Publications by authors named "Pratiksha Bhandari"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Effectiveness of community-based health education and home support program to reduce blood pressure among patients with uncontrolled hypertension in Nepal: A cluster-randomized trial.

PLoS One 2021 12;16(10):e0258406. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Department of Medicine, School of Clinical Sciences at Monash Health, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.

Background: Hypertension is a major global public health problem. Elevated blood pressure can cause cardiovascular and kidney diseases. We assessed the effectiveness of health education sessions and home support programs in reducing blood pressure among patients with uncontrolled hypertension in a suburban community of Nepal.

Methods: We conducted a community-based, open-level, parallel-group, cluster randomized controlled trial in Birendranagar municipality of Surkhet, Nepal. We randomly assigned four clusters (wards) into intervention and control arms. We provided four health education sessions, frequent home and usual care for intervention groups over six months. The participants of the control arm received only usual care from health facilities. The primary outcome of this study was the proportion of controlled systolic blood pressure (SBP). The analysis included all participants who completed follow-up at six months.

Results: 125 participants were assigned to either the intervention (n = 63) or the control (n = 62) group. Of them, 60 participants in each group completed six months follow-up. The proportion of controlled SBP was significantly higher among the intervention participants compared to the control (58.3% vs. 40%). Odds ratio of this was 2.1 with 95% CI: 1.01-4.35 (p = 0.046) and that of controlled diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was 1.31 (0.63-2.72) (p = 0.600). The mean change (follow-up minus baseline) in SBP was significantly higher in the intervention than in the usual care (-18.7 mmHg vs. -11.2 mmHg, p = 0.041). Such mean change of DBP was also higher in the intervention (-10.95 mmHg vs. -5.53 mmHg, p = 0.065). The knowledge score on hypertension improved by 2.38 (SD 2.4) in the intervention arm, which was significantly different from that of the control group, 0.13 (1.8) (p<0.001).

Conclusions: Multiple health education sessions complemented by frequent household visits by health volunteers can effectively improve knowledge on hypertension and reduce blood pressure among uncontrolled hypertensive patients at the community level in Nepal.

Trial Registration: NCT02981251.
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October 2021

Prevalence and clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors in rural Nepalese population aged 40-80 years.

BMC Public Health 2018 05 31;18(1):677. Epub 2018 May 31.

Institute of Medicine (IOM), Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the main cause of mortality in low- and middle-income countries like Nepal. Different risk factors usually cluster and interact multiplicatively to increase the risk of developing acute cardiovascular events; however, information related to clustering of CVD risk factors is scarce in Nepal. Therefore, we aimed to determine the prevalence of CVD risk factors with a focus on their clustering pattern in a rural Nepalese population.

Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among residents aged 40 to 80 years in Lamjung District of Nepal in 2014. A clustered sampling technique was used in steps. At first, four out of 18 wards were chosen at random. Then, one person per household was selected randomly (n = 388). WHO STEPS questionnaires (version 2.2) were used to collect data. Chi-square and independent t-test were used to test significance at the level of p < 0.05.

Results: A total 345 samples with complete data were analyzed. Smoking [24.1% (95% CI: 19.5-28.6)], harmful use of alcohol [10.7% (7.4-13.9)], insufficient intake of fruit and vegetable [72% (67.1-76.6)], low physical activity [10.1% (6.9-13.2)], overweight and obesity [59.4% (54.2-64.5)], hypertension [42.9% (37.6-48.1)], diabetes [16.2% (14.0-18.3)], and dyslipidemia [56.0% (53.0-58.7)] were common risk factors among the study population. Overall, 98.2% had at least one risk factor, while 2.0% exhibited six risk factors. Overall, more than a half (63.4%) of participants had at least three risk factors (male: 69.4%, female: 58.5%). Age [OR: 2.3 (95% CI: 1.13-4.72)] and caste/ethnicity [2.0 (95% CI: 1.28-3.43)] were significantly associated with clustering of at least three risk factors.

Conclusions: Cardiovascular risk factors and their clustering were common in the rural population of Nepal. Therefore, comprehensive interventions against all risk factors should be immediately planned and implemented to reduce the future burden of CVD in the rural population of Nepal.
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May 2018

Prevalence, associated factors, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension: Findings from a cross sectional study conducted as a part of a community based intervention trial in Surkhet, Mid-western region of Nepal.

PLoS One 2017 5;12(10):e0185806. Epub 2017 Oct 5.

Ministry of Health, Mid-western Regional Hospital, Surkhet, Nepal.

Background: Hypertension is one of the leading public health problems globally. About half of the deaths from cardiovascular diseases were attributed to hypertension in 2008. Reduction of blood pressure to normal range is one of the major challenges in preventing complications and future burden of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, this study aims to determine prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension and its associated factors in Nepal.

Methods: This was a community based cross-sectional study conducted as a part of a community based intervention trial in Birendranagar Municipality of Surkhet district located at the Mid-western region of Nepal. We enrolled 1159 subjects aged 30 years and above. Out of 12 wards (administrative unit), four wards were selected randomly. Three hundred participants were recruited from each selected ward. Trained enumerator collected socio-demographic, anthropometric, and clinical data using standard STEPS questionnaires.

Results: Out of all participants, women were 71% and mean age was 47±12.6 years. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 38.9% (95% CI: 36-41.7) while age and sex adjusted prevalence was 40.6%. The hypertension was present in 48.1% (95% CI: 45.2-50.9) of men and 35.2% (95% CI: 32.4-37.9)] of women. Male gender (OR = 1.49), older age (OR = 1.04 per year), Dalit caste (OR = 1.71), past history of cigarettes smoking (OR = 2.78), current alcohol consumption (OR = 1.75), and raised body mass index (OR = 1.17 per unit) were identified as significant factors associated with hypertension. Of total hypertensive respondents, 53.4% (95% CI: 48.7-58) were aware, 29% (95% CI: 24.8-33.1) were receiving treatment for high blood pressure, and 8.2% (95% CI: 5.6-10.7) had controlled blood pressure. The awareness, treatment, and control status were worse in younger participants.

Conclusions: The study revealed high prevalence with low awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in Nepal. Gender, age, ethnicity, smoking, drinking alcohol, and body mass index were associated with hypertension. Immediate public health and individual measures are warranted to reduce future burden of cardiovascular diseases.

Trial Registration: (NCT02981251).
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October 2017

Total cardiovascular risk for next 10 years among rural population of Nepal using WHO/ISH risk prediction chart.

BMC Res Notes 2017 Mar 7;10(1):120. Epub 2017 Mar 7.

Institute of Medicine (IOM), Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Primary prevention of CVD based on total CVD risk approach using WHO/ISH risk prediction chart would be more effective to stratify population under different risk levels, prioritize and utilize the scarce resources of low and middle-income countries. This study estimated total 10-year CVD risk and determined the proportion of population who need immediate drug therapy among the rural population of Nepal.

Methods: A community based cross-sectional study conducted among 345 participants aged 40-80 years in rural villages of Lamjung District of Nepal. They were selected randomly from total eighteen wards. Data were collected using WHO STEPS questionnaires. WHO/ISH risk prediction chart for SEAR D was used to estimate total cardiovascular risk. Chi-square and independent t-test were used to test significance at the level of p < 0.05 in SPSS version 16.0.

Results: Of the total participants, 55.4% were female. The mean age (standard deviation) of the participants was 53.5 ± 10.1 years. According to WHO/ISH chart proportions of low, moderate and high CVD risk were 86.4%, 9.3%, and 4.3%, respectively. Eleven percent of participants were in need of immediate pharmacotherapy. Age (p = 0.001), level of education (p = 0.01) and occupation (p = 0.001) were significantly associated with elevated CVD risk.

Conclusion: A large proportion of Nepalese rural population is at moderate and high CVD risk. Immediate pharmacological interventions are warranted for at least one in every ten individuals along with lifestyle interventions. Both population-wise and high-risk approaches are required to minimize CVD burden in the future.
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March 2017