Professor (Dr.) Pranab Kumar Bhattacharya, MD ( Calcutta University)  - School of Tropical Medicine Kolkata Presently on detailment post  - Professor and Head Pathology

Professor (Dr.) Pranab Kumar Bhattacharya

MD ( Calcutta University)

School of Tropical Medicine Kolkata Presently on detailment post

Professor and Head Pathology

Kolkata, West Bengal | India

Main Specialties: Pathology-Anatomic & Clinical

Additional Specialties: Pathology

Professor (Dr.) Pranab Kumar Bhattacharya, MD ( Calcutta University)  - School of Tropical Medicine Kolkata Presently on detailment post  - Professor and Head Pathology

Professor (Dr.) Pranab Kumar Bhattacharya

MD ( Calcutta University)

Introduction

Primary Affiliation: School of Tropical Medicine Kolkata Presently on detailment post - Kolkata, West Bengal , India

Specialties:

Additional Specialties:


View Professor (Dr.) Pranab Kumar Bhattacharya’s Resume / CV

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Number of Publications

34

Publications

Number of Profile Views

1009

Profile Views

Number of Article Reads

17

Reads

Number of PubMed Central Citations

6

PubMed Central Citations

Publications

34Publications

17Reads

6PubMed Central Citations

Natural history of liver fibrosis progression in patients confected with hepatitis c virus and human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2016 Nov-Dec;49(6):803-805

Department of Pathology, Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine Kolkata, West Bengal, India.

View Article
April 2017
3 Reads
0.94 Impact Factor

WHERE FROM MASS CAME IN THE UNIVERSE?- DID THE MASS ORIGINATED FROM A ZERO REST MASS LESS PARTICLE IN HIGGS FIELD

Pranab Kumar Bhattacharya, Rupak Bhattacharya, Ritwik Bhattacharya, et al. Where from Mass Came in t

RESEARCH & REVIEWS : JOURNAL OF SPACE SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY http://stmjournals.com/sci/index.php?journal=RRJoSST&page=article&op=view&path%5B0%5D=1366

A very interesting hypothesis based upon the possibility of a “Zero Rest Mass Particle in Higgs Field” in the Universe is described in this study. This is review of some hypothesis on mathematical basis on possibility of zero rest mass particles in the earliest moments of the Big Bang where Higgs Particles fused to give mass in Higg’s Scalar Field. The hypothesis is validated and considered the same truly correct that the zero rest mass sub quark 2 particles do exists/ or existed in this universe ever in atomic structures and in universe and their possible implications as future source of energy, time travel. The value of the electron mass, in particular, remains deeply mysterious even in our most advanced speculations about unification and string theory. http://stmjournals.com/sci/index.php?journal=RRJoSST&page=article&op=view&path%5B0%5D=1366 Keywords: Zero rest mass, Big Bang Theory, Higg’s Field, universe, particles, energ

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January 2017
8 Reads

SCHRÖDINGER CAT'S EXPERIMENT'S INTERPRETATION AND PARALLEL UNIVERSE OR MULTIPLE UNIVERSES

Pranab Kumar Bhattacharya, et al. Schrödinger Cat's Experiment's Interpretation and Parallel Univers

RESEARCH & REVIEWS : JOURNAL OF SPACE SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY http://stmjournals.com/sci/index.php?journal=RRJoSST&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=1171

Quantum mechanics provides us most fundamental descriptions of our most early universe, but there is a long-standing debate amongst theoretical physicists about what all these mathematics really mean in real world? The present three-dimensional (3D) universe, we humans experience daily since our birth, is probably just one of an enormous numbers of essentially classical worlds, and all quantum phenomena arise from a universal force of repulsions that prevented many universes (Multiverse) from having identical physical configurations like ours. Probabilities arise only because of our human ignorance as to which in our world an observer occupies a position in space time. This picture is all that is needed to explain bizarre quantum effects such as particles that can tunnel through solid barriers and wave behavior in double-slit experiments or in a warm hole. Our many-interacting-universes approach hinges on our assumption that interactions between deterministically evolving worlds cause all quantum effects. Each world is simply the position of particles in three-dimensional space time, and each would evolve according to Newton’s laws, if there were no inter world interactions. A surprising feature of human approach was that the formulation contains nothing that corresponds to the mysterious quantum wave functions, except in the formal mathematical limit in which the number of worlds becomes infinitely large. Conversely, Newtonian mechanics corresponds to the opposite limit of just one world. Thus, our approach should incorporate both classical and quantum theory. As few as two interacting worlds can result in quantum like effects, such as tunneling through a barrier. Many interacting worlds theory (MIW) explains that rather than standing apart, an infinite number of universes in the early time shared the same space and time as ours. They show that the theory can explain quantum mechanical effects while leaving open the choice of theory to explain the universe at large scales. This is a fascinating new variant of multiverse theory that, in a sense, creates not just a doppelganger of everyone but an infinite number of them all overlaying each other in the same space and time. The fine tuning of parameters required to reproduce our present day universe suggests that our universe may simply be a region within an eternally inflating super-region. Many other regions beyond our observable universe might have existed in earlier times with each such universe governed by a different set of physical parameters and laws. Collision between these regions, if they occurred, should have left signatures of anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) but have not been seen yet. We assess different mechanisms for this residual emission and conclude that although there is a 30% probability that noise fluctuations may cause foregrounds to fall within 3σ of the excess, there is less than a 0.5% probability that foregrounds can explain all the excess. A plausible explanation is that the collision of our universe with an alternate universe, whose baryon to photon ratio is a factor of ∼4500 larger than ours, could produce enhanced Hydrogen Paschen-series emission at the epoch of recombination. Future spectral mapping and deeper observations at 100 and 217 GHz are needed to mitigate systematics arising from unknown galactic foregrounds and to confirm this unusual hypothesis. After careful analysis of the spectrum of the CMB, Chary et al. found a signal that was about 4500x brighter than it should have been, based on the number of protons and electrons. Scientists believe that this existed in the very early universe. Indeed, this particular signal, an emission line that arose from the formation of atoms during the era of recombination is more consistent with a universe whose ratio of matter particles to photons is about 65x greater than our own. There is a 30% chance that this mysterious signal is just noise, and not really, a signal at all; however, it is also possible that it is real, and exists as a parallel universe. Keywords: Quantum mechanics, multiverse, Newtonian mechanics http://stmjournals.com/sci/index.php?journal=RRJoSST&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=1171

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December 2016
3 Reads

What's New in Shock? JUNE 2015.

Authors:
David J Hackam

Shock 2015 Jun;43(6):519-21

Professor of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University, Chief of Pediatric Surgery, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland.

View Article
June 2015
1 Read
3.04 Impact Factor

The Higgg’s boson is not zero rest mass particle( mass less)and decays into bottom quarks and anti quarks

http://www.nature.com/news/supercharged-lhc-tackles-universe-s-big-questions-1.17693#comment-2063248

NATURE | NEWS

driftfrom the latest measurements at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider (LHC), wherephysicists had been carefully characterizing the new particle they discoveredin 2012. So far, every test at the Geneva accelerator (CERN) confirms that thenew particle closely resembled the Higgs boson described by the Standard Modelof particle physics. These results resoundingly confirmed Higgs theory first put forward in 1964 by Robert Brout, François Englert and Peter Higgs — and helped win the latter two the Nobel prize 2013. (Brout died in 2011, making him ineligible for the award.) The next phase of the LHC 2nd run in 13 Tev energy can now offer new insights;it is set to start operating at higher energies almost 13 Tev with improved superconducting magnets that line the accelerator’s 27-kilometre-long underground ring. in 3rd june 2015. Physicists nowcan expect the 2nd phase runof the LHC to produce 300 times more Higgs bosons than its previous stint.“This increased rate can translate into higher precision measurements of theHiggs boson’s properties. Atthose energies, the Higgs boson is thought to be related to an invisibleHiggs field that pervades all of space. As particles travel through that field,their interactions with it give them ma

View Article
June 2015
3 Reads

Emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, extended spectrum beta lactamases, and multi-drug resistance is a problem similar to global warming.

Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2014 Nov-Dec;47(6):815-6

Department of Pathology, Murshidabad District Medical College, Berhampore, Murshidabad, West Bengal, India.

View Article
May 2015
2 Reads
0.94 Impact Factor

India’s ambition to eliminate visceral leishmaniasis:What is new in eliminating Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) in India

http://www.bmj.com/content/349/bmj.g6671/rr/780452

BMJ

Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a fatal disease characterized by irregular fever, weight loss, hepato-splenomegaly and anemia. 90% of VL cases occur in India, Nepal, and Bangladesh and in Brazil. Each year 500,000 new cases occur worldwide and 50,000 die of VL. The disease is grossly under reported in India, and about 100,000 cases are estimated to occur annually in the state of Bihar, with West Bengal accounting for than 90% of cases in India. The disease is endemic in the eastern part of India mainly in 31 districts of Bihar, 4 districts of Jharkhand, 11 districts of West Bengal and in Eastern Uttar Pradesh. The epidemic of VL usually recurs every 15 years in India (two post independence big epidemics were in 1997 and 1992). Though VL was eliminated from the state of Assam it is reported to be re-emerging as sporadic cases and also as outbreaks. There are also emerging epidemic sites of cuteneous leishmaniasis in Himachal Pradesh (along the Salute River Valley) and Rajasthan, where the ausative agent is L. tropica and the dog is the reservoir of the parasite .Elsewhere in India, untreated VL and PKDL is the reservoir of the parasite. In 2008, when blood samples were tested by PCR from human, goats, cows and buffalos in VL epidemic areas of Nepal, 6% of humans and 16% of goats were found to be harbours of Leismania DNA. RK 39 immunochromatographic strip tests using a drop of the patient’s blood is a major breakthrough in diagnosing VL. Strip testing of the patient’s urine with the same strip test is as good as blood testing and the test can be done by peripheral field workers. However, a new latex agglutination test (KA Tex) has come to the market for detection of leishmania antigen in the urine of VL patients and has been tested in Indian and Nepalese VL patients. This test has good specificity (90-100%) but sensitivity varies (50-90%). KA Tex becomes positive in 87% of cases and at the end of treatment 3% remain positive. rK28 is another antigen introduced as a candidate for serological diagnosis of VL. In Micro ELISA format, the sensitivity is 99.6% and specificity in endemic, non endemic healthy and disease controls is 94-100%. A novel L Donovan antigen 37KD protein (BHuP2) has a sensitivity of 94% whereas specificity in different control groups is 97%-100%. In a sophisticated laboratory PCR for DNA or RNA gene is a powerful tool for diagnosis of VL. The advantages are * Detection of very low level parasitemia * Prediction of Cure * Identification of strain and VL/HIV co-infection. PCR can be performed in peripheral blood, lymph nodes, skin and urine. Urine based PCR shows 96% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Oligochromatography provides a rapid dipstick format for detection of PCR products. PCR products can be visualized on dipstick testing by hybridization with gold conjugated probe allowing species specific PCR product detection. This test takes 5-10 minutes and requires no instruments other than a water bath and a pipette. The orally effective drug miltefosine has revolutionized the treatment of VL. A multi center pivotal phase III study established a cure rate of 94%. Following this a phase IV study was done in which 1132 patients were enrolled and the final cure rate was 82%. The real problem with miltefosine is that it is resistance prone as it has a very long half life of 150-200 hours, so that a tail of low level drug persists for long periods. Moreover it is teratogenic. Sitmaquinnine developed by Walter Reed Army Research US is 8 amino quinine and has high antileishmanial activity. But there is a lack of linear co-relation between dose of drug and cure rate. In phase II study in India 89% were cured with 28 days of 1.75 mg/kg body wt/day sitamaquine. Peculiarly higher doses are not effective and nephropathy can develop.WHO, Institute of One world health and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation have successfully resurrected paramomycin as the cheapest effective anti-leismanial drug. A phase III trial has been completed in India. Treatmen is once a day im injection 15mg/Kg for 21 days. Result showed it non inferior to amphotericin B (1mg/kg IV infusions on alternate days to a total of 15 infusions) with a final cure rate of 94% versus 99%. None of the patients developed nephrotoxicity or permanent ototoxicity. The only adverse effect was a 3 fold rise in ALT level in 6% patients. So monitoring of LFT must be done in VL; such monitoring is available in India at a reasonable cost. Combination chemotherapy may be the future strategy in present scenario of emerging drug resistance - even against amphotericin B. Increasing rates of relapse are seen in all kinds of VL drugs. The benefits of combination therapy are: * Synergistic activity * Preventing drug resistance * Lowering dose requirements * Reducing side effects - thus increasing efficiency and therapeutic life span of existing anti kala-azar drugs. Liposomal Amphotericin B 5mg/kg + 7 days Miltofosine or single dose Liposomal Amphotericin B 5mg/kg + 10 days Paramomycin or 10 days Miltofocin + Paramomycin may be now choice of therapy of VL

View Article
November 2014
3 Reads

Recent -( 2014 ) J E out Break in West Bengal, India, Need for JE vaccination programme in West Bengal that must cover the target children and young adults up to 20 years adequately( 700 MILLIONS) nationwide who are at risk of JE

BMJ Open 2014;4:1 e004279 doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2013-004279

BMJ Open

Fever with altered sensorium and/or seizure is known as acute encephalitis syndrome(AES). Encephalitis may be caused by several viruses , bacterial and fungal infections parasites, spirochetes. More than 100 different pathogens are recognized as causative agents of AES are JEV, MVEV , West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus, Ebola Virus, herpes simplex, varicella-zoster, Epstein barr virus, mumps, measles, enteroviruses, influenza, adeno virus, echo virus, mycoplasma pneumonia the frequent pathogens. Bacterial, fungal, parasitic (like cerebral malaria) and some viral encephalitides (like Herpes simplex, Varicella- zoster) have however specific treatment. The majority of cases of viral AES (~90%) have no specific treatment (AESn). Japanese encephalitis(JE), is an encephalitis, caused by JEV- a mosquito-borne flavivirus infection , is prevalent in the regions like West Bengal; Manipur, Assam and in other south Indian states than other forms of Encephalities . JE occurring with an estimated 30,000 to 50,000 of cases and 15,000 deaths annually [3-5]. About 20% to 30% of JE cases lead to death, and 30-50% result in permanent neuropsychiatric squeal [5, 6]. Malnourished, poor economic class children and young adults are main victims of the disease [7, ] though adults in west Bengal states are also affected in 2014 . In India, nearly all states reported JE cases except that of Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, and Uttaranchal [8 ]. . In West Bengal, the first major outbreaks of JE occurred in the districts of Bankura and Burdwan in 1973[9], where about 700 cases and 300 deaths occurred. From 1978 to 2007, 103 389 cases and 33 729 deaths due to JEV infection were recorded from various parts of India[9]. Every year, 1 500-4 000 cases are reported from this country. JE - is major public health problems world wide and is thus low endemic areas with seasonal distribution in China( higher Incidence Stratum is 3.3 at risk are 1026 millions populations in all age groups) , the Russian Federation's south-east, Australia and South and South-East Asia like India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Singapore( Lower incidence Stratum is .003 in all age groups at risk covering 89.5 millions populations ) . In India alone, 375 million population now at risk of developing AES. 70% to 75% of disease burden are in Uttar Pradesh of India.

View Article
August 2014
1 Read

The Higgg’s boson is not zero rest mass particle( mass less)and decays into bottom quarks and anti quarks

http://www.nature.com/news/supercharged-lhc-tackles-universe-s-big-questions-1.17693#comment-2063248

NATURE | NEWS

he Higgg’s boson is not zero rest mass particle( mass less)and decays into bottom quarks and anti quarks If it looks like a Higgs,and acts like a Higgs, it’s probably a standard Higgs boson. That’s the driftfrom the latest measurements at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider (LHC), wherephysicists had been carefully characterizing the new particle they discoveredin 2012. So far, every test at the Geneva accelerator (CERN) confirms that thenew particle closely resembled the Higgs boson described by the Standard Modelof particle physics. These results resoundingly confirmed Higgs theory first put forward in 1964 by Robert Brout, François Englert and Peter Higgs — and helped win the latter two the Nobel prize 2013. (Brout died in 2011, making him ineligible for the award.) The next phase of the LHC 2nd run in 13 Tev energy can now offer new insights;it is set to start operating at higher energies almost 13 Tev with improved superconducting magnets that line the accelerator’s 27-kilometre-long underground ring. in 3rd june 2015. Physicists nowcan expect the 2nd phase runof the LHC to produce 300 times more Higgs bosons than its previous stint.“This increased rate can translate into higher precision measurements of theHiggs boson’s properties. Atthose energies, the Higgs boson is thought to be related to an invisibleHiggs field that pervades all of space. As particles travel through that field,their interactions with it give them mass. The original finding that Higgsparticles decay into other bosons confirmed the Higgs field can interact with bosons. Now the latest results show that the field can interact with fermions as well. The finding supports the idea that a single, Standard Model Higgs boson explains how all particles get their mass. But some hypotheses suggest that multiple types of Higgs bosons — and therefore Higgs fields — exist and that each kind is responsible for bestowing mass on certain kinds of particles. But there’s also the possibility that there are many Higgs bosons and they basically share the job, with both contributing part of the mass to particles.” The CMS and ATLASexperiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have reported the discovery of anew particle higgs particle with a mass near 125 GeV and with production rates, decay rates and spin-parity quantum numbers compatible with those expected for the standard model Higgs boson. In the standard model, the Higgs boson should be a spin-zero particle predicted to arise fromthe Higgs field which may be responsible for electro weak symmetry breaking. As such, the standard model Higgs boson couples directly to the W and Z bosons, and indirectly to photons.boson decays to either γγ, WW, or ZZ boson pairs Overall, these results directly demonstrate that the new higgs particle is intimately related to the mechanism of spontaneous electro weak symmetry breaking, whereby the W and Z bosonsbecome massive, and thus it has been called as a Higgs boson.Thestandard model also predicts that the Higgs field couples to fermions through aYukawa interaction, giving rise to the masses of quarks and leptons. Thestructure of the Yukawa interaction is such that the coupling strength betweenthe standard model Higgs boson and a fermion is proportional to the mass of that fermion. As the masses of many quarks and leptons are sufficiently wellknown from experiment, it is possible within the standard model to accurately predict the Higgs boson decay rates to these fermions. The existence of such decays and the corresponding rates remain to be established and measured by experiment. Indirect evidence for the Higgs coupling to the top quark, an up-type quark and the heaviest elementary particle known to date, is implied by an overall agreement of the gluon–gluon fusion production channel cross-section with the standard model prediction. The most abundant fermionic Higgs boson decays will be to third-generation quarks and leptons, namely the bottom quark and the τ lepton, as the decay of a Higgs boson with a mass around 125 GeV to top quarks is kinematically not allowed. Higgs boson to fermions is in the study of the decay to bottom quark–antiquark pairs (denoted as ) as well as to tau lepton–antilepton pairs (denoted asττ). The Higgs boson lifetime is ~10−22 s. As a consequence, the detectors at the LHC only record the interactions of its decay products. For a Higgs boson mass of 125 GeV, the channels expected to be experimentally accessible include the decays to two photons, two W or Z bosons, a quark pair and a ττ lepton pair. References Evidence for the direct decay of the 125 GeV Higgs boson to fermions The CMS CollaborationNature Physics 10, 557–560 (2014) doi:10.1038/nphys3005

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June 2014
3 Reads

Blocking Pain Receptors Extends Lifespan, Mouse Study SuggestsTRPV1 antagonists are clinically useful in chronic pain, arthritis, Diabetic nueropathy pain cancer, pancriatities,, IBDs, as Immunomodulators, antitussive and in many such thing

Blocking Pain Receptors Extends Lifespan, Mouse Study Suggests

Science AAAS

Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels are involved in sensing physical and chemical stimuli . TRPV1 is a Ca2+ permeant non-selective cation channel expressed predominantly by unmyelinated C-fibers and thinly myelinated Aδ fibers and plays a major role in inflammatory thermal sensation through nerves . TRPV1 is activated by heat (~>43°C), protons, N-arachidonyl dopamine (NADA), anandamide and lipoxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid . Sensitization of TRPV1 by phosphorylation is mediated by numerous factors including, prostaglandins , bradykinin , glutamate , serotonin , histamine , ATP , trypsin and nerve growth factor (NGF). Since TRPV1 is also involved in inflammatory thermal sensation, it is logical to determine the expression and function of TRPV1 in inflammatory process . Furthermore, capsaicin, a TRPV1 agonist had been shown to improve sensory perception in humans with DPN TRPV1 antagonist for treatment of Pain as in Diabetic nueropathy is well established .In diabetes, the links between abnormal thermal sensitivity and hyperglycemia resulting from insulin deficiency is also very clear. TRPV1 plays a major player, but questions still exist to us with respect to how TRPV1 function and expression are modulated in DM . Previously, it was found that insulin and IGF-1, acting via the IGF-1 receptor, potentiates TRPV1 current by activating PKC . Based on this observation, the long lasting hypoalgesic phenotype could be however explained by insulin deficiency leading to down regulation of TRPV1 expression and function. However, it is counter intuitive that lack of insulin results in hyperalgesic phenotype, which can not be explained readily. It is possible that an abrupt reduction in insulin levels as occurs in STZ-treated mice could trigger compensatory enhancement of TRPV1 expression resulting in hyperalgesia. Pharmacological blockade of TRPV1 by antagonists and desensitization of TRPV1 by agonists represent thus alternative therapeutic strategies for the treatment of various medical conditions, including chronic pains. A wide range of TRPV1 drug formulations (per os, topical and site-specific injectable) entered the clinical practice for indications as wide as chronic pain, overactive bladder, chronic cough, obesity, diabetes and, possibly, cancer as well as neurological and psychiatric disorders. For various TRPV1 antagonists available and how TRPV 1 acts please see the google books at links http://books.google.co.in/book... Clinically Useful valinoid receptors TRPV1 antagonists Just around the corner(or too early to tell?) by Geovanii Appendino

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May 2014
1 Read

Milky Way's Black Hole to Gobble Space Cloud This Year

http://www.space.com/20061-milky-way-black-hole-cloud.html

Space.com

Black holes are ultra dense collapsed objects with very highest (Ultra) gravity and is predicted by Eisenstein E=Mc2,depicted as Voracious feeder objects,where extraordinary gravity acts like one way membrane: every things near it is sucked in ,even Light and virtually nothing can leak out from it. In 31st march 2014, or in April 2014 a Gas cloud called G2 cloud has been hurtling towards the center of the Milky ways, where a massive Black hole named SAgittarius A that lies 26000 light years from the earth. the G2 cloud is as massive as three times as earth planet and mass of Sagittarius A is mass of four Million Suns. The actual even however so took place 26000 years ago. The question is now will the G2 gas cloud(MDM) reach the Sag A Black hole and if so how quickly will the black hole throw it up or spit the gas out in the form of outflow or like a jet. If the Sag A black hole devours a sizable chunk of this G2 MDM clouds- a digestive Process will obviously follow for next long years together within the black hole and Fire works will so set Up inside the Black hole. The G2 Gas is heated to billion degrees and it will spiral in ward the black hole. The Gas Cloud(MDM) must emmit a last gasp of radiation ranged from various radiation to different X rays Now the G2 cloud makes a closest approach to Sag A. At closest approach, the G2 gas cloud distance is still 2000 times the earth's distance from Sun. There will be a shock wave generated by the encounter will create X rays and Radiation that can be detected by telescopes and if MDM G2 gas contain a Proto star or a Star, it can produce supper Shock wave and will generate more Light. The encounter may have another effect- disruption of the cloud and attain the distance in which the radiation may vibrate as they travel through the black hole. But Past Experiences Showed that the Disk of Sag A is Viscous, like honey and rubs gas of its rotational Speed. A much longer time- may be decade will indicate that the disk has a lower viscosity like water allowing gas to circle many times before it goes down interior to black hole. Sag A is a poor eater and able to consume 1/1000 of the foods supply available to it at large distances. Several other clouds in vicinity of Sag A will also provide future food for it http://totallydrug-resistanttbemergesinindia.blogspot.in/2014_03_01_archive.html

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March 2014
2 Reads

Next generation therapy in chronic myeloid leukemia.

Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus 2012 Sep 8;28(3):189-90. Epub 2012 Apr 8.

Department of Pathology & Hematology, Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine, C.R. Avenue, Kolkata, 73 WB India ; Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine, 108 CR Avenue, Kolkata, 73 India.

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September 2012
5 Reads
0.23 Impact Factor

Addressing the Needs of Cancer Survivors: An Emerging Global ChallengeTitle-: Survivors of Cancer in Kolkata, West Bengal, India- a scenario

http://blogs.plos.org/speakingofmedicine/2011/03/04/addressing-the-needs-of-cancer-survivors-an-emer

PLOS Blogs

The Indian subcontinent is today home to 16.5% of the world’s population [ census 2011 shows it’s population increased 122 cores next to china and West Bengal it is approximately 9.6 cores ] and at any one time it is estimated that there may be not less but over 3.5 million or people with cancers in different age group from childhood to aged. Number of Cancer Patients at present in West Bengal approx. 3,50,000. Number of Cancer Patients increasing every year in West Bengal approx. 69,000. Radiotherapy needed every year for patients Approx. 60,000 when Radiotherapy capacity of West Bengal at present Approx. 22,000. Fatal consequences for want of essential treatment Approx30,000. Cancer had never been a prominent healthcare issues in kolkata , West Bengal, as per first author, compared with other diseases in West Bengal and in Kolkata. But the fact is that as a histopathologist of the city in tertiary medical colleges of the city, the first author’s last 26 years experience while diagnosing biopsies, is that various histological types of cancers, like Lung, Breast, Cervical, Neck cancer , Skin, Mouth cancer, Thyroid cancers, child hood leukemias , Lymphomas, soft tissues sarcomas are also emerging today as a significant health problem in kolkata and suburban people of West Bengal. Peculiarly Cancer patients for some unknown reasons, are most prominently found amongst low socioeconomic class people, possibly due to their diet, consumption of bidi, other form of tobacco, local made alcohol, STDs , HPV poor vitamin and antioxidants use and other habit or some kinds of genetic susceptibility and their very low financial capability for purchasing health, and pocket expenditure, access towards any three or five star hotel private health care institutions, where gadgets for advanced treatment and diagnostic facility may be available but with complete business and huge amount profit outlook and nonetheless family members illiteracy also contribute towards their advanced stages of disease on presentation to public tertiary care hospitals clinics, and due to very high cost chemotherapy, Immunotherapy, biological therapy [ Chemotherapy not only kills the patient ultimately and their family members too economically ]and most of people accepts Homeopathy, Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines (TCAM) are often the only therapies available for low socioeconomic people in West Bengal , as they are less costly and in affordable reach to poor socioeconomic class of West Bengal . India has just 48-50 doctors per 100,000 people compared to the UK with 230 and the US with 256. The poor provision of public sector healthcare in cancer diagnosis and therapy in tertiary care Medical colleges means many people (even a section of the poor) turn to the private sectors cancer treatment centers, those are far distant of all kinds of human face towards the cancer and terminally ill and they understands in terms of only business and money making centers. The number of cancer patients are steadily increasing also in India due to early and improved histopathological diagnosis and improved modality of treatment facilities only for the upper class and rich class societies. The majority of Indian cancer patients present late stage incurable diseases (75% to 80%) when first diagnosed. Chemotherapy [ The authors really doubt how much the costly chemotherapy is benificial for ultimate survivors except in few histological type cancers and when diagnosed most early ] or Radiotherapy or targeted biological & immunological therapy of Cancer patients with both solid and hematological malignancy including Stem Cell Transplantation facility[in infancy] are today available in certain centers of Kolkata, West Bengal . Presently in India, out of a million newly diagnosed cancer patients each year, more than 60% die within 12-24 months of diagnosis and another one million cancer survivors show progressive disease within five years of diagnosis[5] The number of U.S. cancer survivors however increased from 9.8 million in 2001 to 11.7 million in 2007, according to an analysis of new cancer cases and follow-up data from NCI’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program published in march 11th 2011 report[6]. According to that report, it were however breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers were the most common types of cancer amongst those survivors in US, accounting for 51 percent of total cancer diagnoses in USA. In that study, among all cancer survivors, 54.3 percent were female, 45.7 percent were male, nearly 7 million were 65 years of age or older, and 4.7 million received their diagnosis 10 or more years earlier. The increase seen over the past 4 decades is attributable to a variety of factors, including an aging U.S. population, most earlier detection of cancer by CT MRI and with help of immunochemistry .PCR, Flowcytometry, expert histopathologists services and more &more sophisticated treatments that allow individuals to live longer following initial diagnosis[1] As for the incidence of gliomas is increasing worldwide, including India and in one study from West Bengal, India, in which only 7.9% of brain tumors were GBMs, while 46.8% were astrocytomas. Low grade gliomas (LGGs) typically occur in younger adults, normally before age 40, and encompass a spectrum of histological subtypes that resemble differentiated macroglial cells, without evidence of anaplasia. Diffuse astrocytomas represent 60 – 70% of the LGGs and are the most common of LGGs The subtypes of low-grade astrocytomas include fibrillary, protoplasmic, pilocytic, and gemistocytic astrocytoma. The fibrillary subtype is the most common in adults while the gemistocytic subtype is less common, but has a higher potential for anaplastic transformation. Other histological subtypes of the LGGs include the juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma (JPA), which usually occurs before age 25, oligodendroglioma/oligoastrocytoma (LGO/LGOA), ganglioglioma, pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA), subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA), subependymomas, and desmoplastic gangliomas. Different gliomas occur in differentage groups and some entities such are PXA are more common in adolescents, while others are more common in the elderly, such as GBM[3] But cancer survivors must faces several health related issues, Health risks, poor mental, financial ,physical, and social and sexual Quality of life[ QOL ]that must be looked for. Of these many QOL domains, the largest disparity is often found in the area of mental health which cancer people often reported A] psychosocial issues- many cancer survivors complain that there are little emotional support or financial support from the government or family or relatives. Many patients even losses their services when they are detected cancer and they are severely depressed. They faces mental trauma and shock when they hear about their cancer. They fear of their recurrences of the cancer and follow up visit and further expenditure. They are afraid of severe pain. The city of kolkata so needs awareness about the disease particularly in rural and sub urban cities and there might be mobile cancer detection units from department of health and family planning west Bengal roaming at villages at free of cost but never by the private institutions Such system are non existent even in Kolkata city and a far off concept for the rural village and suburban. People spend often Rs 60,000 on a treatment at private health care institutes that can be easily undertaken for Rs 3,000 if there was government level vigilance on mush rooming private health care systems, with law and bill for extreme punishment for such malpractices with terminally ill. To combat cancer, one needs strong emotional support, from family and other cancer survivors.” B] in the Childhood Cancer Survivor are of median time of survivors for 14 years in one study[2] . But they are likely developing thyroid related cancers and other thyroid related problems like hypothyroidism[17%]. Radiation-related thyroid cancer doubles for every gray (Gy) of exposure to the thyroid. Radiation-related risk of thyroid cancer increased with increasing I-131 dose and was greatest for those individuals who were younger at the time of exposure. Risk appeared similar for men and women. As for example, Treatment for Hodgkin’s disease (HD) is found to be associated with a variety of thyroid abnormalities, including hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and thyroid neoplasms like pappilary carcinomas C] the incidence rate of contra lateral breast cancer positive for the estrogen receptor (ER] We know from randomized trials that drugs like tamoxifen significantly can reduce the risk of a contra lateral breast cancer, by about 40 percent, Tyrosine inhibitors may be used with good results D] Skin cancer is one of the most common secondary neoplasms amongst many childhood cancer survivors. Behavioral interventions addressing lifestyle factors, including sun safety behaviors, among adolescent survivors of childhood cancer should be integrated into long-term care to reduce the risk for secondary malignancies and diseases. E] The incidence of major congenital birth abnormalities was slightly higher in the offspring of male cancer survivors compared with children of fathers with no history of cancer, The increasing number of male cancer survivors has given rise to concerns about the health of their offspring. Although previous studies on children conceived naturally have been reassuring about the health of the children, The researchers found that a paternal history of cancer was associated with a 17% increased relative risk of major congenital malformations For example in hematological malignancies, generally when treated with chemotherapy, were associated with a non-statistically significant increased risk of congenital abnormalities in children with a paternal history of cancer compared to those without, no such increased risk was seen with children with a paternal history of testicular seminoma Reference 1] Kristine Crane” Offspring of Male Cancer Survivors Have Slightly Higher Risk of Congenital Birth Abnormalities” Journal of National Cancer Institute jncimedia@oxfordjournals.org 301-841-1285 2] Charles Sklar, John Whitton, Ann Mertens, Marilyn Stovall, Daniel Green, Neyssa Marina, Brian Greffe, Suzanne Wolden and Leslie Robison “Abnormalities of the Thyroid in Survivors of Hodgkin’s Disease: Data from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study “The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Vol. 85, No. 9 3227-3232 doi:10.1210/jc.85.9.3227 3] Khan MK, Hunter GK, Vogelbaum M, Suh JH, Chao ST “Evidence-based adjuvant therapy for gliomas: Current concepts and newer developments” Indian Journal of Cancer Vol. 46, No. 2, April-June, 2009, pp. 96-107 4] Mays D, Black JD, Mosher RB, Shad AT, Tercyak KP Improving short-term sun safety practices among adolescent survivors of childhood cancer: a randomized controlled efficacy trial. [JOURNAL ARTICLE] J Cancer Surviv 2011 Feb 27 5] Alex Broom, KR Nayar,Philip Tovey,Rashmi Shirali, Rakesh Thakur, Tulika Seth, Prem Chhetri Indian Cancer Patients’ use of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine (TCAM) and delays in presentation to Hospital OMJ. 24, 103-107 (2009); doi:10.5001/omj.2009.24 6] U.S. Cancer Survivors Increase to Nearly 12 Million- National cancer Institute Bulletin-A trusted source for cancer research bulletin- cancer research Highlights March 11,2011 Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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April 2012
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Even in 21st century are we loosing the battle against eradication of an ancient oldest bacterial diseases by M. Tuberculosis due to poverty, unemployment, under nutrition, HIV and inadequate free quality supply of ATD drugs, microscopy, [ through DOTS] cultural confirmation ,delay in rapid diagnosi

http://www.nature.com/news/totally-drug-resistant-tb-emerges-in-india-1.9797#comment-884537464

NATURE | NEWS

ctually in India even after its 69 years of its Independences and 12th such 5th years plan for eradication of poverty and in spite of high economic growth rate near 9 , is probably the highest of killer diseases, like Tuberculosis (M. Tuberculosis) burden country Globally, if the authors is not however wrong, accounting 1/5th of Global incidence of only Pulmonary TB and 1/3rd of in south Asia. According to WHO in 2007, out of total Global 9,3 million cases of TB, 1.4 million cases and 48,000 death is related to HIV and TB co- infections and the epidemiology of MAC TB is modified today by HIV infection which is causing an increase in occurrences of new TB cases and generation of CAT1 & or CAT 2 drug resistances cases(MDR TB) affecting not only individuals but also their close contacts keens and general population of the close community. The Tuberculosis in India and in one of provinces in India like West Bengal ( where Left front party ruled since 1977] are mostly due to extreme level of economic poverty to purchase their minimum required food, lack of necessary calorie, nutrition in the affected family members in low socioeconomic classes , joblessness, lock out in small and medium size industries in the open market mixed economy of India, huge numbers of unemployment amongst economically active youths ( it exceeded more then 1.8 cores general stream graduate level or High school level educated young generation amongst 8.6 cores population in provinces of West Bengal, India census 2001), non workers, laborers, high prices for essential foods purchase , low per capita income in sub urban (bellow poverty line(BPL) Per capita income per month Rs 450 and poverty line people ], urban slum dwellers, colony people, many hawkers maid servants ,watch men and in rural population, illiteracy, and TB is mainly predominant and rampant today within low socioeconomic income group people ( who are the main working /labor forces of the state / India ) of the province of West Bengal, India ( approx.38. population as per author ) and in people BPL (29%) . This ancient Myco Bacterial disease is not usually found in upper middle class and sudden raised middle class and rich class Population with high economic stability (25-30%) having cars, flats with decoration with or without A/c, though other bacterial infections & other diseases for over nutrition { as for example, obesity, metabolic syndrome and sequel, seen in these class. Why?. As the TB is related with CD4 T cell immunity and by delayed type hypersensitivity-Type IV (Th1.and Th2. T cells) which falls with gross level poverty & low calorie consumption for long time. At least, the present first author as a Histo pathologist never encountered in his medical 27 years carrier in hospital’s Lab Set up ,unless that person is some how Immuno compromised for CD4 T cells for some other diseases like Diabetes, taking various kinds of immunosupressive drugs, steroids or under gone any organ transplants or HIV. Nearly 45% population in India is today, affected by TB and in West Bengal alone is house of 1.5 to 3.5 million people per year and in India there are 500,000 deaths occur annually due to TB only?. NTCP followed by RNTCP i.e Revised National TB control program was initiated in the year 1993 by GOI as DOT program strategy. There was political, administrative and organizational commitment too, for short course of DOT (6 months therapy) through which ensuring poor class comprehensive TB control services to reach at Sub center level (SHC) of the country with reliable sputum smear microscopy, good quality anti TB drugs, effective and patient friendly treatment to be given under direct observations and accountability to establish with health care system of the state. Then came revised RNTCP. The objective of revised RNTCP started in 2000, whose objective was to achieve 85% cure rate amongst new/old smear positive cases initiated on treatment and case detection rate raising up to 70% of affected. But there were not really enough existing infrastructure, enough staffs, enough human resources, free essential quality anti TB drugs, human resources to decentralize the activity through creation of Sub-sub divisional level supervisory teams comprising of a senior treatment supervisor, senior laboratory supervisor and designated trained chest Medical officers ,enough reliable microscopy centers with trained persons to examine AFB, free supply of quality Anti TB drugs (CAT-1/CAT-2/CAT-3] and trained personal though some norms and guide line was formulated for these attempts. Result was quite expected and there is raise of TB incidences. TB, HIV, Malaria, MRDM, Diarrhea ARI low birth weight baby and ARI are always diseases of poverty and should be other indicators of Health structure development of a country, or of a state. It is the matter of shame for a welfare government too that TB is raising in the state.

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January 2012
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The cosmic Web, the seed of galaxies- are also made of Warm Intergalactic Medium(WHIM) and Dark energy?

http://cosmoquest.org/forum/showthread.php?117579-The-cosmic-Web-the-seed-of-galaxies-are-made-of-Wa

comoquest forum

We all today know that our universe is made of voids, filaments, knots and sheets known as cosmic webs. Each point in space may be classified in one of four possible cosmic web types: voids, sheets, filaments and knots. Voids co-exist with a net of interconnected filaments. The entire observable universe is tangled in a web like structure, the frame work, on which the universe was once built up. We all today know it also that universe consisted of mysterious Dark energy (70%), Dark matter(25%) and that make up now 95% of the matter in the universe and which revel it self as gravity. Enormous filaments and blobs of dark matter in early universe condensed as universe condensed. Within the cosmic webs, all galaxies, stars, planets were created. The universe consists of billons and billions numbers of galaxies, some are larger, some smaller, some spiral disc shaped, like our Milky way, some non spiral, elliptical, some dwarf galaxies, some dark galaxies some as say ferst. More than 700,000 galaxies, whose observed Doppler colors indicate a significant red shift and are therefore presumed to be at large cosmological distances. Galaxies are however not dotted randomly through out universe but are generally either concentrated in groups or in clusters, which are connected again by multitude of filaments. These filamentary distributions of galaxies can be explained by vast quantities of dark matter enveloping galaxies and filamentary cold gas flowing within them ,responsible for star formation within them and the dark matter ISM is the dominant mass in the universe. The most current theory of structures formation in the observable universe aims to explain, the structures are mostly homogeneous but slightly inhomogeneous too, Universe that we observe around us, 13.7 Gyr after the Big bang, as the outcome of the growth of the primordial density fluctuations of quark gluon plasma that are observed as the temperature variations in the CMB. The formation of galaxies were possibly the most prominent visual aspect of the formation of cosmic structures that were shaped by the interplay next between the pull of the gravity and the expansion of space under influence of Dark energy. Baryonic gas condensed in the gravitational wells that had already been established by the gravitational contraction of dark matter density perturbations. This condensation was followed by the formation of stars as filamentary cold gas flowed within them ,responsible for star formation within galaxies and thus the emission of photons. All galactic structures [galaxies over passing time , clumped itself in a filamentary network] through the gravitational instability, eventually formed a cosmic net work of voids, filaments, knots and sheets, because gravity was purely then attractive force, and regions of slightly higher density in the early universe accreted matter from their surroundings and grew more over dense, with time. In the cosmic web hypothesis, spherical structures appeared probably first within filaments, growing in between them, followed by the great walls [planar structures] connecting the filaments of cosmic Web. These filaments were spreded millions of light years long and did constitute the skeleton of the early Universe: Galaxies gathered around them, and immense galaxy clusters were formed at their intersections, lurking like giant spiders waiting for more matter to accreted. Scientists and physicists are today struggling to determine how they swirl into existence. Although massive filamentary structures have been often observed at relatively small distances from us. The filament is located about 6.7 billion light-years away from us and extends over at least 60 million light-years even. As our early universe evolved, the cosmic web gradually sharpened more & more, under dense regions known as voids, empty material known as filaments and these materials subsequently flowed into over dense knots.[ In the cosmic web, under dense, almost empty regions of the universe, the voids, are delimited by great wall-like sheets and very elongated filaments of matter, which sporadically intersected each other, gave rise to very high-density regions, the clusters. Galaxies, including the most massive ones, are found in large concentrations at such ’nodes’ of the web, the clusters; less massive galaxies are prominent in filaments; only very few galaxies inhabit the voids. Large scale structures in the distribution of galaxies were thought to have evolved through gravitational instabilities from small density fluctuations in the (largely homogeneous) early Universe. These structure of galaxies consisted of rich and poor clusters, were connected by filaments and sheets, with regions largely devoid of galaxies (voids) in between. Numerical simulations of the growth of initial density fluctuations through a nonlinear regime, motivated by the likely physics of the early Universe, also show a network of filaments and voids, but the origin of this picture of filaments as the dominant structure was not well understood. J. Richard Bond, Lev Kofman & Dmitry Pogosyan[1] showed in 1996 that the 'web' of filaments that defined the final state in these simulations was present also in the initial density fluctuations; the pattern of the web was defined largely by the rare density peaks in the initial fluctuations, with the subsequent nonlinear evolution of the structure bringing the filamentary network into sharper relief. Applying these results to the observed galaxy distribution, they suggested that 'superclusters' were filamentary cluster–cluster bridges, and we predict that the most pronounced filaments will be found between clusters of galaxies that are aligned with each other and close together

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July 2011
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Life from Beyond Earth on a Meteorite, or Pareidolia?

http://pandasthumb.org/archives/2011/03/life-from-beyon.html#comment-251560

Panda's thumb

When the life did was actually originated in the earth and the rate of evolution and diversification of the earliest biota is still continued to be a very fascinating question before the astrobiologist and before the world scientific community. Similarly it is still unclear that when and how physiologically modern ecosystem based on oxygen producing photosynthesis really became established in the planet the earth [12]. The sole source of direct evidence relevant to such a question is plaeo-biologic record, contained in the rocks deposited during the Archieanon period of the earth history. It is almost >3500 MYR [Million years Ago]. The search for Archiean fossils was done with very difficulties. Few Archean sedimentary rocks had survived to the present time and paleobiological evidence in most of such rocks had been possible severely altered by metamorphism. In order to establish authenticity, arching microfossils, five principals criteria must be satisfied as per present authors. The positive microfossils I) must occur in rocks of known province ii) must be of established Archaean age by carbon dating iii) be demonstrably indigenous IV) synergic with primary deposition of enclosing rocks v) be assured biological origin by all microbiological, rRNA and DNA tests. All but a few of the microfossils like objects reported from Archean sediments have failed to meet one or more of these requirements. Other then filamentous Apex fossils, Archean Micro fossils record consist of two types of Cyano bacterium like filaments from~2750MYR old collnial uni- cell nonspecific bacterium like filaments ~3450MYR of Swazi land super group of south Africa. Apex filaments indicate that these primitive families of filamentous cyanobacteria were already highly diverse at the apex time. Although some cyanobacteria were capable of temporarily carrying out anoxic bacterial photosynthesis, oxygen producing photo autotrophy was then universal. These cyanobacteria had advanced level of physical evolution as early as ~3465MYR[William J Schoof- Science Vol260; P640; 1993]. Today all eukaryotes and other prokaryotes share a common ancestor with all the Archie bacteria whose members led pretyg exotic lives. The methane producing Methanogens, halophytes that dwell in salty environments and the eocytes. The rRNA study showed that Archie bacteria, an in other super class of prokaryotes, the eu-bacteria which include pathogen E.Coli are all closely related to each other and as a group they are very closely related to eu-karyotes. Archie-bacteria constitute one of the major evolutionary lineages on earth. Previously these prokaryotes were thought to predominate in only a few unusual and disparate niches, characterized by hyper saline, extremely hot or strictly anoxic conditions. In 1992, phylotypes of Archie bacteria had been detected in coastal and in subsurface of marine water also. Edward [Edward F Delong- Nature Vol371; P695; 1994] described high abundance of exceptionally archival in frigid marine surface water of Antarctica. Pre algae Archie constituted up to 34% of prokaryotic biomass in coastal Antarctica surface water and they were also abundant in a verity of other cold pelagic marine environment. These bacteria were typified by rRNA. Of al Antarctica bacteria sample collected in late austral water contained exceptionally high abundance of Archieal rRNA about18-30% of total pico plenkoton rRNA or 21-34% of total prokaryotic rRNA was archieal origin. Finding of Archie bacteria in these days was unexpected event and stands against Darwin’s theory of evolution. The Archie bacteria are live members of a group of microorganism that seem almost too Alien to have evolved on each. They resemble normal bacteria but are actually no more close to those bacteria than are to humans. The most obvious characteristics appear to be a taste for extreme temperature environment, which a large percentage of them inhibited. Various species live at temperature above the boiling point of water in lakes satire than the Dead Sea, in water more alkaline than household ammonia, more acidic environment than gastric juice and at consisting pressure of ocean depth. An Archie bacterium thus belongs to an independent kingdom, separate from eukariotes and also from other bacteria. The most dramatic selling of Arachae bacteria is found today in volcanic areas both on land and sea. On land, the hot gas and sulfurous fumes that leak out from earth produces Solfatara fields which can be found in such places as Iceland, Italy and yellow stones park. On the sea floor hydrothermal vents spew out sulfurous gas along with water at temperature that can reach hundred of degrees centigrade. Arachae bacteria is found to survive and grow at temperature up to 120 0c which is the highest temperature at which any organism not been ever found to survive. Methanopyrous a genus of Arachae bacteria family survive even at this temperature. Thermo toga Genus can survive up to 90 0c. Many of these thermophylic organisms live on organic materials combining carbon with hydrogen to form methane gas. Others get their energy by combining sulpher with hydrogen to form hydrogen sulphide. Arachae bacteria must have found some way to keep their DNA from unraveling. That might be possible by a type of his tone like protein discovered in microbes. When this protein is added to DNA in vitro, DNA can withstand temperature 30-40c higher than usual temperature The other possibility was that the double stranded DNA of arachaebacteria were twisted more strongly then the DNA of other creature evolved which would make it harder for the strand to separate.[Bhattacharya Pranab Kumar-2005] [ 1] Probably about once in almost every decade a scientific discovery is reported that brings out passionate debate concerning the possible existence of extraterrestrial life, and panspermia theory [Bhattacharya-2009] [13], past or present. Nagy et al. (1961) [2] reported the occurrence of biogenic hydrocarbons in the Orgueil meteorite and then subsequently went on to describe possible relict microstructures that looked similar to microbial life forms on Earth (e.g. Nagy et al., 1963) [3]. Levin and Straat (1976) [4] reported the results of experiments performed during the Viking Mission to Mars that could be interpreted as possible evidence for extant microbial life in the outer space. Engel and Nagy (1982) [5] reported the occurrence of non-racemic amino acids in the Murchison meteorite (L-enantiomer excess) that could be interpreted as possible evidence for past extraterrestrial life. McKay et al. (1996) [ 6] reported possible evidence for fossil microbial life in the Martian meteorite ALH84001. The question was whether life started first in Rocks or in ocean? For last decade, geologists also have looked at water droplets entangled in ancient Rocks — called fluid inclusions – of thousands years old trapped in the rocks found in death valley or saline valley of California USA and from Michigan, Kansas and Italy[ temperature in these locations are 130 degree Fahrenheit or more] and they wondered that microbes could be extracted from them. Fluid inclusions have been found inside salt crystals ranging in age from thousands to hundreds of millions years old. But there had always been a question about whether the organisms cultured from salt crystals are genuinely ancient material or of extraterrestrial origin or whether they are modern-day world contaminants,[science daily 22nd November-2010] and research on reviewed existing literature and they confirmed that microbes or allege DNA were over 100,000 years back and could survive as the conditions inside these water droplets are ideally suited to preserving their DNA Richard Hoover[2011] [7] very recently had discovered evidence of microfossils similar to Cyanobacteria, as we discussed early in the article, in freshly fractured slices of the interior surfaces of the Alais, Ivuna, and Orgueil CI1 carbonaceous meteorites and in ALH 84001 meteorite based on Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and other measures, This me- teorite seemed to have been ejected from the Planet Mars on earth, a few billion years ago and after a long and circuitous journey fell to Earth and remained buried in the Antarctic region for a few thousand years. Woo ! it proves pan-spermia theory and life in this planet appeared from Asteroids [1,13] Richard Hoover [7] has concluded they are indigenous to these meteors and are similar to trichomic cyanobacteria and other trichomic prokaryotes such as filamentous sulfur bacteria. He concludes these fossilized bacteria are not Earthly contaminants at all but are the fossilized remains of living organisms which lived in the parent bodies of these meteors, e.g. comets, moons, and other astral bodies. The implications are that life is everywhere, and that life on Earth may have come from other planets. [1,13]. Based on a genomic analysis, that DNA-based life has a genetic ancestry leading backwards in time over 10 billion years [8,9,10] (Joseph, Wickramasinghe, Wainwright 2011; Sharov 2009), which is twice the age of Earth. Comet / asteroid was a source of origin of life in this planet the earth? A comet is a dirty icy snowball and much of the dirty materials are organic material formaldehyde, hydrogen and more complex substances. In cold interstellar molecular clouds gaseous species such as H2O2, CO, CO2, CH3OH, H2O and NH3 are believed to condense on to sub micron carbonaceous grain to form these icy mantes. By a combination of process that included gas grain, chemical reactions, ultraviolet photolysis and cosmic ray bombardment these components could meet further to produce small amount of complex organic compound. Icy planetismals that probably formed through successive aggregation and agglomeration of such ice-coated grain might have carried significant amount of pre-biotic organic molecules to this earth during its early history. But these organic substances must had been destroyed by the heat generated of impact as comet bombarded in the early earth? If these fragile compounds had some how survived, they could have provided the starting point for the chemical evolution that led to more complex molecules like amino acids, nucleic acids and ultimately giant molecule “The RNA or DNA’. So in that case there needed extra terrestrial source of organic compounds. Carl Sagon [Science 27th July 1990, P366] told that only small parts of comets flowing in the earth atmosphere would stay cool enough to preserve the organic chemicals. J.Mayo Greenberg was however in favoring of comet as source of compounds as origin of life in this planet the earth. According to Greenberg the Icy particles make up the comets. In his laboratory, he made icy particles that make up comets. To create them he condensed mixture of water vapor, methane, CO, and other gases present in the interstellar spaces on a glass plate cooled to~100K. The Icy was amorphous like a comet ice, having a disorderly molecular structure rather then crystalline one. Amorphous ice conducts heat more slowly then the crystalline ice. Greenberg found that when ice was deposited very slowly as it would be in the interstellar grains it’s thermal conductivity become slower and slower by a factors 10,000-100,000, because of lesser connectedness’ of water molecules that had accumulated slowly. The effect of this lower thermal conductivity might have to insulate the organic materials against the heat of a cometary’s impact. While the outer layer of grains were vaporized during the comet collision on earth atmosphere, the inner part might survived unscalled and floated gently on sea of earth. But one of the most mysterious feature of present day is the fact that ribose and deoxyribose sugar in RNA and DNA are all right handed while amino acids that make up proteins are all south. This is a puzzle because sugars and amino acids are chiral molecule i.e. they can exist in two different mirror image. But on earth they do not exist as chiral. No one could answer how this enantiomeric excess came about on earth. So It will be highly necessary for independent experts in microbiology to determine whether the photomicrographs of microfossils in meteorites published by Hoover (2011) [7 ]are sufficiently similar in morphology to modern analogs to likely be the remains of extraterrestrial cyanobacteria and are truly biological one by microbiological DNA and rRNA tests .microstructures in carbonaceous meteorites may be obvious contaminants from modern worlds too. Just last month in the journal Nature, similar filamentous structures have been explained by non-biological processes [11] (Marshall et al., 2011). A confirmed discovery of life that has evolved outside Earth is no doubt a big step according to authors, but it is still just a beginning and hypothetical one. After that, the next big task is to learn more about life in the universe. How common is life? How diverse is it? How complex? In what sort of environmental conditions can life survive? These are big questions before us References

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March 2011
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Asteroids – The Source of Life on Earth? At Themis Detected Organic Compounds and Ice Read more: http://scienceray.com/astronomy/asteroids-the-source-of-life-on-earth-at-themis-detected-organic-compounds-and-ice/#ixzz3bKTWh8el

http://scienceray.com/astronomy/asteroids-the-source-of-life-on-earth-at-themis-detected-organic-com

Scienceray

When the life did was actually originated in the earth and the rate of evolution and diversification of the earliest biota is still continued to be a very fascinating question before the astrobiologist and before the world scientific community. Similarly it is still unclear that when and how physiologically modern ecosystem based on oxygen producing photosynthesis really became established in the planet the earth [12]. The sole source of direct evidence relevant to such a question is plaeo-biologic record, contained in the rocks deposited during the Archieanon period of the earth history. It is almost >3500 MYR [Million years Ago]. The search for Archiean fossils was done with very difficulties. Few Archean sedimentary rocks had survived to the present time and paleobiological evidence in most of such rocks had been possible severely altered by metamorphism. In order to establish authenticity, arching microfossils, five principals criteria must be satisfied as per present authors. The positive microfossils I) must occur in rocks of known province ii) must be of established Archaean age by carbon dating iii) be demonstrably indigenous IV) synergic with primary deposition of enclosing rocks v) be assured biological origin by all microbiological, rRNA and DNA tests. All but a few of the microfossils like objects reported from Archean sediments have failed to meet one or more of these requirements. Other then filamentous Apex fossils, Archean Micro fossils record consist of two types of Cyano bacterium like filaments from~2750MYR old collnial uni- cell nonspecific bacterium like filaments ~3450MYR of Swazi land super group of south Africa. Apex filaments indicate that these primitive families of filamentous cyanobacteria were already highly diverse at the apex time. Although some cyanobacteria were capable of temporarily carrying out anoxic bacterial photosynthesis, oxygen producing photo autotrophy was then universal. These cyanobacteria had advanced level of physical evolution as early as ~3465MYR[William J Schoof- Science Vol260; P640; 1993]. Today all eukaryotes and other prokaryotes share a common ancestor with all the Archie bacteria whose members led pretyg exotic lives. The methane producing Methanogens, halophytes that dwell in salty environments and the eocytes. The rRNA study showed that Archie bacteria, an in other super class of prokaryotes, the eu-bacteria which include pathogen E.Coli are all closely related to each other and as a group they are very closely related to eu-karyotes. Archie-bacteria constitute one of the major evolutionary lineages on earth. Previously these prokaryotes were thought to predominate in only a few unusual and disparate niches, characterized by hyper saline, extremely hot or strictly anoxic conditions. In 1992, phylotypes of Archie bacteria had been detected in coastal and in subsurface of marine water also. Edward [Edward F Delong- Nature Vol371; P695; 1994] described high abundance of exceptionally archival in frigid marine surface water of Antarctica. Pre algae Archie constituted up to 34% of prokaryotic biomass in coastal Antarctica surface water and they were also abundant in a verity of other cold pelagic marine environment. These bacteria were typified by rRNA. Of al Antarctica bacteria sample collected in late austral water contained exceptionally high abundance of Archieal rRNA about18-30% of total pico plenkoton rRNA or 21-34% of total prokaryotic rRNA was archieal origin. Finding of Archie bacteria in these days was unexpected event and stands against Darwin’s theory of evolution. The Archie bacteria are live members of a group of microorganism that seem almost too Alien to have evolved on each. They resemble normal bacteria but are actually no more close to those bacteria than are to humans. The most obvious characteristics appear to be a taste for extreme temperature environment, which a large percentage of them inhibited. Various species live at temperature above the boiling point of water in lakes satire than the Dead Sea, in water more alkaline than household ammonia, more acidic environment than gastric juice and at consisting pressure of ocean depth. An Archie bacterium thus belongs to an independent kingdom, separate from eukariotes and also from other bacteria. The most dramatic selling of Arachae bacteria is found today in volcanic areas both on land and sea. On land, the hot gas and sulfurous fumes that leak out from earth produces Solfatara fields which can be found in such places as Iceland, Italy and yellow stones park. On the sea floor hydrothermal vents spew out sulfurous gas along with water at temperature that can reach hundred of degrees centigrade. Arachae bacteria is found to survive and grow at temperature up to 120 0c which is the highest temperature at which any organism not been ever found to survive. Methanopyrous a genus of Arachae bacteria family survive even at this temperature. Thermo toga Genus can survive up to 90 0c. Many of these thermophylic organisms live on organic materials combining carbon with hydrogen to form methane gas. Others get their energy by combining sulpher with hydrogen to form hydrogen sulphide. Arachae bacteria must have found some way to keep their DNA from unraveling. That might be possible by a type of his tone like protein discovered in microbes. When this protein is added to DNA in vitro, DNA can withstand temperature 30-40c higher than usual temperature The other possibility was that the double stranded DNA of arachaebacteria were twisted more strongly then the DNA of other creature evolved which would make it harder for the strand to separate.[Bhattacharya Pranab Kumar-2005] [ 1] Probably about once in almost every decade a scientific discovery is reported that brings out passionate debate concerning the possible existence of extraterrestrial life, and panspermia theory [Bhattacharya-2009] [13], past or present. Nagy et al. (1961) [2] reported the occurrence of biogenic hydrocarbons in the Orgueil meteorite and then subsequently went on to describe possible relict microstructures that looked similar to microbial life forms on Earth (e.g. Nagy et al., 1963) [3]. Levin and Straat (1976) [4] reported the results of experiments performed during the Viking Mission to Mars that could be interpreted as possible evidence for extant microbial life in the outer space. Engel and Nagy (1982) [5] reported the occurrence of non-racemic amino acids in the Murchison meteorite (L-enantiomer excess) that could be interpreted as possible evidence for past extraterrestrial life. McKay et al. (1996) [ 6] reported possible evidence for fossil microbial life in the Martian meteorite ALH84001. The question was whether life started first in Rocks or in ocean? Read more: http://scienceray.com/astronomy/asteroids-the-source-of-life-on-earth-at-themis-detected-organic-compounds-and-ice/#ixzz3bKUASsJS

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March 2011
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Bone marrow Aspiration and Bone marrow Trephine biopsy studies are complementary to each other and in kolkata, West Bengal, Bone marrow Aspiration is most choicely investigation than trephine biopsy for Diagnosis and Follow up of common Hematological pro

J Clin Pathol jcp.2010.080820Published Online First: 4 February 2011 doi:10.1136/jcp.2010.080820

JOurnal Of clinical Pathology BMJ Group

The Hematologists(Pathologists trained in hematology) of kolkata, West Bengal( in private setup tertiary care hospitals or in diagnostic laboratories or in Govt. set up secondary or tertiary care teaching hospitals) are being mostly trained with performing, interpretation, evaluation and diagnosis of common hematological problems, requiring Bone Marrow studies, by Bone Marrow aspiration(for diagnostic and follow up after any therapy) than by Bone Marrow Trephine biopsy, unless there is1) failed aspirate due to no marrow fragments in conditions when there is Marrow fibrosis or Marrow aplasia or 2) when there is suspected Pathology in Bone or 3) Marrow is cellular but poor aspiration happens due to tightly packed marrow. In Kolkata the interpretation and reporting of Bone Marrow aspiration is usually done by consultant pathologists trained specially in hematology division in a laboratory or in a teaching hospital Pathology dept set up. A very few centers[ one or two] are there in kolkata in the medical colleges where there are post doctoral trainees in hematology who also perform and report Bone marrow aspiration mainly and occasionally by trephine biopsy

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February 2011
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Plaque reduction neutralization test for dengue virus is more sensitive test but expensive

BMJ 2009;339:b4338

BMJ

The plaque reduction neutralization test is one of the most specific and sensitive tests for dengue virus and can be used to identify the virus serotype in primary dengue infection. The secondary and tertiary infection however the infecting viral serotype can not be reliably done because of long neutralizing antibodies. This test can also be linked for sero epidemiology. The disadvantages of this test are it is highly expensive, technical difficulty and need live virus in the lab.

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December 2009
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Human papilloma virus in squamous carcinoma of the head and neck: a study of cases in south east ScotlandA casual role for Human Papilloma virus-16 for the Head and Neck Cancers word wide-and role of HPV vaccine altering the carriage rate of oropharyngeal HPV16?

http://jcp.bmjjournals.com/content/60/4/439/reply

Journal Of clinical Pathology BMJ Group

Dear Editor Infection with Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) 16 and 18 mostly is well established for development of cervical cancers in pre and post menopausal women through out the world. Professor H. Zur Housen was awarded the Nobel Prize for medicine and physiology for establishing role of HPV in development of cancer in 2008 instead of HSV2. But a pathogenic role for this HPV in non ano- genital cancer has yet been unclear till now. Tobacco and alcohol is considered today as important etiological factor for Head and Neck Squamous cell cancers(HNSCC). Epidemiological and laboratory evidences howevver now suggest this conclusion that in addition to tobacco and alcohol, HPV may be also the causative agent for the head and neck SCC. In our Institute at IPGME&R, Kolkata-20, West Bengal, India, from Pathology department the major bulk of cancer are diagnosed in the male population in any year is HNSCC and more then 95% of these sufferers gives however history of either smoking cigarette or local made Bidi or chewing Pan Parag products for long periods. These people are usually older and middle aged male. What about those young people dignosed with HNSCC? As with cervical cancer HNSCC is today a world wide public health problem with more then 9-10 lacks population per year are diagnosed by the Histopathologists having HNSCC. High risk HPV like HPV16 or HPV18 is probably not necessary for development of HNSCC. In our laboratory, we carried a work for 2 years on Role of HPV 16 and HNSCC mostly in younger people particularly and found HPV type 16 DNA is present in primary[poorly differentiated] and in metastatic cell nucleus in high copy numbers frequently integrated and transcriptionaly active by ISH technique. We are not sure whether these findings is casual association of HPV16 with HNSCC or etiology. Researches over past several years had also shown a string and consistent association between high risk HPV and distinct subset of HNSCC . However in our study these HPV associated HNSCC are characterized clinically by their location within the laryngeal and palatal tonsil of oropharynx. Their poorly differentiated histopatholgy and their frequent occurrence in nonsmoking and young patients then in HNSCC not associated with HPV. The proportion of HNSCC that is associated with HPV may be greater in a nonsmoker. HPV positive cancer may also occur in smokers. However it is unclear whether elevated risk of HNSCC for contamination of HPV infection and tobacco addiction is synergistic or additive with HPV? Thus screening for HPV in oral cavity and development of oral PAP smear might lead to early diagnosis and treatment for HNSCC. The prevalence of oral HPV infection presently a pre-requisite for HPV associated HNSCC was around 7% in centers without cancer in the IARC study [1] Another possibility for prevention of HPV associated HNSCC lies in HPV vaccine as we consider. Systemic Immunization with a protective HPV16 vaccine will be highly effective no doubt in preventing persistence HPV 16 in female genital tract. It is however not known to us whether such a vaccine will also alter the carriage rate of oropharyngial HPV16 and HNSCC

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October 2009
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Does Dark Galaxies exist in the Universe?

http://phys.org/news/2006-01-evidence-dark-galaxy.html

Physics org

Is there any Dark Galaxies in our observable universe? If they are present what are they? Of what matter they were formed? How to detect those Dark galaxies in the universe? Such few important questions once were placed for discussion by Mr.Rupak Bhattacharya, one of the authors of this letter in [www.bautforum.com]www.bautforum.com[/url]] of Bad Astronomy & universe Today Forum US in one such Threads %u201CDark Galaxies%u201D[2]. These questions were probably associated with understanding how did our universe really blossomed from the Big Bang origin. According to increasingly refined story of universe creation 85% of the matter in the visible universe is not ordinary baryonic matter-that made up galaxies and stars and planets. Rather it is the dark matter. As the universe grew from its infancy, the dark matter condensed in to enormous filaments like structures strings, tubes, clumps and haloes. These weighty objects were pooled in hydrogen gas which formed the galaxies and stars. Simulations show that dark matter should have myriad clumps between 1/1000 and 1/1000,000 as massive as our own milky way galaxy. At first these small haloes should have accumulated gas and lit up as small dwarf galaxies, thousands of which should whiz around the Milky Way. So far, astronomy could have few near by also. Various factors kept the small halos dark. So space time should have many such dark galaxies. They are all invisible galaxies. Not even the power of Hubble telescope has been able to see any stars within it. VIRGO HI -21, an intergalactic gas cloud 50 million light-years approximately from the Earth. An international team of astronomers found that it was rotating like an ordinary galaxy but without any starlight shining out, making it a coveted dark galaxy. Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2006-01-evidence-dark-galaxy.html#jCp

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August 2009
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Title-: what is Mechanism of action of Rapamycin for prolonging the age?

http://blogs.nature.com/news/2009/07/of_mice_men_and_rapamycin.html

NATURE NEWS BLOG

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July 2009
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Study of Prevalence of hookworm infection in districts of west Bengal, India and its linkage with Anemia

BMJ 2007;334:1065

BMJ

In a very recent study(unpublished work) by Bhattacharya .P.K etal, from four districts of West Bengal state, India, North24 Parganas, South 24 Parganas, Hooghly and Kolkata, when stool collection were done from both sexes from households collections in pre-coded plastic containers (2per person- one container was provided with 10% normal saline for its use in concentration technique) and all stool samples was examined with normal saline as well as with lugol’s iodine for detecting cysts, helminth’s egg and larvae by sedimentation technique of concentration method, Stoll’s Method for Worm Burden(4) and copro-culture using Harda Moris technique(5) for identifying species of hookworm and hemoglobin were estimated of the persons suffering from hookworm infestation by standard Cyneameth hemoglobin method showed that of total collected 2420 stool samples examined Hooghly districts(680 samples) has highest 25%, followed by in North-24 parganas(736 samples) 20% , South 24 parganas(401samples) 8% and in Kolkata(603 samples) 0.15% were positive for hookworm. Of both types of hookworm were prevalent with Necetor americanus being the predominant species varying from 98%-76% in all districts. The load of egg count/gram stool was mostly mild(>1000- 3000) in 3 districts, when in South 24 parganas moderate(>3000- 10,000). Amongst the accompanying infestation Ascaris Lumbericoidis was most prevalent from 12.9%-35% and Trichuris infestation in South 24 parganas(25%). About half of the population with hookworm infestation studied had normal hemoglobin and in those who did suffer from anemia was mild to moderate

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July 2007
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Rapid assay tests for HIV1 or VCTC which plays important role in Primary health care settings in West Bengal for surveillance, diagnosis & treatment of HIV1?

BMJ 2007;335:188

BMJ

n the state of West Bengal, India, total numbers of sero-positive for HIV1 (up to may 2006) detected 14,958 (sero-prevalence 0.019%) cases amongst population 8.2 cores (2001 census) and numbers of AIDS cases (May 2006) reported 5952 cases. 95% of HIV strain in West Bengal is subtype C amongst female sex workers (CSW) and 68% showed maximum homology to C3 Indian reference strain

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June 2007
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Millions in state funding for stem cells next year?Ethics in relation to use of iPS or EC stem cells for doctors

http://blogs.nature.com/boston/2006/12/20/millions-in-state-funding-for-stem-cells-next-year

Nature.com Boston Blog

The U.S. government will now be able to fund research that involves human embryonic stem cell lines derived since August 9, 2001,as president USA Mr BarraK Obama’s remarks. Pluri -potent stem cells includes*embryonic stem (ES) and germ (EG) cell lines and embryonic carcinoma (EC) cell lines ES cells, isolated from human blastocyst and maintained in culture without differentiation for long periods.EG cells are isolated from primordial germ cells of genital ridges of 5-9 weeks old fetuses and form embryoid bodies***. EC cells are isolated from tetarocarcinoma

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December 2006
3 Reads

Antimatter & Antiuniverse

http://cosmoquest.org/forum/showthread.php?41772-Antimatter-amp-Antiuniverse

comoquest forum

In the standard Big Bang Model of The universe, the matter (Quarks) and Antimatter ( antiquarks) were in almost equal amount and in equal mass and in seperate compartment(?). They were in constant aniinhilation in to flash energy and radiation. But very peculiarly the universe is now dominated with matter and dark energies which it should not be. what happened to the antimatter in the universe? Did they created another universe called Antiuniverse(?). Does anti universe exist in reality? Not in mathematics!. Anti proton,[in CERN athena project experiment] anti nuetron exist in this universe as for example PET scanning. If anti universe exist then anti galaxies exist?[ No body has seen them yet], antistar exist?, anti planetary system also exist in that antiuniverse?. In Big Bang however Whirl winds of condensed energy with matter and antiparticles found. Anti gravity is also known for antimatter. or some how antimatter exhausted and matter ( baryons) took the upper hand and if it is so how? We often see the electrical sparks on sky. are they reaction between matter and antimatter in these days

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February 2006
6 Reads

Water exclusion reaction in aqueous media: nitrone formation and cycloaddition in a single pot.

Org Lett 2003 Oct;5(21):3967-9

Medicinal Chemistry Division, Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, 4, Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032, India.

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October 2003
2 Reads
2 PubMed Central Citations(source)

Do West Bengal and other provinces in India need reforming for a poor-friendly, safe, quality, and effective healthcare system instead of a health industry, public-private partnership, or health tourism for the rich and middle class society of the state or country?

Bhattacharya PK. Do West Bengal and other provinces in India need reforming for a poor-friendly, saf

Annals of Tropical medicine and public health of AHRO

Have we made any progress in improving our healthcare structure in West Bengal? If not, why not? and how can we do better? It is certainly not better than it was in the 1980's that is 33 years back in West Bengal. Rather what the author feels is that health in West Bengal, India, gradually became a Marasmus boy, just like the West Bengal Medical Education Services [WBMES] became marasmic,without its proper implementation since the last two decades, as the then left government was probably attempting to shake off responsibility from the welfare state-controlled free health and free primary & secondary education, through a privatization model for a Public-Private Partnership [PPP] model, and trying to establish a dangerous concept of health as health industry or health tourism, not only in tertiary care hospitals, and teaching institutes in the Metropolis of West Bengal, but also in some Primary Care Hospitals (64 in numbers), rural hospitals, and state General Hospitals, in huge profitable disciplines like Pathology, Microbiology, Radiology, Biochemistry and other diagnostic services nephro dialysis.

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Nonalcoholic liver disease and non-alcoholic steato hepatitis: A review in eyes of a histopathologist of West Bengal, India

Year : 2013 | Volume : 6 | Issue : 4 | Page : 393-400

Annals of Tropical medicine and public health of AHRO

NAFLD characterized by steatosis, when NASH by steatosis, lobular inflammation or steatosis with fibrosis. NAFLD increasingly recognized today as hepatic manifestation of systemic 'metabolic complex" also in India and in province like West Bengal with BMI greater than equal 30kg/m 2 , 67% of overweight patients in which BMI greater than or equal to 25 kg/m 2 and even in 25% normal weight population or with uncontrolled type 2- NIDDM. NAFLD/NASH today one of most common liver diseases in USA, Australia, Europe, Asian countries like china, Dallas, India, and West Bengal with emerging epidemic of obesity due to DM, consumption of fast food and rich food habits in people of industrialized cities and towns even in rural villages of West Bengal . NASH a progressive form of the disease finally leads to cryptogenic cirrhosis of liver even HepatoCellular Carcinoma requires liver transplant for cure. In most cases of NASH, Insulin resistance is found. The responsible gene is fetuin-A (FetA), ethnicity, Familial clustering in first degree relatives (20% of NASH). Natural history of NAFLD variable, although most patients experience an indolent course, some others progress to cirrhosis and liver related death. Paired liver biopsy data of predominantly NASH patients shows that over a follow up period of 2-5 years 18% - 29% patients improved with life style modification and treatment, 34% to 53% remain stable and 26% to 37% develop Cirrohosis and 9% of Cirrohosis from NASH within short time, The two hit hypothesis is widely accepted theory to explain progression of NAFLD from benign steatosis towards NASH. Diagnosis of NASH is challenging before clinicians, Radiologists by USG, with fibroscan devices, MRI, PET scan unless live needle biopsy is done and final diagnosis of NASH remains in clinical knowledge of combined Hepatologists and Hispatothologists. Liver enzymes, several biomarkers for NASH availble like TNF- alpha, Adiponectin- TNF/adiponectin ratio, serum leptin, C reactive protein.

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Is there science behind the near-death experience: Does human consciousness survives after death?

Year : 2013 | Volume : 6 | Issue : 2 | Page : 151-165

Annals of Tropical medicine and public health of AHRO

Near death experiences (NDEs) have been reported throughout world in essentially all cultures, including amongst the believers of the Hindu religion The contents of NDEs are independent of the gender, age, profession, religion, belief of soul, belief in angels of death or ghosts and belief in death kingdom and heaven, of people who experienced it. The frequency of occurrence is estimated to be between 5% to 48% in adults, and around 85% in children who experienced near-death situations. This frequency may be higher still, perhaps even 100 percent, were it not for the dreamlike and dissociative character of these experiences, and the amnesia-prone participation of the temporal lobe cortex of brain, causing a clear tendency to forget the NDE. A number of experiences can be very similar to NDEs, such as review of one's life in this planet, or an out-of-body experience (OBE,) in which the physical body and its surroundings are observed from various external vantage points, often from above, such that the body is passing through a deep dark tunnel, or seeing flash of light equal to thousands of sun for pure souls. The experience of seeing God and conversing with him, seeing alien lands, seeing dead relatives or someone's future, can all be regarded as similar in nature. Many individuals have reported horror experiences as well. Numerous cases-are existing in which the reality of the the OBE-observation can be independently 'verified, by external conditions, situations, people, objects, etc. Even people who are non-religious, subsequent to NDE experiences have displayed a markedly decreased fear of death, and a corresponding increase in the belief in "life after death" and re-incarnation. Certain elements of NDE- experiences can be induced by drugs, such as hallucinogenic substances and anesthetic drugs like ketamine, and electrical stimulation of the right temporal lobe or the limbic system has also produced such effects. The possibility that the hallucinogenic transmitters (and endorphins) of the brain themselves play a role in the NDE has been postulated. Nevertheless, there are NDE-elements, such as the frequently reported quick life-reviews, and the acquisition of external, verifiable information about the physical surroundings, that cannot be explained. Wish-fulfillment, death-denial or fighting against death, and other defense mechanisms of the brain, are also not adequate explanations. The large body of NDE data now points to genuine evidence for a non-physical reality. The paranormal capacities of the human being also raises the question: Does the human soul exist?

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Tachyon- Faster than Light Particle Exist in Our Universe or an Imaginary Mathematical Particle

International Journal of Astronomy, Astrophysics and Space Science Pages: 12-29 | Vol. 2, No. 3, J

International Journal of Astronomy, Astrophysics and Space Science

For the relativistic formula for the kinetic energy, ordinary subatomic particles are confined in an infinite well of velocity of Light [c]. So it may be however considered that Faster than Light Particle (FTL) speed phenomenon may exist in this Universe. On the other hand to day even physicists and particle physicist do not consider that Faster than light particles (FTL) exists. The FTL particle is called “Tachyons” the name coined by G. Feinberg [8] in 1969. There had been many search by various experiments for FTL but most of them showed negative for their existences. It may be that light particles created inside the atomic nuclei which has the nonzero rest mass less than 10-32 kg has the probability of almost unity to transfer into FTL. The electron neutrinos and muon neutrinos also have been observed as FTL state but they have mass and if the rest mass of the neutrinos emitted in proton smashing at speed of light is less than 10-32 then it may be travelling as FTL and there is possibility of existences of Tachyons

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The Greatest Story Ever Told — 05 — Matter vs. Antimatter:Where Went the Anti matter?

http://scienceblogs.com/startswithabang/2010/03/01/the-greatest-story-ever-told-4/#comment-8636

Science Blogs

Antimatter is now extremely rare in our observable universe, but at one time antimatter comprised half the Universe. According to cosmologists, when the Universe began in Palnk’s moment of Big bang it was smaller than an atom, hotter than our Sun is, and perfectly in balanced form — like a 50-50 mixture of matter and antimatter. Then, just one second after the start of the big bang, the antimatter surprisingly disappeared. What happened to it all is still a big question before physicists

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