, suggesting the pivotal role of thermal stresses, in addition to the maximum temperature, in controlling the morphology of the Cu particles and the dewetting of the residual ultra-thin layer of Cu on Si.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/abe0e7DOI Listing
May 2021

Nitrogen-Doped Mixed-Phase Cobalt Nanocatalyst Derived from a Trinuclear Mixed-Valence Cobalt(III)/Cobalt(II) Complex for High-Performance Oxygen Evolution Reaction.

Inorg Chem 2021 Feb 27;60(4):2333-2346. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Because of a continuous increase in energy demands and environmental concerns, a focus has been on the design and construction of a highly efficient, low-cost, environmentally friendly, and noble-metal free electrocatalyst for energy technology. Herein we report facile synthesis of the mixed-valence trinuclear cobalt complex by the reaction of 2-amino-1-phenylethanol and CoCl·6HO in methanol as the solvent at room temperature. Further, was reduced by using aqueous NH as a simple reducing agent, followed by calcination at 300 °C for 3 h, yielding a nitrogen-doped mixed phase cobalt [β-Co(OH) and CoO] nanocatalyst (). Both and were characterized by various physicochemical techniques. Moreover, was authenticated by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The hybrid reveals a unique electronic and morphological structure, offering a low overpotential of 390 mV for a stable current density of 10 mA cm with high durability. This showed excellent electrocatalytic as well as photocatalytic activity for oxygen evolution reaction compared to .
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.0c03202DOI Listing
February 2021

Challenges in providing adequate and reliable nutrition for extremely low birth weight infants.

Clin Nutr ESPEN 2021 Feb 31;41:314-317. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Biostatistics Collaboration Center, Department of Preventive Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA.

Background: There is limited data on macronutrient content and its variability in mothers' milk of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. The primary objectives were to determine the mean and the range of macronutrient content in milk from mothers of ELBW infants.

Methods: A near-infrared milk analyzer was used to measure fat, protein and carbohydrate. Data is presented as mean ± SD, median, and minimum/maximum values. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and linear regression were used to examine differences between repeat analyses.

Results: The mean GA and BW of infants were 25.6 ± 1.9 weeks and 678.6 ± 78.6 g respectively. The mean caloric content of 212 milk samples (10 infants) was 20.1 ± 5.4 cals/oz. The mean fat, protein and carbohydrate content were 3.2 ± 1.8, 1.6 ± 0.5 g% and 8.0 ± 0.8 g% respectively. Large subject to subject and day to day variations were observed. The range of calories, fat, protein and carbohydrate content were 10.4-42.3 cals/oz, 0.2-14.1, 0.6-3.3 and 6.4-13.7 g% respectively. Nearly half of all samples had 17 or less cals/oz and 10% had 15 or less cals/oz. There were no significant differences between repeat readings on a single sample.

Conclusions: Standard fortification in presence of significant variation in macronutrient and caloric content of mother's milk can lead to large day to day variation in macronutrient and caloric intake of ELBW infants. Clinical significance of variable intake from one day to another in infants at high risk of NEC and growth failure is unclear and needs further study.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnesp.2020.11.010DOI Listing
February 2021

A Statistical Analysis of Impact of COVID19 on the Global Economy and Stock Index Returns.

SN Comput Sci 2021 9;2(1):27. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Yuvayana Tech and Craft (P) Ltd., Bilaspur, Uttar Pradesh India.

The outbreak of pandemic COVID-19 across the world has completely disrupted the political, social, economic, religious, and financial structures of the world. According to the data of April 22nd, 2020, more than 4.6 million people have been screened, in which the infection has made more than 2.7 million people positive, in which 182,740 people have died due to infection. More than 80 countries have closed their borders from transitioning countries, ordered businesses to close, instructed their populations to self-quarantine, and closed schools to an estimated 1.5 billion children. The world's top ten economies such as the United States, China, Japan, Germany, United Kingdom, France, India, Italy, Brazil, and Canada stand on the verge of complete collapse. In addition, stock markets around the world have been pounded, and tax revenue sources have fallen off a cliff. The epidemic due to infection is having a noticeable impact on global economic development. It is estimated that by now the virus could exceed global economic growth by more than 2.0% per month if the current situation persists. Global trade may also fall from 13 to 32% depending on the depth and extent of the global economic slowdown. The full impact will not be known until the effects of the epidemic occurred. This research analyses the impact of COVID-19 on the economic growth and stock market as well. The aim of this research is to present how well COVID-19 correlated with economic growth through gross domestic products (GDP). In addition, the research considers the top five other tax revenue sources like S&P500 (GPSC), Crude oil (CL = F), Gold (GC = F), Silver (SI = F), Natural Gas (NG = F), iShares 20 + Year Treasury Bond (TLT), and correlate with the COVID-19. To fulfill the statistical analysis purpose this research uses publically available data from yahoo finance, IMF, and John Hopkins COVID-19 map with regression models that revealed a moderated positive correlation between them. The model was used to track the impact of COVID 19 on economic variation and the stock market to see how well and how far in advance the prediction holds true, if at all. The hope is that the model will be able to correctly make predictions a couple of quarters in advance, and describe why the changes are occurring. This research can support how policymakers, business strategy makers, and investors can understand the situation and use the model for prediction.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s42979-020-00410-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7796698PMC
January 2021

COVID-19-associated Severe Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children with Encephalopathy and Neuropathy in an Adolescent Girl with the Successful Outcome: An Unusual Presentation.

Indian J Crit Care Med 2020 Dec;24(12):1276-1278

Department of Pediatrics, Max Super Speciality Hospital, Shalimar Bagh, New Delhi, India.

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a new entity affecting a small percentage of children during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This hyperinflammatory syndrome usually presents with multiorgan dysfunction, predominantly affecting cardiovascular, mucocutaneous, and gastrointestinal systems. However, few children have mild neurological symptoms at admission. Till now, severe neurological manifestations as a part of this spectrum have hardly been reported. This case report describes an adolescent girl with severe MIS-C who presented with multiorgan failure and suffered dual neurological insult, involving both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Mehra B, Aggarwal V, Kumar P, Kundal M, Gupta D, Kumar A, . COVID-19-associated Severe Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children with Encephalopathy and Neuropathy in an Adolescent Girl with the Successful Outcome: An Unusual Presentation. Indian J Crit Care Med 2020;24(12):1276-1278.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23685DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7775929PMC
December 2020

Differentiating Biliary Atresia From Idiopathic Neonatal Hepatitis: A Novel Keratin 7 Based Mathematical Approach on Liver Biopsies.

Pediatr Dev Pathol 2021 Mar-Apr;24(2):103-115. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Pediatrics, Maulana Azad Medical College, Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi, India.

Background And Aims: Differentiating biliary atresia (BA) from idiopathic neonatal hepatitis (INH) is vital in routine pediatric practice. However, on liver biopsy, few cases offer a diagnostic challenge to discriminate these entities with certainty. Bile ductular reaction (DR), intermediate hepatobiliary cells (IHBC) and extra-portal ductules (EPD) indicate progenitor cell activation, as a response to various hepatic insults. The present study aims to quantify DR, IHBC and EPD by Keratin 7 (CK7) immunohistochemistry (IHC) in BA and INH and to devise a mathematical approach to better differentiate the two, especially in histologically equivocal cases.

Methods: A total of 98 cases were categorized on biopsy as BA, INH or equivocal histology, favoring BA or INH. CK7 DR mean, IHBC mean and EPD mean values were compared between BA and INH. A formula was derived to help distinguish these two entities, the cut-off value, sensitivity and specificity of which were determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. This formula was applied and validated on histologically equivocal cases.

Results: Univariate logistic regression revealed significant difference between BA and INH with respect to CK7 DR and CK7 EPD mean (p < 0.001 in both); however, CK7 IHBC mean was not significant (p = 0.08). On multivariate logistic regression, only CK7 DR had significant impact on diagnosis (p < 0.001). A formula: (CK7 DR) + (CK7 EPD)/(CK7 IHBC) was derived to help distinguish BA from INH. Cut off value of 10.5 and above, determined by ROC curve, favored a diagnosis of BA (sensitivity= 93.4%, specificity= 94.6%). Histologically equivocal and discrepant cases could be correctly categorized using this formula.

Conclusions: Formula using CK7 IHC parameters may aid pathologists better distinguish BA from INH, especially in histologically equivocal cases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1093526620983730DOI Listing
January 2021

Concise Stereoselective Synthesis of β-Hydroxy-γ-lactones: (4,5)-4-Hydroxy-γ-decalactone from the Japanese Orange Fly and Enantiomers of Arachnid Harvestmen Isolates.

J Nat Prod 2021 01 4;84(1):120-125. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai, 400076 Maharashtra, India.

The naturally occurring (4,5)-4-hydroxy-γ-decalactone from the Japanese orange fly and the antipode of (4,5)-4-hydroxy-γ-dodecalactone from the harvestmen arachnid and their stereoisomers are synthesized from the chiral pool material d-glucono-δ-lactone in a few steps. The one-pot conversion of the latter to γ-vinyl-β-hydroxy-γ-lactone, cross-metathesis with requisite olefin, and hydrogenation enabled the synthesis of -lactones in just a two-pot operation. An additional efficient Pd-catalyzed allylic isomerization of γ-vinyl-β-hydroxy-γ-lactone led to the -lactones in high yields.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jnatprod.0c01207DOI Listing
January 2021

Outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infections from a Contaminated Gastroscope Detected by Whole Genome Sequencing Surveillance.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 Dec 25. Epub 2020 Dec 25.

Microbial Genomic Epidemiology Laboratory, Center for Genomic Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Background: Traditional methods of outbreak investigations utilize reactive whole genome sequencing (WGS) to confirm or refute the outbreak. We have implemented WGS surveillance and a machine learning (ML) algorithm for the electronic health record (EHR) to retrospectively detect previously unidentified outbreaks and determine the responsible transmission routes.

Methods: We performed WGS surveillance to identify and characterize clusters of genetically-related Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections during a 24 month period. ML of the EHR was used to identify potential transmission routes. A manual review of the EHR was performed by an infection preventionist to determine the most likely route and results were compared to the ML algorithm.

Results: We identified a cluster of six genetically related P. aeruginosa cases that occurred during a seven-month period. The ML algorithm identified gastroscopy as a potential transmission route for four of the six patients. Manual EHR review confirmed gastroscopy as the most likely route for five patients. This transmission route was confirmed by identification of a genetically-related P. aeruginosa incidentally cultured from a gastroscope used on four of the five patients. Three infections, two of which were blood stream infections, could have been prevented if the ML algorithm had been running in real-time.

Conclusions: WGS surveillance combined with a ML algorithm of the EHR identified a previously-undetected outbreak of gastroscope-associated P. aeruginosa infections. These results underscore the value of WGS surveillance and ML of the EHR for enhancing outbreak detection in hospitals and preventing serious infections.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa1887DOI Listing
December 2020

Non-interferometric technique to realize vector beams embedded with polarization singularities: publisher's note.

J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis 2020 Dec;37(12):1905

This publisher's note corrects the contents of references in J. Opt. Soc. Am. A37, 1043 (2020)JOAOD60740-323210.1364/JOSAA.393027.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.414093DOI Listing
December 2020