Publications by authors named "Ping Zhu"

1,048 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

miR-590-5p targets RMND5A and promotes migration in pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines.

Oncol Lett 2021 Jul 17;22(1):532. Epub 2021 May 17.

The Center for Heart Development, State Key Laboratory of Developmental Biology of Freshwater Fish, College of Life Sciences, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081, P.R. China.

Required for meiotic nuclear division 5 homolog A (RMND5A) functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. To date, few studies have investigated the role of RMND5A in cancer. In the present study, the expression levels of RMND5A in multiple types of cancer were analyzed using the Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis platform. The results revealed that RMND5A was highly expressed and associated with overall survival in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAAD). A wound-healing assay revealed that RMND5A overexpression significantly increased cell migration in the PAAD cell lines AsPC-1 and PANC-1. analysis predicted that RMND5A was a potential target of microRNA(miR)-590-5p. Further experiments demonstrated that overexpression of miR-590-5p downregulated the expression levels of RMND5A and decreased the migratory ability of the AsPC-1 and PANC-1 cell lines. In addition, overexpression of miR-590-5p attenuated the promoting effects of RMND5A on the migration of AsPC-1 and PANC-1 cells. The results of the present study may further elucidate the mechanisms underlying PAAD progression and provide novel targets for the treatment of PAAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2021.12793DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8156640PMC
July 2021

Two Cu(II) and Co(II) Coordination Polymers: Important Values on Colon Cancer Patients by Reducing Insulin Resistance.

J Oleo Sci 2021 ;70(6):827-835

Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University.

In the current study, via utilizing HL (HL = 2,4-di(3',5'-dicarboxylphenyl)benzoic acid), the symmetrical rigid polycarboxylic acid ligand with V-shape geometry, two new coordination polymers containing Cu(II) and Co(II) have been produced, and their chemical formulae respectively are {[Co(L)(HO)]·6HO} (1) and {[HN(Me)][Cu(L)(HO)]·DMF·HO} (2), leading to a variety kinds of coordination patterns of HL and multifunctional skeletons. Their inhibitory activity on the insulin resistance of colon cancer patients was assessed. In addition, the detailed mechanism of the compound was also investigated. Firstly, the detection of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was carried out and the Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) level and the Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) level was detected. Then, the glucose concentration was determined with blood glucose meter. Next, the insulin receptor expression levels of β cells were determined with the real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay. Ultimately, the cytotoxicity of compounds 1 and 2 was determined with Cell Counting Kit-8 assay.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5650/jos.ess21013DOI Listing
January 2021

TFEB Overexpression, Not mTOR Inhibition, Ameliorates RagC Cardiomyopathy.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 23;22(11). Epub 2021 May 23.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55901, USA.

A de novo missense variant in Rag GTPase protein C (RagC) was recently identified in a syndromic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) patient. However, its pathogenicity and the related therapeutic strategy remain unclear. We generated a zebrafish Rragc (corresponding to human RagC) knock-in (KI) line via TALEN technology. The KI fish manifested cardiomyopathy-like phenotypes and poor survival. Overexpression of RagC via adenovirus infection also led to increased cell size and fetal gene reprogramming in neonatal rat ventricle cardiomyocytes (NRVCMs), indicating a conserved mechanism. Further characterization identified aberrant mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and transcription factor EB (TFEB) signaling, as well as metabolic abnormalities including dysregulated autophagy. However, mTOR inhibition failed to ameliorate cardiac phenotypes in the RagC cardiomyopathy models, concomitant with a failure to promote TFEB nuclear translocation. This observation was at least partially explained by increased and mTOR-independent physical interaction between RagC and TFEB in the cytosol. Importantly, TFEB overexpression resulted in more nuclear TFEB and rescued cardiomyopathy phenotypes. These findings suggest that S75Y is a pathogenic gain-of-function mutation in RagC that leads to cardiomyopathy. A primary pathological step of RagC cardiomyopathy is defective mTOR-TFEB signaling, which can be corrected by TFEB overexpression, but not mTOR inhibition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22115494DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8197163PMC
May 2021

Erythropoietin Gene Therapy Delays Retinal Degeneration Resulting from Oxidative Stress in the Retinal Pigment Epithelium.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 May 25;10(6). Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Molecular Genetics & Microbiology, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA.

Erythropoietin (EPO) plays an important role in erythropoiesis by its action in blocking apoptosis of progenitor cells and protects both photoreceptors and retinal ganglion cells from induced or inherited degeneration. A modified form of EPO, EPO-R76E has attenuated erythropoietic activity but is effective in inhibiting apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation in several models of retinal degeneration. In this study, we used recombinant Adeno Associated Virus (AAV) to provide long-term sustained delivery of EPO-R76E and demonstrated its effects in a mouse model of dry-AMD in which retinal degeneration is induced by oxidative stress in the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Experimental vector AAV-EPO-R76E and control vector AAV-GFP were packaged into serotype-1 (AAV1) to enable RPE selective expression. RPE oxidative stress-mediated retinal degeneration was induced by exon specific deletion of the protective enzyme MnSOD (encoded by ) by cre/lox mechanism. Experimental mice received subretinal injection of AAV-EPO-R76E in the right eye and AAV-GFP in the left eye. Western blotting of RPE/choroid protein samples from AAV-EPO-R76E injected eyes showed RPE specific EPO expression. Retinal function was monitored by electroretinography (ERG). EPO-R76E over-expression in RPE delayed the retinal degeneration as measured by light microscopy in RPE specific knockout mice. Delivery of EPO-R76E vector can be used as a tool to prevent retinal degeneration induced by RPE oxidative stress, which is implicated as a potential cause of Age-Related Macular Degeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox10060842DOI Listing
May 2021

Intestinal Microbiota-A Promising Target for Antiviral Therapy?

Front Immunol 2021 12;12:676232. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Pediatrics, The Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

The intestinal microbiota is thought to be an important biological barrier against enteric pathogens. Its depletion, however, also has curative effects against some viral infections, suggesting that different components of the intestinal microbiota can play both promoting and inhibitory roles depending on the type of viral infection. The two primary mechanisms by which the microbiota facilitates or inhibits viral invasion involve participation in the innate and adaptive immune responses and direct or indirect interaction with the virus, during which the abundance and composition of the intestinal microbiota might be changed by the virus. Oral administration of probiotics, faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), and antibiotics are major therapeutic strategies for regulating intestinal microbiota balance. However, these three methods have shown limited curative effects in clinical trials. Therefore, the intestinal microbiota might represent a new and promising supplementary antiviral therapeutic target, and more efficient and safer methods for regulating the microbiota require deeper investigation. This review summarizes the latest research on the relationship among the intestinal microbiota, anti-viral immunity and viruses and the most commonly used methods for regulating the intestinal microbiota with the goal of providing new insight into the antiviral effects of the gut microbiota.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.676232DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8149780PMC
June 2021

Toxicity-attenuated mesoporous silica Schiff-base bonded anticancer drug complexes for chemotherapy of drug resistant cancer.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2021 May 11;205:111839. Epub 2021 May 11.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, 211189, China; Center for Global Health, The Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, 211166, Nanjing, China; Jiangsu Province Engineering Research Center of Antibody Drug, Key Laboratory of Antibody Technique of National Health Commission, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 211166, China. Electronic address:

Multidrug resistance (MDR), evoked by improper chemotherapeutic practices, poses a serious threat to public health, which leads to increased medical burdens and weakened curative effects. Taking advantage of the enhanced pharmaceutical effect of Schiff base compounds, an aldehyde-modified mesoporous silica SBA-15 (CHO-SBA-15)-bonded anticancer drug combined with doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) was synthesized via a Schiff base reaction. Due to the acid-sensitive imine bonds formed between CHO-SBA-15 and DOX, the as-prepared nanocomposites exhibited pH-responsive drug releasing behaviours, resulting in a more enhanced cytotoxic effect on DOX-resistant tumour cells than that of free drugs. Notably, the in vivo studies indicated that mice treated with CHO-SBA-15/DOX composites evidently showed more attenuated systemic toxicity than the free drug molecules. The siliceous mesopore Schiff base-bonded anticancer drug nanocomposite, with minimal chemical modifications, provides a simplified yet efficient therapeutic nanoplatform to deal with drug-resistant cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2021.111839DOI Listing
May 2021

Safety and efficacy of meplazumab in healthy volunteers and COVID-19 patients: a randomized phase 1 and an exploratory phase 2 trial.

Signal Transduct Target Ther 2021 05 17;6(1):194. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Clinical Immunology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China.

Recent evidence suggests that CD147 serves as a novel receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Blocking CD147 via anti-CD147 antibody could suppress the in vitro SARS-CoV-2 replication. Meplazumab is a humanized anti-CD147 IgG monoclonal antibody, which may effectively prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Here, we conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled phase 1 trial to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of meplazumab in healthy subjects, and an open-labeled, concurrent controlled add-on exploratory phase 2 study to determine the efficacy in COVID-19 patients. In phase 1 study, 59 subjects were enrolled and assigned to eight cohorts, and no serious treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE) or TEAE grade ≥3 was observed. The serum and peripheral blood C and area under the curve showed non-linear pharmacokinetic characteristics. No obvious relation between the incidence or titer of positive anti-drug antibody and dosage was observed in each cohort. The biodistribution study indicated that meplazumab reached lung tissue and maintained >14 days stable with the lung tissue/cardiac blood-pool ratio ranging from 0.41 to 0.32. In the exploratory phase 2 study, 17 COVID-19 patients were enrolled, and 11 hospitalized patients were involved as concurrent control. The meplazumab treatment significantly improved the discharged (P = 0.005) and case severity (P = 0.021), and reduced the time to virus negative (P = 0.045) in comparison to the control group. These results show a sound safety and tolerance of meplazumab in healthy volunteers and suggest that meplazumab could accelerate the recovery of patients from COVID-19 pneumonia with a favorable safety profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41392-021-00603-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8127508PMC
May 2021

Splicing factor SRSF1 promotes breast cancer progression via oncogenic splice switching of PTPMT1.

J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2021 May 15;40(1):171. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of General Surgery, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032, China.

Background: Intensive evidence has highlighted the effect of aberrant alternative splicing (AS) events on cancer progression when triggered by dysregulation of the SR protein family. Nonetheless, the underlying mechanism in breast cancer (BRCA) remains elusive. Here we sought to explore the molecular function of SRSF1 and identify the key AS events regulated by SRSF1 in BRCA.

Methods: We conducted a comprehensive analysis of the expression and clinical correlation of SRSF1 in BRCA based on the TCGA dataset, Metabric database and clinical tissue samples. Functional analysis of SRSF1 in BRCA was conducted in vitro and in vivo. SRSF1-mediated AS events and their binding motifs were identified by RNA-seq, RNA immunoprecipitation-PCR (RIP-PCR) and in vivo crosslinking followed by immunoprecipitation (CLIP), which was further validated by the minigene reporter assay. PTPMT1 exon 3 (E3) AS was identified to partially mediate the oncogenic role of SRSF1 by the P-AKT/C-MYC axis. Finally, the expression and clinical significance of these AS events were validated in clinical samples and using the TCGA database.

Results: SRSF1 expression was consistently upregulated in BRCA samples, positively associated with tumor grade and the Ki-67 index, and correlated with poor prognosis in a hormone receptor-positive (HR+) cohort, which facilitated proliferation, cell migration and inhibited apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. We identified SRSF1-mediated AS events and discovered the SRSF1 binding motif in the regulation of splice switching of PTPMT1. Furthermore, PTPMT1 splice switching was regulated by SRSF1 by binding directly to its motif in E3 which partially mediated the oncogenic role of SRSF1 by the AKT/C-MYC axis. Additionally, PTPMT1 splice switching was validated in tissue samples of BRCA patients and using the TCGA database. The high-risk group, identified by AS of PTPMT1 and expression of SRSF1, possessed poorer prognosis in the stage I/II TCGA BRCA cohort.

Conclusions: SRSF1 exerts oncogenic roles in BRCA partially by regulating the AS of PTPMT1, which could be a therapeutic target candidate in BRCA and a prognostic factor in HR+ BRCA patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13046-021-01978-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8122567PMC
May 2021

Haploidentical Peripheral Stem Cell Transplantation for Young Patients with Severe Aplastic Anemia Using Post-Transplantation Cyclophosphamide and Methotrexate.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 May 19;27(5):429.e1-429.e7. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Hematology, Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China. Electronic address:

Severe aplastic anemia (SAA) is a serious bone marrow failure disorder that is often cured with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The absence of a matched related donor is common, however, and thus novel approaches are needed to safely expand the donor pool to include alternative donors, especially haploidentical related donors, for patients with SAA. This study aimed to explore a novel approach to HSCT for patients with SAA without an available HLA-identical sibling or a matched unrelated donor, termed haploidentical peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (haplo-PBSCT), using a conditioning regimen comprising cyclophosphamide, busulfan, and fludarabine (CBF) and a graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis regimen with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy), low-dose methotrexate (LD-MTX), and calcineurin inhibitors. This prospectively designed nonrandomized study included 29 patients with SAA who underwent haplo-PBSCT between November 2017 and May 2020. The median patient age was 17 years (range, 14 to 30 years), and the median time to neutrophil recovery was 13 days (range, 13 to 15 days). There was 1 primary graft failure (GF) in the group receiving PTCy at a dose of 50 mg/kg and no GFs in the group receiving PTCy at a dose of 100 mg/kg. The median duration of follow-up was 736 days (95% confidence interval, 512 to 879 days). The estimated 1-year overall survival and disease-free survival were 91.7 ± 5.7% and 89.7 ± 5.7%, respectively. Only 1 of the 27 patients developed grade II acute GVHD. Four patients developed limited and mild chronic GVHD, involving only the skin or/and oral mucosa. Haplo-PBSCT following CBF and followed by PTCy and LD-MTX represents a novel approach for safely expanding the donor pool to include alternative donors for young patients with SAA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.02.014DOI Listing
May 2021

Stress Hyperglycemia Is Independently Associated with Persistent Organ Failure in Acute Pancreatitis.

Dig Dis Sci 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department and Laboratory of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Sichuan Provincial Pancreatitis Centre and West China-Liverpool Biomedical Research Centre, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, No. 37 Wannan Guoxue Alley, Chengdu, 610041, Sichuan Province, China.

Background/aims: Stress hyperglycemia is common in critical illness but it has not been clearly studied in patients with acute pancreatitis (AP). This study aimed to investigate the specific blood glucose (BG) level that defines stress hyperglycemia and to determine the impact of stress hyperglycemia on clinical outcomes in AP patients.

Methods: AP patients admitted ≤ 48 h after abdominal pain onset were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were stratified by pre-existing diabetes and stress hyperglycemia was defined using stratified BG levels for non-diabetes and diabetes with clinical outcomes compared.

Results: There were 967 non-diabetic and 114 diabetic (10.5%) patients met the inclusion criteria and the clinical outcomes between these two groups were not significantly different. In non-diabetes, the cut-off BG level of ≥ 180 mg/dl was selected to define stress hyperglycemia with an 8.8-fold higher odds ratio for persistent organ failure (POF) (95% CI 5.4-14.3; P < 0.001). For diabetes, ≥ 300 mg/dl was selected with a 7.5-fold higher odds ratio for POF (95% CI 1.7-34.3; P = 0.009). In multivariable logistic regression, stress hyperglycemia was independently associated with POF, acute necrotic collection, major infection and mortality. The combination of BG and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) score in predicting POF was better than SIRS or Glasgow score alone.

Conclusions: This study identifies a cut-off BG level of ≥ 180 mg/dl and ≥ 300 mg/dl was optimal to define stress hyperglycemia for non-diabetic and diabetic AP patients, respectively. There was a significant relationship between stress hyperglycemia and adverse clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10620-021-06982-8DOI Listing
May 2021

5-Aminolevulinic acid/sodium ferrous citrate enhanced the antitumor effects of programmed cell death-ligand 1 blockade by regulation of exhausted T cell metabolism in a melanoma model.

Cancer Sci 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Division of Transplantation Immunology, National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, Japan.

Mitochondria are key cytoplasmic organelles. Their activation is critical for the generation of T cell proliferation and cytotoxicity. Exhausted tumor-infiltrating T cells show a decreased mitochondrial function and mass. 5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA), a natural amino acid that is only produced in the mitochondria, has been shown to influence metabolic functions. We hypothesized that 5-ALA with sodium ferrous citrate (SFC) might provide metabolic support for tumor-infiltrating T cells. In a mouse melanoma model, we found that 5-ALA/SFC with a programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) blocking Ab synergized tumor regression. After treatment with 5-ALA/SFC and anti-PD-L1 Ab, tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) were not only competent for the production of cytolytic particles and cytokines (granzyme B, interleukin-2, and γ-interferon) but also showed enhanced Ki-67 activity (a proliferation marker). The number of activated T cells (PD-1 Tim-3 ) was also significantly increased. Furthermore, we found that 5-ALA/SFC activated the mitochondrial functions, including the oxygen consumption rate, ATP level, and complex V expression. The mRNA levels of Nrf-2, HO-1, Sirt-1, and PGC-1α and the protein levels of Sirt-1 were upregulated by treatment with 5-ALA/SFC. Taken together, our findings revealed that 5-ALA/SFC could be a key metabolic regulator in exhausted T cell metabolism and suggested that 5-ALA/SFC might synergize with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy to boost the intratumoral efficacy of tumor-specific T cells. Our study not only revealed a new aspect of immune metabolism, but also paved the way to develop a strategy for combined anti-PD-1/PD-L1 cancer immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.14930DOI Listing
May 2021

The impact of cell type and context-dependent regulatory variants on human immune traits.

Genome Biol 2021 Apr 29;22(1):122. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Section of Genetic Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Background: The vast majority of trait-associated variants identified using genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are noncoding, and therefore assumed to impact gene regulation. However, the majority of trait-associated loci are unexplained by regulatory quantitative trait loci (QTLs).

Results: We perform a comprehensive characterization of the putative mechanisms by which GWAS loci impact human immune traits. By harmonizing four major immune QTL studies, we identify 26,271 expression QTLs (eQTLs) and 23,121 splicing QTLs (sQTLs) spanning 18 immune cell types. Our colocalization analyses between QTLs and trait-associated loci from 72 GWAS reveals that genetic effects on RNA expression and splicing in immune cells colocalize with 40.4% of GWAS loci for immune-related traits, in many cases increasing the fraction of colocalized loci by two fold compared to previous studies. Notably, we find that the largest contributors of this increase are splicing QTLs, which colocalize on average with 14% of all GWAS loci that do not colocalize with eQTLs. By contrast, we find that cell type-specific eQTLs, and eQTLs with small effect sizes contribute very few new colocalizations. To investigate the 60% of GWAS loci that remain unexplained, we collect H3K27ac CUT&Tag data from rheumatoid arthritis and healthy controls, and find large-scale differences between immune cells from the different disease contexts, including at regions overlapping unexplained GWAS loci.

Conclusion: Altogether, our work supports RNA splicing as an important mediator of genetic effects on immune traits, and suggests that we must expand our study of regulatory processes in disease contexts to improve functional interpretation of as yet unexplained GWAS loci.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13059-021-02334-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8082814PMC
April 2021

Association of maternal folate use and reduced folate carrier gene polymorphisms with the risk of congenital heart disease in offspring.

Eur J Pediatr 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, 106 Zhongshan Er Road, Guangzhou, 510100, Guangdong, China.

Although it is generally recognized that genetic and environmental factors are associated with the risk of congenital heart disease (CHD), the mechanism remains largely uncertain. This study aimed to investigate the association of maternal folate use, the time when folate use was started, and polymorphisms of the reduced folate carrier (RFC1) gene with the risk of CHD in offspring of Chinese descent, which can help provide new insight into the etiology of folate-related birth defects. A case-control study of 683 mothers of CHD patients and 740 mothers of healthy children was performed. The present study showed that mothers who did not use folate were at a significantly increased risk of CHD (OR=2.04; 95% CI: 1.42-2.93). When compared with those who started using folate prior to conception, mothers who started using folate from the first trimester of pregnancy (OR=1.90; 95% CI: 1.43-2.54) or from the second trimester of pregnancy (OR=8.92; 95% CI: 4.20-18.97) had a significantly higher risk of CHD. Maternal RFC1 gene polymorphisms at rs2236484 (AG vs AA: OR=1.79 [95% CI: 1.33-2.39]; GG vs AA: OR=1.64 [95% CI: 1.15-2.35]) and rs2330183 (CT vs CC: OR=1.54 [95% CI: 1.14-2.09]) were also significantly associated with CHD risk. Additionally, the risk of CHD was significantly decreased among mothers who had variant genotypes but used folate when compared with those who had variant genotypes and did not use folate.Conclusion: In those of Chinese descent, maternal folate use and the time when use started are significantly associated with the risk of CHD in offspring. Furthermore, maternal folate supplementation may help to offset some of the risks of CHD in offspring due to maternal RFC1 genetic variants. What is Known: • Folate use could help prevent CHD, but the relationship between the time when folate use is started and CHD has not received sufficient attention. • Studies have assessed the associations of folate metabolism-related genes with CHD, but genes involved in cellular transportation of folate, such as the RFC1 gene, have not garnered enough attention. What is New: • In those of Chinese descents, the time when folate use is started is significantly associated with the risk of CHD in offspring. • Maternal RFC1 polymorphisms were significantly associated with the risk of CHD. • Folate supplementation may help to offset some risks of CHD due to RFC1 genetic variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00431-021-04087-yDOI Listing
April 2021

lncRNA APOC1P1-3 promoting anoikis-resistance of breast cancer cells.

Cancer Cell Int 2021 Apr 26;21(1):232. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Fudan University, No. 130 Dong'an Road, Shanghai, 200032, China.

Background: Anoikis resistance plays a critical role in the tumor metastasis by allowing survival of cancer cells in the systemic circulation. We previously showed that long non-coding RNAs APOC1P1-3 (lncRNA APOC1P1-3) inhibit apoptosis of breast cancer cells. In this study, we explored its role in anoikis resistance.

Methods: We induced anoikis resistance in two breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) under anchorage-independent culture conditions and studied lncRNA APOC1P1-3 effects on apoptosis. Using Dual-Luciferase activity assay, we determined whether it specifically binds to miRNA-188-3P. We further explored its role in lung metastasis by injecting MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-231-APOC1P1-3-knock-down cells in female BALB/c nude mice.

Results: We found that lncRNA APOC1P1-3 suppressed early apoptosis of these cells (demonstrated by gain or loss of their function, respectively) and promoted anoikis resistance via reducing activated- Caspase 3, 8, 9 and PARP. Moreover, it specifically binds to the target miRNA-188-3p acting as a "sponge" to block the inhibition of Bcl-2 (an anti-apoptosis protein).

Conclusions: Our study supports a theory that lncRNA APOC1P1-3 can promote development of breast cancer metastasis via anoikis resistance by specifically binding to miRNA-188-3p to block the inhibition of Bcl-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12935-021-01916-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8074441PMC
April 2021

An NT-3-releasing bioscaffold supports the formation of -modified neural stem cell-derived neural network tissue with efficacy in repairing spinal cord injury.

Bioact Mater 2021 Nov 7;6(11):3766-3781. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Key Laboratory for Stem Cells and Tissue Engineering, Ministry of Education, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510080, China.

The mechanism underlying neurogenesis during embryonic spinal cord development involves a specific ligand/receptor interaction, which may be help guide neuroengineering to boost stem cell-based neural regeneration for the structural and functional repair of spinal cord injury. Herein, we hypothesized that supplying spinal cord defects with an exogenous neural network in the NT-3/fibroin-coated gelatin sponge (NF-GS) scaffold might improve tissue repair efficacy. To test this, we engineered -modified neural stem cell (NSC)-derived neural network tissue with robust viability within an NF-GS scaffold. When NSCs were genetically modified to overexpress TrkC, the NT-3 receptor, a functional neuronal population dominated the neural network tissue. The pro-regenerative niche allowed the long-term survival and phenotypic maintenance of the donor neural network tissue for up to 8 weeks in the injured spinal cord. Additionally, host nerve fibers regenerated into the graft, making synaptic connections with the donor neurons. Accordingly, motor function recovery was significantly improved in rats with spinal cord injury (SCI) that received -modified NSC-derived neural network tissue transplantation. Together, the results suggested that transplantation of the neural network tissue formed in the 3D bioactive scaffold may represent a valuable approach to study and develop therapies for SCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioactmat.2021.03.036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8044869PMC
November 2021

Iguratimod reduces B-cell secretion of immunoglobulin to play a protective role in interstitial lung disease.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Apr 20;97:107596. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Clinical Immunology, PLA Specialized Research Institute of Rheumatology & Immunology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, No. 127 West Changle Road, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, China; National Translational Science Center for Molecular Medicine, Xi'an, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Our study aimed to investigate the effect of Iguratimod (IGU) on bleomycin (BLM)-induced interstitial lung disease (ILD).

Methods: The pulmonary fibrosis model group mice were developed by intratracheal injection of BLM. Mice were divided into two groups at random: (1) Control group (BLM group) - endotracheal BLM (BLM, 3.5 mg/kg, Kayaku, Japan) plus an intraperitoneal injection of normal saline, and (2) BLM + IGU group - intratracheal BLM (same as the control group) + IGU intraperitoneal injection (50 mg/kg/d). The alveolar lavage fluid, histopathology/immunohistochemistry, imaging, and other tests were performed on days 7, 14, 21, and 28 after injection.

Results: Lung function, including Compliance (Crs),Tissue damping (G), Static compliance (Cst), Inspiratory capacity (IC), Elastance (Ers), Tissue elastance (H) and Respiratory system resistance (Rrs) in mice, was improved by IGU. IGU reduced BLM-induced changes in pulmonary fibrosis and pulmonary inflammation, as shown in histological examination.Collagen production and inflammatory damage in the lungs caused by BLM were also reduced by IGU. IGU reduced the expression of immunoglobulin IgG and type I collagen in BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis mice by inhibiting the production of B cells and immunoglobulin, and also delayed the deterioration of imaging changes.

Conclusion: IGU inhibits immunoglobulin secretion by B cells to relieve pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. IGU also plays a protective role in the lung in ILD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2021.107596DOI Listing
April 2021

Effects of illness perceptions on health-related quality of life in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in China.

Health Qual Life Outcomes 2021 Apr 20;19(1):126. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Clinical Immunology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, 710032, Shaanxi Province, China.

Objectives: For patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in China, little is known of how their illness perceptions affect their health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The present study investigated associations between specific illness perceptions due to RA and HRQoL features.

Methods: For 191 patients with RA, illness perceptions were measured using the Brief Illness Perceptions Questionnaire (BIPQ) comprising 8 domains. HRQoL was determined with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Multivariate linear regression analyses were performed.

Results: The overall BIPQ of patients with RA was 49.09 ± 11.06. The highest and lowest scores were for concern (9.15 ± 1.81) and personal control (4.30 ± 2.52), respectively. Multivariate stepwise regression analyses showed that the overall BIPQ was significantly negatively associated with each HRQoL feature, and HRQoL total score (β = - 0.343, P < 0.001, 95% CI - 7.080 to - 4.077). Positive associations between BIPQ features and HRQoL included personal control (β = 0.119, P = 0.004, 95% CI 2.857-14.194) and treatment control (β = 0.084, P = 0.029, 95% CI 0.640-12.391). Negative associations with HRQoL were identity (β = - 0.105, P = 0.034, 95% CI - 13.159 to - 0.430) and emotional response (β = - 0.207, P < 0.001, 95% CI - 18.334 to - 6.811).

Conclusions: Patients with RA in China perceive their illness in ways that affect their HRQoL. These results suggest that strategies that target these perceptions may improve the quality of life of these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12955-021-01770-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8056365PMC
April 2021

5-aminolevulinic acid combined with sodium ferrous citrate ameliorated lupus nephritis in a mouse chronic graft-versus-host disease model.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Apr 13;96:107626. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Division of Transplantation Immunology, National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, Japan; Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China. Electronic address:

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by the abnormal activation of immune cells and hypersecretion of autoantibodies and causes irreversible chronic damage, such as lupus nephritis. Chronic graft-versus-host-disease (cGvHD) in mice induced by the injection of parental mouse lymphocytes into F1 hybrids leads to a disease similar to SLE. 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) is a key progenitor of heme, and its combination with sodium ferrous citrate (SFC) can up-regulate the heme oxygenase (HO-1) expression, resulting in an anti-inflammatory effect. While HO-1 had been reported to be involved in T cell activation and can limit immune-based tissue damage through Treg suppression, which promotes effector response. Thus, we hypothesized that treatment with 5-ALA/SFC could ameliorate lupus nephritis in a mouse cGvHD model. Our results showed that 5-ALA/SFC-treatment significantly decreased the anti-double-stranded DNA (ds-DNA) autoantibodies, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cre) levels, reduced kidney inflammatory dendritic cells (DCs) and B cell activation, and increased the regulatory T cells (Tregs) at nine weeks. Furthermore, 5-ALA/SFC suppressed mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IFN-γ and markers on DCs. In addition, we also found that 5-ALA/SFC treatment increased the HO-1 expression on donor-derived DCs and Tregs concurrently, increased the number of Tregs, and reduced the population of activated DCs, B cells and CD8 T cells at three weeks (early stage of the disease). We thus identified a novel role of 5-ALA/SFC for therapeutically improving the symptoms of lupus nephritis in a mouse cGvHD model and expanded the current understanding of how this immunoregulatory agent can be used to generate beneficial immune responses and treat autoimmune disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2021.107626DOI Listing
April 2021

Dissipation behavior, residue distribution, and dietary risk assessment of fluopimomide and dimethomorph in taro using HPLC-MS/MS.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha, 410128, China.

Dimethomorph is a morpholine broad-spectrum fungicide and effectively controls taro blight, cucumber downy mildew, rice blast disease, and others. Fluopimomide is a newly developed broad-spectrum fungicide to primarily control oomycetes and rhizoctonia diseases. Taro, one of the earliest cultivated crops, is a staple food in Africa, Oceania, and Asia. Recently, a commercial suspension concentrate formulation containing 15% fluopimomide and 25% dimethomorph has been registered in China, the second largest taro producer in the world. The objective of this study was to develop a high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method to detect the residues of fluopimomide and dimethomorph concurrently in taro samples. The results showed that the average recoveries of fluopimomide and dimethomorph ranged from 83 to 108%, and relative standard deviations (RSD) ranged from 1 to 11%. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 0.01 mg kg for the two compounds. The dissipation results demonstrated that both fluopimomide and dimethomorph in taro degraded rapidly in taro fields, and the residues of the two fungicides were below the LOQ within 14 days post-application. The final residue levels of fluopimomide and dimethomorph in taro were lower than 0.066 mg kg 28 days post-application. For dietary risk assessments, the dietary structure of different genders and age of people in China exposure risk assessment and whole diet exposure risk assessment shows that the risk quotient (RQ) values were substantially lower than 100%, suggesting that the long-term risks of fluopimomide/dimethomorph mixed formulation in taro at the recommended dosage were negligible. In summary, our combined results from the dissipation behaviors, terminal residues, and dietary risk assessments provide the critical empirical data for the establishment of the maximum residue levels (MRLs) of the two broad-spectrum fungicides in taro, a traditional food for African, Oceanic, and South Asian cultures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13713-zDOI Listing
April 2021

Facile preparation and performance study of antibacterial regenerated cellulose carbamate fiber based on N-halamine.

Cellulose (Lond) 2021 Apr 8:1-13. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

College of Textile and Clothing, Institute of Functional Textiles and Advanced Materials, State Key Laboratory of Bio-Fibers and Eco-Textiles, Collaborative Innovation Center of Marine Biomass Fibers Materials and Textiles of Shandong Province, Qingdao University, Qingdao, 266071 China.

With the outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) which has incalculable disasters and economic losses, people have given increasing attention to the health and safety of textile and fiber materials. In this study, an eco-friendly, facile, and cost-effective wet-spinning cellulose carbamate fiber technology was developed, and N-halamine regenerated cellulose fiber (RCC-Cl) with rechargeable and rapid bactericidal properties were prepared by the Lewis acid-assisted chlorination method. The chemical properties of the fibers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The mechanical and surface topography of the treated fiber was investigated by tensile testing and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the mechanical properties of RCC-Cl fibers can reach a breaking strength of 12.1 cN/tex and a breaking elongation of 41.4% with the optimized spinning process. Furthermore, RCC-Cl showed excellent antimicrobial activities, which can inactivate and at a concentration of 10 CFU/mL within 1 min. This work provided a novel approach to produce regenerated cellulose fibers with antibacterial properties, showing great potential in the field of functional textiles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10570-021-03836-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8028583PMC
April 2021

A Comprehensive Assessment of Hip Damage in Ankylosing Spondylitis, Especially Early Features.

Front Immunol 2021 24;12:668969. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Clinical Immunology, PLA Specialized Research Institute of Rheumatology & Immunology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China.

Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is most common in adolescents and the ultimate result is disability, which places a huge burden on patients and society. Therefore, the key to improve the prognosis of AS is the early diagnosis of hip injury. To examine if AS patients whose hip pain is either absent or minimal might already have observable MRI and X-ray hip changes. Clinical and imaging hip data were systematically analyzed in 200 healthy controls (HC) and 300 AS with varying degrees of hip pain. Forty-four patients with early hip osteoarthritis (OA) served as positive imaging controls. In MRI images, BME lesions in the STIR sequence were much more frequent in AS (62%) compared to HC (2%) (p < 0.0001). Most importantly, 42% of AS with no or minimal hip pain had one or more MRI lesions. This was much more frequent compared to the 2% in HC (p < 0.05). These lesions in AS were observed singly or in combination in the trochanters (8%), femoral heads (12%), and acetabula (13%). Parallel finding that X-ray changes were present in patients with minimal or no hip pain was also observed with X-ray. Based on the normal hip width of HC, joint space narrowing was observed in 94.3% of the entire AS cohort, and importantly 56.7% of AS patients with no or mild hip pain. In these latter patients, functional activities of the hips such as walking were normal. At least 40% of AS patients with minimal or no hip pain might already show MRI and X-ray changes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.668969DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8024573PMC
March 2021

Application of mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes in kidney diseases.

Cell Immunol 2021 Jun 2;364:104358. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510100, China. Electronic address:

Kidney injury (KI) has high morbidity and mortality; there has been no ideal practical treatment available in clinical practice until now. Exosomes are formed from fusing multisubunit body membranes and are secreted into the extracellular matrix, intercellular communication membracusses. As a cell-free treatment, it offers a new approach to the treatment of KI. Exosomes are spherical vesicles with or no separator cup that shapes proteins, and RNA acts on the target cells through various means to promote tissue damage and mitigate apoptosis, both inflammation and oxidative stress. Exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have a paracrine function in promoting tissue repair and immune regulation. The MSC-Exos provide specific benefits over the MSCs. The urinary exosomes closely follow the functions and diseases of the kidneys. Though much of the research in this field is only at the preliminary stages, previous research has demonstrated that MSC-Exos damaged tissues to offer proteins, mRNAs, and microRNAs as remedies for kidney injury. Although exosomes' role in tissue repair is currently is greatly debated, several key issues remain unaddressed. This is a summarization of the work done concerning MSC in the treatment of KI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cellimm.2021.104358DOI Listing
June 2021

Impact of Cardiovascular Diseases on COVID-19: A Systematic Review.

Med Sci Monit 2021 Apr 6;27:e930032. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Pediatrics, The Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China (mainland).

In December 2019, pneumonia of unknown cause broke out, and currently more than 150 countries around the world have been affected. Globally, as of 5: 46 pm CET, 6 November 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) had reported 48 534 508 confirmed cases of COVID-19, including 1 231 017 deaths. The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, is the most important medical challenge in decades. Previous research mainly focused on the exploration of lung changes. However, with development of the disease and deepening research, more and more patients showed cardiovascular diseases, even in those without respiratory symptoms, and some researchers have found that underlying cardiovascular diseases increase the risk of infection. Although the related mechanism is not thoroughly studied, based on existing research, we speculate that the interaction between the virus and its receptor, inflammatory factors, various forms of the stress response, hypoxic environment, and drug administration could all induce the development of cardiac adverse events. Interventions to control these pathogenic factors may effectively reduce the occurrence of cardiovascular complications. This review summarizes the latest research on the relationship between COVID-19 and its associated cardiovascular complications, and we also explore possible mechanisms and treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.930032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8035813PMC
April 2021

Strain-Induced Form Transition and Crystallization Behavior of the Transparent Polyamide.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Mar 26;13(7). Epub 2021 Mar 26.

CAS Key Laboratory of Engineering Plastics, Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, CAS Research/Education Center for Excellence in Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China.

A transparent polyamide, poly(4,4'-aminocyclohexyl methylene dodecanedicarboxylamide) (PAPACM12), was studied and characterized by in situ wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) to establish the relationship between its crystallization behavior, crystalline form transition under external fields, and macroscopic properties. During the heating process, cold crystallization occurred and increased, and there was no form transition below the melting point. During the isothermal process, PAPACM12 exhibited the same crystalline structure as that during the heating process. The crystalline structure of PAPACM12 was attributed to -form crystal, which is the stable form, according to the WAXD diffraction peaks of the conventional AABB-type polyamides. During stretching deformation, the crystal transition from -form to -form and strain-induced crystallization were observed to contribute to the PAPACM12 with higher breaking strength and elongation. This study firstly determine the crystalline structure of transparent polyamides, and then the controlled strain-induced crystallization and transformation are demonstrated to be effective preparation methods for polyamides with high properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13071028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8036806PMC
March 2021

Single-cell transcriptomics dissects hematopoietic cell destruction and T cell engagement in aplastic anemia.

Blood 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, Institute of Hematology and Blood Diseases Hospital, Tianjin, China.

Aplastic anemia (AA) is a T cell-mediated autoimmune disorder of the hematopoietic system manifested by severe depletion of the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). Nonetheless our understanding of the complex relationship between HSPCs and T cells is still obscure, mainly limited by techniques and the sparsity of HSPCs in the context of bone marrow failure. Here we performed single-cell transcriptome analysis of residual HSPCs and T cells to identify the molecular players from AA patients. We observed that residual HSPCs in AA exhibited lineage-specific alterations in gene expression and transcriptional regulatory networks, indicating a selective disruption of distinct lineage-committed progenitor pools. In particular, HSPCs displayed frequently altered alternative splicing events and skewed patterns of polyadenylation in transcripts related to DNA damage and repair, suggesting a likely role in AA progression to myelodysplastic syndromes. We further identified cell-type-specific ligand-receptor interactions as potential mediators for ongoing HSPCs destruction by T cells. By tracking patients after immunosuppressive therapy (IST), we showed that hematopoiesis remission was incomplete accompanied by IST insensitive interactions between HSPCs and T cells as well as sustained abnormal transcription state. These data collectively constitute the transcriptomic landscape of disrupted hematopoiesis in AA at single-cell resolution, providing new insights into the molecular interactions of engaged T cells with residual HSPCs and render novel therapeutic opportunities for AA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020008966DOI Listing
March 2021

Validation of the REVEAL Prognostic Models in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus-Associated Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 4;8:618486. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Epidemiology and Bio-Statistics, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, China Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

No previous studies have investigated the predictive performance of the Registry to Evaluate Early and Long-term Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Disease Management (REVEAL) prognostic equation and simplified risk score calculator in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (SLE-PAH). We aimed to validate these prediction tools in an external cohort of patients with SLE-PAH. In this study, the validation cohort consisted of patients with SLE-PAH registered in a prospective, multicenter, nationwide database between November 2006 and May2016. The follow-up of patients was censored at 1 year. Discrimination, calibration, model fit, and risk stratification of the REVEAL prognostic equation and simplified risk score calculator were validated. As a result, a total of 306 patients with SLE-PAH were included. The 1-year overall survival rate was 91.5%. The C-index of the prognostic equation was 0.736, demonstrating reasonably good discrimination, and it was greater than that for the simplified risk score calculator (0.710). The overall calibration slope was 0.83, and the Brier score was 0.079. The risk of renal insufficiency and World Health Organization Functional Class III (WHO FC III) were underestimated, and the risk assigned to a heart rate >92 bpm in the REVEAL prognostic models was not observed in our validation cohort. Both model discrimination and calibration were poor in the very high-risk group. In conclusion, the REVEAL models exhibit good discriminatory ability when predicting 1-year overall survival in patients with SLE-PAH. Findings from both models should be interpreted with caution in cases of renal insufficiency, WHO FC III, and heart rate >92 bpm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.618486DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7969505PMC
March 2021

Alignment of single-cell RNA-seq samples without overcorrection using kernel density matching.

Genome Res 2021 Apr 19;31(4):698-712. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Section of Genetic Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA.

Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) technology is poised to replace bulk cell RNA sequencing for many biological and medical applications as it allows users to measure gene expression levels in a cell type-specific manner. However, data produced by scRNA-seq often exhibit batch effects that can be specific to a cell type, to a sample, or to an experiment, which prevent integration or comparisons across multiple experiments. Here, we present Dmatch, a method that leverages an external expression atlas of human primary cells and kernel density matching to align multiple scRNA-seq experiments for downstream biological analysis. Dmatch facilitates alignment of scRNA-seq data sets with cell types that may overlap only partially and thus allows integration of multiple distinct scRNA-seq experiments to extract biological insights. In simulation, Dmatch compares favorably to other alignment methods, both in terms of reducing sample-specific clustering and in terms of avoiding overcorrection. When applied to scRNA-seq data collected from clinical samples in a healthy individual and five autoimmune disease patients, Dmatch enabled cell type-specific differential gene expression comparisons across biopsy sites and disease conditions and uncovered a shared population of pro-inflammatory monocytes across biopsy sites in RA patients. We further show that Dmatch increases the number of eQTLs mapped from population scRNA-seq data. Dmatch is fast, scalable, and improves the utility of scRNA-seq for several important applications. Dmatch is freely available online.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/gr.261115.120DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8015859PMC
April 2021

An overview of alginates as flame-retardant materials: Pyrolysis behaviors, flame retardancy, and applications.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 May 17;260:117827. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Institute of Functional Textiles and Advanced Materials, College of Textiles & Clothing, State Key Laboratory of Bio-fibers and Eco-textiles, National Engineering Research Center for Advanced Fire-Safety Materials D & A (Shandong), Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071, China.

Alginates, a kind of naturally occurring polysaccharides, have been exploited for functional materials owing to their versatility, sustainability, nontoxicity, and relatively low cost. Inherent flame retardancy is one of the most attractive features of alginates, as it enables the high-value-added utilization of alginates for eco-friendly flame-retardant materials. Now, the influence of metal ions on the flame retardancy and pyrolysis behaviors of alginates has been systematically studied; besides, the applications of alginates for flame-retardant materials have been greatly developed, such as for preparing flame-retardant fibers, fabrics, aerogel composites, and foams, as well as serving as a component or modifier of functional coatings, hybrids, and additives. This review will give an overview of the recent progress and the prospects of using alginates in flame-retardant fields, which can guide the design of bio-based flame retardants and benefit the further development of more diverse applications of alginates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.117827DOI Listing
May 2021