Publications by authors named "Piotr Kamiński"

32 Publications

Manipulation of up-conversion emission in NaYF [email protected] nanoparticles doped by Er, Tm, or Yb ions by excitation wavelength-three ions-plenty of possibilities.

Nanoscale 2021 Apr 13;13(15):7322-7333. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Rare Earths, Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Uniwersytetu Poznańskiego 8, 61-614 Poznań, Poland.

Nanoparticles (NPs) based on host compound NaYF with [email protected] structures were synthesised by the precipitation reaction in high-boiling point octadecene/oleic acid solvent. Four laser wavelengths were used (808, 975, 1208, or 1532 nm) for excitation of the obtained NPs. The resulting emission and mechanisms responsible for spectroscopic properties were studied in detail. Depending on NP compositions, i.e. type of doping ion (Er, Tm, or Yb) or presence of dopants in the same or different phases, adjustable up-conversion (UC) could be obtained with emission peaks covering the visible to near-infrared range (475 to 1625 nm). The presented results demonstrated multifunctionality of the prepared NPs. NaYF:2%[email protected] NPs exhibited emission at 700 and 1450 nm under 808 nm laser excitation or 800 and 1625 nm emission under 1208 nm laser radiation, as a result of ground- and excited-state absorption processes (GSA and ESA, respectively). However, NaYF:5%Er,2%[email protected] NPs showed the most interesting properties, as they can convert all studied laser wavelengths due to the absorption of Tm (808, 1208 nm) or Er ions (808, 975, 1532 nm), revealing a photon avalanche process under 1208 nm laser excitation, as well as GSA and ESA at other excitation wavelengths. The NaYF:2%[email protected]:5%Er NPs revealed the resultant emission properties, as the dopant ions were separated within core and shell phases. The NaYF:18%Yb,2%[email protected] and NaYF:18%Yb,2%[email protected]:5%Er samples showed the brightest emission, around 800 nm, under 975 nm excitation, though other laser wavelengths allowed for observation of luminescence, as well, especially in NPs with Er in the outer shell, capable of UC under 1532 nm. The presented results highlight the unique and universal properties of lanthanide ions for designing luminescent NPs for a variety of potential applications, such as confocal microscopy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0nr07136fDOI Listing
April 2021

Assessment of the Propulsion System Operation of the Ships Equipped with the Air Lubrication System.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Feb 14;21(4). Epub 2021 Feb 14.

Faculty of Marine Engineering, Gdynia Maritime University, 81-234 Gdynia, Poland.

This paper is an attempt to evaluate the effectiveness of the ship's hull air lubrication system in order to reduce the drag leading to fuel consumption reduction by ships. The available papers and reports were analyzed, in which records of the operation parameters of the propulsion system of ships equipped with this system were presented. These reports clearly show the advantages of using air lubrication system. On the basis of collected operating parameters of the propulsion system the authors performed analysis of operation effectiveness of the Air Lubrication System on the modern passenger ship was. The results of this analysis do not allow for a clearly positive opinion about its effectiveness. Additionally, the conditions that should be met for the system to be more effective and to significantly increase the propulsion efficiency were indicated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21041357DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7917895PMC
February 2021

Inert gas bubble formation in magnetron sputtered thin-film CdTe solar cells.

Proc Math Phys Eng Sci 2020 Jul 29;476(2239):20200056. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU, UK.

Cadmium telluride (CdTe) solar cells are deposited in current production using evaporation-based tech- niques. Fabricating CdTe solar cells using magnetron sputtering would have the advantage of being more cost-efficient. Here, we show that such deposition results in the incorporation of the magnetron working gas Ar, within the films. Post deposition processing with CdCl improves cell efficiency and during which stacking faults are removed. The Ar then accumulates into clusters leading to the creation of voids and blisters on the surface. Using molecular dynamics, the penetration threshold energies are determined for both Ar and Xe, with CdTe in both zinc-blende and wurtzite phases. These calculations show that more Ar than Xe can penetrate into the growing film with most penetration across the (111) surface. The mechanisms and energy barriers for interstitial Ar and Xe diffusion in zinc-blende are determined. Barriers are reduced near existing clusters, increasing the probability of capture-based cluster growth. Barriers in wurtzite are higher with non-Arrhenius behaviour observed. This provides an explanation for the increase in the size of voids observed after stacking fault removal. Blister exfoliation was also modelled, showing the formation of shallow craters with a raised rim.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspa.2020.0056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7426057PMC
July 2020

External and Genetic Conditions Determining Male Infertility.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Jul 24;21(15). Epub 2020 Jul 24.

UTP University of Science and Technology in Bydgoszcz, Faculty of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Seminaryjna St. 5, PL 85-326 Bydgoszcz, Poland.

We explain environmental and genetic factors determining male genetic conditions and infertility and evaluate the significance of environmental stressors in shaping defensive responses, which is used in the diagnosis and treatment of male infertility. This is done through the impact of external and internal stressors and their instability on sperm parameters and their contribution to immunogenetic disorders and hazardous DNA mutations. As chemical compounds and physical factors play an important role in the induction of immunogenetic disorders and affect the activity of enzymatic and non-enzymatic responses, causing oxidative stress, and leading to apoptosis, they downgrade semen quality. These factors are closely connected with male reproductive potential since genetic polymorphisms and mutations in chromosomes 7, X, and Y critically impact on spermatogenesis. Microdeletions in the Azoospermic Factor AZF region directly cause defective sperm production. Among mutations in chromosome 7, impairments in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene are destructive for fertility in cystic fibrosis, when spermatic ducts undergo complete obstruction. This problem was not previously analyzed in such a form. Alongside karyotype abnormalities AZF microdeletions are the reason of spermatogenic failure. Amongst genes, the deleted in azoospermia gene family is reported as most frequently deleted AZF. Screening of AZF microdeletions is useful in explaining idiopathic cases of male infertility as well as in genetic consulting prior to assisted reproduction. Based on the current state of research we answer the following questions: (1) How do environmental stressors lessen the quality of sperm and reduce male fertility; (2) which chemical elements induce oxidative stress and immunogenetic changes in the male reproductive system; (3) how do polymorphisms correlate with changes in reproductive potential and pro-antioxidative mechanisms as markers of pathophysiological disturbances of the male reproductive condition; (4) how do environmental stressors of immunogenetic disorders accompany male infertility and responses; and (5) what is the distribution and prevalence of environmental and genetic risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21155274DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7432692PMC
July 2020

Antioxidant defence barrier of great tit Parus major nestlings in response to trace elements.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Jun 2;27(16):20321-20334. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Department of Ecology and Environmental Protection, Nicolaus Copernicus University, M. Skłodowska-Curie St. 9, 85-094, Bydgoszcz, Poland.

Metals can have direct and indirect effects on the generation of reactive oxygen species in wild birds. The aim of this work has been to examine the effect of exposure to trace metals (copper Cu, iron Fe, cobalt Co, manganese Mn) on oxidative stress biomarkers such as lipoperoxidation TBARS and level of superoxide dismutase SOD, catalase CAT, and reduced glutathione GSH in the livers and kidneys of great tit Parus major nestlings (n = 165, 63 broods) living in polluted environments associated with soda plants and agricultural activities (Kujawy region) and from a reference site (Tuchola Forest), both in the north of Poland. As we predicted, the level of TBARS in both organs of chicks from polluted areas was higher than in those from reference site. This could be connected with Fe concentrations, particularly in areas adjacent to soda plants (livers R = 0.49, p < 0.002; kidneys R = 0.69, p < 0.001). We also showed differences in the level of antioxidants depending on the environment. CAT activity was higher in nestlings from Kujawy than in those from Tuchola. Meanwhile SOD activity (both organs) and GSH levels (kidneys) were lower in the polluted area compared to the reference site. Concentrations of Cu, Fe, Co, and Mn may play a role in regulating the antioxidant system components' activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-08495-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7244610PMC
June 2020

Polymorphism of glutathione S-transferase in the population of Polish patients with carcinoma of the prostate.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Jun 24;27(16):19375-19382. Epub 2020 Mar 24.

Department of Ecology and Environmental Protection, Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszczy, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, M. Curie Skłodowskiej St.9, PL, 85-094, Bydgoszcz, Poland.

The aim of the study was frequency analysis of GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase in the group of patients with prostate cancer and in a control group of healthy individuals. Genomic DNA was isolated; molecular analysis of glutathione S-transferase M1 and T2 polymorphisms was performed using multiplex PCR and RFLP methods. The products of the PCR reaction were then visualized in agarose gel, and a statistical analysis of the results was performed. No statistically significant differences were found in the frequency of glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms between 66 patients with prostate cancer and the control group (64 healthy volunteers). The GSTM1 gene deletion was found in ca. 47% of patients with prostate cancer and in ca. 55% of the controls. The GSTT1 deletion was found in approximately 17% of patients and 14% of the controls. The distribution of GSTP1 Ile/Ile, Ile/Val, and Val/Val polymorphisms was ca. 51.5%, 39%, and 9% in the group of patients and 61%, 34%, and 5% in the control group, respectively. The results indicate that there is no relationship between glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms and prostate cancer in the study group, which is a novelty when compared with the previous work on the role of these genetic variants in the etiology of cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-08435-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7244614PMC
June 2020

Do agricultural environments increase the reproductive success of White Stork Ciconia ciconia populations in South-Western Poland?

Sci Total Environ 2020 Feb 2;702:134503. Epub 2019 Nov 2.

Nicolaus Copernicus University, Department of Ecology and Biogeography, Lwowska St. 1, PL 87-100 Toruń, Poland. Electronic address:

As populations of White Stork Ciconia ciconia have decreased at different rates in Europe, the specific environmental drivers that influence breeding success are a matter of controversy. Here we use body size, blood, and environmental data of a total of 1226 stork nestlings of different ages from a total of 363 nests in three different habitats (meadows, forest-edges, open agricultural landscapes) in S-W Poland to ask whether: 1) natural grassland environments increase the reproductive output in comparison with agricultural landscapes, 2) nestlings from agricultural landscapes differ in health status from nestlings in more natural habitats, 3) differences in environmental stress translate into respective differences in reproductive output and health status of nestlings. There was no significant difference in age corrected body mass and in the temporal increase in nestling mass between the study sites. Clutch sizes were highest and age corrected total clutch mass lowest at the meadow sites while agricultural and woodland sites did not significantly differ. Hemoglobin and red blood cell content were lowest and white blood cell and blood antioxidant concentrations were highest in the meadows indicating higher degrees of environmental stressors. These blood parameters varied strongly among study years. Our study does not confirm that agricultural landscapes are less suited for stork breeding success. We even find some indication of a better health status of nestlings in agricultural environments that might compensate smaller clutch sizes. Our data indicate that reproductive output is multifaceted. As we found some indication of a trade-off between clutch size and health status we argue that only multiple metrics of reproductive success are able to assess the long-term effect of habitat choice on fitness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.134503DOI Listing
February 2020

Supporting dataset for elemental traits of plant-invertebrate food web components of oilseed rape fields.

Data Brief 2019 Oct 5;26:104470. Epub 2019 Sep 5.

Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Ergonomics, Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, M. Skłodowska-Curie 9, 85-094, Bydgoszcz, Poland.

This dataset is provided in support of the paper "Edge effect imprint on elemental traits of plant-invertebrate food web components of oilseed rape fields" (Orłowski et al., 2019). Supplementary data are given on the following: (1) the full taxonomic list of invertebrates ( = 12 916) classified into food guilds and functional groups, which were sampled in 34 oilseed rape fields in SW Poland in spring 2015; (2) concentrations of 12 chemical elements measured in invertebrates; (3) the relationships between abundance and percentage (%) in the community of major invertebrate groups, and habitat variables; (4) the statistical tests comparing the concentrations of chemical elements between the different groupings of organisms; (5) the relationships between the elemental traits of oilseed rape plant samples and major functional invertebrate groupings or main taxonomic insect groups, and the habitat variables of oilseed rape fields.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2019.104470DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6811910PMC
October 2019

Edge effect imprint on elemental traits of plant-invertebrate food web components of oilseed rape fields.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Oct 11;687:1285-1294. Epub 2019 Jun 11.

Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Ergonomics, Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus Copernicus University, M. Skłodowska-Curie 9, 85-094 Bydgoszcz, Poland.

Of fundamental importance for the functioning of a community is the flow of energy and elements through its components. However, the question of how (if at all) the edge effect of habitats can drive elemental traits of organisms has hitherto been largely neglected issue in ecosystem ecology at the community level. We quantified the abundance of invertebrates and measured the elemental composition (K, Na, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, As, Cd, Co and Pb) of 15 different organisms within the plant-invertebrate food web (plant - oilseed rape pests/herbivores - pollinators = wild bees - saprovores - predators - parasitoids) sampled in 34 fields of a key bioenergy crop that is an exceptionally strong biodiversity driver, the oilseed rape. Then these were related to the individual field edge habitat features (including typically anthropogenic ones like dirt and tarred roads) measured within a 100 m radius around the invertebrate sampling sites. Our study showed that elemental traits of the plant-invertebrate food web components in oilseed rape crops varied owing to the habitat specificity determined at the relatively small spatial scale of an individual field, and that the elemental traits of these organisms differed from both an inter- and an intra-guild perspective. The major mechanistic explanation for most of these relationships seems to derive from the secondary gut content effect. Determining one single state for the homeostatic/stoichiometric regulation of chemical elements in invertebrates based on the application of whole-body metal concentrations is in principle impossible, because of the unknown noise caused by the inclusion of extracellular portions of metals in the analysis. It is thus imperative to develop consistent principles for assessing elemental traits of organisms that are based on highly sensitive and high-throughput analytical methods for the ionomic profiling of microsamples at the organ, tissue, cellular or even sub-cellular levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.06.022DOI Listing
October 2019

Human Sperm Characteristics with Regard to Cobalt, Chromium, and Lead in Semen and Activity of Catalase in Seminal Plasma.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2019 Apr 29;188(2):251-260. Epub 2018 Jun 29.

Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Faculty of Pharmacy, Chair and Department of Biopharmacy, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, dr. A. Jurasz St. 2, PL, 85-089, Bydgoszcz, Poland.

We analyzed cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), and lead (Pb) concentrations in human semen and catalase CAT activity in seminal plasma and the effects of their relations on the sperm quality. We obtained semen samples from men (n = 168) undergoing routine infertility evaluation. Studies included two groups based on the ejaculate parameters: I (n = 39; normal ejaculate; normozoospermia); II (n = 129; pathological spermiogram). We examined relationships and differences between Co, Cr, and Pb concentrations in seminal plasma, CAT activity, and semen parameters. We did not establish differences in Co, Cr, and Pb concentrations and CAT activity from men between normozoospermic and those with pathological spermiogram. We found a significantly lower Co concentration and CAT activity in males with normal sperm motility than in asthenozoospermic males. We found significantly lower Co and a higher Pb concentration in males with normal morphology of spermatozoa than in teratozoospermic males. We found a significantly higher Pb concentration in the individuals with consumption of alcohol than in those without consumption. There were significant correlations between Co and Pb concentrations, sperm progressive motility (A + B, i.e., fast and slow progressive motility; Co-negatively; Pb-positively), and normal morphology of spermatozoa (Co-negatively; Pb-positively). We found a significant negative correlation between Cr concentration and slow progressive motility, and between CAT activity and volume of ejaculate. Co, Cr, and Pb levels and CAT activity were related to sperm characteristics and male fertility. The impact of alcohol may be manifested by a disturbance in Pb equilibrium in the body. Co and Pb influence progressive motility and normal morphology of human spermatozoa. Thus, Co and Pb levels in semen may be a useful diagnostic in male infertility. Most of the results of this study are in contrast to expectations. Namely, Pb is a toxic element and its harmful effects (poor semen quality) may be expected already at relatively low level of Pb exposure and are particularly visible with increasing of Pb. Co and Cr(III) are essential elements and harmful effects may be expected at their deficiency and/or overexposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-018-1416-9DOI Listing
April 2019

Control of exceptional points in photonic crystal slabs.

Opt Lett 2017 Aug;42(15):2866-2869

Various ways of controlling the extent of the ring of exceptional points in photonic crystal slabs are investigated. The extent of the ring in photonic crystal slabs is found to vary with the thickness of the slab. This enables recovery of Dirac cones in open, non-Hermitian systems, such as a photonic crystal slab. In this case, all three bands exhibit a bound state in the continuum in close proximity of the Γ point. These results may lead to new designs of small photonic-crystal-based lasers exhibiting high-quality factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.42.002866DOI Listing
August 2017

Relatedness of wildlife and livestock avian isolates of the nosocomial pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii to lineages spread in hospitals worldwide.

Environ Microbiol 2017 10 9;19(10):4349-4364. Epub 2017 Oct 9.

Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Zielona Góra, Prof. Z. Szafrana Street 1, 65-561 Zielona Góra, Poland.

The natural habitats and potential reservoirs of the nosocomial pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii are poorly defined. Here, we put forth and tested the hypothesis of avian reservoirs of A. baumannii. We screened tracheal and rectal swab samples from livestock (chicken, geese) and wild birds (white stork nestlings) and isolated A. baumannii from 3% of sampled chicken (n = 220), 8% of geese (n = 40) and 25% of white stork nestlings (n = 661). Virulence of selected avian A. baumannii isolates was comparable to that of clinical isolates in the Galleria mellonella infection model. Whole genome sequencing revealed the close relationship of an antibiotic-susceptible chicken isolate from Germany with a multidrug-resistant human clinical isolate from China and additional linkages between livestock isolates and human clinical isolates related to international clonal lineages. Moreover, we identified stork isolates related to human clinical isolates from the United States. Multilocus sequence typing disclosed further kinship between avian and human isolates. Avian isolates do not form a distinct clade within the phylogeny of A. baumannii, instead they diverge into different lineages. Further, we provide evidence that A. baumannii is constantly present in the habitats occupied by storks. Collectively, our study suggests A. baumannii could be a zoonotic organism that may disseminate into livestock.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.13931DOI Listing
October 2017

Effects of chemical elements in the trophic levels of natural salt marshes.

Environ Geochem Health 2016 Jun 10;38(3):783-810. Epub 2015 Sep 10.

Department of Medical Biology, Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Karłowicz St. 24, 85-092, Bydgoszcz, Poland.

The relationships between the bioaccumulation of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Co, Cd, and Pb, acidity (pH), salinity (Ec), and organic matter content within trophic levels (water-soil-plants-invertebrates) were studied in saline environments in Poland. Environments included sodium manufactures, wastes utilization areas, dumping grounds, and agriculture cultivation, where disturbed Ca, Mg, and Fe exist and the impact of Cd and Pb is high. We found Zn, Cu, Mn, Co, and Cd accumulation in the leaves of plants and in invertebrates. Our aim was to determine the selectivity exhibited by soil for nutrients and heavy metals and to estimate whether it is important in elucidating how these metals are available for plant/animal uptake in addition to their mobility and stability within soils. We examined four ecological plant groups: trees, shrubs, minor green plants, and water macrophytes. Among invertebrates, we sampled breastplates Malacostraca, small arachnids Arachnida, diplopods Diplopoda, small insects Insecta, and snails Gastropoda. A higher level of chemical elements was found in saline polluted areas (sodium manufactures and anthropogenic sites). Soil acidity and salinity determined the bioaccumulation of free radicals in the trophic levels measured. A pH decrease caused Zn and Cd to increase in sodium manufactures and an increase in Ca, Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb in the anthropogenic sites. pH increase also caused Na, Mg, and Fe to increase in sodium manufactures and an increase in Na, Fe, Mn, and Co in the anthropogenic sites. There was a significant correlation between these chemical elements and Ec in soils. We found significant relationships between pH and Ec, which were positive in saline areas of sodium manufactures and negative in the anthropogenic and control sites. These dependencies testify that the measurement of the selectivity of cations and their fluctuation in soils provide essential information on the affinity and binding strength in these environments. The chemical elements accumulated in soils and plants; however, further flow is selective and variable. The selectivity exhibited by soil systems for nutrients and heavy metals is important in elucidating how these metals become available for plant/animal uptake and also their mobility and stability in soils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10653-015-9761-5DOI Listing
June 2016

Sex ratio of White Stork Ciconia ciconia in different environments of Poland.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2015 Sep 5;22(17):13194-203. Epub 2015 May 5.

Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Department of Ecology and Environmental Protection, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Skłodowska-Curie St. 9, 85-094, Bydgoszcz, Poland,

The aim of this study was to analyze the variation in sex ratio of White Stork Ciconia ciconia chicks from differentiated Poland environments. We took under a consideration the impact of Cd and Pb for establish differences among sex ratio in chicks. We also study multiplex PCR employment for establish gender considerations. We collected blood samples via venipuncture of brachial vein of chicks during 2006-2008 breeding seasons at the Odra meadows (SW-Poland; control), which were compared with those from suburbs (SW-Poland), and from copper smelter (S-Poland; polluted) and from swamps near Baltic Sea. We found differences among sex ratio in White Stork chicks from types of environment. Male participation in sex structure is importantly higher in each type of environment excluded suburban areas. Differences in White Stork sex ratio according to the degree of environmental degradation expressed by Cd and Pb and sex-environment-metal interactions testify about the impact of these metals upon sex ratios in storks. Simultaneously, as a result of multiplex PCR, 18S ribosome gene, which served as internal control of PCR, was amplified in male and female storks. It means that it is possible to use primers designed for chicken in order to replicate this fragment of genome in White Stork. Moreover, the use of Oriental White Stork Ciconia boyciana W- chromosome specific primers makes it possible to determine the sex of C. ciconia chicks. Many factors make sex ratio of White Stork changes in subsequent breeding seasons, which depend significantly on specific environmental parameters that shape individual detailed defense mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-4250-zDOI Listing
September 2015

The employment of IVF techniques for establishment of sodium, copper and selenium impact upon human sperm quality.

Reprod Fertil Dev 2015 Mar 19. Epub 2015 Mar 19.

We analysed sodium (Na), copper (Cu) and selenium (Se) levels in human semen and glutathione peroxidase activity (GPx) in seminal plasma and examined their relationships with sperm quality. Semen samples were obtained from men (n=168) undergoing routine infertility evaluation. The study design included two groups based on standard ejaculate parameters: Group I (n=39) with normal ejaculates (normozoospermia) and Group II (n=129) with a pathological spermiogram. Se concentration (but not Na or Cu) and GPx activity were significantly higher in normozoospermic males than in those with a pathological spermiogram and also in males with correct sperm motility and normal sperm morphology than in asthenozoospermic and teratozoospermic males. There were significant correlations between sperm motility, Se and GPx, between rapid progressive motility and Cu, between sperm motility and Na, between normal sperm morphology and Se and Cu and between sperm concentration and Cu and GPx. Significant correlations were found between Na and Cu, between Na and Se and between Cu and Se in human semen in relation to alcohol consumption and tobacco use. Na, Cu, Se and GPx are related to sperm characteristics and male fertility and their survey could improve male infertility diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/RD15041DOI Listing
March 2015

Variable contribution of functional prey groups in diets reveals inter- and intraspecific differences in faecal concentrations of essential and non-essential elements in three sympatric avian aerial insectivores: a re-assessment of usefulness of bird faeces in metal biomonitoring.

Sci Total Environ 2015 Jun 13;518-519:407-16. Epub 2015 Mar 13.

Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Skłodowska-Curie St. 9, PL 85-094 Bydgoszcz, Poland.

Aerial insectivores through their insect diet can contribute to biotransfer of elements across habitats. We investigate the relationship between dietary composition as expressed by the contributions of six functional invertebrate prey groups (primarily of agriculturally subsidised invertebrates characteristic of agricultural areas in temperate regions of Europe) and concentrations of essential (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Co) and non-essential (As, Cd, Pb) elements of environmental concern in the faeces of nestlings of three species of avian aerial insectivores - Common Swift Apus apus, Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica and House Martin Delichon urbicum - which breed sympatrically and use apparently similar resources of flying insect prey. There were significant differences between the species for 7 of the 12 elements (Ca, Zn, Cu, Co, As, Pb, Cd); these differences were attributable to the variable dietary composition, even though the concentrations of the elements varied enormously between the faecal samples from the individual species. Partial correlation analysis between the biomass (expressed in mg dry weight) of the six functional prey groups and faecal concentrations of elements showed the highest number of significant relationships for toxic metals (As, Pb and Cd). The results of the General Regression Model explaining faecal element concentrations revealed the different explanatory power of the effects of PCA (of six functional prey groups) dietary scores. A significant fit of GRM was obtained for 7 elements (Na, Mg, Fe, Mn, As, Pb, Cd) for Barn Swallows, 2 elements (Cu, As) for House Martins and 1 element (Mn) for Common Swifts. Overall, the results confirmed our predictions that the biomass of consumed coprophilous taxa and insects from crop habitats was positively correlated with the faecal concentrations of toxic elements. Unexpectedly, however, the faecal samples (primarily those of Common Swifts) that contained many oil-seed rape insect pests had lower Ca, Pb and Cd levels and a higher As level. Our study implies that the cross-boundary transfer of contaminants, primarily non-essential elements, by aerially foraging birds through the considerable accumulation of their faeces has potential consequences for the local biogeochemical cycle and environmental quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.02.078DOI Listing
June 2015

Determination of Rare Earth Elements in Human Sperm and Association with Semen Quality.

Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 2015 Aug 12;69(2):191-201. Epub 2015 Mar 12.

Department of Biopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, dr. A. Jurasz St. 2, 85-089, Bydgoszcz, Poland,

The aim of the present study was to measure lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), europium (Eu), and gadolinium (Gd) concentrations in human semen and correlate the results with sperm quality. The median semen content of La was 19.5 µg kg(-1) dry weight (dw) (range 2.27-269), of Ce was 41.9 µg kg(-1) dw (range 4.52 to 167), of Eu was 0.68 µg kg(-1) dw (range 0.06-1.95), of Gd was 3.19 µg kg(-1) dw (range 0.38-12.0), and of calcium (Ca) was 4063 mg kg(-1) dw (range 484-17,191). Concentrations of La, Ce, Eu, Gd, and Ca were significantly lower in nondrinkers' semen than in semen from drinkers. Significant differences were detected between La, Ce, Eu, Gd, and Ca concentrations in semen from nondrinkers and moderate drinkers. Concentrations of La, Ce, and Gd in semen of short-term smokers were significantly lower than those in extremely long-term smokers. Significant differences were also detected between La concentration in semen from a group of short-term smokers and that of a group of long-term smokers. Positive correlations were found between La, Ce, Eu, Gd, and Ca concentrations in semen. La, Ce, Gd, and Ca concentrations in semen were positively associated with progressive motility and percentage of normal spermatozoa. Positive correlations were found between Ca and sperm concentration. Concentrations of La, Ce, and Gd were negatively associated with sperm concentration, whilst Ca concentration was negatively associated with volume of ejaculate. At the examined level, La, Ce, Eu, and Gd did not affect sperm quality, whereas alcohol consumption and smoking might have increased the level of rare earth elements in semen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00244-015-0143-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4490166PMC
August 2015

Prevalence, virulence, and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in white stork Ciconia ciconia in Poland.

Foodborne Pathog Dis 2015 Jan 2;12(1):24-31. Epub 2014 Dec 2.

1 Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Nicolaus Copernicus University , Bydgoszcz, Poland .

The aim of this study was to investigate the role of white stork Ciconia ciconia as a potential reservoir of Campylobacter spp. Antimicrobial resistance and the presence of putative virulence genes of the isolates were also examined. A total of 398 white stork chicks sampled in Western Poland in habitats with high density of breeding were examined. Rectal swabs were collected during breeding season 2009-2012 from storks developing in a relatively pure environment (Odra meadows), in polluted areas (a copper mining-smelting complex), and in suburbs. Of the anal swabs collected, 7.6% were positive for Campylobacter among chicks (5.3% samples positive for C. jejuni and 2.3% samples positive for C. coli). Samples from polluted areas had the highest prevalence of Campylobacter (12.2%). The prevalence of resistance among C. jejuni and C. coli isolates from young storks was as follows: to ciprofloxacin (52.4%, 44.4%), and to tetracycline (19%, 77.8%). All of the analyzed isolates were susceptible to macrolides. The resistance to both classes of antibiotics was found in the 23.3% of Campylobacter spp. All Campylobacter spp. isolates had cadF gene and flaA gene responsible for adherence and motility. CdtB gene associated with toxin production was present in 88.9% of C. coli isolates and 57.1% of C. jejuni isolates. The iam marker was found more often in C. coli strains (55.6%) compared to C. jejuni isolates (42.9%). Our results confirm the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in the white stork in natural conditions and, because it lives in open farmlands with access to marshy wetlands, the environmental sources such as water reservoirs and soil-water can be contaminated from white stork feces and the pathogens can be widely disseminated. We can thus conclude that Campylobacter spp. may easily be transmitted to waterfowl, other birds, and humans via its environmental sources and/or by immediate contact.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/fpd.2014.1793DOI Listing
January 2015

A locus conferring effective late blight resistance in potato cultivar Sárpo Mira maps to chromosome XI.

Theor Appl Genet 2014 Mar 17;127(3):647-57. Epub 2013 Dec 17.

Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute-National Research Institute, Młochów Research Centre, Platanowa 19, 05-831, Młochów, Poland.

Late blight of potato, caused by Phytophthora infestans, is one of the most economically important diseases worldwide, resulting in substantial yield losses when not adequately controlled by fungicides. Late blight was a contributory factor in The Great Irish Famine, and breeding for resistance to the disease began soon after. Several disease-resistant cultivars have subsequently been obtained, and amongst them Sárpo Mira is currently one of the most effective. The aim of this work was to extend the knowledge about the genetic basis of the late blight resistance in Sárpo Mira and to identify molecular markers linked to the resistance locus which would be useful for marker-assisted selection. A tetraploid mapping population from a Sárpo Mira × Maris Piper cross was phenotyped for foliar late blight resistance using detached leaflet tests. A locus with strong effect on late blight resistance was mapped at the end of chromosome XI in the vicinity of the R3 locus. Sárpo Mira's genetic map of chromosome XI contained 11 markers. Marker 45/XI exhibited the strongest linkage to the resistance locus and accounted for between 55.8 and 67.9% of variance in the mean resistance scores noted in the detached leaflet assays. This marker was used in molecular marker-facilitated gene pyramiding. Ten breeding lines containing a late blight resistance locus from cultivar Sárpo Mira and the Rpi-phu1 gene originating from the late blight resistant accession of Solanum phureja were obtained. These lines have extended the spectrum of late blight resistance compared with Sárpo Mira and it is expected that resistance in plants containing this gene pyramid will have enhanced durability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00122-013-2248-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3931936PMC
March 2014

Essential and nonessential elements in nestling rooks Corvus frugilegus from eastern Poland with a special emphasis on their high cadmium contamination.

Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 2012 Nov 4;63(4):601-11. Epub 2012 Sep 4.

Institute of Agricultural and Forest Environment, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poznan, Poland.

Concentration of minerals (sodium, potassium, calcium [Ca], magnesium, iron [Fe], copper, zinc [Zn], manganese [Mn], and cobalt) as well as toxic metals (cadmium [Cd], lead [Pb]) were determined in five tissues (liver, lung, kidney, muscle, and bone) of nestling rooks (Corvus frugilegus; 1 to 13 days old) found dead in seven breeding colonies in eastern Poland. Cd concentration in all analyzed tissues was in the narrow range of 17.0-17.2 mg/kg dry weight (dw) Cd, which in the light of the literature data indicates acute contamination by this toxic metal. Similarly, we found increased levels of Pb, which in all tissues ranged between 5.0 and 6.2 mg/kg dw. Results of multivariate general linear model (GLM) testing of the effect of three variables (tissue type, colony, and nestling age) on tissue concentrations of various metals showed significance for Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn. Only concentrations of Ca, Fe, and Zn differed significantly between the analyzed tissues. GLM analysis did not show any statistically significant differences in tissue levels of minerals and both toxic metals among examined rookeries, which indicates the widespread presence of nonpoint Cd and Pb pollution linked to agricultural activity and similar levels of these inorganic contaminants on crop fields (feeding grounds) around breeding colonies. We concluded that high levels of both toxic metals, Cd and Pb, probably resulting from the diet of nestling rooks, are based mainly on a diet of ground-dwelling beetles gathered on crop fields.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00244-012-9794-zDOI Listing
November 2012

Potato- an important source of nutritional kynurenic acid.

Plant Foods Hum Nutr 2012 Mar;67(1):17-23

Department of Toxicology, Institute of Agricultural Medicine, Jaczewskiego 2, 20-950, Lublin, Poland.

Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is a metabolite of tryptophan which is formed along the kynurenine pathway. KYNA may possess neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiproliferative properties. This study measured the concentration of KYNA in various varieties of potatoes and products made from potatoes. KYNA content was determined by means of the high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. KYNA was found in all 16 studied varieties of potato tubers in amounts varying from 0.239 to 3.240 μg/g dry weight. The content of KYNA in potato tubers declined during long-term storage. The content of KYNA in French fries varied from 0.100 to 0.646 μg/g dry weight. KYNA content in potato crisps was 0.478 and 0.576 μg/g dry weight. Hence, all in all, we concluded that the amount of KYNA potentially delivered to the human body in potatoes and various foods produced from potatoes is high and might be compared to the amount of KYNA present in a maximum daily dose of popular herbs and herbal medicines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11130-012-0283-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3304068PMC
March 2012

[Management of colonoscopic perforations of large bowel].

Pol Merkur Lekarski 2011 Dec;31(186):340-4

Szpital im. prof. W. Orłowskiego CMKP, Oddział Kliniczny Chirurgii Ogólnej i Przewodu Pokarmowego, Warszawa.

Unlabelled: Perforation of large bowel during elective colonoscopy is rare but serious life threatening complication. Early diagnosis of perforation during or soon after colonoscopy shortens time of peritoneal contamination and allows to get good results of surgical treatment. The aims of this study were to determine the incidence of perforation due to colonoscopy in our hospital and to assess methods and results of surgical treatment.

Material And Methods: We reviewed our prospectively collected data of 957 patients operated on because of colorectal diseases in the period from January 2003 to December 2010. Data of 16 patients (1.7%) aged from 22 to 89 years of life (average age 67.5 years) operated on because of colonoscopic perforations were analysed.

Results: Perforation of large bowel occurred in 9 patients (0.13%) of 6570 persons colonoscopised in our hospital. All 16 patients were operated on in the period of 0.5-32 hours since colonoscopy was performed. Simple suture of the laesion was the most common procedure performed in 12 patients (4 of them had proximal colostomies performed as well). Postoperative complications occurred in 3 patients (18.7%). Nobody died--mortality 0. Average time of hospital postoperative stay was 8.3 days.

Conclusions: Colonoscopic perforation of large bowel requires surgical treatment. Choice of repair method depends on diameter of perforation, time since onset to operation passed, spread and degree of peritoneal contamination and general patient's condition.
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December 2011

[The susceptibility of Proteus mirabilis strains isolated from white stork (Ciconia ciconia)].

Med Dosw Mikrobiol 2011 ;63(2):139-44

Katedra i Zakład Mikrobiologii, Collegium Medicum im. L. Rydygiera w Bydgoszczy, Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu.

Proteus sp. rods are ubiquitous bacteria, widespread in the environment and classified also as opportunistic human pathogens. The aim of our study was to evaluate susceptibility of Proteus mirabilis strains isolated from white stork (Ciconia ciconia) regarding as his natural bacterial flora, compare and discuss their results with data obtained from scientific literature for clinical strains of the same species. Susceptibility of 59 P. mirabilis strains was estimated for 27 antimicrobials using disc-diffusion method and the ability to produce extended spectrum beta-lactamases was evaluated by double disc synergy test. Environmental P. mirabilis strains isolated from white stork were assessed as more susceptible to most of the examined antimicrobials and production of extended spectrum beta-lactamases was not noted amongst them.
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March 2012

Do toxic heavy metals affect antioxidant defense mechanisms in humans?

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2012 Apr 12;78:195-205. Epub 2011 Dec 12.

Nicolaus Copernicus University, Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Department of Ecology and Environmental Protection, SkŁodowska-Curie St. 9, PL 85-094 Bydgoszcz, Poland.

The aim of this study was to prove whether anthropogenic pollution affects antioxidant defense mechanisms such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity, ferritin (FRT) concentration and total antioxidant status (TAS) in human serum. The study area involves polluted and salted environment (Kujawy region; northern-middle Poland) and Tuchola Forestry (unpolluted control area). We investigated 79 blood samples of volunteers from polluted area and 82 from the control in 2008 and 2009. Lead, cadmium and iron concentrations were measured in whole blood by the ICP-MS method. SOD and CAT activities were measured in serum using SOD and CAT Assay Kits by the standardized colorimetric method. Serum TAS was measured spectrophotometrically by the modified Benzie and Strain (1996) method and FRT concentration-by the immunonefelometric method. Pb and Cd levels and SOD activity were higher in volunteers from polluted area as compared with those from the control (0.0236 mg l(-1) vs. 0.014 mg l(-1); 0.0008 mg l(-1) vs. 0.0005 mg l(-1); 0.137 Um l(-1) vs. 0.055 Um l(-1), respectively). Fe level, CAT activity and TAS were lower in serum of volunteers from polluted area (0.442 g l(-1) vs. 0.476 gl(-1); 3.336 nmol min(-1)ml(-1) vs. 6.017 nmol min(-1)ml(-1); 0.731 Trolox-equivalents vs. 0.936 Trolox-equivalents, respectively), whilst differences in FRT concentration were not significant (66.109 μg l(-1) vs. 37.667 μg l(-1), p=0.3972). Positive correlations between Pb (r=0.206), Cd (r=0.602) and SOD in the inhabitants of polluted area, and between Cd and SOD in the control (r=0.639) were shown. In volunteers from both studied environments TAS-FRT (polluted: r=0.625 vs. control: r=0.837) and Fe-FRT (polluted area: r=0.831 vs. control: r=0.407) correlations, and Pb-FRT (r=0.360) and Pb-TAS (r=0.283) in the control were stated. The higher lead and cadmium concentrations in blood cause an increase of SOD activity. It suggests that this is one of the defense mechanisms of an organism against oxidative stress caused by environmental factors, whilst non-enzymatic mechanisms marked by TAS are the main antioxidant defense system in relation with Pb concentration in humans from unpolluted area. Simultaneously, the higher CAT activity and TAS can indicate that these mechanisms play a key role in the antioxidant protection in non-stressed environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2011.11.017DOI Listing
April 2012

Zinc and iron concentration and SOD activity in human semen and seminal plasma.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2011 Oct 6;143(1):167-77. Epub 2010 Oct 6.

Department of Ecology and Environmental Protection, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Bydgoszcz, Poland.

The aim of the present study was to measure zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) concentration in human semen and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in seminal plasma and correlate the results with sperm quality. Semen samples were obtained from men (N = 168) undergoing routine infertility evaluation. The study design included two groups based on the ejaculate parameters. Group I (n = 39) consisted of males with normal ejaculate (normozoospermia), and group II (n = 129) consisted of males with pathological spermiogram. Seminal Zn and Fe were measured in 162 samples (group I, n = 38; group II, n = 124) and SOD activity in 149 samples (group I, n = 37; group II, n = 112). Correlations were found between SOD activity and Fe and Zn concentration, and between Fe and Zn concentration. SOD activity was negatively associated with volume of semen and positively associated with rapid progressive motility, nonprogressive motility, and concentration. Negative correlation was stated between Fe concentration and normal morphology. Mean SOD activity in seminal plasma of semen from men of group I was higher than in seminal plasma of semen from men of group II. Fe concentration was higher in teratozoospermic males than in males with normal morphology of spermatozoa in group II. Our results suggest that Fe may influence spermatozoa morphology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-010-8868-xDOI Listing
October 2011

Blood chemistry in white stork Ciconia ciconia chicks varies by sex and age.

Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 2010 Jun 15;156(2):144-7. Epub 2010 Mar 15.

Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Zielona Góra, Prof. Z. Szafrana St. 1, PL 65-516 Zielona Góra, Poland.

Little is known on how blood biochemistry differs among avian chicks, especially in sexually monomorphic species. In this study we sampled blood chemistry of 342 white stork Ciconia ciconia chicks from nests in western Poland during four years (2005-2008). Special attention was paid to the effect of chick age and sex on blood biochemistry. Since white stork is a monomorphic species, the sex of chicks was established by a molecular technique. Nine blood biochemical parameters were studied: total protein concentration, urea, uric acid, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). There were sexual differences in total protein, uric acid, cholesterol, HDL and AST. However, total protein and uric acid only differed significantly between sexes if an age effect was included as a covariate in the analysis. Triglycerides decreased significantly, and AST, increased significantly with chick age. We confirm that blood biochemistry varies with chick age, but we also found significant differences between the sexes. Therefore, to understand changes in blood parameters, and to establish reference ranges useful in captive rearing of this endangered species, establishing gender may be important, even in very young individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpb.2010.03.003DOI Listing
June 2010

Ecophysiological determinations of antioxidant enzymes and lipoperoxidation in the blood of White Stork Ciconia ciconia from Poland.

Environ Res 2009 Jan 18;109(1):29-39. Epub 2008 Nov 18.

Department of Ecology and Environmental Protection, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Skłodowska-Curie Street 9, PL 85-094 Bydgoszcz, Poland.

The aim of this study was to investigate the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the blood of White Stork Ciconia ciconia chicks (aged 19-54 days) in Poland in 2006. We took under consideration superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ceruloplasmine (CP), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and the content of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (malondialdehyde) in polluted (copper manufacture), suburban areas, at the Odra meadows, and at swamps near Baltic Sea in the Pomeranian region. We examined the levels of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Co, Cd, and Pb and compared ecophysiological determinations for developing storks. Blood samples of wing venous were collected from 91 chicks from 33 nests. The degree of activity of antioxidant enzymes studied has been different in White Stork chicks' blood from Poland regions, as a rule. We have stated a relatively high level of CAT, GPx, SOD, and GR activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in chicks from polluted areas. However, relative value for GR in storks from Odra meadows was considerably higher (about 112 nmol NADPH(2)/min ml) than those in chicks from other environments (56-84 nmol on average). Relatively high levels of CAT, CP, and GPx (2.7 mkM/min l, 22.2 mg/l, and 3.8 nmol GSH/min ml, respectively) were also stated in chicks nested in swamps near Baltic Sea. Simultaneously, we have stated differences (p<0.02-p<0.001) in the level of elements (besides Ca) in blood of young storks from the studied areas. We found a high level of toxic metals, e.g. Cd, either from swamps near Baltic Sea (2.7 mg/kg) or from Głogów smelter (2.2mg/kg), whilst Pb concentration was high in chicks from Głogów (7.2 mg/kg). Cd and Pb levels in blood of chicks were different in individuals from each region (p<0.001). Birds from a smelter have the highest level of these elements, whereas the lowest one was stated in chicks from Odra meadows (Cd: 1.45, Pb: 0.84 mg/kg). Thus, Cd could be a useful marker of response for polluted stress. We also observed a relatively high level of Mg in chicks from both Pomeranian (7000 mg/kg) and polluted (about 6000 mg/kg) areas. Potassium, zinc, and cobalt levels were highest in chicks from suburbs (4.65, 10.1, and 2.7 mg/kg, respectively) and polluted regions (3.8, 9.7, and 5.6 mg/kg, respectively), whilst Cu and Mn were highest in those from polluted (10.9 and 47.6 mg/kg, respectively) and Pomeranian regions (11 and 42.2 mg/kg, respectively). Concentrations of Na, K, and Ca in chicks from Głogów smelter (143.2, 3.8, and 115.9 mg/kg, respectively) were often similar to those from Odra meadows (147.8, 3.6, and 112.5 mg/kg, respectively). This was probably due to a similar degree of homeostatic regulations of an organism. The levels of Mg, Fe, Zn, and Cu were often different (p<0.02-p<0.001) in the blood of White Stork chicks from the studied areas. Co, Pb, and Cd levels were higher (p<0.001) in chicks from Głogów smelter than in those from Odra meadows. It is evidence for importance of anthropopression, which influenced the course of biogeochemical processes and the bioaccumulation of toxic metals locally. This takes place also in chicks from swamps near Baltic Sea, in which the level of Cd was high (2.7 mg/kg); so we can state the high intensity of intoxication in this region. We can conclude that the use of hematological research assesses the condition of birds and might give a positive association with miscellaneous environmental loads. The high concentration of toxic heavy metals involved greater intensity of antioxidant enzymes' activity. Environmental intoxication causes an increase of lipoperoxidation intensity in growing chicks and changes the response of their immunological system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2008.07.013DOI Listing
January 2009

The impact of element-element interactions on antioxidant enzymatic activity in the blood of white stork (Ciconia ciconia) chicks.

Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 2009 Feb 4;56(2):325-37. Epub 2008 Jul 4.

Department of Ecology and Environmental Protection, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Skłodowska-Curie St. 9, PL 85-094 Bydgoszcz, Poland.

The aim of this work was to determine interrelationships among macroelements Na, K, Ca, Mg, and Fe, microelements Zn, Cu, Mn, and Co, and toxic heavy metals Pb and Cd in the blood of white stork Ciconia ciconia, during postnatal development, in different Polish environments, and their impact on the activity of antioxidant enzymes. We considered the content of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARSs), i.e., malondialdehyde (MDA), and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ceruloplasmine (CP), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR). Blood samples were collected from storks developing at Odra meadows (Kłopot; southwestern Poland). They were compared with blood of chicks from several suburban sites located 20 km away from Zielona Góra (0.1 million inhabitants; southwestern Poland) and near Głogów, where a copper smelter is situated. We also conducted research in the Pomeranian region (Cecenowo; northern Poland). We collected blood samples via venipuncture of the brachial vein of chicks in 2005-2007. They were retrieved from the nest and placed in individual ventilated cotton sacks. The blood was collected using a 5-ml syringe washed with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). We found significant interactions between macro- and microelements and enzymatic activity and TBARS products. We noticed the predominance of Cd and Pb participation in element-enzyme interactions. Simultaneously, we found interrelationships between cadmium and Na, K, Ca, Mg, and Fe and the activity of antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT, CP, GR, and TBARS products in the blood of white stork chicks. In the case of lead these relationships were not numerous and they were significant for Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn, and Co. Correlations with enzymes were significant for Pb-CAT and Pb-TBARS. We noted that activities of most enzymes (SOD, CAT, CP, GR) and TBARS products are determined by their interactions with physiological elements Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, and Zn and toxic heavy metals. White stork chicks ranged in age from 17 to 59 days. Concentrations of elements in the blood were age related. Among enzymes, only SOD, CAT, and GPx were age related. Young storks differed in the case of element concentration (except for Ca, Zn, and Cd) and enzymatic activity. We found that significant element-element interaction/enzyme activity predominated in the case of physiological elements and toxic metals, which we explain by the intensive and prevailing access of toxic metals in redox reactions. This causes changes in the priority of these metals, reflected by their influence on the enzymatic activity of antioxidant enzymes. The content of Cd and Pb in blood of young storks from different regions tends to affect the lipid peroxidation process negatively. However, in many cases we observed an increase in enzymatic activity with an increase in heavy metals. This indicates the changes in oxidative stress intensity in chicks in response to environmental differentiation. The increase in lipoperoxidation modifies antioxidant enzyme activity and causes changes in SOD, CAT, CP, GPx, and GR activity in chicks from various regions, principally increases in enzyme activity in chicks from polluted environments and suburbs. We suggest that the source of heavy metals in chicks' blood might be used as a biological test system of adaptation to oxidative stress. We also report that a high level of heavy metals is accompanied by increased lipid peroxidation. Thus young storks are probably significantly susceptible to environmental conditions. They demonstrated initiation of lipoperoxidation and oxidative modification of proteins that coincide with chemical elements, as a possible antioxidant defense system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00244-008-9178-6DOI Listing
February 2009

[Management of large bowel obstruction--own observation].

Wiad Lek 2007 ;60(7-8):312-20

Z Oddziału Klinicznego Chirurgii Ogólnej i Przewodu Pokarmowego Centrum Medycznego Kształcenia Podyplomowego w Warszawie.

Unlabelled: Large bowel obstruction is still a life threatening condition in spite of advances in surgical treatment and critically ill patients care. This study was designed to assess clinical and pathological features and results of surgical treatment for patients with large bowel obstruction.

Material And Methods: We reviewed a series of 130 patients treated during a 17.5 years period at one institution.

Results: Patients with large bowel obstruction accounted for 12.6% of 780 patients treated because of primary colorectal malignancy and 6.6% of 486 patients treated because of benign diseases of large bowel. Lesion causing obstruction was located in right half of colon in 43 (33.1%) patients (similarly in malignant and benign diseases: 33.6% vs. 31.2%) and in 73 (66.9%) patients in left colon. Primary resection of the lesion was performed in 110 (84.6%) patients and operation was completed with intestinal anastomosis in 73 (65.4%) of them. Hartmann's operation was the most common procedure in remaining 37 patients without bowel anastomosis performed. Perioperative complications occurred in 54 (41.5%) patients. Wound infection was the most often - 20 (15.3%) patients. Overall operative mortality was 13.8% (18 patients). Mortality was 5.5% in 73 patients with resection of the lesion and primary anastomosis performed, and 21.6% in 37 patients with resected lesion without primary anastomosis and 30% in 20 patients after non resective procedures.

Conclusions: Obstruction is a complication occurring two times more frequently in malignant than benign diseases of large bowel. We recommend radical surgery (resection and primary bowel anastomosis) in low risk patients (American Society of Anesthesiologists - ASA, I-II) independently of localisation of causing lesion and Hartmann's operation for high risk patients (ASA III-V).
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February 2008

Melatonin and thyroxine response to pollution in white stork nestlings (Ciconia ciconia): aspects of rhythmicity and age.

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2007 Sep 3;146(3):392-7. Epub 2007 May 3.

Department of Animal Physiology, Pomeranian University of Słupsk, Arciszewskiego 22A St., 76-200 Słupsk, Poland.

There is growing evidence that ubiquitous environmental contaminants may interfere with vertebrate endocrine systems. The selected endocrine biomarkers are used to indicate the condition of free-ranging populations of wildlife, including avian species. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of environment quality on serum thyroxine (T4) and melatonin (Mel) in white stork nestlings (Ciconia ciconia) living in different locations: small villages in natural areas surrounded by forests and crop fields, near the city and near the copper smelter. We extended our analyses to examine the hormones' day-night changes in conjunction with chicks' age. Total serum T4 and Mel was measured by RIA. T4 level, as a decisive measure of thyroid hormone productivity, was significantly lower in the nestlings exposed to pollutants from the copper smelter. Mel, as a well-known scavenger of free radicals, was elevated in the nestlings in the area near the copper smelter. This study indicates that alteration in T4 and Mel levels could be a useful marker of exposure of nestling wild storks to different toxic substances in field studies. Mel is postulated to be a susceptible defensive molecule as a protective mechanism for organisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpc.2007.04.012DOI Listing
September 2007