Publications by authors named "Pornchai Rachtanapun"

31 Publications

Validation of mathematical model with phosphate activation effect by batch (R)-phenylacetylcarbinol biotransformation process utilizing Candida tropicalis pyruvate decarboxylase in phosphate buffer.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 3;11(1):11813. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Cluster of Agro Bio-Circular-Green Industry (Agro BCG), School of Agro-Industry, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 50100, Thailand.

The (R)-phenylacetylcarbinol (PAC) batch biotransformation kinetics for partially purified Candida tropicalis TISTR 5350 pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) were determined to validate a comprehensive mathematical model in 250 mL scale with 250 mM phosphate buffer/pH 7.0. PDC could convert initial 100/120 mM benzaldehyde/pyruvate substrates to the statistical significantly highest (p ≤ 0.05) maximum PAC concentration (95.8 ± 0.1 mM) and production rate (0.639 ± 0.001 mM min). A parameter search strategy aimed at minimizing overall residual sum of square (RSS) based on a system of six ordinary differential equations was applied to PAC biotransformation profiles with initial benzaldehyde/pyruvate concentration of 100/120 and 30/36 mM. Ten important biotransformation kinetic parameters were then elucidated including the zeroth order activation rate constant due to phosphate buffer species (k) of (9.38 ±  < 0.01) ×  10% relative PDC activity min mM. The validation of this model to independent biotransformation kinetics with initial benzaldehyde/pyruvate concentration of 50/60 mM resulted in relatively good fitting with RSS, mean sum of square error (MSE), and coefficient of determination (R) values of 662, 17.4, and 0.9863, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-91294-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8175490PMC
June 2021

Shelf Life Extension of Chilled Pork by Optimal Ultrasonicated Ceylon Spinach () Extracts: Physicochemical and Microbial Properties.

Foods 2021 May 29;10(6). Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Food Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-7201, USA.

The effect of ultrasonication on the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of Ceylon spinach () extracts (CE) and the shelf life of chilled pork with CE were studied. The CE were ultrasonicated at different power levels (60-100%) for 10-40 min in an ultrasonic bath with the rise of antioxidant activities ( ≤ 0.05) proportional to the ultrasonication time. The additional investigation of antibacterial activities showed that the ultrasonicated extracts (100 mg/mL) could inhibit and inactivate and with the optimal condition of 80% power for 40 min. For shelf-life testing, fresh pork treated with the ultrasonicated extracts at 100 and 120 mg/mL had lower values of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) than the control (without dipping). For food safety as measured by the total microbial count, the fresh pork dipped with 100-120 mg/mL CE extract could be kept at 0 °C for 7 days, 2 to 3 days longer than control meat at 0 and 4 °C, respectively. A sensory evaluation using a nine-point hedonic scale showed that fresh pork dipped with 100-mg/mL CE extracts was accepted by consumers. It is suggested that CE extracts can be applied in the food industry to enhance the quality and extend the shelf life of meat products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10061241DOI Listing
May 2021

Extraction of Nicotine from Tobacco Leaves and Development of Fast Dissolving Nicotine Extract Film.

Membranes (Basel) 2021 May 28;11(6). Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand.

Nicotine (NCT), administered in the form of a fast dissolving oral delivery system, can be a potential alternative to nicotine replacement therapy. NCT was extracted by maceration and acid-base extraction methods from Burley tobacco leaves with different stalk positions and extraction yield and NCT content were further determined. The extract with the highest nicotine content was selected for incorporation into a fast dissolving film formulation. The optimized film was evaluated for its physical and mechanical properties, disintegration, and drug release profile. The results demonstrated that the extract from the upper part of tobacco leaves using the acid-base extraction method had the highest amount of NCT. NCT fast dissolving film consisting of this extract as the active ingredient and HPMC E15 as a film polymer resulted in a homogeneous translucent film with a light brown color. The addition of NCT significantly affected the film properties in terms of weight, disintegration time, tensile strength, percentage elongation at break, and Young's modulus values. The drug release of NCT fast dissolving film showed a rapid initial release of 80% within three minutes, and its kinetics followed the Higuchi matrix model. The results suggest that these NCT films can be employed in the development of NCT fast dissolving films for clinical use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/membranes11060403DOI Listing
May 2021

Synergistic Antimicrobial Activities of Thai Household Essential Oils in Chitosan Film.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 May 9;13(9). Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand.

Foodborne pathogens mostly contaminate ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products by post-process contamination and cause foodborne disease outbreaks. Preventing post-process contamination and controlling microbial growth during storage by packing the RTE meats with active antimicrobial film from chitosan combined with the synergism of Thai household essential oils was investigated. Here, we analyzed antimicrobial activity and mechanical properties of chitosan films incorporated with essential oil of fingerroot (EOF) and holy basil (EOH) based on their fractional inhibitory concentration and isobolograms. We showed that antimicrobial activities of chitosan film and chitosan films formulated with EOF:EOH displayed a dramatical reduction of Scott A concentration by 7 Log in 12 h. Chitosan film incorporated with EOF:EOH at ratio 0.04:0.04% // strongly retarded growth of total viable count of on vacuum-packed bologna slices during seven days of storage at 4 and 10 °C. Combined EOF and EOH added to chitosan films did not alter thickness, elongation (%) and colors (L*, a* and b*) of the chitosan film, but it increased water vapor transmission rate and decreased film tensile strength. Results suggested that chitosan film had strong antibacterial properties. Its effectiveness in inhibiting foodborne pathogenic bacteria in ready-to-eat meat products was enhanced by adding a combination of EOF:EOH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13091519DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8125964PMC
May 2021

Ethnochemometric of plants traditionally utilised as local detergents in the forest dependent culture.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 May 16;28(5):2858-2866. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Plant Bioactive Compound Laboratory (BAC Lab), Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

The purpose of this study is to access the existing awareness of nearly forgotten Thai detergent plants by the use of chemometrics tool. A Northern Thai forest dependent community was chosen as it played vital role on knowledge retaining of plant utilisations. For initial perception, ethnobotanical survey was conducted to determine usage of plants by the community. Then the utilised plant parts were screened for phytochemicals and their relationships with the defined cleansing terms (viz., shampoo, scrub, detergent, soap, scent and spiritual) were analysed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). From the results, the most cited plants as known, used and found were , , and Biometric analyses advised that knowledge of detergent plant utilisation was well preserved at all age ranges and it was not variable with genders. Cluster analysis described that term 'spiritual' was not narrated with cleansing properties. For phytochemical analysis, plant extracts showed positive variable of bioactive ingredients and the main compounds in the extracts was saponins. These findings confirmed that the knowledge of indigenous plant utilisation was reserved by the forest dependent community and the information is beneficial toward local plant conservation movement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.02.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8117162PMC
May 2021

Methoxy-Substituted Tyramine Derivatives Synthesis, Computational Studies and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Kinetics.

Molecules 2021 Apr 23;26(9). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand.

Targeting tyrosinase for melanogenesis disorders is an established strategy. Hydroxyl-substituted benzoic and cinnamic acid scaffolds were incorporated into new chemotypes that displayed in vitro inhibitory effects against mushroom and human tyrosinase for the purpose of identifying anti-melanogenic ingredients. The most active compound 2-((4-methoxyphenethyl)amino)-2-oxoethyl ()-3-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl) acrylate (Ph9), inhibited mushroom tyrosinase with an IC of 0.059 nM, while 2-((4-methoxyphenethyl)amino)-2-oxoethyl cinnamate (Ph6) had an IC of 2.1 nM compared to the positive control, kojic acid IC 16700 nM. Results of human tyrosinase inhibitory activity in A375 human melanoma cells showed that compound (Ph9) and Ph6 exhibited 94.6% and 92.2% inhibitory activity respectively while the positive control kojic acid showed 72.9% inhibition. Enzyme kinetics reflected a mixed type of inhibition for inhibitor Ph9 ( 0.093 nM) and non-competitive inhibition for Ph6 ( 2.3 nM) revealed from Lineweaver-Burk plots. In silico docking studies with mushroom tyrosinase (PDB ID:2Y9X) predicted possible binding modes in the catalytic site for these active compounds. Ph9 displayed no PAINS (pan-assay interference compounds) alerts. Our results showed that compound Ph9 is a potential candidate for further development of tyrosinase inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26092477DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8122972PMC
April 2021

Effects on Steroid 5-Alpha Reductase Gene Expression of Thai Rice Bran Extracts and Molecular Dynamics Study on SRD5A2.

Biology (Basel) 2021 Apr 11;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand.

Steroid 5-alpha reductases (SRD5As) are responsible for the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone, a potent androgen, which is the aetiologic factor of androgenetic alopecia. This study aimed to compare the gene expression suppression activity exerted by Thai rice bran extracts and their components and investigate the interactional mechanism between bioactive compounds and SRD5A2 using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Bran of cv. Tubtim Chumphae (TRB), Yamuechaebia Morchor (YRB), Riceberry (RRB), and Malinil Surin (MRB), all rice milling by-products, was solvent-extracted. The ethanolic extract of TRB had the highest sum of overall bioactive compounds (γ-oryzanol; α-, β-, and γ-tocopherol; phenolics; and flavonoids). Among all extracts, TRB greatly downregulated the expression of , , and ; there were no significant differences between TRB and finasteride regarding suppression. The linear relationship and principal component analysis supported that the α-tocopherol content was correlated with the suppression exerted by TRB. Furthermore, MD simulation demonstrated that α-tocopherol had the highest binding affinity towards SRD5A2 by interacting with residues Phe118 and Trp201. Our findings indicate that α-tocopherol effectively downregulates the expression of genes and inhibits SRD5A2 activity, actions that are comparable to standard finasteride. TRB, a source of α-tocopherol, could be developed as an anti-hair loss product.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biology10040319DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8070419PMC
April 2021

Extraction of Tropical Fruit Peels and Development of HPMC Film Containing the Extracts as an Active Antibacterial Packaging Material.

Molecules 2021 Apr 14;26(8). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand.

In recent years, instead of the use of chemical substances, alternative substances, especially plant extracts, have been characterized for an active packaging of antibacterial elements. In this study, the peels of mangosteen (), rambutan (), and mango () were extracted to obtain bioactive compound by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and maceration with water, ethanol 95% and water-ethanol (40:60%). All extracts contained phenolics and flavonoids. However, mangosteen peel extracted by MAE and maceration with water/ethanol (MT-MAE-W/E and MT-Ma-W/E, respectively) contained higher phenolic and flavonoid contents, and exhibited greater antibacterial activity against and . Thus, both extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer (LC-MS) analysis, α-mangostin conferring antibacterial property was found in both extracts. The MT-MAE-W/E and MT-Ma-W/E films exhibited 30.22 ± 2.14 and 30.60 ± 2.83 mm of growth inhibition zones against and 26.50 ± 1.60 and 26.93 ± 3.92 mm of growth inhibition zones against . These clear zones were wider than its crude extract approximately 3 times, possibly because the film formulation enhanced antibacterial activity with sustained release of active compound. Thus, the mangosteen extracts have potential to be used as an antibacterial compound in active packaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26082265DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8070744PMC
April 2021

Antioxidant Films from Cassava Starch/Gelatin Biocomposite Fortified with Quercetin and TBHQ and Their Applications in Food Models.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Apr 1;13(7). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Division of Packaging Technology, Faculty of Agro-Industry, School of Agro-Industry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50100, Thailand.

Edible and active packaging are attractive for use in food packaging applications due to their functionality and sustainability. This research developed new antioxidant active food packaging materials from cassava starch/gelatin (7:3 ) composite films with varied antioxidant types (quercetin and tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ)) and concentrations (0-200 mg/200 mL film-forming solution) and evaluated their properties. Antioxidant addition altered the mechanical and barrier properties of the films. At 34% relative humidity (RH), increasing the concentration of quercetin increased the tensile strength and decreased the elongation at break of the composite films. Increasing quercetin and TBHQ contents increased the film water solubility and water vapor transmission rate. Intermolecular interactions between the antioxidants and films, as found in Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra and XRD micrographs, were related to the changed film functionalities. In food application studies, the cassava starch/gelatin films containing quercetin and TBHQ retarded the oxidation of lard (more than 35 days) and delayed the redness discoloration of pork. Cassava starch/gelatin composite films integrated with quercetin and TBHQ can be utilized as active packaging that delays oxidation in foods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13071117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8037226PMC
April 2021

Crude Pectic Oligosaccharide Recovery from Thai Chok Anan Mango Peel Using Pectinolytic Enzyme Hydrolysis.

Foods 2021 Mar 16;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Plant Bioactive Compound Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand.

Pectin recovered from mango peel biomass can be used as a potential source for pectic oligosaccharide hydrolysate with excellent probiotic growth-enhancing performance and prebiotic potentials. Consequently, the objectives of the current study were to optimise the enzyme hydrolysis treatment of mango peel pectin (MPP) and to evaluate the pectic oligosaccharide effects of DSM 17938 and TISTR 2195. Mango of "chok anan" variety was chosen due to its excessive volume of biomass in processing and high pectin content. The optimal treatment for mango peel pectic oligosaccharide (MPOS) valorisation was 24 h of fermentation with 0.3% () pectinase. This condition provided small oligosaccharides with the molecular weight of 643 Da that demonstrated the highest score of prebiotic activity for both of TISTR 2195 (7.76) and DSM 17938 (6.87). The major sugar compositions of the oligosaccharide were fructose (24.41% ()) and glucose (19.52% ()). For the simulation of prebiotic fermentation, TISTR 2195 showed higher proliferation in 4% () of MPOS supplemented (8.92 log CFU/mL) than that of (8.53 CFU/mL) at 72 h of the fermentation time. The main short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) derived from MPOS were acetic acid and propionic acid. The highest value of total SCFA was achieved from the 4% () MPOS supplementation for both of (68.57 mM) and (69.15 mM). The result of this study therefore conclusively advises that MPOS is a novel pectic oligosaccharide resource providing the opportunity for the sustainable development approach through utilising by-products from the fruit industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10030627DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7999440PMC
March 2021

New Vegetable Oils with Different Fatty Acids on Natural Rubber Composite Properties.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Mar 31;13(7). Epub 2021 Mar 31.

School of Agro-Industry, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50100, Thailand.

Owing to the toxicity of polycyclic aromatic (PCA) oils, much attention has been paid to the replacement of PCA oils by other nontoxic oils. This paper reports comparative study of the effects of new vegetable oils, i.e., Moringa oil (MO) and Niger oil (NO), on rheological, physical and dynamic properties of silica-filled natural rubber composite (NRC), in comparison with petroleum-based naphthenic oil (NTO). The results reveal that MO and NO exhibit higher thermal stability and better processability than NTO. Cure characteristics of the rubber compounds are not significantly affected by the oil type. It is also found that the NRCs containing MO or NO have better tensile strength and lower dynamic energy loss than the NRCs containing NTO. This may be because both MO and NO improve filler dispersion to a greater extent than NTO as supported by storage modulus and scanning electron microscopy results. Consequently, the present study suggests that MO and NO could be used as the alternative non-toxic oils for NRC without any loss of the properties evaluated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13071108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8036655PMC
March 2021

Characterization of Chitosan Film Incorporated with Curcumin Extract.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Mar 21;13(6). Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Department of Chemical Technology and Environment, The University of Danang-University of Technology and Education, Danang 550000, Vietnam.

Curcumin is a phenolic compound derived from turmeric roots ( L.). This research studied the effects of curcumin extract on the properties of chitosan films. The film characteristics measured included mechanical properties, visual aspects, color parameters, light transmission, moisture content, water solubility, water vapor permeability, infrared spectroscopy, and antioxidant activity. The results suggest that adding curcumin to chitosan-based films increases yellowness and light barriers. Infrared spectroscopy analysis showed interactions between the phenolic compounds of the extract and the chitosan, which may have improved the mechanical properties and reduced the moisture content, water solubility, and water vapor permeability of the films. The antioxidant activity of the films increased with increasing concentrations of the curcumin extract. This study shows the potential benefits of incorporating curcumin extract into chitosan films used as active packaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13060963DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8004135PMC
March 2021

Volatile profiles from over-ripe purée of Thai mango varieties and their physiochemical properties during heat processing.

PLoS One 2021 17;16(3):e0248657. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Bioactive Compound Laboratory, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

This research investigated volatile profiles of over-ripe Thai mango purée during thermal processing by solid-phase extraction, volatile quantification by XAD-2-solvent extraction, as well as descriptive sensory analysis. Overripe fruits of three varieties were analyzed for the ripening stage using specific gravity as well as firmness and the physiochemical properties were also reported. We found that aromatic profiles could be used as true representative to describe Thai mango identities of each varieties. A simple and straightforward heat treatment had differing effects on aroma characteristics and those effects were dependent with mango varieties. Indeed, the amount of terpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated sesquiterpenoids alternated after heat treatment. All descriptive attributes of heated 'sam-pee' purée were intensified while, heat treatment significantly improved only "mango identity" in 'maha-chanok' and "fermented" odour in 'keaw' purée. With or without heat treatment, the volatile profiles of 'maha-chanok' remained quite stable while heating played a significant role on chemical ingredients of 'keaw' and 'sam-pee'. Our study demonstrated that the manufacturing of the over-ripe mango into the products of high market value, selection of varieties is vitally important based upon their specific aroma characteristics before and after processing.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0248657PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7968669PMC
March 2021

Effect of Monochloroacetic Acid on Properties of Carboxymethyl Bacterial Cellulose Powder and Film from Nata de Coco.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Feb 4;13(4). Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Chemical Technology and Environment, The University of Danang-University of Technology and Education, Danang 550000, Vietnam.

Nata de coco has been used as a raw material for food preparation. In this study, the production of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) film from nata de coco and the effect of monochloroacetic acid on carboxymethyl bacterial cellulose (CMC) and its film were investigated. Bacterial cellulose from nata de coco was modified into CMC form via carboxymethylation using various concentrations of monochloroacetic acid (MCA) at 6, 12, 18, and 24 g per 15 g of cellulose. The results showed that different concentrations of MCA affected the degree of substitution (DS), chemical structure, viscosity, color, crystallinity, and morphology of CMC. The optimum treatment for carboxymethylation was found using 24 g of MCA per 15 g of cellulose, which provided the highest DS at 0.83. The morphology of CMC was related to DS value; a higher DS value showed denser and smoother surface than nata de coco cellulose. The various MCA concentrations increased the mechanical properties (tensile strength and percentage of elongation at break) and water vapor permeability of CMC, which were related to the DS value.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13040488DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7915731PMC
February 2021

Carboxymethyl Bacterial Cellulose from Nata de Coco: Effects of NaOH.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Jan 22;13(3). Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Department of Chemical Technology and Environment, The University of Danang-University of Technology and Education, Danang 550000, Vietnam.

Bacterial cellulose from nata de coco was prepared from the fermentation of coconut juice with for 10 days at room temperature under sterile conditions. Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was transformed from the bacterial cellulose from the nata de coco by carboxymethylation using different concentrations of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and monochloroacetic acid (MCA) in an isopropyl (IPA) medium. The effects of various NaOH concentrations on the degree of substitution (DS), chemical structure, viscosity, color, crystallinity, morphology and the thermal properties of carboxymethyl bacterial cellulose powder from nata de coco (CMCn) were evaluated. In the carboxymethylation process, the optimal condition resulted from NaOH amount of 30 g/100 mL, as this provided the highest DS value (0.92). The crystallinity of CMCn declined after synthesis but seemed to be the same in each condition. The mechanical properties (tensile strength and percentage of elongation at break), water vapor permeability (WVP) and morphology of CMCn films obtained from CMCn synthesis using different NaOH concentrations were investigated. The tensile strength of CMCn film synthesized with a NaOH concentration of 30 g/100 mL increased, however it declined when the amount of NaOH concentration was too high. This result correlated with the DS value. The highest percent elongation at break was obtained from CMCn films synthesized with 50 g/100 mL NaOH, whereas the elongation at break decreased when NaOH concentration increased to 60 g/100 mL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13030348DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7865890PMC
January 2021

Synthesis, Characterization, and Application of Carboxymethyl Cellulose from Asparagus Stalk End.

Polymers (Basel) 2020 Dec 28;13(1). Epub 2020 Dec 28.

School of Agro-Industry, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50100, Thailand.

Cellulose from stalk end was extracted and synthesized to carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) using monochloroacetic acid (MCA) via carboxymethylation reaction with various sodium hydroxide (NaOH) concentrations starting from 20% to 60%. The cellulose and CMC were characterized by the physical properties, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In addition, mechanical properties of CMC films were also investigated. The optimum condition for producing CMC was found to be 30% of NaOH concentration for the carboxymethylation reaction, which provided the highest percent yield of CMC at 44.04% with the highest degree of substitution (DS) at 0.98. The melting point of CMC decreased with increasing NaOH concentrations. Crystallinity of CMC was significantly deformed ( < 0.05) after synthesis at a high concentration. The value of the CMC was significantly lower at a high NaOH concentration compared to the cellulose. The highest tensile strength (44.59 MPa) was found in CMC film synthesized with 40% of NaOH concentration and the highest percent elongation at break (24.99%) was obtained in CMC film treated with 30% of NaOH concentration. The applications of asparagus stalk end are as biomaterials in drug delivery system, tissue engineering, coating, and food packaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13010081DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7795991PMC
December 2020

Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose E15: A Hydrophilic Polymer for Fabrication of Orodispersible Film Using Syringe Extrusion 3D Printer.

Polymers (Basel) 2020 Nov 12;12(11). Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand.

Extrusion-based 3D printing technology is a relatively new technique that has a potential for fabricating pharmaceutical products in various dosage forms. It offers many advantages over conventional manufacturing methods, including more accurate drug dosing, which is especially important for the drugs that require exact tailoring (e.g., narrow therapeutic index drugs). In this work, we have successfully fabricated phenytoin-loaded orodispersible films (ODFs) through a syringe extrusion 3D printing technique. Two different grades of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC E5 and HPMC E15) were used as the film-forming polymers, and glycerin and propylene glycol were used as plasticizers. The 3D-printed ODFs were physicochemically characterized and evaluated for their mechanical properties and in vitro disintegration time. Then, the optimum printed ODFs showing good mechanical properties and the fastest disintegration time were selected to evaluate their drug content and dissolution profiles. The results showed that phenytoin-loaded E15 ODFs demonstrated superior properties when compared to E5 films. It demonstrated a fast disintegration time in less than 5 s and rapidly dissolved and reached up to 80% of drug release within 10 min. In addition, it also exhibited drug content uniformity within United States Pharmacopeia (USP) acceptable range and exhibited good mechanical properties and flexibility with low puncture strength, low Young's modulus and high elongation, which allows ease of handling and application. Furthermore, the HPMC E15 printing dispersions with suitable concentrations at 10% exhibited a non-Newtonian (shear-thinning) pseudoplastic behavior along with good extrudability characteristics through the extrusion nozzle. Thus, HPMC E15 can be applied as a 3D printing polymer for a syringe extrusion 3D printer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym12112666DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7696250PMC
November 2020

Natural Surfactant Saponin from Tissue of and Its Alternative Sustainable Production.

Plants (Basel) 2020 Nov 9;9(11). Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Plant Bioactive Compound Laboratory, Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand.

In this research, we assessed the detergency properties along with chemical characteristic of the surfactant extracts from the most frequently cited detergent plants in Northern Thailand, namely, , , and . Moreover, as to provide the sustainable option for production of such valuable ingredients, plant tissue culture (PTC) as alternative method for industrial metabolite cultivation was also proposed herein. The results illustrated that detergent plant extracts showed moderate in foaming and detergency abilities compared with those of synthetic surfactant. The phytochemical analysis illustrated the positive detection of saponins in plant extracts. The highest callus formation was found in explant cultured with MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/L Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The callus extract was chemical elucidated using chromatography, which illustrated the presence of saponin similar to those from the crude leaf and Quillaja saponin extracts. Compact mass spectrometry confirmed that the surfactant was of the steroidal diagnostic type.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants9111521DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7695332PMC
November 2020

Novel Color Change Film as a Time-Temperature Indicator Using Polydiacetylene/Silver Nanoparticles Embedded in Carboxymethyl Cellulose.

Polymers (Basel) 2020 Oct 8;12(10). Epub 2020 Oct 8.

School of Agro-Industry, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50100, Thailand.

Time-temperature indicators (TTIs) can be important tools in product applications to monitor food quality losses, especially for fruits and vegetables. In this context, the effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and glycerol on the color change of polydiacetylene/AgNPs (PDA/AgNPs) embedded in carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) film as time-temperature indicators (TTIs) were investigated. A CMC film prepared with 30 mg/L AgNPs and a 1:3 (v/v) PDA:AgNP ratio exhibited a faster color change than under other conditions. At 35 °C, the films with PDA/AgNPs changed color from purplish-blue to purple and purple to reddish-purple over time due to the higher thermal conductivity of AgNPs and larger PDA surface area exposed to specific temperatures. The total color difference (TCD) of PDA/AgNP-embedded CMC film directly changed with regard to time and temperature. However, adding glycerol to the system resulted in a symmetrical chemical structure, a factor that delayed the color change. Scanning electron micrographs showed AgNPs embedded in the CMC films. Transmission electron micrographs indicated a core-shell structure of PDA/AgNP vesicles in the CMC matrix. PDA/AgNP vesicles were confirmed by second derivative Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, with a new peak at 1390-1150 cm. The kinetics of TTIs from PDA/AgNP-embedded CMC films yielded an activation energy of 58.70 kJ/mol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym12102306DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7600825PMC
October 2020

Physical Properties of Carboxymethyl Cellulose from Palm Bunch and Bagasse Agricultural Wastes: Effect of Delignification with Hydrogen Peroxide.

Polymers (Basel) 2020 Jul 7;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 7.

School of Agro-Industry, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50100, Thailand.

The aim of this work was to synthesize carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and produce CMC films from the cellulose of palm bunch and bagasse agricultural waste. The effect of various amounts of HO (0-40% /) during delignification on the properties of cellulose, CMC, and CMC films was studied. As the HO content increased, yield and the lignin content of the cellulose from palm bunch and bagasse decreased, whereas lightness () and whiteness index (WI) increased. FTIR confirmed the substitution of a carboxymethyl group on the cellulose structure. A higher degree of substitution of CMC from both sources was found when 20%-30% HO was employed. The trend in the and WI values of each CMC and CMC film was related to those values in their respective cellulose. Bleaching each cellulose with 20% HO provided the cellulose with the highest viscosity and the CMC films with the greatest mechanical (higher tensile strength and elongation at break) and soluble attributes, but the lowest water vapor barrier. This evidence indicates that cellulose delignification with HO has a strong effect on the appearance and physical properties of both CMCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym12071505DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7407813PMC
July 2020

Antioxidant and Moisturizing Properties of Carboxymethyl Chitosan with Different Molecular Weights.

Polymers (Basel) 2020 Jun 28;12(7). Epub 2020 Jun 28.

Faculty of Agro-Industry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50100, Thailand.

This research aimed to synthesize carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCH) from different molecular weights of chitosan including low MW (L, 50-190 kDa), medium MW (M, 210-300 kDa) and high MW (H, 310-375 kDa) on the antioxidant and moisturizing properties. The L-CMCH, M-CMCH and H-CMCH improved the water solubility by about 96%, 90% and 89%, respectively when compared to native chitosan. Higher MW resulted in more viscous of CMCH. For antioxidant properties, IC values of DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity for L-CMCH were 1.70 and 1.37 mg/mL, respectively. The L-CMCH had higher antioxidant properties by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assay and FRAP. The moisturizing properties on pig skin using a Corneometer showed that 0.5% H-CMCH significantly presented ( ≤ 0.05) greater moisturizing effect than that of untreated-skin, distilled water, propylene glycol and pure chitosan from three molecular weights.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym12071445DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7407185PMC
June 2020

Effect of sodium benzoate and chlorhexidine gluconate on a bio-thermoplastic elastomer made from thermoplastic starch-chitosan blended with epoxidized natural rubber.

Carbohydr Polym 2020 Aug 12;242:116421. Epub 2020 May 12.

School of Agro-Industry, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Chiang Mai University, Mae-Hea, Mueang, Chiang Mai 50100, Thailand; Cluster of Agro Bio-Circular-Green Industry, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50100, Thailand. Electronic address:

Thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) was developed by blending thermoplastic starch (TPS) with rubber. Thermoplastic starch-chitosan (TPSC) was prepared by the solution mixing of cassava starch, chitosan (CTS) and glycerol in acidified water (lactic acid 1 wt%) at 80 °C follow by melt mixing at 130 °C. Sodium benzoate (BEN) and chlorhexidine gluconate (Cl) were added during the solution mixing as additives for antimicrobial properties. TPSC was melt-mixed with epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) (70/30 wt/wt). The tensile strength and elongation at break of the TPSC/ENR increased with the additive content. Elastic recovery was improved by the addition of Cl. A new peak in the FTIR data confirmed the reaction between the reactive functional groups of the CTS and the additives with the epoxy groups of ENR. These reactions and miscibility of the TPSC/ENR/additives blends improved the mechanical properties, elasticity, morphology, and antimicrobial properties of the blends.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2020.116421DOI Listing
August 2020

Chitosan and Natural Rubber Latex Biocomposite Prepared by Incorporating Negatively Charged Chitosan Dispersion.

Molecules 2020 Jun 16;25(12). Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Division of Packaging Technology, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50100, Thailand.

Generally, natural rubber/chitosan (NR/CT) biocomposites could be prepared by either mixing natural rubber latex (NRL) with CT acid solution or mixing dry NR with CT powder on mixing equipment. In the present work, a new mixing method has been proposed and properties of the obtained NR/CT biocomposites are investigated. CT particles were prepared to have a negative charge that could be dispersed in water by using a ball mill before mixing with NRL. The effects of CT loading varied from 0 to 8 phr on latex properties and physical properties of NR/CT biocomposite films were focused. The results showed that the viscosity of NRL increased with increasing CT loading. With increasing CT loading from 0 to 8 phr, 300% modulus of the NR/CT biocomposite film increased, whereas the opposite trend was found for elongation at break. Additionally, the presence of CT in the biocomposite resulted in an increased elastic modulus (E') in conjunction with enhanced antibacterial activity against ().
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25122777DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7356023PMC
June 2020

Preparation of Clindamycin Hydrochloride Loaded De-Esterified Low-Methoxyl Mango Peel Pectin Film Used as a Topical Drug Delivery System.

Polymers (Basel) 2020 Apr 27;12(5). Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand.

In this study, we aimed to develop a low-mexthoxyl pectin (LMP) from mango peel pectin through a de-esterification method for use as a film forming agent. The prepared de-esterified pectin (DP) was compared to commercial LMP (cLMP) which possessed a 29% degree of esterification (DE). Mango peel pectin was extracted from ripe Nam Dokmai mango peel using the microwave-assisted extraction method. Pectin derived from the mango peel was classified as a high mexthoxyl pectin (79% DE) with 75% of galacturonic acid (GalA) content. A de-esterification experiment was designed by central composite design to plot the surface response curve. Our prepared DP was classified as LMP (DE 29.40%) with 69% GalA. In addition, the Fourier-transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR) spectra of the DP were similar to cLMP and the pectin backbone was not changed by the de-esterification process. Strikingly, the cLMP and DP films showed non-significant differences between their physical properties ( > 0.05) with respect to the puncture strength (13.72 N/mm and 11.13 N/mm for the cLMP and DP films, respectively), percent elongation (2.75% and 2.52% for the cLMP and DP films, respectively), and Young's modulus (67.69 N/mm and 61.79 N/mm for the cLMP and DP films, respectively). The de-esterified pectin containing clindamycin HCl (DPC) and low-methoxyl pectin containing clindamycin HCl (cLMPC) films demonstrated 93.47% and 98.79% of drug loading content. The mechanical properties of the cLMPC and DPC films were improved possibly due to their crystal structures and a plasticizing effect of clindamycin HCl loaded into the films. The DPC film exhibited a drug release profile similar to that of the cLMPC film. Our anti-bacterial test of the films found that the cLMPC film showed 41.11 and 76.30 mm inhibitory clear zones against Staphylococcus aureus and Cutibacterium acnes, respectively. The DPC film showed 40.78 and 74.04 mm clear zones against S. aureus and C. acnes, respectively. The antibacterial activities of the cLMPC and DPC films were not significantly different from a commercial clindamycin solution. The results of this study suggest that mango peel pectin can be de-esterified and utilized as an LMP and the de-esterified pectin has the potential for use as a film forming agent, similar to cLMP. In addition, the remarkable use of de-esterified mango peel pectin to prepare films, as shown by our study, holds a great promise as an alternative material for anti-bacterial purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym12051006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7284784PMC
April 2020

Mango Peel Pectin by Microwave-Assisted Extraction and its Use as Fat Replacement in Dried Chinese Sausage.

Foods 2020 Apr 7;9(4). Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Cluster of Agro Bio-Circular-Green Industry (Agro BCG), Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand.

In this research, low-fat dried Chinese sausage was formulated with mango peel pectin (MPP; 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% ()) extracted by microwave assisted extraction (MAE). The extractable yield of pectin attained from peel of Nam Dok Mai variety was achieved at 13.85% using 700-watt power. The extracted MPP were of high equivalent weight (1485.78 mg/mol), degree esterification (77.19%) and methoxyl content (19.33%) with a structure of greater porosity as compared to that of the conventional method. Spectrum scans by Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FT-IR) indicated that the extracted MPP gave similar wave number profiles as the commercial pectin. Quality attributes of the Chinese sausages were assessed and compared with the control formula (CTRL). At higher concentrations of MPP, the intensity of redness and yellowness in sausage increased. The texture profile of the sausage illustrated that only the hardness value was comparable with the CTRL, while springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness were statistically lower ( < 0.05). Furthermore, the sensory evaluation by experienced panellists ( = 12) indicated that 5% MPP similarly represented overall acceptability with the CTRL. Consequently, MPP can be effectively incorporated in the formula at low level to replace fat in Chinese sausage, allowing colour improvement and production of a healthier option.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods9040450DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7231197PMC
April 2020

Characteristics and Antimicrobial Properties of Active Edible Films Based on Pectin and Nanochitosan.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Mar 23;21(6). Epub 2020 Mar 23.

Division of Packaging Technology, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50100, Thailand.

This study was aimed at creating new films and determine some functional packaging properties of pectin:nanochitosan films with ratios of pectin:nanochitosan (P:NSC) of 100:0; 75:25; 50:50; 25:75 and 0:100 (%/). The effects of the proportions of pectin:nanochitosan incorporation on the thickness, mechanical properties, water vapor permeability, water-solubility, and oxygen permeability were investigated. The microstructural studies were done using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The interactions between pectin and nanochitosan were elucidated by Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR). The results showed that the blending of pectin with nanochitosan at proportions of 50:50 increased the tensile strength to 8.96 MPa, reduced the water solubility to 37.5%, water vapor permeability to 0.2052 g·mm/m·day·kPa, and the oxygen permeability to 47.67 cc·mm/m·day. The results of the contact angle test indicated that P:NCS films were hydrophobic, especially, pectin:nanochitosan films inhibited the growth of , , and . So, P:NCS films with a proportion of 50:50 can be used as active films to extend the shelf life of food.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21062224DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7139889PMC
March 2020

Physical and Antioxidant Properties of Cassava Starch-Carboxymethyl Cellulose Incorporated with Quercetin and TBHQ as Active Food Packaging.

Polymers (Basel) 2020 Feb 7;12(2). Epub 2020 Feb 7.

Division of Packaging Technology, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50100, Thailand.

Antioxidant integration has been advocated for in polymer films, to exert their antioxidative effects in active packaging. In this study, the new antioxidant food packaging made from cassava starch-carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), which is biodegradable, edible and inexpensive, was developed. Their properties were determined and applied in food models for application. Antioxidants (quercetin and tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ)) were added at various concentrations into cassava starch-carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) (7:3 /) films containing glycerol (30 g/100 g starch-CMC) as a plasticizer. The effects of quercetin and TBHQ concentrations on the mechanical properties, solubility, antioxidative activity, and applications of the films were investigated. Addition of antioxidant improved tensile strength, but reduced elongation at break of the cassava starch-CMC film. Cassava starch-CMC films containing quercetin showed higher tensile strength, but lower elongation at break, compared to films with TBHQ. Increases in quercetin and TBHQ content decreased water solubility in the films. Both the total phenolic content and antioxidative activity (DPPH scavenging assay) still remained in films during storage time (30 days). In application, cassava starch-CMC film containing quercetin and TBHQ can retard the oxidation of lard (35-70 days) and delay the discoloration of pork.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym12020366DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7077445PMC
February 2020

Effect of Dip Coating Polymer Solutions on Properties of Thermoplastic Cassava Starch.

Polymers (Basel) 2019 Oct 24;11(11). Epub 2019 Oct 24.

Cluster of research and development of pharmaceutical and natural products innovation for human or animal, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand.

Thermoplastic starch (TPS) was prepared by melt-mixing cassava starch with glycerol. Polyethylene (PE), polyethylene-grafted-maleic anhydride (PE-MAH) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) solutions at 2% () were used to coat TPS using the dip coating process. The tensile strength of TPS increased with the dip coating solution technique, especially for PLA coating. Swelling index, water-soluble matter and water droplet contact angle confirmed the water resistant improvement of TPS by PE-MAH and the PLA dip coating solution. Plasticizer bleeding was found in uncoated TPS after storage, but not in the coated TPS. Coating TPS with PE-MAH and PLA improved the tensile properties, water resistance and conquered plasticizer bleeding problems in TPS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym11111746DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6918419PMC
October 2019

Biodegradable Rice Starch/Carboxymethyl Chitosan Films with Added Propolis Extract for Potential Use as Active Food Packaging.

Polymers (Basel) 2018 Aug 28;10(9). Epub 2018 Aug 28.

Division of Packaging Technology, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50100, Thailand.

Active films from rice starch/carboxymethyl chitosan (RS/CMCh) incorporated with propolis extract (ppl) were developed and characterized. The effect of the ppl content (0⁻10% w/w based on RS/CMCh) on the developed films' properties were determined by measuring the optical, mechanical, thermal, swelling, barrier, antimicrobial, and antioxidant attributes. The thermal stability and biodegradability of the films were also investigated. As the ppl content increased, free radical scavenging and * and * color values increased, whereas luminosity (*) and swellability of the films decreased. The active films with 5⁻10% ppl possessed antimicrobial ability against Gram-positive bacteria ( and ). The active film with 10% ppl displayed increased flexibility and thermal stability, without a change in oxygen permeability. The results indicated that incorporation of ppl into RS/CMCh film could enhance the films' antioxidant and antimicrobial properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym10090954DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6403806PMC
August 2018

Mechanical properties improvement of thermoplastic corn starch and polyethylene-grafted-maleicanhydride blending by Na ions neutralization of carboxymethyl cellulose.

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Dec 18;120(Pt A):297-301. Epub 2018 Aug 18.

School of Agro-Industry, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Chiang Mai University, Mae-Hea, Mueang, Chiang Mai 50100, Thailand.

Corn starch was melt-blended with glycerol (70/30) to prepare thermoplastic starch (TPS) at 140 °C for 10 min. The TPS was melt-blended with polyethylene grafted with maleic anhydride (PE-MAH) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) to improve the properties of the TPS. Phase determination analysis and SEM images demonstrated that the morphology of the TPS/PE-MAH/CMC blend consisted of PE-MAH particles dispersed in the TPS matrix. The tensile strength and elongation were found to have improved with the addition of CMC 5 wt%. Adhesion between the polymers was observed by the asymmetric double-cantilever beam (ADCB) method. The PE-MAH/(TPS + CMC) sample showed high fracture toughness (Gc), which is related to the adhesion energy between the two polymers. This is suggestive of interactions between the MAH groups of PE-MAH and CMC. FT-IR results indicated that the neutralization and aggregation were formed by Na ions of CMC and the MAH of PE-MAH, which increased the interfacial adhesion between TPS and PE-MAH blend. The improvement in the mechanical properties of the TPS/PE-MAH/CMC blend is concluded to be because of the increase in the interfacial adhesion between TPS and PE-MAH by these neutralization and aggregation processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.08.076DOI Listing
December 2018