Publications by authors named "Prabal Datta Barua"

24 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Novel nested patch-based feature extraction model for automated Parkinson's Disease symptom classification using MRI images.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2022 Jul 16;224:107030. Epub 2022 Jul 16.

School of Business (Information Systems), University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, QLD 4350, Australia; Ngee Ann Polytechnic, Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, 599489, Singapore; Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Science and Technology, SUSS University, Singapore; Department of Biomedical Informatics and Medical Engineering, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan; International Research Organization for Advanced Science and Technology (IROAST), Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan. Electronic address:

Objective: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurological disorder with variable clinical manifestations and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. We propose a handcrafted image classification model that can accurately (i) classify different PD stages, (ii) detect comorbid dementia, and (iii) discriminate PD-related motor symptoms.

Methods: Selected image datasets from three PD studies were used to develop the classification model. Our proposed novel automated system was developed in four phases: (i) texture features are extracted from the non-fixed size patches. In the feature extraction phase, a pyramid histogram-oriented gradient (PHOG) image descriptor is used. (ii) In the feature selection phase, four feature selectors: neighborhood component analysis (NCA), Chi2, minimum redundancy maximum relevancy (mRMR), and ReliefF are used to generate four feature vectors. (iii) Two classifiers: k-nearest neighbor (kNN) and support vector machine (SVM) are used in the classification step. A ten-fold cross-validation technique is used to validate the results. (iv) Eight predicted vectors are generated using four selected feature vectors and two classifiers. Finally, iterative majority voting (IMV) is used to attain general classification results. Therefore, this model is named nested patch-PHOG-multiple feature selectors and multiple classifiers-IMV (NP-PHOG-MFSMCIMV).

Results: Our presented NP-PHOG-MFSMCIMV model achieved 99.22, 98.70, and 99.53% accuracies for the collected PD stages, PD dementia, and PD symptoms classification datasets, respectively.

Significance: The obtained accuracies (over 98% for all states) demonstrated the performance of developed NP-PHOG-MFSMCIMV model in automated PD state classification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmpb.2022.107030DOI Listing
July 2022

PFP-LHCINCA: Pyramidal Fixed-Size Patch-Based Feature Extraction and Chi-Square Iterative Neighborhood Component Analysis for Automated Fetal Sex Classification on Ultrasound Images.

Contrast Media Mol Imaging 2022 18;2022:6034971. Epub 2022 May 18.

Ngee Ann Polytechnic, Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, Bukit 599489, Singapore.

Objectives: Fetal sex determination with ultrasound (US) examination is indicated in pregnancies at risk of X-linked genetic disorders or ambiguous genitalia. However, misdiagnoses often arise due to operator inexperience and technical difficulties while acquiring diagnostic images. We aimed to develop an efficient automated US-based fetal sex classification model that can facilitate efficient screening and reduce misclassification.

Methods: We have developed a novel feature engineering model termed PFP-LHCINCA that employs pyramidal fixed-size patch generation with average pooling-based image decomposition, handcrafted feature extraction based on local phase quantization (LPQ), and histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) to extract directional and textural features and used Chi-square iterative neighborhood component analysis feature selection (CINCA), which iteratively selects the most informative feature vector for each image that minimizes calculated feature parameter-derived k-nearest neighbor-based misclassification rates. The model was trained and tested on a sizeable expert-labeled dataset comprising 339 males' and 332 females' fetal US images. One transverse fetal US image per subject zoomed to the genital area and standardized to 256 × 256 size was used for analysis. Fetal sex was annotated by experts on US images and confirmed postnatally.

Results: Standard model performance metrics were compared using five shallow classifiers-k-nearest neighbor (kNN), decision tree, naïve Bayes, linear discriminant, and support vector machine (SVM)-with the hyperparameters tuned using a Bayesian optimizer. The PFP-LHCINCA model achieved a sex classification accuracy of ≥88% with all five classifiers and the best accuracy rates (>98%) with kNN and SVM classifiers.

Conclusions: US-based fetal sex classification is feasible and accurate using the presented PFP-LHCINCA model. The salutary results support its clinical use for fetal US image screening for sex classification. The model architecture can be modified into deep learning models for training larger datasets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/6034971DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9132621PMC
June 2022

An accurate valvular heart disorders detection model based on a new dual symmetric tree pattern using stethoscope sounds.

Comput Biol Med 2022 07 10;146:105599. Epub 2022 May 10.

Ngee Ann Polytechnic, Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, 599489, Singapore; Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Science and Technology, SUSS University, Singapore; Department of Biomedical Informatics and Medical Engineering, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Background And Purpose: Valvular heart disease (VHD) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Echocardiography is the reference standard for VHD diagnosis but is not universally accessible. Manual cardiac auscultation is inadequate for screening VHD. Many machine learning models using heart sounds acquired with an electronic stethoscope may improve the accuracy of VHD diagnosis. We aimed to develop an accurate sound classification model for VHD diagnosis.

Materials And Methods: A new large stethoscope sound dataset containing 10,366 heart sounds divided into ten categories (nine VHD and one healthy) were prospectively collected. We developed a handcrafted learning model that comprised multilevel feature extraction based on a dual symmetric tree pattern (DSTP) and multilevel discrete wavelet transform (DWT), feature selection, and classification. The multilevel DWT was used to create subbands to extract features at both high and low levels. Then, iterative neighborhood component analysis was used to select the most discriminative 512 features from among the extracted features in the generated feature vector. In the classification phase, a support vector machine (SVM) was used with 10-fold cross-validation (CV) and leave-one-subject-out (LOSO) CV.

Results: Our proposed DSTP-based model attained 99.58% and 99.84% classification accuracies using SVM classifier with 10-fold CV and LOSO CV, respectively.

Conclusions: The presented DSTP-based classification model attained excellent multiclass classification performance on a large prospective heart sound dataset at a low computational cost.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compbiomed.2022.105599DOI Listing
July 2022

Automated detection of ADHD: Current trends and future perspective.

Comput Biol Med 2022 07 16;146:105525. Epub 2022 Apr 16.

School of Science and Technology, Singapore University of Social Sciences, Singapore; School of Business (Information Systems), Faculty of Business, Education, Law & Arts, University of Southern Queensland, Australia; School of Engineering, Ngee Ann Polytechnic, Singapore; Department of Bioinformatics and Medical Engineering, Asia University, Taiwan; Research Organization for Advanced Science and Technology (IROAST) Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan. Electronic address:

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogenous disorder that has a detrimental impact on the neurodevelopment of the brain. ADHD patients exhibit combinations of inattention, impulsiveness, and hyperactivity. With early treatment and diagnosis, there is potential to modify neuronal connections and improve symptoms. However, the heterogeneous nature of ADHD, combined with its comorbidities and a global shortage of diagnostic clinicians, means diagnosis of ADHD is often delayed. Hence, it is important to consider other pathways to improve the efficiency of early diagnosis, including the role of artificial intelligence. In this study, we reviewed the current literature on machine learning and deep learning studies on ADHD diagnosis and identified the various diagnostic tools used. Subsequently, we categorized these studies according to their diagnostic tool as brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), physiological signals, questionnaires, game simulator and performance test, and motion data. We identified research gaps include the paucity of publicly available database for all modalities in ADHD assessment other than MRI, as well as a lack of focus on using data from wearable devices for ADHD diagnosis, such as ECG, PPG, and motion data. We hope that this review will inspire future work to create more publicly available datasets and conduct research for other modes of ADHD diagnosis and monitoring. Ultimately, we hope that artificial intelligence can be extended to multiple ADHD diagnostic tools, allowing for the development of a powerful clinical decision support pathway that can be used both in and out of the hospital.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compbiomed.2022.105525DOI Listing
July 2022

CGP17Pat: Automated Schizophrenia Detection Based on a Cyclic Group of Prime Order Patterns Using EEG Signals.

Healthcare (Basel) 2022 Mar 29;10(4). Epub 2022 Mar 29.

Ngee Ann Polytechnic, Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, Singapore 599489, Singapore.

Background And Purpose: Machine learning models have been used to diagnose schizophrenia. The main purpose of this research is to introduce an effective schizophrenia hand-modeled classification method.

Method: A public electroencephalogram (EEG) signal data set was used in this work, and an automated schizophrenia detection model is presented using a cyclic group of prime order with a modulo 17 operator. Therefore, the presented feature extractor was named as the cyclic group of prime order pattern, CGP17Pat. Using the proposed CGP17Pat, a new multilevel feature extraction model is presented. To choose a highly distinctive feature, iterative neighborhood component analysis (INCA) was used, and these features were classified using k-nearest neighbors (kNN) with the 10-fold cross-validation and leave-one-subject-out (LOSO) validation techniques. Finally, iterative hard majority voting was employed in the last phase to obtain channel-wise results, and the general results were calculated.

Results: The presented CGP17Pat-based EEG classification model attained 99.91% accuracy employing 10-fold cross-validation and 84.33% accuracy using the LOSO strategy.

Conclusions: The findings and results depicted the high classification ability of the presented cryptologic pattern for the data set used.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10040643DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9027158PMC
March 2022

Exemplar Darknet19 feature generation technique for automated kidney stone detection with coronal CT images.

Artif Intell Med 2022 05 5;127:102274. Epub 2022 Mar 5.

Ngee Ann Polytechnic, Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, 599489, Singapore; Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Science and Technology, SUSS University, Singapore; Department of Biomedical Informatics and Medical Engineering, Asia, University, Taichung, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Kidney stone is a commonly seen ailment and is usually detected by urologists using computed tomography (CT) images. It is difficult and time-consuming to detect small stones in CT images. Hence, an automated system can help clinicians to detect kidney stones accurately. In this work, a novel transfer learning-based image classification method (ExDark19) has been proposed to detect kidney stones using CT images. The iterative neighborhood component analysis (INCA) is employed to select the most informative feature vectors and these selected features vectors are fed to the k nearest neighbor (kNN) classifier to detect kidney stones with a ten-fold cross-validation (CV) strategy. The proposed ExDark19 model yielded an accuracy of 99.22% with 10-fold CV and 99.71% using the hold-out validation method. Our results demonstrate that the proposed ExDark19 detect kidney stones over 99% accuracies for two validation techniques. This developed automated system can assist the urologists to validate their manual screening of kidney stones and hence reduce the possible human error.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.artmed.2022.102274DOI Listing
May 2022

EPSPatNet86: eight-pointed star pattern learning network for detection ADHD disorder using EEG signals.

Physiol Meas 2022 04 4;43(3). Epub 2022 Apr 4.

Ngee Ann Polytechnic, Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, 599489, Singapore.

The main objective of this work is to present a hand-modelled one-dimensional signal classification system to detect Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) disorder using electroencephalography (EEG) signals.A novel handcrafted feature extraction method is presented in this research. Our proposed method uses a directed graph and an eight-pointed star pattern (EPSPat). Also, tunable q wavelet transforms (TQWT), wavelet packet decomposition (WPD), statistical extractor, iterative Chi2 (IChi2) selector, and the k-nearest neighbors (kNN) classifier have been utilized to develop the EPSPat based learning model. This network uses two wavelet decomposition methods (TQWT and WPD), and 85 wavelet coefficient bands are extracted. The proposed EPSPat and statistical feature creator generate features from the 85 wavelet coefficient bands and the original EEG signal. The learning network is termed EPSPatNet86. The main purpose of the presented EPSPatNet86 is to detect abnormalities of the EEG signals. Therefore, 85 wavelet subbands have been generated to extract features. The created 86 feature vectors have been evaluated using the Chi2 selector and the kNN classifier in the loss value calculation phase. The final features vector is created by employing a minimum loss-valued eight feature vectors. The IChi2 selector selects the best feature vector, which is fed to the kNN classifier. An EEG signal dataset has been used to demonstrate the presented model's EEG signal classification ability. We have used an ADHD EEG dataset since ADHD is a commonly seen brain-related ailment.Our developed EPSPatNet86 model can detect the ADHD EEG signals with 97.19% and 87.60% accuracy using 10-fold cross and subject-wise validations, respectively.The calculated results demonstrate that the presented EPSPatNet86 attained satisfactory EEG classification ability. Results show that we can apply our developed EPSPatNet86 model to other EEG signal datasets to detect abnormalities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6579/ac59dcDOI Listing
April 2022

Heart rate variability for medical decision support systems: A review.

Comput Biol Med 2022 06 23;145:105407. Epub 2022 Mar 23.

School of Science and Technology, Singapore University of Social Sciences, 463 Clementi Road, 599494, Singapore; Department of Computer Engineering, Ngee Ann Polytechnic, Singapore; Department of Bioinformatics and Medical Engineering, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Heart Rate Variability (HRV) is a good predictor of human health because the heart rhythm is modulated by a wide range of physiological processes. This statement embodies both challenges to and opportunities for HRV analysis. Opportunities arise from the wide-ranging applicability of HRV analysis for disease detection. The availability of modern high-quality sensors and the low data rate of heart rate signals make HRV easy to measure, communicate, store, and process. However, there are also significant obstacles that prevent a wider use of this technology. HRV signals are both nonstationary and nonlinear and, to the human eye, they appear noise-like. This makes them difficult to analyze and indeed the analysis findings are difficult to explain. Moreover, it is difficult to discriminate between the influences of different complex physiological processes on the HRV. These difficulties are compounded by the effects of aging and the presence of comorbidities. In this review, we have looked at scientific studies that have addressed these challenges with advanced signal processing and Artificial Intelligence (AI) methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compbiomed.2022.105407DOI Listing
June 2022

A Hand-Modeled Feature Extraction-Based Learning Network to Detect Grasps Using sEMG Signal.

Sensors (Basel) 2022 Mar 4;22(5). Epub 2022 Mar 4.

Science, Mathematics and Technology Cluster, Singapore University of Technology and Design, Singapore 487372, Singapore.

Recently, deep models have been very popular because they achieve excellent performance with many classification problems. Deep networks have high computational complexities and require specific hardware. To overcome this problem (without decreasing classification ability), a hand-modeled feature selection method is proposed in this paper. A new shape-based local feature extractor is presented which uses the geometric shape of the frustum. By using a frustum pattern, textural features are generated. Moreover, statistical features have been extracted in this model. Textures and statistics features are fused, and a hybrid feature extraction phase is obtained; these features are low-level. To generate high level features, tunable Q factor wavelet transform (TQWT) is used. The presented hybrid feature generator creates 154 feature vectors; hence, it is named Frustum154. In the multilevel feature creation phase, this model can select the appropriate feature vectors automatically and create the final feature vector by merging the appropriate feature vectors. Iterative neighborhood component analysis (INCA) chooses the best feature vector, and shallow classifiers are then used. Frustum154 has been tested on three basic hand-movement sEMG datasets. Hand-movement sEMG datasets are commonly used in biomedical engineering, but there are some problems in this area. The presented models generally required one dataset to achieve high classification ability. In this work, three sEMG datasets have been used to test the performance of Frustum154. The presented model is self-organized and selects the most informative subbands and features automatically. It achieved 98.89%, 94.94%, and 95.30% classification accuracies using shallow classifiers, indicating that Frustum154 can improve classification accuracy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s22052007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8914690PMC
March 2022

Hybrid Deep Feature Generation for Appropriate Face Mask Use Detection.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 02 9;19(4). Epub 2022 Feb 9.

Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, Ngee Ann Polytechnic, Singapore 599489, Singapore.

Mask usage is one of the most important precautions to limit the spread of COVID-19. Therefore, hygiene rules enforce the correct use of face coverings. Automated mask usage classification might be used to improve compliance monitoring. This study deals with the problem of inappropriate mask use. To address that problem, 2075 face mask usage images were collected. The individual images were labeled as either mask, no masked, or improper mask. Based on these labels, the following three cases were created: Case 1: mask versus no mask versus improper mask, Case 2: mask versus no mask + improper mask, and Case 3: mask versus no mask. This data was used to train and test a hybrid deep feature-based masked face classification model. The presented method comprises of three primary stages: (i) pre-trained ResNet101 and DenseNet201 were used as feature generators; each of these generators extracted 1000 features from an image; (ii) the most discriminative features were selected using an improved RelieF selector; and (iii) the chosen features were used to train and test a support vector machine classifier. That resulting model attained 95.95%, 97.49%, and 100.0% classification accuracy rates on Case 1, Case 2, and Case 3, respectively. Having achieved these high accuracy values indicates that the proposed model is fit for a practical trial to detect appropriate face mask use in real time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19041939DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8871993PMC
February 2022

Artificial Intelligence Enabled Personalised Assistive Tools to Enhance Education of Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders-A Review.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 01 21;19(3). Epub 2022 Jan 21.

Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, Ngee Ann Polytechnic, Singapore 599489, Singapore.

Mental disorders (MDs) with onset in childhood or adolescence include neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) (intellectual disability and specific learning disabilities, such as dyslexia, attention deficit disorder (ADHD), and autism spectrum disorders (ASD)), as well as a broad range of mental health disorders (MHDs), including anxiety, depressive, stress-related and psychotic disorders. There is a high co-morbidity of NDDs and MHDs. Globally, there have been dramatic increases in the diagnosis of childhood-onset mental disorders, with a 2- to 3-fold rise in prevalence for several MHDs in the US over the past 20 years. Depending on the type of MD, children often grapple with social and communication deficits and difficulties adapting to changes in their environment, which can impact their ability to learn effectively. To improve outcomes for children, it is important to provide timely and effective interventions. This review summarises the range and effectiveness of AI-assisted tools, developed using machine learning models, which have been applied to address learning challenges in students with a range of NDDs. Our review summarises the evidence that AI tools can be successfully used to improve social interaction and supportive education. Based on the limitations of existing AI tools, we provide recommendations for the development of future AI tools with a focus on providing personalised learning for individuals with NDDs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031192DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8835076PMC
January 2022

Application of photoplethysmography signals for healthcare systems: An in-depth review.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2022 Apr 1;216:106677. Epub 2022 Feb 1.

School of Science and Technology, Singapore University of Social Sciences, Singapore; School of Business (Information Systems), Faculty of Business, Education, Law and Arts, University of Southern Queensland, Australia; School of Engineering, Ngee Ann Polytechnic, 535 Clementi Road, 599489, Singapore; Department of Bioinformatics and Medical Engineering, Asia University, Taiwan; Research Organization for Advanced Science and Technology (IROAST), Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan. Electronic address:

Background And Objectives: Photoplethysmography (PPG) is a device that measures the amount of light absorbed by the blood vessel, blood, and tissues, which can, in turn, translate into various measurements such as the variation in blood flow volume, heart rate variability, blood pressure, etc. Hence, PPG signals can produce a wide variety of biological information that can be useful for the detection and diagnosis of various health problems. In this review, we are interested in the possible health disorders that can be detected using PPG signals.

Methods: We applied PRISMA guidelines to systematically search various journal databases and identified 43 PPG studies that fit the criteria of this review.

Results: Twenty-five health issues were identified from these studies that were classified into six categories: cardiac, blood pressure, sleep health, mental health, diabetes, and miscellaneous. Various routes were employed in these PPG studies to perform the diagnosis: machine learning, deep learning, and statistical routes. The studies were reviewed and summarized.

Conclusions: We identified limitations such as poor standardization of sampling frequencies and lack of publicly available PPG databases. We urge that future work should consider creating more publicly available databases so that a wide spectrum of health problems can be covered. We also want to promote the use of PPG signals as a potential precision medicine tool in both ambulatory and hospital settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmpb.2022.106677DOI Listing
April 2022

Automated emotion recognition: Current trends and future perspectives.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2022 Mar 19;215:106646. Epub 2022 Jan 19.

School of Engineering, Ngee Ann Polytechnic, Clementi 599489, Singapore; Department of Biomedical Informatics and Medical Engineering, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan; Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Science and Technology, SUSS University, Singapore.

Background: Human emotions greatly affect the actions of a person. The automated emotion recognition has applications in multiple domains such as health care, e-learning, surveillance, etc. The development of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) tools has led to the automated recognition of human emotions.

Objective: This review paper provides an insight into various methods employed using electroencephalogram (EEG), facial, and speech signals coupled with multi-modal emotion recognition techniques. In this work, we have reviewed most of the state-of-the-art papers published on this topic.

Method: This study was carried out by considering the various emotion recognition (ER) models proposed between 2016 and 2021. The papers were analysed based on methods employed, classifier used and performance obtained.

Results: There is a significant rise in the application of deep learning techniques for ER. They have been widely applied for EEG, speech, facial expression, and multimodal features to develop an accurate ER model.

Conclusion: Our study reveals that most of the proposed machine and deep learning-based systems have yielded good performances for automated ER in a controlled environment. However, there is a need to obtain high performance for ER even in an uncontrolled environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmpb.2022.106646DOI Listing
March 2022

Multilevel Deep Feature Generation Framework for Automated Detection of Retinal Abnormalities Using OCT Images.

Entropy (Basel) 2021 Dec 8;23(12). Epub 2021 Dec 8.

Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, Ngee Ann Polytechnic, Singapore 599489, Singapore.

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) images coupled with many learning techniques have been developed to diagnose retinal disorders. This work aims to develop a novel framework for extracting deep features from 18 pre-trained convolutional neural networks (CNN) and to attain high performance using OCT images. In this work, we have developed a new framework for automated detection of retinal disorders using transfer learning. This model consists of three phases: deep fused and multilevel feature extraction, using 18 pre-trained networks and tent maximal pooling, feature selection with ReliefF, and classification using the optimized classifier. The novelty of this proposed framework is the feature generation using widely used CNNs and to select the most suitable features for classification. The extracted features using our proposed intelligent feature extractor are fed to iterative ReliefF (IRF) to automatically select the best feature vector. The quadratic support vector machine (QSVM) is utilized as a classifier in this work. We have developed our model using two public OCT image datasets, and they are named database 1 (DB1) and database 2 (DB2). The proposed framework can attain 97.40% and 100% classification accuracies using the two OCT datasets, DB1 and DB2, respectively. These results illustrate the success of our model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/e23121651DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8700736PMC
December 2021

Role of Artificial Intelligence in COVID-19 Detection.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Dec 1;21(23). Epub 2021 Dec 1.

School of Engineering, Ngee Ann Polytechnic, Singapore 599489, Singapore.

The global pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has caused millions of deaths and affected the livelihood of many more people. Early and rapid detection of COVID-19 is a challenging task for the medical community, but it is also crucial in stopping the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Prior substantiation of artificial intelligence (AI) in various fields of science has encouraged researchers to further address this problem. Various medical imaging modalities including X-ray, computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound (US) using AI techniques have greatly helped to curb the COVID-19 outbreak by assisting with early diagnosis. We carried out a systematic review on state-of-the-art AI techniques applied with X-ray, CT, and US images to detect COVID-19. In this paper, we discuss approaches used by various authors and the significance of these research efforts, the potential challenges, and future trends related to the implementation of an AI system for disease detection during the COVID-19 pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21238045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8659534PMC
December 2021

Application of CycleGAN and transfer learning techniques for automated detection of COVID-19 using X-ray images.

Pattern Recognit Lett 2022 Jan 3;153:67-74. Epub 2021 Dec 3.

Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, Ngee Ann Polytechnic, Singapore.

Coronavirus (which is also known as COVID-19) is severely impacting the wellness and lives of many across the globe. There are several methods currently to detect and monitor the progress of the disease such as radiological image from patients' chests, measuring the symptoms and applying polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test. X-ray imaging is one of the popular techniques used to visualise the impact of the virus on the lungs. Although manual detection of this disease using radiology images is more popular, it can be time-consuming, and is prone to human errors. Hence, automated detection of lung pathologies due to COVID-19 utilising deep learning (Bowles et al.) techniques can assist with yielding accurate results for huge databases. Large volumes of data are needed to achieve generalizable DL models; however, there are very few public databases available for detecting COVID-19 disease pathologies automatically. Standard data augmentation method can be used to enhance the models' generalizability. In this research, the Extensive COVID-19 X-ray and CT Chest Images Dataset has been used and generative adversarial network (GAN) coupled with trained, semi-supervised CycleGAN (SSA- CycleGAN) has been applied to augment the training dataset. Then a newly designed and finetuned Inception V3 transfer learning model has been developed to train the algorithm for detecting COVID-19 pandemic. The obtained results from the proposed Inception-CycleGAN model indicated Accuracy = 94.2%, Area under Curve = 92.2%, Mean Squared Error = 0.27, Mean Absolute Error = 0.16. The developed Inception-CycleGAN framework is ready to be tested with further COVID-19 X-Ray images of the chest.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.patrec.2021.11.020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8641403PMC
January 2022

Automated COVID-19 and Heart Failure Detection Using DNA Pattern Technique with Cough Sounds.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Oct 22;11(11). Epub 2021 Oct 22.

Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, Ngee Ann Polytechnic, Singapore 599489, Singapore.

COVID-19 and heart failure (HF) are common disorders and although they share some similar symptoms, they require different treatments. Accurate diagnosis of these disorders is crucial for disease management, including patient isolation to curb infection spread of COVID-19. In this work, we aim to develop a computer-aided diagnostic system that can accurately differentiate these three classes (normal, COVID-19 and HF) using cough sounds. A novel handcrafted model was used to classify COVID-19 vs. healthy (Case 1), HF vs. healthy (Case 2) and COVID-19 vs. HF vs. healthy (Case 3) automatically using deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) patterns. The model was developed using the cough sounds collected from 241 COVID-19 patients, 244 HF patients, and 247 healthy subjects using a hand phone. To the best our knowledge, this is the first work to automatically classify healthy subjects, HF and COVID-19 patients using cough sounds signals. Our proposed model comprises a graph-based local feature generator (DNA pattern), an iterative maximum relevance minimum redundancy (ImRMR) iterative feature selector, with classification using the k-nearest neighbor classifier. Our proposed model attained an accuracy of 100.0%, 99.38%, and 99.49% for Case 1, Case 2, and Case 3, respectively. The developed system is completely automated and economical, and can be utilized to accurately detect COVID-19 versus HF using cough sounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11111962DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8620352PMC
October 2021

Application of Deep Learning Models for Automated Identification of Parkinson's Disease: A Review (2011-2021).

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Oct 23;21(21). Epub 2021 Oct 23.

School of Science and Technology, Singapore University of Social Sciences, Singapore 599494, Singapore.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder affecting over 6 million people globally. Although there are symptomatic treatments that can increase the survivability of the disease, there are no curative treatments. The prevalence of PD and disability-adjusted life years continue to increase steadily, leading to a growing burden on patients, their families, society and the economy. Dopaminergic medications can significantly slow down the progression of PD when applied during the early stages. However, these treatments often become less effective with the disease progression. Early diagnosis of PD is crucial for immediate interventions so that the patients can remain self-sufficient for the longest period of time possible. Unfortunately, diagnoses are often late, due to factors such as a global shortage of neurologists skilled in early PD diagnosis. Computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) tools, based on artificial intelligence methods, that can perform automated diagnosis of PD, are gaining attention from healthcare services. In this review, we have identified 63 studies published between January 2011 and July 2021, that proposed deep learning models for an automated diagnosis of PD, using various types of modalities like brain analysis (SPECT, PET, MRI and EEG), and motion symptoms (gait, handwriting, speech and EMG). From these studies, we identify the best performing deep learning model reported for each modality and highlight the current limitations that are hindering the adoption of such CAD tools in healthcare. Finally, we propose new directions to further the studies on deep learning in the automated detection of PD, in the hopes of improving the utility, applicability and impact of such tools to improve early detection of PD globally.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21217034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8587636PMC
October 2021

Multi-Scale Convolutional Neural Network for Accurate Corneal Segmentation in Early Detection of Fungal Keratitis.

J Fungi (Basel) 2021 Oct 11;7(10). Epub 2021 Oct 11.

School of Engineering, Ngee Ann Polytechnic, Clementi 599489, Singapore.

Microbial keratitis is an infection of the cornea of the eye that is commonly caused by prolonged contact lens wear, corneal trauma, pre-existing systemic disorders and other ocular surface disorders. It can result in severe visual impairment if improperly managed. According to the latest World Vision Report, at least 4.2 million people worldwide suffer from corneal opacities caused by infectious agents such as fungi, bacteria, protozoa and viruses. In patients with fungal keratitis (FK), often overt symptoms are not evident, until an advanced stage. Furthermore, it has been reported that clear discrimination between bacterial keratitis and FK is a challenging process even for trained corneal experts and is often misdiagnosed in more than 30% of the cases. However, if diagnosed early, vision impairment can be prevented through early cost-effective interventions. In this work, we propose a multi-scale convolutional neural network (MS-CNN) for accurate segmentation of the corneal region to enable early FK diagnosis. The proposed approach consists of a deep neural pipeline for corneal region segmentation followed by a ResNeXt model to differentiate between FK and non-FK classes. The model trained on the segmented images in the region of interest, achieved a diagnostic accuracy of 88.96%. The features learnt by the model emphasize that it can correctly identify dominant corneal lesions for detecting FK.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jof7100850DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8540278PMC
October 2021

Recent Trends in Artificial Intelligence-Assisted Coronary Atherosclerotic Plaque Characterization.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 09 23;18(19). Epub 2021 Sep 23.

School of Engineering, Ngee Ann Polytechnic, Clementi 599489, Singapore.

Coronary artery disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Its underlying histopathology is the atherosclerotic plaque, which comprises lipid, fibrous and-when chronic-calcium components. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and intravascular optical coherence tomography (IVOCT) performed during invasive coronary angiography are reference standards for characterizing the atherosclerotic plaque. Fine image spatial resolution attainable with contemporary coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) has enabled noninvasive plaque assessment, including identifying features associated with vulnerable plaques known to presage acute coronary events. Manual interpretation of IVUS, IVOCT and CCTA images demands scarce physician expertise and high time cost. This has motivated recent research into and development of artificial intelligence (AI)-assisted methods for image processing, feature extraction, plaque identification and characterization. We performed parallel searches of the medical and technical literature from 1995 to 2021 focusing respectively on human plaque characterization using various imaging modalities and the use of AI-assisted computer aided diagnosis (CAD) to detect and classify atherosclerotic plaques, including their composition and the presence of high-risk features denoting vulnerable plaques. A total of 122 publications were selected for evaluation and the analysis was summarized in terms of data sources, methods-machine versus deep learning-and performance metrics. Trends in AI-assisted plaque characterization are detailed and prospective research challenges discussed. Future directions for the development of accurate and efficient CAD systems to characterize plaque noninvasively using CCTA are proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph181910003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8508413PMC
September 2021

PrimePatNet87: Prime pattern and tunable q-factor wavelet transform techniques for automated accurate EEG emotion recognition.

Comput Biol Med 2021 11 16;138:104867. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Ngee Ann Polytechnic, Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, 599489, Singapore; Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Science and Technology, SUSS University, Singapore; Department of Biomedical Informatics and Medical Engineering, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Nowadays, many deep models have been presented to recognize emotions using electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. These deep models are computationally intensive, it takes a longer time to train the model. Also, it is difficult to achieve high classification performance using for emotion classification using machine learning techniques. To overcome these limitations, we present a hand-crafted conventional EEG emotion classification network. In this work, we have used novel prime pattern and tunable q-factor wavelet transform (TQWT) techniques to develop an automated model to classify human emotions. Our proposed cognitive model comprises feature extraction, feature selection, and classification steps. We have used TQWT on the EEG signals to obtain the sub-bands. The prime pattern and statistical feature generator are employed on the generated sub-bands and original signal to generate 798 features. 399 (half of them) out of 798 features are selected using minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR) selector, and misclassification rates of each signal are evaluated using support vector machine (SVM) classifier. The proposed network generated 87 feature vectors hence, this model is named PrimePatNet87. In the last step of the feature generation, the best 20 feature vectors which are selected based on the calculated misclassification rates, are concatenated. The generated feature vector is subjected to the feature selection and the most significant 1000 features are selected using the mRMR selector. These selected features are then classified using an SVM classifier. In the last phase, iterative majority voting has been used to generate a general result. We have used three publicly available datasets, namely DEAP, DREAMER, and GAMEEMO, to develop our proposed model. Our presented PrimePatNet87 model reached over 99% classification accuracy on whole datasets with leave one subject out (LOSO) validation. Our results demonstrate that the developed prime pattern network is accurate and ready for real-world applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compbiomed.2021.104867DOI Listing
November 2021

Novel automated PD detection system using aspirin pattern with EEG signals.

Comput Biol Med 2021 10 6;137:104841. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Ngee Ann Polytechnic, Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, 599489, Singapore; Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Science and Technology, SUSS University, Singapore; Department of Biomedical Informatics and Medical Engineering, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Background And Objective: Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common diseases worldwide which reduces quality of life of patients and their family members. The electroencephalogram (EEG) signals coupled with various advanced machine-learning algorithms have been widely used to detect PD automatically. In this paper, we propose a novel aspirin pattern to detect PD accurately using EEG signals.

Method: In this research, the feature generation ability of a chemical graph is investigated. Therefore, this work presents a new graph-based aspirin model for automated PD detection using EEG signals. The proposed method consists of (i) multilevel feature generation phase involving new aspirin pattern, statistical moments, and maximum absolute pooling (MAP), (ii) selection of most discriminative features using neighborhood component analysis (NCA), and (iii) classification using k nearest neighbor (kNN) for automated detection of PD and (iv) iterative majority voting.

Results: A public dataset has been used to develop the proposed model. Two cases are created, and these cases consisted of two classes. Leave one subject out (LOSO) validation have been used to calculate robust results. Our proposal achieved 93.57% and 95.48% classification accuracies for Case 1 and Case 2 respectively.

Conclusion: Our developed automated PD model is accurate and equipped to be tested with more diverse EEG datasets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compbiomed.2021.104841DOI Listing
October 2021

Automatic COVID-19 Detection Using Exemplar Hybrid Deep Features with X-ray Images.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 07 29;18(15). Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, Ngee Ann Polytechnic, Singapore S599489, Singapore.

COVID-19 and pneumonia detection using medical images is a topic of immense interest in medical and healthcare research. Various advanced medical imaging and machine learning techniques have been presented to detect these respiratory disorders accurately. In this work, we have proposed a novel COVID-19 detection system using an exemplar and hybrid fused deep feature generator with X-ray images. The proposed Exemplar COVID-19FclNet9 comprises three basic steps: exemplar deep feature generation, iterative feature selection and classification. The novelty of this work is the feature extraction using three pre-trained convolutional neural networks (CNNs) in the presented feature extraction phase. The common aspects of these pre-trained CNNs are that they have three fully connected layers, and these networks are AlexNet, VGG16 and VGG19. The fully connected layer of these networks is used to generate deep features using an exemplar structure, and a nine-feature generation method is obtained. The loss values of these feature extractors are computed, and the best three extractors are selected. The features of the top three fully connected features are merged. An iterative selector is used to select the most informative features. The chosen features are classified using a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. The proposed COVID-19FclNet9 applied nine deep feature extraction methods by using three deep networks together. The most appropriate deep feature generation model selection and iterative feature selection have been employed to utilise their advantages together. By using these techniques, the image classification ability of the used three deep networks has been improved. The presented model is developed using four X-ray image corpora (DB1, DB2, DB3 and DB4) with two, three and four classes. The proposed Exemplar COVID-19FclNet9 achieved a classification accuracy of 97.60%, 89.96%, 98.84% and 99.64% using the SVM classifier with 10-fold cross-validation for four datasets, respectively. Our developed Exemplar COVID-19FclNet9 model has achieved high classification accuracy for all four databases and may be deployed for clinical application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18158052DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8345793PMC
July 2021

Automated ASD detection using hybrid deep lightweight features extracted from EEG signals.

Comput Biol Med 2021 07 10;134:104548. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Ngee Ann Polytechnic, Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, 599489, Singapore; Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Science and Technology, SUSS University, Singapore; Department of Biomedical Informatics and Medical Engineering, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Background: Autism spectrum disorder is a common group of conditions affecting about one in 54 children. Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals from children with autism have a common morphological pattern which makes them distinguishable from normal EEG. We have used this type of signal to design and implement an automated autism detection model.

Materials And Method: We propose a hybrid lightweight deep feature extractor to obtain high classification performance. The system was designed and tested with a big EEG dataset that contained signals from autism patients and normal controls. (i) A new signal to image conversion model is presented in this paper. In this work, features are extracted from EEG signal using one-dimensional local binary pattern (1D_LBP) and the generated features are utilized as input of the short time Fourier transform (STFT) to generate spectrogram images. (ii) The deep features of the generated spectrogram images are extracted using a combination of pre-trained MobileNetV2, ShuffleNet, and SqueezeNet models. This method is named hybrid deep lightweight feature generator. (iii) A two-layered ReliefF algorithm is used for feature ranking and feature selection. (iv) The most discriminative features are fed to various shallow classifiers, developed using a 10-fold cross-validation strategy for automated autism detection.

Results: A support vector machine (SVM) classifier reached 96.44% accuracy based on features from the proposed model.

Conclusions: The results strongly indicate that the proposed hybrid deep lightweight feature extractor is suitable for autism detection using EEG signals. The model is ready to serve as part of an adjunct tool that aids neurologists during autism diagnosis in medical centers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compbiomed.2021.104548DOI Listing
July 2021
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