Publications by authors named "Piya Temviriyanukul"

38 Publications

Synergistic Antibacterial and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Ethanolic Extract against Major Bacterial Mastitis Pathogens.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2022 Apr 12;11(4). Epub 2022 Apr 12.

Department of Pre-Clinical and Applied Animal Science, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Mahidol University, Salaya, Phuttamonthon, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand.

Mastitis is the most prevalent global illness affecting dairy cows. This bacterial infection damages and inflames the udder tissues. Several plant extracts have demonstrated synergistic antibacterial activities with standard drugs in mastitis treatment. Scant information exists on L. This study evaluated the antibacterial activity of extract and its interaction with antibacterial drugs against common mastitis pathogens including , coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CNS), , and . Anti-inflammatory activities in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells were also studied. The extract exhibited antibacterial activities against , CNS, and with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranging from 3.9 to 31.2 µg/mL and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) ranging from 15.6 to 500 µg/mL. Combinations of with penicillin or amoxicillin-clavulanic acid showed synergistic effects against all tested strains but an additive effect with cefazolin and gentamicin. Pretreatment of the extract significantly decreased the expression of inflammatory molecules (IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, iNOS, COX-2, and PGE2) generated by LPS in macrophages. Results suggested effectiveness against various Gram-positive mastitis bacteria, with the potential to reduce antibacterial doses and combat inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11040510DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9029753PMC
April 2022

Corticosterone potentiates ochratoxin A-induced microglial activation.

Biomol Concepts 2022 Apr 19;13(1):230-241. Epub 2022 Apr 19.

Department of Pre-clinical and Applied Animal Science, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Mahidol University, Salaya, Phutthamonthon, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand.

Microglial activation in the central nervous system (CNS) has been associated with brain damage and neurodegenerative disorders. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin that occurs naturally in food and feed and has been associated with neurotoxicity, while corticosteroids are CNS' physiological function modulators. This study examined how OTA affected microglia activation and how corticosteroids influenced microglial neuroinflammation. Murine microglial cells (BV-2) were stimulated by OTA, and the potentiation effects on OTA-induced inflammation were determined by corticosterone pre-treatment. Expressions of pro-inflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were determined. Phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) was analyzed by western blotting. OTA significantly increased the mRNA expression of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, and iNOS and also elevated IL-6 and NO levels. Corticosterone pre-treatment enhanced the neuroinflammatory response to OTA in a mineralocorticoid receptor (MR)-dependent mechanism, which is associated with increases in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 MAPK activation. In response to OTA, microglial cells produced pro-inflammatory cytokines and NO, while corticosterone increased OTA-induced ERK and p38 MAPK phosphorylation via MR. Findings indicated the direct role of OTA in microglia activation and neuroinflammatory response and suggested that low corticosterone concentrations in the brain exacerbated neurodegeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/bmc-2022-0017DOI Listing
April 2022

The influence of TAS2R38 bitter taste gene polymorphisms on obesity risk in three racially diverse groups.

Biomedicine (Taipei) 2021 1;11(3):43-49. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Food Science, Nutrition, and Health Promotion, Mississippi State University, MS 39762, USA.

Objectives: Bitter taste perception affects food preference, eating behavior, and nutrient intake. The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of bitter taste gene polymorphisms to body fatness as measured by percentage of body fat.

Method: Three common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the TAS2R38 gene which result in amino acid changes in the protein (A49P, V262A, and I296V), were studied in three racially diverse groups: European Americans n = 313, African Americans n = 109, and Asians n = 234.

Results: The allele frequencies of the three SNPs were similar to previous studies. The rare haplotypes, AAI and AAV, were found in high prevalence in the African American subgroup (22.94%) and European American subgroup (6.07%). The PROP non taster; AVI/AVI diplotype was associated with a higher risk of obesity in European American and Asian but not African American subjects after age adjustment.

Conclusions: TAS2R38 polymorphisms could be associated with obesity development. In addition to taste perception, nutrient sensing and energy metabolism should be studied in relation to bitter taste receptors to confirm the association between genetic polymorphisms and body fatness. Genetic polymorphisms, race, gender, and environmental factors such as dietary patterns could all contribute to body fat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.37796/2211-8039.1175DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8823492PMC
September 2021

Road to The Red Carpet of Edible Crickets through Integration into the Human Food Chain with Biofunctions and Sustainability: A Review.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Feb 4;23(3). Epub 2022 Feb 4.

Food and Nutrition Academic and Research Cluster, Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Salaya, Phuttamonthon, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand.

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) estimates that more than 500 million people, especially in Asia and Africa, are suffering from malnutrition. Recently, livestock farming has increased to supply high-quality protein, with consequent impact on the global environment. Alternative food sources with high nutritive values that can substitute livestock demands are urgently required. Recently, edible crickets have been promoted by the FAO to ameliorate the food crisis. In this review, the distribution, nutritive values, health-promoting properties (antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-obesity), safety, allergenicity as well as the potential hazards and risks for human consumption are summarized. Cricket farming may help to realize the United Nations sustainable development goal No. 2 Zero Hunger. The sustainability of cricket farming is also discussed in comparison with other livestock. The findings imply that edible crickets are safe for daily intake as a healthy alternative diet due to their high protein content and health-promoting properties. Appropriate use of edible crickets in the food and nutraceutical industries represents a global business potential. However, people who are allergic to shellfish should pay attention on cricket allergy. Thus, the objective of this review was to present in-depth and up-to-date information on edible crickets to advocate and enhance public perception of cricket-based food.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms23031801DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8836810PMC
February 2022

Impact of Drying Processes on Phenolics and In Vitro Health-Related Activities of Indigenous Plants in Thailand.

Plants (Basel) 2022 Jan 22;11(3). Epub 2022 Jan 22.

Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Salaya, Phuttamonthon, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand.

Thailand has vast areas of tropical forests with many indigenous plants, but limited information is available on their phytochemical profile and in vitro inhibitions of enzymatic and nonenzymatic reactions. This study investigated phenolic profiles using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS), antioxidant activities, and in vitro inhibitory activities of 10 indigenous plants on key enzymes related to obesity (lipase), diabetes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase), and Alzheimer's disease (cholinesterases and β-secretase). The nonenzymatic anti-glycation reaction was also investigated. The 10 indigenous plants were (L.) Benth, (Burm.) Roscoe, Roxb., (Retz.) Swartz, Wall., Kurz., , L., Roxb, and J. Mood & T. Theleide. Preparations were made by either freeze-drying or oven-drying processes. Results suggested that the drying processes had a minor impact on in vitro inhibitions of enzymatic and nonenzymatic reactions (<4-fold difference). was the most potent antioxidant provider with high anti-glycation activity (>80% inhibition using the extract concentration of ≤6 mg/mL), while effectively inhibited β-secretase activity (>80% inhibition using the extract concentration of 10 mg/mL). exhibited the highest inhibitory activities against lipase (47-51% inhibition using the extract concentration of 1 mg/mL) and cholinesterases (>60% inhibition using the extract concentration of 2 mg/mL), while dominantly provided α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitors (>80% inhibition using the extract concentration of ≤2 mg/mL). Information obtained from this research may support usage of the oven-drying method due to its lower cost and easier preparation step for these studied plant species and plant parts. Furthermore, the information on in vitro inhibitions of enzymatic and nonenzymatic reactions could be used as fundamental knowledge for further investigations into other biological activities such as cell culture or in vivo experiments of these health-beneficial plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants11030294DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8838347PMC
January 2022

Diplazium esculentum (Retz.) Sw. reduces BACE-1 activities and amyloid peptides accumulation in Drosophila models of Alzheimer's disease.

Sci Rep 2021 12 10;11(1):23796. Epub 2021 Dec 10.

Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Salaya, Phuttamonthon, 73170, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand.

Alzheimer's disease (AD), one type of dementia, is a complex disease affecting people globally with limited drug treatment. Thus, natural products are currently of interest as promising candidates because of their cost-effectiveness and multi-target abilities. Diplazium esculentum (Retz.) Sw., an edible fern, inhibited acetylcholinesterase in vitro, inferring that it might be a promising candidate for AD treatment by supporting cholinergic neurons. However, evidence demonstrating anti-AD properties of this edible plant via inhibiting of neurotoxic peptides production, amyloid beta (Aβ), both in vitro and in vivo is lacking. Thus, the anti-AD properties of D. esculentum extract both in vitro and in Drosophila models of Aβ-mediated toxicity were elucidated. Findings showed that an ethanolic extract exhibited high phenolics and flavonoids, contributing to antioxidant and inhibitory activities against AD-related enzymes. Notably, the extract acted as a BACE-1 blocker and reduced amyloid beta 42 (Aβ42) peptides in Drosophila models, resulting in improved locomotor behaviors. Information gained from this study suggested that D. esculentum showed potential for AD amelioration and prevention. Further investigations in vertebrates or humans are required to determine the effective doses of D. esculentum against AD, particularly via amyloidogenic pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-03142-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8664832PMC
December 2021

Influence of Plant Origins and Seasonal Variations on Nutritive Values, Phenolics and Antioxidant Activities of Craib., an Endangered Species from Thailand.

Foods 2021 Nov 14;10(11). Epub 2021 Nov 14.

Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Salaya, Phuttamonthon, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand.

Craib. is an indigenous plant found in Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam that has become threatened owing to lack of knowledge about its agricultural management. This plant is now rare in the wild and was registered in the Plant Genetic Conservation Project under the initiation of Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn (RSPG) to promote sustainable conservation and optimally beneficial utilization. has a long history of utilization as a nutrient-rich source with medicinal properties but scientific evidence of the veracity of these claims is limited. Here, the nutritional compositions, phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of different plant parts (young shoots and old leaves) of were investigated using plants collected from four areas of Thailand as Kamphaeng Phet (KP), Muang Nakhon Ratchasima (MN), Pakchong Nakhon Ratchasima (PN) and Uthai Thani (UT) at different harvesting periods (March-April, May-June and July-August). Results indicated that young shoots provided higher energy, protein, fat, dietary fiber, phosphorus, sodium, and zinc than old leaves. By contrast, nutrients such as total sugar, vitamin C, carotenoids, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and iron contents were higher in old leaves that also exhibited higher phenolic contents and most antioxidant activities than young shoots. Generally, most nutrients, phenolic contents, and antioxidant activities exhibited no clear trend among different plant origins. The harvesting period of July-August provided a suitable climate for biosynthesis of most nutrients, while high phenolics were mainly found in samples harvested in March-April. No clear trend was observed in the prevalence of antioxidant activities that varied according to assay techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10112799DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8623237PMC
November 2021

Analysis of Phytonutrients, Anti-Mutagenic and Chemopreventive Effects of Tropical Fruit Extracts.

Foods 2021 Oct 27;10(11). Epub 2021 Oct 27.

Food and Nutrition Academic and Research Cluster, Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Salaya, Phuttamonthon, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand.

Thailand is located in the tropics and a wide variety of fruits are grown commercially. However, studies regarding the phytonutrients, anti-mutagenic and chemopreventive effects of these fruits are limited. Thus, phytochemical profiles and inhibition of key enzymes involved in obesity and diabetes, together with anti-mutagenic and chemopreventive properties of eight tropical fruit extracts cultivated in Thailand, including 'Kimju', 'Keenok', 'Pattavia', 'Phulae', 'Chanee', 'Monthong', 'Khaekdum' and 'Namdokmai' were investigated. Different cultivars were also compared. Results showed that 'Namdokmai' was the most antioxidant-rich extract containing abundant 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and its derivative, gallic acid, as the main phenolics. 'Namdokmai' also exhibited high inhibitory capacities (>60% inhibition under studied conditions) against lipase, α-amylase and α-glucosidase, key enzymes as drug targets for controlling obesity and type 2 diabetes. Interestingly, all fruit extracts suppressed food mutagen-induced DNA mutations assayed by the Ames test, especially 'Namdokmai' and 'Khaekdum' (>50% inhibition at 200 µg/plate). The 'Namdokmai' was also the most potent extract for suppression of cancer promotion (>90% inhibition at 200 µg/mL) followed by 'Kimju', 'Keenok' and 'Khaekdum'. Results potentially indicated that fruit intake after overcooked meat consumption might supplement nutrients and fiber and also reduce DNA mutation sources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10112600DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8621897PMC
October 2021

Human Hazard Assessment Using Wing Spot Test as an Alternative In Vivo Model for Genotoxicity Testing-A Review.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Sep 14;22(18). Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Food and Nutrition Academic and Research Cluster, Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Salaya, Phuttamonthon, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand.

Genomic instability, one of cancer's hallmarks, is induced by genotoxins from endogenous and exogenous sources, including reactive oxygen species (ROS), diet, and environmental pollutants. A sensitive in vivo genotoxicity test is required for the identification of human hazards to reduce the potential health risk. The somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) or wing spot test is a genotoxicity assay involving (fruit fly) as a classical, alternative human model. This review describes the principle of the SMART assay in conjunction with its advantages and disadvantages and discusses applications of the assay covering all segments of health-related industries, including food, dietary supplements, drug industries, pesticides, and herbicides, as well as nanoparticles. Chemopreventive strategies are outlined as a global health trend for the anti-genotoxicity of interesting herbal extract compounds determined by SMART assay. The successful application of for high-throughput screening of mutagens is also discussed as a future perspective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22189932DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8472225PMC
September 2021

Ethanolic Fruit Extract of Suppresses Neuroinflammation in Microglia and Promotes Neurite Outgrowth in Neuro2a Cells.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 7;2021:6405987. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Pre-Clinical and Applied Animal Science, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Mahidol University, Salaya, Phutthamonthon, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand.

Inhibiting neuroinflammation and modulating neurite outgrowth could be a promising strategy to prevent neurological disorders. (EO) may be a potent agent against them. Although EO extract reportedly has anti-inflammatory properties in macrophages, there is limited knowledge about its neuroprotective activity by suppressing microglia-mediated proinflammatory cytokine production and inducing neurite outgrowth. The present study aimed to elucidate the effect of EO fruit extract on the lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced neuroinflammation using microglial (BV2) and neuroblastoma (Neuro2a) cells. The results demonstrated that, in LPS-treated BV2 cells, EO fruit extract reduced nitric oxide, interleukin-6, and tumor necrotic factor- production. It also enhanced the neurite length of Neuro2a cells, which was linked to the upregulation of TuJ1 and MAP2 expressions. In conclusion, these findings indicate that the ethanolic extract of EO fruits has promising neuroprotective potential to exhibit antineuroinflammation activity and accelerative effect on neurite outgrowth . Therefore, EO fruit extract can be considered a novel herbal medicine candidate for managing neuroinflammatory diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6405987DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8443350PMC
September 2021

Intake of GG (LGG) fermented milk before drinking alcohol reduces acetaldehyde levels and duration of flushing in drinkers with wild-type and heterozygous mutant : a randomized, blinded crossover controlled trial.

Food Funct 2021 Oct 19;12(20):10147-10159. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Salaya, Phutthamonthon, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand.

Alcohol consumption leads to acetaldehyde accumulation, especially in people with mutant aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 gene (). Novel strategies to promote acetaldehyde detoxification are required to prevent alcohol-related toxicity. Probiotic bacteria such as GG (LGG) were shown to have capacity to detoxify acetaldehyde. This randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over trial investigated the effect of LGG fermented milk in people with polymorphisms after moderate alcohol intake. Ten healthy wild-type and ten heterozygous mutant Thai men were block randomized into two groups. Each group consumed a different sequence of 150 mL fermented milk containing 10 CFU mL LGG and lactic-acidified milk (placebo), followed by five glasses of beer (0.4 g ethanol per kg body weight), with a one-week wash-out. Consuming LGG fermented milk before alcohol reduced areas under the response curves of blood and salivary acetaldehyde in wild-type and heterozygous mutant individuals ( < 0.05 and < 0.01, respectively). Interestingly, participants with mutant responded better than wild-type participants for salivary acetaldehyde (90% 70%, < 0.001). Their durations of flushing were reduced when consuming LGG milk. Regardless of status, 10 CFU mL LGG was retained in saliva at least 3.5 h after milk consumption. In conclusion, intake of LGG fermented milk before drinking alcohol reduces blood and salivary acetaldehyde levels and duration of flushing in drinkers with wild-type and heterozygous mutant . The addition of exogenous capacity to detoxify acetaldehyde using the probiotic product could be a potential strategy to promote the alleviation of exposure to reactive and carcinogenic acetaldehyde associated with alcohol drinking in individuals with defective ALDH2 enzyme.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1fo01485dDOI Listing
October 2021

Phytochemicals and In Vitro Bioactivities of Aqueous Ethanolic Extracts from Common Vegetables in Thai Food.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Jul 29;10(8). Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Salaya, Phuttamonthon, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand.

Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading global cause of death. The World Health Organization (WHO) has endorsed the consumption of fruits and vegetables because they are rich in phytochemicals that sustainably ameliorate the occurrence of NCDs. Thai food contains many spices and vegetables with recognized health benefits. Quality control of plant samples encountered a bottleneck in the field and comparative studies of plant control origins including species or cultivar identification, growing area and appropriate harvesting time are limited. To address this issue, all plant samples used in this study were cultivated and controlled by the Department of Agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, Thailand. The samples were phytochemically screened and determined their health-promoting bioactivities via antioxidant activities and inhibition of NCD-related enzymes including lipase (obesity), α-amylase and α-glucosidase (diabetes), angiotensin-converting enzyme (hypertension), as well as acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase and β-secretase (Alzheimer's disease). The non-enzymatic reaction toward glycation was also evaluated. The results showed that subsp. (Lace) Maslin, Seigler & Ebinger, DC. and 'Kermit' extracts exhibited high antioxidant activities. Moreover, DC. extract was a potent inhibitor against lipase, angiotensin-converting enzyme and butyrylcholinesterase, while L. and (L.) DC. were potent anti-diabetic agents and subsp. (Lace) Maslin, and Seigler & Ebinger was a potent anti-glycation agent. Our data provide a comparative analysis of ten vegetables to encourage healthy food consumption and development to control NCDs in Thailand in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10081563DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8400534PMC
July 2021

Development of Chrysin Loaded Oil-in-Water Nanoemulsion for Improving Bioaccessibility.

Foods 2021 Aug 18;10(8). Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Nano Agricultural Chemistry and Processing Research Team, National Nanotechnology Center (NANOTEC), National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120, Thailand.

Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone) is a remarkable flavonoid exhibiting many health-promoting activities, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-Alzheimer's disease (AD). Nevertheless, chrysin has been addressed regarding its limited applications, due to low bioaccessibility. Therefore, to improve chrysin bioaccessibility, a colloidal delivery system involving nanoemulsion was developed as chrysin nanoemulsion (chrysin-NE) using an oil-in-water system. Our results show that chrysin can be loaded by approximately 174.21 µg/g nanoemulsion (100.29 ± 0.53% ) when medium chain triglyceride (MCT) oil was used as an oil phase. The nanocolloidal size, polydispersity index, and surface charge of chrysin-NE were approximately 161 nm, 0.21, and -32 mV, respectively. These properties were stable for at least five weeks at room temperature. Furthermore, in vitro chrysin bioactivities regarding antioxidant and anti-AD were maintained as pure chrysin, suggesting that multistep formulation could not affect chrysin properties. Interestingly, the developed chrysin-NE was more tolerant of gastrointestinal digestion and significantly absorbed by the human intestinal cells (Caco-2) than pure chrysin. These findings demonstrate that the encapsulation of chrysin using oil-in-water nanoemulsion could enhance the bioaccessibility of chrysin, which might be subsequently applied to food and nutraceutical industries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10081912DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8392734PMC
August 2021

Tandem mass spectrometry of aqueous extract from Ficus dubia sap and its cell-based assessments for use as a skin antioxidant.

Sci Rep 2021 08 19;11(1):16899. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Nano Agricultural Chemistry and Processing Research Team, National Nanotechnology Center (NANOTEC), National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), Pathumthani, Thailand.

Since 2006, Ficus dubia has been reported as a new Ficus species in Thailand. As per our recent report, the red-brown aqueous extract of F. dubia sap (FDS) has been determined to strongly exhibit in vitro anti-radicals. However, the phytochemicals in the FDS extract related to health-promoting antioxidation have not been explored. Thus, in this study, we aimed to investigate the chemical components of the F. dubia sap extract by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/QTOF-MS) and its potential use in cosmetics in terms of cellular antioxidation on keratinocytes (HaCaT), phototoxicity, and irritation on 3D skin cell models following standard tests suggested by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). It was found that the sap extract was composed of quinic acid and caffeoyl derivatives (e.g., syringoylquinic acid, 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and dimeric forms of caffeoylquinic acids). The extract has significantly exhibited antioxidant activity against HO-induced oxidative stress in HaCaT cells. The cellular antioxidative effect of the FDS extract was remarkably dependent on the presence of 3- and 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid in the extract. Furthermore, the FDS extract showed negative results on skin phototoxicity and irritation. Overall, the results reveal that the FDS extract could be developed as a new antioxidant candidate for a skin healthcare product.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-96261-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8377047PMC
August 2021

Bioassay-guided study of the anti-inflammatory effect of Anoectochilus burmannicus ethanolic extract in RAW 264.7 cells.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Nov 24;280:114452. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Muang Chiang Mai, Chiang Mai, 50200, Thailand. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Anoectochilus species is a small terrestrial orchid found in tropical and subtropical rain forest. These orchids are traditionally used extensively in China, Taiwan, and Vietnam due to their medicinal properties and therapeutic benefits. They are employed for treatment in different systems, such as stomach disorders, chest pain, arthritis, tumor, piles, boils, menstrual disorders, and inflammation. Aqueous extract of Anoectochilus burmannicus (AB) has been previously reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory activities, however there is a lack of evidence regarding its bioactive compounds and the mechanism of its actions.

Aim Of The Study: The objectives of this study were to identify the anti-inflammatory compound(s) in an ethanolic extract of AB and to determine its anti-inflammatory mechanisms in LPS-stimulated macrophages and also its safety.

Materials And Methods: The ethanolic extract of AB (ABE) was prepared and subsequently subjected to polarity-dependent extraction using n-hexane and ethyl acetate, which would result in isolation of the n-hexane (ABH), ethyl acetate (ABEA), and residue or aqueous (ABA) fractions. The AB fractions were investigated to determine total phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant capacity, toxicity, and safety in RAW 264.7 macrophages, human PBMCs, and RBCs. After extraction anti-inflammation screening of each extract was performed by nitric oxide (NO) production assay. The active fractions were further examined for their effect on proinflammatory mediators. In addition, kinsenoside content in the active fractions was identified using LC-MS/MS. Cellular toxicity and genotoxicity of AB were also tested using the wing spot test in Drosophila melanogaster.

Results: The data showed that ABEA had the highest phenolic content and level of antioxidant activities. ABE, ABEA, and ABA, but not ABH, significantly inhibited the LPS-stimulated NO production in the macrophages. Both ABEA and ABA reduced LPS-mediated expression of TNF-α, IL-6, iNOS, and COX-2 at both mRNA and protein levels. Besides, only ABEA notably diminished the LPS-stimulated p65 phosphorylation required for nuclear translocation and transcriptional activation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Interestingly, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis revealed ABA contained a high level of kinsenoside, a likely anti-inflammatory compound, while ABE and ABEA might require other compounds in combination with kinsenoside for the inhibition of inflammation. It was shown that all active fractions were neither cytotoxic nor genotoxic.

Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that the hydrophilic fractions of AB exhibit anti-inflammatory activity in LPS-stimulated macrophages. The mechanism used by the AB involves the scavenging of free radicals and the reduction of proinflammatory mediators, including IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, NO, iNOS and COX-2. The anti-inflammatory action of AB involves the suppression of the NF-κB signaling pathway by some unknown component(s) present in ABEA. This study found that kinsenoside is a major active compound in ABA which could be used as a biomarker for the quality control of the plant extraction. This study provides convincing significant information in vitro regarding the anti-inflammatory mechanism and preliminary evidence of the safety of Anoectochilus burmanicus. Therefore, the knowledge acquired from this study would provide supportive evidence for the development and standardization of the use of the extract of this plant as alternative medicine or functional food to prevent or treat non-communicable chronic diseases related to chronic inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.114452DOI Listing
November 2021

Health-promoting bioactivity and in vivo genotoxicity evaluation of a hemiepiphyte fig, .

Food Sci Nutr 2021 Apr 3;9(4):2269-2279. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Institute of Nutrition Mahidol University Salaya, Phuttamonthon Nakhon Pathom Thailand.

species have been used as a typical component in food and folk medicine in Asia for centuries. However, little is known regarding the bioactivity and genotoxicity of the recently identified (FD), an indigenous plant of the tropical evergreen rain forest. FD is unique from other species because of its highly sought-after red-brown latex. Antioxidant properties together with phenolic and flavonoid contents of FD were elucidated. Health-promoting characteristics were examined by studying the inhibition of enzymes as a drug target for diabetes, hypertension, Alzheimer's disease, and obesity, together with anticancer ability against human colorectal adenocarcinoma, human hepatocellular carcinoma, human ovarian carcinoma, human prostate adenocarcinoma, and human lung carcinoma. Besides, FD genotoxicity was tested using the wing spot test. Results showed that both FD root and latex exhibited antioxidant activity due to the presence of phenolics and flavonoids, specifically caffeic acid and cyanidin. The ethanolic fraction of FD root demonstrated a potent antidiabetic mechanism underlying α-glucosidase inhibitory activity similar to acarbose. This fraction also suppressed lung and ovarian cancer growth, possibly by G1 and G2/M arrest, respectively. All tested fractions lacked mutagenicity in vivo. Results indicated that FD can be developed as novel antidiabetic compounds; however, its bioactive compounds should be further identified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.2205DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8020917PMC
April 2021

In Vitro Phytotherapeutic Properties of Aqueous Extracted Craib. towards Civilization Diseases.

Molecules 2021 Feb 18;26(4). Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Salaya, Phuttamonthon, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand.

Craib. is an indigenous edible plant that became an endangered species due to limited consumption of the local population with unknown reproduction and growth conditions. The plant is used as a traditional herb; however, its health applications lack scientific-based evidence. Craib. plant parts (old leaves and young shoots) from four areas as Kamphaeng Phet (KP), Muang Nakhon Ratchasima (MN), Pakchong Nakhon Ratchasima (PN), and Uthai Thani (UT) origins were investigated for phenolic compositions and in vitro health properties through the inhibition of key enzymes relevant to obesity (lipase), diabetes (α-glucosidase and dipeptidyl peptidase-IV), Alzheimer's disease (cholinesterases and β-secretase), and hypertension (angiotensin-converting enzyme). Phenolics including -coumaric acid, sinapic acid, naringenin, and apigenin were detected in old leaves and young shoots in all plant origins. Old leaves exhibited higher total phenolic contents (TPCs) and total flavonoid contents (TFCs), leading to higher enzyme inhibitory activities than young shoots. Besides, PN and MN with higher TPCs and TFCs tended to exhibit greater enzyme inhibitory activities than others. These results will be useful to promote this plant as a healthy food with valuable medicinal capacities to support its consumption and agricultural stimulation, leading to sustainable conservation of this endangered species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26041082DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7922288PMC
February 2021

Safety and bioactivity assessment of aqueous extract of Thai Henna ( Linn.) Leaf.

J Toxicol Environ Health A 2021 04 29;84(7):298-312. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Food and Nutritional Toxicology Unit, Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand.

The worldwide demand for a natural dye by the cosmetic and food industry has recently gained interest. To provide scientific data supporting the usage of Thai henna leaf as a natural colorant, the phytochemical constituents, safety, and bioactivity of aqueous extract of the henna leaf by autoclave (HAE) and hot water (HHE) were determined. HAE contained a higher amount of total phenolic and flavonoid contents than HHE. The major constituents in both extracts were ferulic acid, gallic acid, and luteolin. The extracts displayed no marked mutagenic activity both and mammalian-like biotransformation. HAE and HHE also exhibited non-cytotoxicity to human immortalized keratinocyte cells (HaCaT), peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cell line with IC and IC > 200 μg/ml. The extracts exhibited antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity as evidenced by significant scavenging of ABTS and DPPH radicals and decreasing NO levels in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of the extracts might be attributed to their phenolic and flavonoid contents. In conclusion, the traditional use of henna as a natural dye appears not to exert toxic effects and seems biosecure. Regarding safety, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties, the aqueous extract of Thai henna leaf might thus serve as a readily available source for utilization in commercial health industries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15287394.2020.1866129DOI Listing
April 2021

Investigation of Anthocyanidins and Anthocyanins for Targeting α-Glucosidase in Diabetes Mellitus.

Prev Nutr Food Sci 2020 Sep;25(3):263-271

Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Phutthamonthon, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand.

Anthocyanidins are bioactive compounds found mostly in colored plants and fruits. Consumption of anthocyanidin-rich foods has been shown to reduce the risk of diabetes. However, limited information is available regarding the inhibitory effect and interactions of anthocyanidins on α-glucosidase, the key enzyme that controls diabetes through degrading carbohydrate. Therefore, we used computational docking analysis to investigate the degree and type of inhibition by α-glucosidase, and the structural interactions of enzyme-selected anthocyanidins. The results suggested that anthocyanidins exhibit half maximal inhibitory concentration of 4∼55 μM; the strongest and weakest α-glucosidase inhibitors were delphinidin and malvidin, respectively. Indeed, delphinidin inhibits α-glucosidase in a mixed type, close to non-competitive manner with an inhibitory constant of 78 nM. Addition of a glycoside (glucoside or galactoside) at C3 on the C ring of delphinidin significantly decreased inhibitory activity, and addition of glycosides at C3 on the C ring and C5 on the A ring of delphinidin prevented all inhibitory activity. Molecular docking and free binding energy accurately confirmed the mode of inhibition determined by enzyme kinetics. These data will inform the use of alternative sources of anthocyanidins in functional foods and dietary supplements for prevention of diabetes. The results provide useful information for evaluating possible molecular models using anthocyanins/anthocyanidins as templates and α-glucosidase as the key enzyme in management of diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3746/pnf.2020.25.3.263DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7541926PMC
September 2020

Inhibitory effects of Gymnema inodorum (Lour.) Decne leaf extracts and its triterpene saponin on carbohydrate digestion and intestinal glucose absorption.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Feb 21;266:113398. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

National Nanotechnology Center (NANOTEC), National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), Pathum Thani, Thailand. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Chiang-Da, Gymnema inodorum (Lour.) Decne. (GI), is an ethnomedicinal plant that has been used for diabetic treatment since ancient times. One of the anti-diabetic mechanisms is possibly related to the actions of triterpene glycoside, (3β, 16β)-16,28-dihydroxyolean-12-en-3-yl-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (GIA1) in decreasing carbohydrate digestive enzymes and intestinal glucose absorption in the gut system.

Aims Of The Study: To observe the amount of GIA1 in GI leaf extracts obtained from different ethanol concentrations and to investigate the anti-hyperglycemic mechanisms of the extracts and GIA1.

Materials And Methods: The crude extracts were prepared using 50%v/v to 95%v/v ethanol solutions and used for GIA1 isolation. The anti-hyperglycemic models included in our study examined the inhibitory activities of α-amylase/α-glucosidase and intestinal glucose absorption related to sodium glucose cotransporter type 1 (SGLT1) using Caco-2 cells.

Results: GIA1 was found about 8%w/w to 18%w/w in the GI extract depending on ethanol concentrations. The GI extracts and GIA1 showed less inhibitory activities on α-amylase. The extracts from 75%v/v and 95%v/v ethanol and GIA1 significantly delayed the glycemic absorption by lowering α-glucosidase activity and glucose transportation of SGLT1. However, the 50%v/v ethanolic extract markedly decreased the α-glucosidase activity than the SGLT1 function.

Conclusion: Differences in the GIA1 contents and anti-glycemic properties of the GI leaf extract was dependent on ethanol concentrations. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of the 75%v/v and 95%v/v ethanolic extracts on α-glucosidase and SGLT1 were relevant to GIA1 content.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2020.113398DOI Listing
February 2021

Phenolic Profiles, Antioxidant, and Inhibitory Activities of (Roxb.) Craib and (Lem.) A.C. Sm.

Foods 2020 Sep 2;9(9). Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Salaya, Phuttamonthon, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand.

spp. in the Schisandraceae family are woody vine plants, which produce edible red fruits that are rich in nutrients and antioxidant activities. Despite their valuable food applications, spp. are only able to grow naturally in the forest, and reproduction handled by botanists is still in progress with a very low growth rate. Subsequently, spp. were listed as endangered species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) in 2011. Two different spp., including (Lem.) A.C. Sm. and (Roxb.) Craib, are mostly found in northern Thailand. These rare, wild fruits are unrecognizable to outsiders, and there have only been limited investigations into its biological properties. This study, therefore, aimed to comparatively investigate the phenolic profiles, antioxidant activities, and inhibitory activities against the key enzymes involved in diabetes (α-glucosidase and α-amylase) and Alzheimer's disease (acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and beta-secretase 1 (BACE-1)) in different fruit parts (exocarp, mesocarp (edible part), seed, and core) of (Lem.) A.C. Sm. and (Roxb.) Craib. The results suggested that Kadsura spp. extracts were rich in flavonol (quercetin), flavanone (naringenin), anthocyanidins (cyanidin and delphinidin), and anthocyanins (cyanidin 3--glucoside (kuromanin), cyanidin 3--galactoside (ideain), cyanidin 3--rutinoside (keracyanin), and cyanidin 3,5-di--glucoside (cyanin)). These flavonoids were found to be responsible for the high antioxidant activities and key enzyme inhibitions detected in spp. extracts. The findings of the present study can support further development of spp. as a potential source of phenolics and anti-oxidative agents with health benefits against diabetes and Alzheimer's disease. Besides, exocarp and the core of Kadsura spp. exhibited higher phenolic contents, antioxidant activities, and key enzyme inhibitory activities compared to the mesocarp and seeds, respectively. This information can promote the use of fruit parts other than the edible mesocarp for future food applications using spp. rather than these being wasted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods9091222DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7555767PMC
September 2020

The Effect of Sacred Lotus () and Its Mixtures on Phenolic Profiles, Antioxidant Activities, and Inhibitions of the Key Enzymes Relevant to Alzheimer's Disease.

Molecules 2020 Aug 14;25(16). Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Salaya, Phuttamonthon, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand.

Sacred lotus () has long been used as a food source and ingredient for traditional herbal remedies. Plant parts contain neuroprotective agents that interact with specific targets to inhibit Alzheimer's disease (AD). Organic solvents including methanol, ethyl acetate, hexane, and -butanol, are widely employed for extraction of sacred lotus but impact food safety. Seed embryo, flower stalk, stamen, old leaf, petal, and leaf stalk of sacred lotus were extracted using hot water (aqueous extraction). The extractions were analyzed for their bioactive constituents, antioxidant and anti-AD properties as key enzyme inhibitory activities toward acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and β-secretase 1 (BACE-1). Results showed that the sacred lotus stamen exhibited significant amounts of phenolics, including phenolic acids and flavonoids, that contributed to high antioxidant activity via both single electron transfer (SET) and hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) mechanisms, with anti-AChE, anti-BChE, and anti-BACE-1 activities. To enhance utilization of other sacred lotus parts, a combination of stamen, old leaf and petal as the three sacred lotus plant components with the highest phenolic contents, antioxidant activities, and enzyme inhibitory properties was analyzed. Antagonist interaction was observed, possibly from flavonoids-flavonoids interaction. Further in-depth elucidation of this issue is required. Findings demonstrated that an aqueous extract of the stamen has potential for application as a functional food to mitigate the onset of Alzheimer's disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25163713DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7463813PMC
August 2020

Nutritional composition of conserved spp. plants in Northern Thailand.

Heliyon 2020 Jul 16;6(7):e04451. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Phutthamonthon, Nakhon Pathom, 73170, Thailand.

The genus comprises woody vine plants belonging to the family . Species are found mostly in Northern Thailand and widely consumed by the local population. Occurrences of these wild fruits are rare as they only grow naturally in forest areas. Nutritive values of spp. remain unclear, leading to improper management for food applications. Nutritional composition of spp. was evaluated to promote sustainable conservation. Nutritive values in different fruits parts (exocarp, mesocarp, seed and core) of two species as (Lem.) A.C. Sm. and (Roxb.) Craib, from Chiang Rai Province, Thailand were assessed. When comparing nutritional contents based on per 100 g dry weight, results suggested that exhibited higher carbohydrate (1-2 times), sugar (1-2 times) and vitamin C (3-4 times) contents than , while the latter possessed higher fat (1-2 times), protein (1.6-1.9 times), and dietary fiber (1.5-1.8 times) contents. Considering each fruit part, the mesocarp (the only edible fruit part) and exocarp of both species provided high dietary fiber (11.6-20.9% recommended dietary fiber) and vitamin C (as high as 73% recommended per day) but were low in energy (30-40 kcal/100 g fresh weight), protein (0.6-1.2% recommended per day), fat (0.5-1.8% recommended per day) and sugar (2.4-5.4% recommended per day). Interestingly, seed contained higher energy (1-2 times), protein (2-3 times) and fat (4-50 times) than the other fruit parts. Results support the potential consumption of spp. as a healthy fruit that can be used for future food applications. Seed and exocarp from spp. also showed potential for new product development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04451DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7365980PMC
July 2020

Comparison of Phytochemicals, Antioxidant, and In Vitro Anti-Alzheimer Properties of Twenty-Seven spp. Cultivated in Thailand.

Molecules 2020 Jun 3;25(11). Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Salaya, Phuttamonthon, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. To fight the disease, natural products, including mulberry, with antioxidant activities and inhibitory activities against key enzymes (acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and beta-secretase 1 (BACE-1)) are of interest. However, even in the same cultivars, mulberry trees grown in different populated locations might possess disparate amounts of phytochemical profiles, leading to dissimilar health properties, which cause problems when comparing different cultivars of mulberry. Therefore, this study aimed to comparatively investigate the phytochemicals, antioxidant activities, and inhibitory activities against AChE, BChE, and BACE-1, of twenty-seven spp. cultivated in the same planting area in Thailand. The results suggested that fruit samples were rich in phenolics, especially cyanidin, kuromanin, and keracyanin. Besides, the aqueous fruit extracts exhibited antioxidant activities, both in single electron transfer (SET) and hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) mechanisms, while strong inhibitory activities against AD key enzymes were observed. Interestingly, among the twenty-seven spp., sp. code SKSM 810191 with high phytochemicals, antioxidant activities and in vitro anti-AD properties is a promising cultivar for further developed as a potential mulberry resource with health benefits against AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25112600DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7321130PMC
June 2020

Mulberry Fruit Cultivar 'Chiang Mai' Prevents Beta-Amyloid Toxicity in PC12 Neuronal Cells and in a Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

Molecules 2020 Apr 16;25(8). Epub 2020 Apr 16.

Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Salaya, Phuttamonthon, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, characterized by chronic neuron loss and cognitive problems. Aggregated amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides, a product of cleaved amyloid precursor protein (APP) by beta-secretase 1 (BACE-1), have been indicated for the progressive pathogenesis of AD. Currently, screening for anti-AD compounds in foodstuffs is increasing, with promising results. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the extraction conditions, phytochemical contents, and anti-AD properties, targeting Aβ peptides of cf. 'Chiang Mai' (MNCM) both in vitro and in vivo. Data showed that the aqueous extract of MNCM contained high amounts of cyanidin, keracyanin, and kuromanin as anthocyanidin and anthocyanins. The extract also strongly inhibited cholinesterases and BACE-1 in vitro. Moreover, MNCM extract prevented Aβ-induced neurotoxicity and promoted neurite outgrowth in neuronal cells. Interestingly, MNCM extract reduced Aβ peptides and improved locomotory coordination of co-expressing human APP and BACE-1, specifically in the brain. These findings suggest that MNCM may be useful as an AD preventive agent by targeting Aβ formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25081837DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7221829PMC
April 2020

Liraglutide Suppresses Tau Hyperphosphorylation, Amyloid Beta Accumulation through Regulating Neuronal Insulin Signaling and BACE-1 Activity.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Mar 3;21(5). Epub 2020 Mar 3.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand.

Neuronal insulin resistance is a significant feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Accumulated evidence has revealed the possible neuroprotective mechanisms of antidiabetic drugs in AD. Liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog and an antidiabetic agent, has a benefit in improving a peripheral insulin resistance. However, the neuronal effect of liraglutide on the model of neuronal insulin resistance with Alzheimer's formation has not been thoroughly investigated. The present study discovered that liraglutide alleviated neuronal insulin resistance and reduced beta-amyloid formation and tau hyperphosphorylation in a human neuroblostoma cell line, SH-SY5Y. Liraglutide could effectively reverse deleterious effects of insulin overstimulation. In particular, the drug reversed the phosphorylation status of insulin receptors and its major downstream signaling molecules including insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), protein kinase B (AKT), and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3β). Moreover, liraglutide reduced the activity of beta secretase 1 (BACE-1) enzyme, which then decreased the formation of beta-amyloid in insulin-resistant cells. This indicated that liraglutide can reverse the defect of phosphorylation status of insulin signal transduction but also inhibit the formation of pathogenic Alzheimer's proteins like Aβ in neuronal cells. We herein provided the possibility that the liraglutide-based therapy may be able to reduce such deleterious effects caused by insulin resistance. In view of the beneficial effects of liraglutide administration, these findings suggest that the use of liraglutide may be a promising therapy for AD with insulin-resistant condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21051725DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7084306PMC
March 2020

Dystrobrevin is required postsynaptically for homeostatic potentiation at the Drosophila NMJ.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 2019 06 21;1865(6):1579-1591. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Thailand; Research Center of Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Chiang Mai University, Thailand; Laboratory of Developmental Neurobiology, Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Evolutionarily conserved homeostatic systems have been shown to modulate synaptic efficiency at the neuromuscular junctions of organisms. While advances have been made in identifying molecules that function presynaptically during homeostasis, limited information is currently available on how postsynaptic alterations affect presynaptic function. We previously identified a role for postsynaptic Dystrophin in the maintenance of evoked neurotransmitter release. We herein demonstrated that Dystrobrevin, a member of the Dystrophin Glycoprotein Complex, was delocalized from the postsynaptic region in the absence of Dystrophin. A newly-generated Dystrobrevin mutant showed elevated evoked neurotransmitter release, increased bouton numbers, and a readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles without changes in the function or numbers of postsynaptic glutamate receptors. In addition, we provide evidence to show that the highly conserved Cdc42 Rho GTPase plays a key role in the postsynaptic Dystrophin/Dystrobrevin pathway for synaptic homeostasis. The present results give novel insights into the synaptic deficits underlying Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy affected by a dysfunctional Dystrophin Glycoprotein complex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbadis.2019.03.008DOI Listing
June 2019

Prevalence and Factors Associated with High Levels of Aluminum, Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury in Hair Samples of Well-Nourished Thai Children in Bangkok and Perimeters.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2019 Apr 13;188(2):334-343. Epub 2018 Jul 13.

Dunyaporn Trachootham, Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Salaya, Phutthamonthon, Nakhon Pathom, 73170, Thailand.

Toxic element exposure increases risk of neurodevelopmental disorders. However, hair element profiles of well-nourished urban resident children were largely unknown. We identified prevalence and the contributing factors of high hair aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) levels in 111 Thai children (aged 3-7 years old). Most participants were well-nourished with high socioeconomic status. Since ROC curve of hair element data showed inadequate sensitivity for cutoff set-up, US reference hair levels were used to categorize high and low level groups. Nevertheless, compared to the current reference at 5 μg/dL, blood lead cutoff at 2.15 μg/dL provided more consistent results with that of hair lead levels. High As and Pb levels were the first and second most prevalent element, while Al was the element found in highest amount in hair. High hair Al (12% prevalence) levels were associated with being male regardless of age or nutritional status. High hair As levels were associated with living in Bangkok (OR = 6.57) regardless of school type. High hair Pb levels were associated with being under 5 years old and living in Bangkok (OR = 3.06). However, no associations were found between blood Pb, hair Cd, Hg, and tested factors. These findings suggested that under 5-year-old boys living in capital city like Bangkok may be at risk of exposure to multiple toxic elements. Future studies in these children are warranted to identify their exposure sources and proper risk management strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-018-1435-6DOI Listing
April 2019

Safety assessment of (Inca peanut) seeds, leaves, and their products.

Food Sci Nutr 2018 Jun 2;6(4):962-969. Epub 2018 Apr 2.

Institute of Nutrition Mahidol University Salaya Nakhon Pathom Thailand.

or Inca peanut is a promising plant with high economic value. Its seeds can be pressed for oil production or roasted and served as a snack, while the dried leaves can be used to make a kind of tea. Although the oil from the cold-pressed seeds has been proven to be safe for human consumption, little information is known about the other parts of the plant regarding safety. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the naturally occurring phytotoxins, including saponins, total alkaloids, and lectins in fresh and roasted Inca peanut seeds and leaves. In addition, cytotoxicity on several normal cell types including human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, human embryonic kidney cells, human hepatic stellate cells, and mouse fibroblasts as well as mutagenic properties was studied. This study showed that fresh Inca peanut seeds and leaves contain saponins, alkaloids, and lectins. However, roasting enables the reduction in alkaloids, saponins, and possibly lectins, suggesting that these phytotoxins become unstable under heat. Furthermore, Inca peanut seeds and leaves, especially after roasting, are safe to a variety of normal cell lines and do not induce DNA mutations in expressing high biotransformation system. In conclusion, the data in this study indicated that high and chronic consumption of fresh seeds and leaves should be avoided. Heat processing should be applied before the consumption of Inca peanut seeds and leaves in order to reduce phytotoxins and potential health risks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.633DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6021735PMC
June 2018

Nutrients and natural toxic substances in commonly consumed Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tuber.

Food Chem 2018 Jan 19;238:173-179. Epub 2016 Sep 19.

Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Putthamonthon 4 Rd., Salaya, Phutthamonthon, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand.

This study determined nutrients, chemical contaminants, (insecticide residues and heavy metals), and natural toxic substances (nitrate, nitrite, cyanide, oxalate, phytate, and trypsin inhibitor) in tubers of Jerusalem artichokes-Kaentawan in the Thai language-grown in four major provinces in Thailand. They were purchased, prepared, homogenized, and freeze-dried for further analysis using standard methods. All Kaentawan samples contained considerable amounts of fructans and dietary fiber (15.4±0.2gand3.2±0.8g/100gfresh weight [FW], respectively), as well as potassium and iron (339±61and0.32±0.05mg/100gFW, respectively). All samples had very low amounts of insecticide residues (37 compounds), cyanide, and trypsin inhibitor, as well as Pb, Cd, nitrate, and nitrite (0.82±0.09, 0.10±0.02, 1.9-17.5, and 0.01-0.24mgkgFW, respectively), in addition to oxalate and phytate (14±9and0.17±0.02mg/100gFW, respectively). This study's data can be used for food composition databases and for safety consumption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.09.116DOI Listing
January 2018
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