Publications by authors named "Prashant Kale"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Transcriptomic signature reveals mechanism of flower bud distortion in witches'-broom disease of soybean (Glycine max).

BMC Plant Biol 2019 Jan 15;19(1):26. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Centre for Agricultural Bioinformatics, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Statistics Research Institute, Library Avenue, PUSA, New Delhi, 110012, India.

Background: Soybean (Glycine max L. Merril) crop is major source of edible oil and protein for human and animals besides its various industrial uses including biofuels. Phytoplasma induced floral bud distortion syndrome (FBD), also known as witches' broom syndrome (WBS) has been one of the major biotic stresses adversely affecting its productivity. Transcriptomic approach can be used for knowledge discovery of this disease manifestation by morpho-physiological key pathways.

Results: We report transcriptomic study using Illumina HiSeq NGS data of FBD in soybean, revealing 17,454 differentially expressed genes, 5561 transcription factors, 139 pathways and 176,029 genic region putative markers single sequence repeats, single nucleotide polymorphism and Insertion Deletion. Roles of PmbA, Zn-dependent protease, SAP family and auxin responsive system are described revealing mechanism of flower bud distortion having abnormalities in pollen, stigma development. Validation of 10 randomly selected genes was done by qPCR. Our findings describe the basic mechanism of FBD disease, right from sensing of phytoplasma infection by host plant triggering molecular signalling leading to mobilization of carbohydrate and protein, phyllody, abnormal pollen development, improved colonization of insect in host plants to spread the disease. Study reveals how phytoplasma hijacks metabolic machinery of soybean manifesting FBD.

Conclusions: This is the first report of transcriptomic signature of FBD or WBS disease of soybean revealing morphological and metabolic changes which attracts insect for spread of disease. All the genic region putative markers may be used as genomic resource for variety improvement and new agro-chemical development for disease control to enhance soybean productivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-018-1601-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6332543PMC
January 2019

Whole Genome Characterization of a Few EMS-Induced Mutants of Upland Rice Variety Nagina 22 Reveals a Staggeringly High Frequency of SNPs Which Show High Phenotypic Plasticity Towards the Wild-Type.

Front Plant Sci 2018 4;9:1179. Epub 2018 Sep 4.

ICAR-National Research Centre on Plant Biotechnology, New Delhi, India.

The Indian initiative, in creating mutant resources for the functional genomics in rice, has been instrumental in the development of 87,000 ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS)-induced mutants, of which 7,000 are in advanced generations. The mutants have been created in the background of Nagina 22, a popular drought- and heat-tolerant upland cultivar. As it is a pregreen revolution cultivar, as many as 573 dwarf mutants identified from this resource could be useful as an alternate source of dwarfing. A total of 541 mutants, including the macromutants and the trait-specific ones, obtained after appropriate screening, are being maintained in the mutant garden. Here, we report on the detailed characterizations of the 541 mutants based on the distinctness, uniformity, and stability (DUS) descriptors at two different locations. About 90% of the mutants were found to be similar to the wild type (WT) with high similarity index (>0.6) at both the locations. All 541 mutants were characterized for chlorophyll and epicuticular wax contents, while a subset of 84 mutants were characterized for their ionomes, namely, phosphorous, silicon, and chloride contents. Genotyping of these mutants with 54 genomewide simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers revealed 93% of the mutants to be either completely identical to WT or nearly identical with just one polymorphic locus. Whole genome resequencing (WGS) of four mutants, which have minimal differences in the SSR fingerprint pattern and DUS characters from the WT, revealed a staggeringly high number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on an average (16,453 per mutant) in the genic sequences. Of these, nearly 50% of the SNPs led to non-synonymous codons, while 30% resulted in synonymous codons. The number of insertions and deletions (InDels) varied from 898 to 2,595, with more than 80% of them being 1-2 bp long. Such a high number of SNPs could pose a serious challenge in identifying gene(s) governing the mutant phenotype by next generation sequencing-based mapping approaches such as Mutmap. From the WGS data of the WT and the mutants, we developed a genic resource of the WT with a novel analysis pipeline. The entire information about this resource along with the panicle architecture of the 493 mutants is made available in a mutant database EMSN22 (http://14.139.229.201/EMSgardeN22).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2018.01179DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6132179PMC
September 2018

Development and Genetic Characterization of A Novel Herbicide (Imazethapyr) Tolerant Mutant in Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

Rice (N Y) 2017 Dec 4;10(1):10. Epub 2017 Apr 4.

INSA Honorary Scientist, NRCPB, IARI, Pusa, New Delhi, 110012, India.

Background: Increased water and labour scarcity in major rice growing areas warrants a shift towards direct seeded rice cultivation under which management of weeds is a major issue. Use of broad spectrum non-selective herbicides is an efficient means to manage weeds. Availability of rice genotypes with complete tolerance against broad-spectrum non-selective herbicides is a pre-requisite for advocating use of such herbicides. In the present study, we developed an EMS induced rice mutant, 'HTM-N22', exhibiting tolerance to a broad spectrum herbicide, 'Imazethapyr', and identified the mutations imparting tolerance to the herbicide.

Results: We identified a stable and true breeding rice mutant, HTM-N22 (HTM), tolerant to herbicide, Imazethapyr, from an EMS-mutagenized population of approximately 100,000 M plants of an upland rice variety, Nagina 22 (N22). Analysis of inheritance of herbicide tolerance in a cross between Pusa 1656-10-61/HTM showed that this trait is governed by a single dominant gene. To identify the causal gene for Imazethapyr tolerance, bulked segregant analysis (BSA) was followed using microsatellite markers flanking the three putative candidate genes viz., an Acetolactate Synthase (ALS) on chromosome 6 and two Acetohydroxy Acid Synthase (AHAS) genes, one on chromosomes 2 and another on chromosome 4. RM 6844 on chromosome 2 located 0.16 Mbp upstream of AHAS (LOC_Os02g30630) was found to co-segregate with herbicide tolerance. Cloning and sequencing of AHAS (LOC_Os02g30630) from the wild type, N22 and the mutant HTM and their comparison with reference Nipponbare sequence revealed several Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the mutant, of which eight resulted in non-synonymous mutations. Three of the eight amino acid substitutions were identical to Nipponbare and hence were not considered as causal changes. Of the five putative candidate SNPs, four were novel (at positions 30, 50, 81 and 152) while the remaining one, S627D was a previously reported mutant, known to result in Imidazolinone tolerance in rice. Of the novel ones, G152E was found to alter the hydrophobicty and abolish an N myristoylation site in the HTM compared to the WT, from reference based modeling and motif prediction studies.

Conclusions: A novel mutant tolerant to the herbicide "Imazethapyr" was developed and characterized for genetic, sequence and protein level variations. This is a HTM in rice without any IPR (Intellectual Property Rights) infringements and hence can be used in rice breeding as a novel genetic stock by the public funded organizations in the country and elsewhere.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12284-017-0151-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5380566PMC
December 2017

The 10th GCC Closed Forum: rejected data, GCP in bioanalysis, extract stability, BAV, processed batch acceptance, matrix stability, critical reagents, ELN and data integrity and counteracting fraud.

Bioanalysis 2017 Apr 24;9(7):505-516. Epub 2017 Mar 24.

WuXi Apptec, Plainsboro, NJ, USA.

The 10th Global CRO Council (GCC) Closed Forum was held in Orlando, FL, USA on 18 April 2016. In attendance were decision makers from international CRO member companies offering bioanalytical services. The objective of this meeting was for GCC members to meet and discuss scientific and regulatory issues specific to bioanalysis. The issues discussed at this closed forum included reporting data from failed method validation runs, GCP for clinical sample bioanalysis, extracted sample stability, biomarker assay validation, processed batch acceptance criteria, electronic laboratory notebooks and data integrity, Health Canada's Notice regarding replicates in matrix stability evaluations, critical reagents and regulatory approaches to counteract fraud. In order to obtain the pharma perspectives on some of these topics, the first joint CRO-Pharma Scientific Interchange Meeting was held on 12 November 2016, in Denver, Colorado, USA. The five topics discussed at this Interchange meeting were reporting data from failed method validation runs, GCP for clinical sample bioanalysis, extracted sample stability, processed batch acceptance criteria and electronic laboratory notebooks and data integrity. The conclusions from the discussions of these topics at both meetings are included in this report.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio-2017-5000DOI Listing
April 2017

Cytological behaviour of floral organs and in silico characterization of differentially expressed transcript-derived fragments associated with 'floral bud distortion' in soybean.

J Genet 2016 Dec;95(4):787-799

Biotechnology Centre, Post Graduate Institute, Dr Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola 444 104, India.

An attempt was made to understand the 'floral bud distortion' (FBD), an unexplored disorder prevailing in soybean. Cytological behaviour of floral reproductive organs and in silico characterization of differentially expressed transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) in symptomatic and asymptomatic soybean plants were carried out. Pollens in asymptomatic plants do not have defects in number, size, shape and function. However, in symptomatic plant, pollens were found nonviable, abnormal in shape and with reduced germination ability. Here, we employed a computational approach, exploring invaluable resources. The tissue-specific transcript profile of symptomatic and asymptomatic sources was compared to determine differentially expressed TDFs associated with FBD to improve its basic understanding. A total of 60 decamer primers produced 197 scorable amplicons, ranged 162-1130 bp, of which 171 were monomorphic and 26 were differentially regulated. Reproducible TDFs were sequenced and characterized for their homology analysis, annotation, protein-protein interaction, subcellular localization and their physical mapping. Homology-based annotation of TDFs in soybean revealed presence of two characterized and seven uncharacterized hits. Annotation of characterized sequences showed presence of genes, namely auxin response factor 9 (ARF9) and forkhead-associated (FHA) domain, which are directly involved in plant development through various pathways, such as hormonal regulation, plant morphology, embryogenesis and DNA repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12041-016-0693-3DOI Listing
December 2016

LC-MS/MS Validation Analysis of Trastuzumab Using dSIL Approach for Evaluating Pharmacokinetics.

Molecules 2016 Nov 2;21(11). Epub 2016 Nov 2.

Panomics Lambda Therapeutic Research Limited, Gota, Ahmedabad, Gujarat 382481, India.

Quantitative targeted proteomics based approaches deploy state-of-the-art Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry LC-MS technologies and are evolving as a complementary technique to standard ligand-binding based assays. Advancements in MS technology, which have augmented the specificity, selectivity and sensitivity limits of detection and freedom from antibody generation, have made it amicable towards various clinical applications. In our current work, a surrogate peptide based quantitative proteomics assessment is performed by selecting specific signature peptides from the complementary determining region CDR region of trastuzumab (Herclon, Roche products in India). We developed a double Stable Isotope Label (dSIL) approach by using two different surrogate peptides to evaluate the proteolytic digestion efficiency and accurate quantification of the target analyte peptide of Herclon in human serum. Method validation experiments were meticulously performed as per bioanalytical method validation guidelines. The dSIL approach, using an LC-MS/MS based quantification assay demonstrated good linearity over a range of 5-500 µg/mL of Herclon, and validation experimental data is in compliance with bioanalytical regulatory guidelines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules21111464DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6274275PMC
November 2016

Parameters influencing Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system in safflower genotypes AKS-207 and PKV Pink.

3 Biotech 2016 Dec 26;6(2):181. Epub 2016 Aug 26.

Department of Agricultural Botany, Biotechnology Centre, Dr Panjabrao Deshmukh Agricultural University, Akola, MS, 444104, India.

Shoot regeneration in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius 'AKS 207' and 'PKV Pink') genetically transformed using Agrobacterium was used for assessing various constraints to the efficiency of transformation including infection period, virulence induction medium, co-cultivation period, bacterial titre, selection regime, and the natural phenolic compound acetosyringone. Transformation frequency was promising with 8-10-day-old cotyledonary leaf explants. Therefore, explants of that age cultured on Agrobacterium minimal medium (AB) containing 100 µM acetosyringone were infected with Agrobacterium (cell titre 0.5 OD) for 15 min followed by 48 h of co-cultivation on kanamycin-enriched medium (50 mg/L). Transformation of the shoots was confirmed using β-glucuronidase (GUS) histochemical assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). With the transformation protocol thus optimized, the transformation frequency as determined using GUS assays was 54.0 % for AKS 207 and 47.6 % for PKV Pink. The corresponding figures using PCR were 27.0 and 33.3 %. The transformed shoots required 10-14 weeks of culture initiation but produced very few roots.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13205-016-0497-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5001957PMC
December 2016

Pharmacokinetics of single oral dose trazodone: a randomized, two-period, cross-over trial in healthy, adult, human volunteers under fed condition.

Front Pharmacol 2015 2;6:224. Epub 2015 Oct 2.

Department of Research and Development, Gujarat Forensic Sciences University Gandhinagar, India.

Objective: To assess the bioequivalence of single dose trazodone hydrochloride USP 100 mg tablets administered as an oral dose under fed condition.

Methods: This study was an open-label, balanced, randomized, two-sequence, two-treatment, two-period, single oral dose, crossover bioequivalence study in healthy, adult, human subjects under fed conditions. After an overnight fast of at least 10 h, the subjects were served a high fat and high calorie vegetarian breakfast, which they were required to consume within 30 min. A single oral dose (100 mg) of either the test or the reference product was administered to the subjects. The primary pharmacokinetic parameters, maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) from time zero to last measurable concentration (AUC0-t ) and extrapolated to infinity (AUC0-∞) were compared by an analysis of variance using log-transformed data. Bioequivalence was concluded if the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of the adjusted geometric mean (gMean) ratios for C max and AUC were within the predetermined range of 80-125%, in accordance with regulatory requirements.

Results: For the test formulation, the trazodone gMean Cmax was 1480.9 ng/mL (vs. 1520.2 ng/mL for reference), AUC0-t was 18193.0 ng·h/mL (vs. 18209.8 ng·h/mL) and AUC0-∞ was 19346.3 ng·h/mL (vs. 19393.4 ng·h/mL). The 90% CIs for the ratio (test/reference) were 93.0-102.0% for Cmax, 96.7-103.2% for AUC0-t and 96.1-103.5% for AUC0-∞. There were no deaths or serious adverse events during the conduct of the study.

Conclusion: Test product when compared with the Reference product meets the bioequivalence criteria with respect to the extent of absorption of trazodone under fed condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2015.00224DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4591485PMC
October 2015

Challenges in application of bioanalytical method on different populations and effect of population on PK.

Bioanalysis 2014 ;6(23):3091-100

Lambda Therapeutic Research Ltd, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India.

Prashant Kale has 22 years of immense experience in the analytical and bioanalytical domain. He is Senior Vice President, Bioequivalence Operations of Lambda Therapeutic Research, India which includes Bioanalytical, Clinics, Clinical data management, Pharmacokinetics and Biostatistics, Protocol writing, Clinical lab and Quality Assurance departments. He has been with Lambda for over 14 years. By qualification he is a M.Sc. and an MBA. Mr. Kale is responsible for the management, technical and administrative functions of the BE unit located at Ahmedabad and Mumbai, India. He is also responsible for leading the process of integration between bioanalytical laboratories and services offered by Lambda at global locations (India and Canada). Mr. Kale has faced several regulatory audits and inspections from leading regulatory bodies including but not limited to DCGI, USFDA, ANVISA, Health Canada, UK MHRA, Turkey MoH, WHO. There are many challenges involved in the application of bioanalytical method on different populations. This includes difference in equipment, material and environment across laboratories, variations in the matrix characteristics in different populations, differences in techniques between analysts such as sample processing and handling and others. Additionally, there is variability in the PK of a drug in different populations. This article shows the effect of different populations on validated bioanalytical method and on the PK of a drug. Hence, the bioanalytical method developed and validated for a specific population may need required modification when applied to another population. Critical consideration of all such aspects is the key to successful implementation of a validated method on different populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio.14.276DOI Listing
August 2015

Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of single dose ibuprofen and pseudoephedrine alone or in combination: a randomized three-period, cross-over trial in healthy Indian volunteers.

Authors:
Prashant Kale

Front Pharmacol 2014 9;5:98. Epub 2014 May 9.

Lambda Therapeutic Research Ltd. Ahmedabad, India.

Objective: To compare the bioavailability of single dose ibuprofen 200 mg and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride 30 mg administered alone or in combination as an oral suspension.

Methods: This was a single-center, randomized, single-dose, open-label, 3-period, crossover study. After an overnight fast (≥10 h), 18 healthy male subjects received either ibuprofen 200 mg (reference-A), pseudoephedrine 30 mg (reference-B) or the combination (test-C) as a suspension, on 3 separate visits, with blood sampling up to 36-h post-dose. The primary pharmacokinetic parameters, maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) from time zero to last measurable concentration (AUC0-t) and extrapolated to infinity (AUC0-∞) were compared by an analysis of variance using log-transformed data. Bioequivalence was concluded if the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of the adjusted geometric mean (gMean) ratios for Cmax and AUC were within the predetermined range of 80-125%, in accordance with regulatory requirements.

Results: For the test formulation, the ibuprofen gMean Cmax was 17.0 μg/mL (vs. 18.1 μg/mL for reference-A), AUC0-t was 57.1 (vs. 60.0 μg·h/mL), and AUC0-∞ was 59.9 μg·h/mL (vs. 63.1 μg·h/mL). The 90% CIs for the ratio (test/reference-A) were 81.0-108.1% for Cmax, 91.5-98.4% for AUC0-t and 91.6-97.9% for AUC0-∞. For pseudoephedrine, the gMean Cmax for the test formulation was 97.2 ng/mL (vs. 98.5 ng/mL for reference-B), AUC0-t was 878.4 (vs. 842.8 ng·h/mL) and AUC0-∞ was 907.8 ng·h/mL (vs. 868.3 ng·h/mL). The 90% CIs for the ratio (test/reference-B) were 92.4-106.9% for Cmax, 97.7-111.0% for AUC0-t and 97.9-111.3% for AUC0-∞. All treatments were well tolerated.

Conclusion: This oral suspension containing ibuprofen and pseudoephedrine combined in a new formulation met the regulatory criterion for bioequivalence compared with oral suspensions containing the individual components.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2014.00098DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4023067PMC
May 2014

Bioequivalence of two tacrolimus formulations under fasting conditions in healthy male subjects.

Clin Ther 2011 Sep 16;33(9):1105-19. Epub 2011 Aug 16.

Lambda Therapeutic Research Ltd, Gujarat, India.

Background: Tacrolimus is a macrolide immunosuppressant indicated for prophylaxis of transplant rejection. The European regulatory authorities require comparative bioavailability studies with an innovator product to grant marketing authorization of generic products.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to test the bioequivalence of generic (test) and innovator (reference) tacrolimus capsules.

Methods: Two open-label, 2-period, single-dose, crossover studies compared 0.5 mg and 5 mg capsule test formulations of tacrolimus with reference products in fasting, healthy male volunteers. The 2 study periods were separated by a 20-day (0.5 mg) or 21-day (5 mg) washout period. Blood samples were collected for up to 72 (0.5 mg) or 192 (5 mg) hours post-dose. Tacrolimus concentrations in whole blood were determined using a validated LC-MS/MS method. The primary evaluation criteria were C(max) and AUC(0-72) (0.5 mg) or AUC(0-t) (5 mg). Bioequivalence was assumed if the 90% CIs for the test/reference ratios of log-transformed C(max) and AUC values were within the limits specified by existing European guidelines. Data on safety and patient well-being were collected throughout the study.

Results: The 90% CIs for 0.5 mg were 102.99%-120.80% for C(max) and 91.51%-105.92% for AUC(0-72); those for 5 mg were 110.61%-120.96% for C(max) and 96.17%-103.55% for AUC(0-t). These values meet the requirements for assuming bioequivalence as defined in the European Medicines Agency guidelines for narrow therapeutic index drugs (80%-125% for C(max) and 90%-111% for AUC). There were no relevant differences in the safety profiles of the test and reference formulations.

Conclusions: In these comparative bioavailability studies of fasting, healthy male volunteers, the test and reference formulations of tacrolimus 0.5 mg and 5 mg capsules were well tolerated and met the requirements of the European regulatory bioequivalence guidelines. Both studies have been submitted for registration with Clinical Trials Registry-India: CTRI application references REF/2011/05/002346 (0.5 mg) and REF/2011/05/002347 (5 mg).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinthera.2011.07.010DOI Listing
September 2011

Single-dose, two-way crossover, bioequivalence study of Mycophenolate mofetil 500 mg tablet under fasting conditions in healthy male subjects.

Clin Ther 2011 Mar;33(3):378-90

Astron Research Limited, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India.

Background: Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is an immunosuppressant indicated for prophylaxis of acute organ transplant rejection. Generic MMF is less costly than the branded product, but European regulatory authorities require bioequivalence studies for the marketing of generics.

Objectives: The aims of the 2 studies reported were to assess the dissolution and bioavailability of a generic (test) and branded (reference) formulation of MMF 500 mg.

Methods: An in vitro analytical dissolution profile test was conducted comparing 500 mg MMF test drug with a reference drug. A separate single-dose, randomized, open-label, 2-way crossover study involving fasting, healthy, adult male volunteers was conducted. Two study periods-1 test drug period and 1 reference drug period-were separated by a 14-day washout period. Blood samples were collected for up to 60 hours after drug administration for the determination of MMF and mycophenolic acid (MPA) pharmacokinetics. Concentrations of the analytes were determined using a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method; pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using noncompartmental analysis; C(max), AUC(0-t), and AUC(0-∞) were the primary evaluation criteria. Bioequivalence was assumed if the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) for the test/reference ratios of natural logarithm transformed values (obtained using ANOVA) were between 80% and 125%, per European regulations for bioequivalence. Tolerability was monitored throughout the study.

Results: The dissolution profiles of the test drug matched those of the reference drug at 4 pH levels. In the bioequivalence study, a total of 126 male subjects were dosed, and 117 subjects completed the study. The 90% CIs for MPA were C(max), 94.13% to 116.46%; AUC(0-t), 98.26% to 102.36%; and AUC(0-∞), 97.85% to 101.99%. These values met with the European regulatory definition of bioequivalence. Reported adverse events were similar in both the test and reference drugs.

Conclusions: This single-dose study found that the test and reference MMF 500 mg tablets met the European regulatory criteria for assuming bioequivalence in fasting, healthy, male subjects. Both formulations were well tolerated. (Clinical Trials Registry - India [CTRI]: 2011/03/002211).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinthera.2011.04.003DOI Listing
March 2011

Polyoxyl 60 hydrogenated castor oil free nanosomal formulation of immunosuppressant Tacrolimus: pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability in rodents and humans.

Int Immunopharmacol 2010 Mar 21;10(3):325-30. Epub 2009 Dec 21.

Jina Pharmaceuticals Inc., Libertyville, IL 60048, USA.

Objective: Develop Nanosomal formulation of Tacrolimus to provide safer alternative treatment for organ transplantation patients. Investigate safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of Nanosomal Tacrolimus formulation versus marketed Tacrolimus containing polyoxyl 60 hydrogenated castor oil (HCO-60) that causes side effects.

Methods: Nanosomal Tacrolimus was prepared in an aqueous system. The particle size was measured by Particle Sizing Systems and structure morphology was determined by freeze-fracture electron microscopy. Investigational safety studies were conducted in mice and rats. Safety and pharmacokinetics of Nanosomal Tacrolimus were also evaluated in healthy human subjects.

Results: The morphology of Nanosomal Tacrolimus showed a homogeneous population of nanosized particles with mean particle size of less than 100 nm. A 14 day consecutive administration of Nanosomal Tacrolimus up to 5 and 10mg/kg dose in rats and mice respectively, resulted in no mortality. Nanosomal Tacrolimus in human studies showed that it is safe and the pharmacokinetics profile is similar to the marketed HCO-60 based Tacrolimus. No significant change in peripheral blood lymphocyte percentage was noted in either mice or healthy human male subjects.

Conclusions: Nanosomal Tacrolimus is well characterized product which provides a new treatment option. It contains no alcohol or surfactants like HCO-60. Thus, Nanosomal Tacrolimus presents a new and improved therapeutic approach for organ transplant patients compared to the marketed HCO-60 based Tacrolimus product.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2009.12.003DOI Listing
March 2010

When to ally & when to acquire.

Harv Bus Rev 2004 Jul-Aug;82(7-8):108-15, 188

Marriott School, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, USA.

Acquisitions and alliances are two pillars of growth strategy. But most businesses don't treat the two as alternative mechanisms for attaining goals. Consequently, companies take over firms they should have collaborated with, and vice versa, and make a mess of both acquisitions and alliances. It's easy to see why companies don't weigh the relative merits and demerits of acquisitions and alliances before choosing horses for courses. The two strategies differ in many ways: Acquisition deals are competitive, based on market prices, and risky; alliances are cooperative, negotiated, and not so risky. Companies habitually deploy acquisitions to increase scale or cut costs and use partnerships to enter new markets, customer segments, and regions. Moreover, a company's initial experiences often turn into blinders. If the firm pulls off an alliance or two, it tends to enter into alliances even when circumstances demand acquisitions. Organizational barriers also stand in the way. In many companies, an M&A group, which reports to the finance head, handles acquisitions, while a separate business development unit looks after alliances. The two teams work out of different locations, jealously guard turf, and, in effect, prevent companies from comparing the advantages and disadvantages of the strategies. But companies could improve their results, the authors argue, if they compared the two strategies to determine which is best suited to the situation at hand. Firms such as Cisco that use acquisitions and alliances appropriately grow faster than rivals do. The authors provide a framework to help organizations systematically decide between acquisition and alliance by analyzing three sets of factors: the resources and synergies they desire, the marketplace they compete in, and their competencies at collaborating.
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August 2004

Simultaneous determination of itraconazole and hydroxyitraconazole in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography.

J Chromatogr A 2004 Mar;1031(1-2):307-13

Bioanalytical Department, Lambda Therapeutic Research Pvt. Ltd., 42 Premier House-1, Gandhinagar-Sarkhej Highway, Bodakdev, Ahmedabad 380 054, India.

The development and validation of a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the simultaneous determination of itraconazole and its metabolite, hydroxyitraconazole, in human plasma is described. The method involved liquid-phase extraction of itraconazole and hydroxyitraconazole using a hexane-dichloromethane (70:30) mixture, after addition of loratidine as an internal standard (IS). Separation was achieved with a reversed-phase C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm) employing fluorescence detection (excitation: 264 nm, emission: 380 nm). The mobile phase consisted of [0.01% triethylamine solution adjusted to pH 2.8 with orthophosphoric acid-acetonitrile (46:54)]-isopropanol (90:10, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. For both the drug and metabolite, the standard curve was linear from 5.0 to 500 ng/ml with goodness of fit (r2) greater than 0.98 observed with four precision and accuracy batches during validation. An observed recovery was more than 70% for drug, metabolite and internal standard. The applicability of this method to pharmacokinetic studies was established after successful application during 35 subjects bioavailibity study. The method was found to be precise, accurate and specific during the study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2003.11.061DOI Listing
March 2004

Determination of mycophenolic acid in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography.

J Chromatogr A 2004 Mar;1031(1-2):259-64

Bioanalytical Department, Lambda Therapeutic Research Pvt. Ltd., 42 Premier House-1, Gandhinagar-Sarkhej Highway, Bodakdev, Ahmedabad 380 054, India.

The development, validation and evaluation of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for quantifying mycophenolic acid in human plasma is described. The method involved protein precipitation using acetonitrile, after addition of terazosin as an internal standard. Separation was achieved with a reversed-phase C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm) employing UV detection at 215 nm. The mobile phase consisted of 0.02 M potassium dihydrogenphosphate solution adjusted to pH 6.9 with 2 M potassium hydroxide solution-acetonitrile (80:20 (v/v)) at a flow rate of 1.5 ml/min. The total run time was 21.0 min. The assay was linear from 0.2 to 25 microg/ml with goodness of fit (r2) greater than 0.99 observed with three precision and accuracy batches during validation. The observed mean recoveries were 89.3 and 98.0% for drug and internal standard, respectively. The applicability of this method to pharmacokinetic studies was established after successful application during a 34-subject bioavailability study. The method was found to be precise, accurate and specific during the study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2003.08.073DOI Listing
March 2004