Publications by authors named "Prakash M Niraula"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase increases tightly-bound xyloglucan and chain number but decreases chain length contributing to the defense response that Glycine max has to Heterodera glycines.

PLoS One 2021 14;16(1):e0244305. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Department of Biological Sciences, Mississippi State University, Starkville, Mississippi State, United States of America.

The Glycine max xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase (EC 2.4.1.207), GmXTH43, has been identified through RNA sequencing of RNA isolated through laser microdissection of Heterodera glycines-parasitized root cells (syncytia) undergoing the process of defense. Experiments reveal that genetically increasing XTH43 transcript abundance in the H. glycines-susceptible genotype G. max[Williams 82/PI 518671] decreases parasitism. Experiments presented here show decreasing XTH43 transcript abundance through RNA interference (RNAi) in the H. glycines-resistant G. max[Peking/PI 548402] increases susceptibility, but it is unclear what role XTH43 performs. The experiments presented here show XTH43 overexpression decreases the relative length of xyloglucan (XyG) chains, however, there is an increase in the amount of those shorter chains. In contrast, XTH43 RNAi increases XyG chain length. The experiments show that XTH43 has the capability to function, when increased in its expression, to limit XyG chain extension. This outcome would likely impair the ability of the cell wall to expand. Consequently, XTH43 could provide an enzymatically-driven capability to the cell that would allow it to limit the ability of parasitic nematodes like H. glycines to develop a feeding structure that, otherwise, would facilitate parasitism. The experiments presented here provide experimentally-based proof that XTHs can function in ways that could be viewed as being able to limit the expansion of the cell wall.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0244305PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7808671PMC
January 2021

Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK)-regulated genes with predicted signal peptides function in the Glycine max defense response to the root pathogenic nematode Heterodera glycines.

PLoS One 2020 4;15(11):e0241678. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Department of Biological Sciences, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS, United States of America.

Glycine max has 32 mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs), nine of them exhibiting defense functions (defense MAPKs) to the plant parasitic nematode Heterodera glycines. RNA seq analyses of transgenic G. max lines overexpressing (OE) each defense MAPK has led to the identification of 309 genes that are increased in their relative transcript abundance by all 9 defense MAPKs. Here, 71 of those genes are shown to also have measurable amounts of transcript in H. glycines-induced nurse cells (syncytia) produced in the root that are undergoing a defense response. The 71 genes have been grouped into 7 types, based on their expression profile. Among the 71 genes are 8 putatively-secreted proteins that include a galactose mutarotase-like protein, pollen Ole e 1 allergen and extensin protein, endomembrane protein 70 protein, O-glycosyl hydrolase 17 protein, glycosyl hydrolase 32 protein, FASCICLIN-like arabinogalactan protein 17 precursor, secreted peroxidase and a pathogenesis-related thaumatin protein. Functional transgenic analyses of all 8 of these candidate defense genes that employ their overexpression and RNA interference (RNAi) demonstrate they have a role in defense. Overexpression experiments that increase the relative transcript abundance of the candidate defense gene reduces the ability that the plant parasitic nematode Heterodera glycines has in completing its life cycle while, in contrast, RNAi of these genes leads to an increase in parasitism. The results provide a genomic analysis of the importance of MAPK signaling in relation to the secretion apparatus during the defense process defense in the G. max-H. glycines pathosystem and identify additional targets for future studies.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0241678PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7641413PMC
January 2021

Exocyst components promote an incompatible interaction between Glycine max (soybean) and Heterodera glycines (the soybean cyst nematode).

Sci Rep 2020 09 14;10(1):15003. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Department of Biological Sciences, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS, 39762, USA.

Vesicle and target membrane fusion involves tethering, docking and fusion. The GTPase SECRETORY4 (SEC4) positions the exocyst complex during vesicle membrane tethering, facilitating docking and fusion. Glycine max (soybean) Sec4 functions in the root during its defense against the parasitic nematode Heterodera glycines as it attempts to develop a multinucleate nurse cell (syncytium) serving to nourish the nematode over its 30-day life cycle. Results indicate that other tethering proteins are also important for defense. The G. max exocyst is encoded by 61 genes: 5 EXOC1 (Sec3), 2 EXOC2 (Sec5), 5 EXOC3 (Sec6), 2 EXOC4 (Sec8), 2 EXOC5 (Sec10) 6 EXOC6 (Sec15), 31 EXOC7 (Exo70) and 8 EXOC8 (Exo84) genes. At least one member of each gene family is expressed within the syncytium during the defense response. Syncytium-expressed exocyst genes function in defense while some are under transcriptional regulation by mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). The exocyst component EXOC7-H4-1 is not expressed within the syncytium but functions in defense and is under MAPK regulation. The tethering stage of vesicle transport has been demonstrated to play an important role in defense in the G. max-H. glycines pathosystem, with some of the spatially and temporally regulated exocyst components under transcriptional control by MAPKs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-72126-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7490361PMC
September 2020

The heterologous expression of a soybean (Glycine max) xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase (XTH) in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) suppresses parasitism by the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

PLoS One 2020 6;15(7):e0235344. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Biological Sciences, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Mississippi, United States of America.

A Glycine max (soybean) hemicellulose modifying gene, xyloglucan endotransglycoslase/hydrolase (XTH43), has been identified as being expressed within a nurse cell known as a syncytium developing within the soybean root undergoing the process of defense to infection by the parasitic nematode, Heterodera glycines. The highly effective nature of XTH43 overexpression in suppressing H. glycines parasitism in soybean has led to experiments examining whether the heterologous expression of XTH43 in Gossypium hirsutum (upland cotton) could impair the parasitism of Meloidogyne incognita, that form a different type of nurse cell called a giant cell that is enclosed within a swollen root structure called a gall. The heterologous transgenic expression of XTH43 in cotton resulted in an 18% decrease in the number of galls, 70% decrease in egg masses, 64% decrease in egg production and a 97% decrease in second stage juvenile (J2) production as compared to transgenic controls. The heterologous XTH43 expression does not significantly affect root mass. The results demonstrate XTH43 expression functions effectively in impairing the development of M. incognita at numerous life cycle stages occurring within the cotton root. The experiments reveal that there are highly conserved aspects of the defense response of G. max that can function effectively in G. hirsutum to impair M. incognita having a different method of parasitism.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0235344PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7337317PMC
September 2020