Publications by authors named "Pouran Makhdoumi"

7 Publications

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The hybrid system successfully to consisting of activated sludge and biofilter process from hospital wastewater: Ecotoxicological study.

J Environ Manage 2020 Dec 16;276:111098. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Students Research Committee, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

This article aimed to demonstrate solution hospital wastewater due to more consumption of antibiotics, public concern has been significantly increased for usage, fates and occurrences of these emerging compounds in the environments and biota. Therefore, it does need more discoveries about occurrences and new treatment methods. Since the conventional treatment methods are low efficient on antibiotics, integration and combination of biological systems together or with an additional process has been shown that provided a better result. However, here, the potential of a full scale combined treating system with activated sludge-scoria biofilter (ASSB) was investigated for removal of ceftriaxone (CEF) and amoxicillin (AMX). To determine the potential biodegradability of proposed system, the solid-water distribution coefficient (K) was calculated. Overally, 118 samples were collected from three points; wastewater entering, exiting the activated sludge, and exiting the biofilter. To determine the amount of CEF and AMX antibiotics, the samples were analyzed using HPLC-UV. The results showed that the activated sludge system were able to eliminate the AMX and CEF antibiotics about 70.36 and 84.49%, respectively. In compare to activated sludge, the average mean of ASSB system for the removal efficiency were 87.53% (for AMX) and 93.17% (for CEF), respectively. As a result, it can be found that the efficiency of the combined activated sludge-biofilter system in removing of the low levels of antibiotics was more than individual activated system. The result of K revealed that AMX (with a K about 0.172) has lower tendency to biomass rather than CEF (with a K about 0.512). The ecological toxicity assessment guaranteed there is no risk for fish and daphnia when the activated sludge and also ASSB effluents to be discharged into the environment even without any diluting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.111098DOI Listing
December 2020

Review on Metal-Based Nanoparticles: Role of Reactive Oxygen Species in Renal Toxicity.

Chem Res Toxicol 2020 Oct 23;33(10):2503-2514. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Fertility and Infertility Research Center, Health Technology Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

The rapidly emerging field of nanotechnology has offered innovative discoveries. Due to a wide variety of nanotechnology applications in the industrial, medical, and consumptive products, the application of nanotechnology has received considerable attention in the past decades. Metal-based nanoparticles including metal and metal oxide nanoparticles are now widely utilized in different areas of nanotechnology, leading to an increase in human exposure to nonmaterial. Since the kidney is one of the major organs to remove a variety of potentially harmful substances, including nanoparticles (NPs), from living organisms and a large proportion of cardiac output reaches the kidney, this organ is susceptible to the toxin-induced renal injury. However, despite the extensive use of NPs, there is still a limited understanding of NP-mediated toxicity. The unique physicochemical properties of metal-based NPs not only make them highly desirable in a variety of applications but also enable them to induce changes at biological levels of cellular activities, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Since oxidative stress is a key factor of NP-induced injury, it is urgent to characterize the ROS response resulting from metal-based NPs. This review summarizes an assessment of the signaling pathways that are involved in the metal-based NP-induced nephrotoxicity, with a particular focus on ROS production along with the potential oxidative stress-dependent mechanism. However, available data show that metal-based NPs may have a severe impact on the renal system, but the exact molecular mechanism of nephrotoxicity is not fully understood. A highly effective strategy for a better understanding of the mechanism would be to collect an increasing volume of information about the exposure time, physicochemical characteristics of the engineered NPs, and the cellular effects. In order to achieve a thorough knowledge of ROS-dependent renal toxicity, both and studies should be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemrestox.9b00438DOI Listing
October 2020

Evaluation of Cytotoxicity Effects of Chalcone Epoxide Analogues as a Selective COX-II Inhibitor in the Human Liver Carcinoma Cell Line.

J Pharmacopuncture 2017 Sep 30;20(3):207-212. Epub 2017 Sep 30.

Pharmaceutical Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Objectives: Study of the mechanisms involved in cancer progression suggests that cyclooxygenase enzymes play an important role in the induction of inflammation, tumor formation, and metastasis of cancer cells. Thus, cyclooxygenase enzymes could be considered for cancer chemotherapy. Among these enzymes, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) is associated with liver carcinogenesis. Various COX-2 inhibitors cause growth inhibition of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, but many of them act in the COX-2 independent mechanism. Thus, the introduction of selective COX-2 inhibitors is necessary to achieve a clear result. The present study was aimed to determine the growth-inhibitory effects of new analogues of chalcone epoxide as selective COX-2 inhibitors on the human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell line.

Methods: Estimation of both cell growth and the amount of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production were used to study the effect of selective COX-2 inhibitors on the hepatocellular carcinoma cell. Cell growth determination has done by MTT assay in 24 h, 48 h and 72 h, and PGE2 production has estimated by using ELYSA kit in 48 h and 72 h.

Results: The results showed growth inhibition of the HepG2 cell line in a concentration and time-dependent manner, as well as a reduction in the formation of PGE2 as a product of COX-2 activity. Among the compounds those analogues with methoxy and hydrogen group showed more inhibitory effect than others.

Conclusion: The current study indicates that the observed significant growth-inhibitory effect of chalcone-epoxide analogues on the HepG2 cell line may involve COX-dependent mechanisms and the PGE2 pathway parallel to the effect of celecoxib. It can be said that these analogues might be efficient compounds in chemotherapy of COX-2 dependent carcinoma specially preventing and treatment of hepatocellular carcinomas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2017.20.024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5633673PMC
September 2017

Molecular Mechanism of Aniline Induced Spleen Toxicity and Neuron Toxicity in Experimental Rat Exposure: A Review.

Curr Neuropharmacol 2019 ;17(3):201-213

Research Center for Environmental Determinants of Health (RCEDH), School of Public Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Aniline exposure leads to neuron and spleen toxicity specifically and makes diverse neurological effects and sarcoma that is defined by splenomegaly, hyperplasia, and fibrosis and tumors formation at the end. However, the molecular mechanism(s) of aniline-induced spleen toxicity is not understood well, previous studies have represented that aniline exposure results in iron overload and initiation of oxidative/nitrosative disorder stress and oxidative damage to proteins, lipids and DNA subsequently, in the spleen. Elevated expression of cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and phosphorylation of pRB protein along with increases in A, B and CDK1 as a cell cycle regulatory proteins cyclins, and reduce in CDK inhibitors (p21 and p27) could be critical in cell cycle regulation, which contributes to tumorigenic response after aniline exposure. Aniline-induced splenic toxicity is correlated to oxidative DNA damage and initiation of DNA glycosylases expression (OGG1, NEIL1/2, NTH1, APE1 and PNK) for removal of oxidative DNA lesions in rat. Oxidative stress causes transcriptional up-regulation of fibrogenic/inflammatory factors (cytokines, IL- 1, IL-6 and TNF-α) via induction of nuclear factor-kappa B, AP-1 and redox-sensitive transcription factors, in aniline treated-rats. The upstream signalling events as phosphorylation of IκB kinases (IKKα and IKKβ) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) could potentially be the causes of activation of NF-κB and AP-1. All of these events could initiate a fibrogenic and/or tumorigenic response in the spleen. The spleen toxicity of aniline is studied more and the different mechanisms are suggested. This review summarizes those events following aniline exposure that induce spleen toxicity and neurotoxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570159X16666180803164238DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6425079PMC
June 2019

Oral deferiprone administration ameliorates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2018 Oct 26;70(10):1357-1368. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

Department of Pharmacodynamics and Toxicology, Pharmacy School, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Objectives: Cisplatin is one of the widely used antitumour agents with major clinical side effect, nephrotoxicity. We showed the role of iron in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity that entrance to the cell via transferrin receptor (TfR) as a gatekeeper for iron uptake. We also examined the effect of iron chelator deferiprone against this toxicity.

Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups. Group I (saline orally for 10 days); group II (saline orally for 10 days plus single injection of cisplatin 7 mg/kg, intraperitoneally on 5 day); groups III, IV and V (deferiprone 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg orally for 10 days, respectively, plus cisplatin on 5th day). Group VI (deferiprone, orally).

Results: Deferiprone provided functional and significant histological-proven protection in group IV. Deferiprone attenuated the increased creatinine, BUN, malondialdehyde and iron concentrations in cisplatin-injected animals. The increased amounts of TfR and decreased levels of HIF-1α and related anti-apoptotic genes expression in cisplatin-treated animals were improved by deferiprone.

Conclusions: The results supported a role for iron in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and TfR may serve as an important source of iron. Based on these findings, deferiprone pretreatment may play a role in preventing cisplatin-induced nephropathy in cancer patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jphp.12990DOI Listing
October 2018

A Review on Nano-Antimicrobials: Metal Nanoparticles, Methods and Mechanisms.

Curr Drug Metab 2017 ;18(2):120-128

King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Nanotechnology is a scientific and engineering technology conducted at the nano-scale, such as in the fields of compound fabric manufacturing, food processing, agricultural processing, and engineering, as well as in medical and medicinal applications. In recent decade, nanomaterial applications for antimicrobial works have of prime interest of by many researchers. Available reports show that some of the metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) including Al2O3, TiO2, ZnO, CuO, Co3O4, In2O3, MgO, SiO2, ZrO2, Cr2O3, Ni2O3, Mn2O3, CoO, and Nickel oxide have toxicity toward several microorganisms and they could successfully kill numerous bacteria. Based on our literature review there are some effective factors that can influence the ability of nanomaterials in reducing or killing the cells, and there are mechanisms for nanomaterial against bacteria, which are briefly listed as follows: surface charge of the metal nanomaterial, shape, type and material, concentration of nanomaterial, dispersion and contact of nanomaterial to the bacterial cell, presence of active oxygen, liberation of antimicrobial ions, medium components and pH, physicochemical properties, specific surface-area-to-volume ratios, size, role of growth rate, role of biofilm formation, cell wall of bacteria, and effect of UV illumination. It can be considered that in the use of nanomaterials as antimicrobial agents, consideration of many factors remain principal. Antibacterial resistance to common chemical antibacterial agents can be due to long production-consumption cycle, thereby reducing their efficiency, and use of poor quality or fake medicines in undeveloped and developing countries. NPs as antimicrobial agents have become an emerging approach against this challenge, which can establish an effective nanostructure to deliver the antimicrobial agents for targeting the bacterial community efficiently. In addition, they are so potent that microbial pathogens cannot develop resistance to wards them. On the other hand, most of the metal oxide NPs have no toxicity toward humans at effective concentrations used to kill bacterial cells, which thus becomes an advantage for using them in a full scale. However, over the present decade, several studies have suggested that NPs are excellent antibacterial agents, at least at the research level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389200217666161201111146DOI Listing
September 2018

MicroRNAs regulate mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion-injury.

Biomed Pharmacother 2016 Dec 6;84:1635-1644. Epub 2016 Nov 6.

Department of Pharmacodynamics and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; Pharmaceutical Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address:

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that act as post-transcriptional gene regulators. They are involved in the pathogenesis of different disorders including heart diseases. MiRNAs contribute to ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/RI) by altering numerous key signaling elements. Together with alterations in the various potential signaling pathways, modification in miRNA expression has been suggested as a part of the response network following ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). In addition, cardiac mitochondrial homeostasis is closely associated with cardiac function and impairment of mitochondrial activity occurred after ischemia/reperfusion injury. MiRNAs play a key role in the regulation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and signaling proteins. In this review, we summarize the knowledge currently available regarding the molecular mechanisms of miRNA-regulated mitochondrial functions during ischemia/reperfusion injury. This regulation occurs in different stages of mitochondrial apoptosis pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2016.10.073DOI Listing
December 2016