Publications by authors named "Ping Zheng"

781 Publications

Study on the time-effectiveness of exercise preconditioning on heart protection in exhausted rats.

Chin J Physiol 2021 Mar-Apr;64(2):97-105

Department of Cardiology, The Hospital of the 82nd Group Army, Baoding, Hebei, China.

To investigate the persistence time and the effectiveness of exercise preconditioning (EP) on myocardial protection in exhausted rats from myocardial enzymes, electrocardiogram (ECG), cardiac function, and mitochondrial respiratory function after cessation of exercise training. One hundred and twelve healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into seven groups (n = 16): control group (CON), exhaustive exercise (EE) group, EP group, and EE after EP (EP + EE); furthermore, EP + EE group was randomly divided into 1D, 3D, 9D, and 18D groups (1D, 3D, 9D, and 18D) and performed exhaustive treadmill exercise at a speed of 30 m/min on the 1, 3, 9, and 18 days separately after EP exercise stopped. We detected the serum contents of N-terminal pro B type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays method, recorded ECG, detected heart function by pressure volume catheter, measured the respiratory rates of rat myocardial mitochondria state 3 and 4 of complex I, complex II, and IV by high-resolution breathing apparatus. EP could decrease the serum content of NT-proBNP and cTnI, improved the electrical derangement and the left ventricular function in exhausted rats. Moreover, the protective effect was more obvious in the 9 day after EP stopped, whereas it would disappear when EP stopped for more than 18 days. Compared with EE group, the respiratory rate value of myocardial mitochondrial complex increased in 1D, 3D, and 9D groups. Therefore, the protective effect of EP on the heart of exhausted rats decreased with the prolongation of stopping training time, and the effect was significant within 3 days of discontinuing training, then decreased gradually, and completely disappeared in the 18 day. EP enhanced the cardiac function in exhausted rats through raising the nicotinamide adenine diphosphate hydride (NADH) electron transport chain and increased the respiration rates of mitochondrial respiratory complex I and IV state 3, thereby improved myocardial mitochondrial respiratory function and energy metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/CJP.CJP_65_20DOI Listing
May 2021

Lycopene increases the proportion of slow-twitch muscle fiber by AMPK signaling to improve muscle anti-fatigue ability.

J Nutr Biochem 2021 Apr 29:108750. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, Sichuan 611130, P. R. China.

Lycopene has a wide range of biological functions, especially its antioxidant capacity. However, effects of lycopene on muscle fatigue resistant and muscle fiber type conversion are unknown. In this study, we found that lycopene significantly prolonged the swimming time to exhaustion in mice. We also showed that lycopene increased the proportion of slow-twitch muscle fiber by promoting muscle fiber type conversion from fast-twitch to slow-twitch in mice and in C2C12 myotubes. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling was activated by lycopene. AMPK upstream and downstream regulators including nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1), calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-β (CaMKKβ), sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ coactivator-1ɑ (PGC-1ɑ) were also increased by lycopene. AMPK inhibitor compound C markedly attenuated the lycopene-induced skeletal muscle fiber type conversion in C2C12 myotubes. Taken together, we provided the first evidence that lycopene increases the proportion of slow-twitch muscle fiber through AMPK signaling pathway to improve fatigue resistant of skeletal muscle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2021.108750DOI Listing
April 2021

Post-Golgi carriers, not lysosomes, confer lysosomal properties to pre-degradative organelles in normal and dystrophic axons.

Cell Rep 2021 Apr;35(4):109034

Center for Dementia Research, Nathan S. Kline Institute, Orangeburg, NY 10962, USA; Department of Psychiatry, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY 10016, USA; Department of Cell Biology, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY 10016, USA; NYU Neuroscience Institute, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY 10016, USA. Electronic address:

Lysosomal trafficking and maturation in neurons remain poorly understood and are unstudied in vivo despite high disease relevance. We generated neuron-specific transgenic mice to track vesicular CTSD acquisition, acidification, and traffic within the autophagic-lysosomal pathway in vivo, revealing that mature lysosomes are restricted from axons. Moreover, TGN-derived transport carriers (TCs), not lysosomes, supply lysosomal components to axonal organelles. Ultrastructurally distinctive TCs containing TGN and lysosomal markers enter axons, engaging autophagic vacuoles and late endosomes. This process is markedly upregulated in dystrophic axons of Alzheimer models. In cultured neurons, most axonal LAMP1 vesicles are weakly acidic TCs that shuttle lysosomal components bidirectionally, conferring limited degradative capability to retrograde organelles before they mature fully to lysosomes within perikarya. The minor LAMP1 subpopulation attaining robust acidification are retrograde Rab7 endosomes/amphisomes, not lysosomes. Restricted lysosome entry into axons explains the unique lysosome distribution in neurons and their vulnerability toward neuritic dystrophy in disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2021.109034DOI Listing
April 2021

Influences of Selenium-Enriched Yeast on Growth Performance, Immune Function, and Antioxidant Capacity in Weaned Pigs Exposure to Oxidative Stress.

Biomed Res Int 2021 27;2021:5533210. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, Sichuan Province, Chengdu 611130, China.

This study elucidated the function role of dietary selenium-enriched yeast (SeY) supplementation on growth performance, immune function, and antioxidant capacity in weaned pigs exposure to oxidative stress. Thirty-two similarity weight pigs were randomly divided into four treatments: (1) nonchallenged control, (2) control+SeY, (3) control+diquat, and (4) control+SeY+diquat. The period of experiment was 21 days; on day 16, pigs were injected with diquat or sterile saline. Results revealed that oxidative stress was notably detrimental to the growth performance of piglets, but SeY supplementation ameliorated this phenomenon, which might be regarding the increasing of body antioxidant capacity and immune functions. In details, SeY supplementation improved the digestibility of crude protein (CP), ash, and gross energy (GE). Moreover, the serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-, IL-1, and IL-6), glutamic-pyruvic transaminase(GPT), and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) were reduced via SeY supplemented, and serum concentrations of immunoglobulins A (IgA), IgG, and activities of antioxidant enzymes such as the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) ,and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were improved in the diquat-challenged pigs ( < 0.05). In addition, SeY supplementation acutely enhanced the activities of these antioxidant enzymes in the liver and thymus upon diquat challenge, which involved with the upregulation of the critical genes related antioxidant signaling such as the nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) ( < 0.05). Importantly, we also found that SeY supplementation apparently reduced the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in the liver, thymus, and serum ( < 0.05). Specifically, the expression levels of TNF-, IL-6, IL-1, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4), and nuclear factor-B (NF-B) in the liver and thymus were downregulated by SeY upon diquat challenge. These results suggested that SeY can attenuate oxidative stress-induced growth retardation, which was associated with elevating body antioxidant capacity, immune functions, and suppressed inflammatory response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5533210DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8019624PMC
March 2021

Study on the mental health status of anesthesiologists and its influencing factors.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(3):1862-1869. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Anesthesiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China.

Objective: This study is on mental health status of anesthesiologists and its influencing factors.

Methods: Electronic questionnaires were given out to anesthesiologists through online platforms such as WeChat for information sharing among anesthesiologists. The included anesthesiologists were encouraged to distribute this platform to other anesthesiologists. Psychological survey was carried out using the Huaxi Emotional-distress Index (HEI). A total of 480 valid questionnaires were collected.

Results: Anesthesiologists had different degrees of bad moods, 37.9% of whom had poor mental health. Ordinal logistic regression analysis suggested that there were statistically significant differences in gender, marital status, job title, position, hospital type, and the amount of overtime work per week in relation to mood (all P < 0.05). Age, nationality, number of children, number of anesthesiologists and the daily amount of anesthesia operations on average in the hospital was not significantly different in regard to mental health (all P > 0.05).

Conclusion: The mental state of anesthesiologists is often at a poor level, and measures should be taken to improve the mental health of anesthesiologists and improve their quality of life.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8014373PMC
March 2021

Activity in projection neurons from prelimbic cortex to the PVT is necessary for retrieval of morphine withdrawal memory.

Cell Rep 2021 Apr;35(1):108958

State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Institutes of Brain Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China; Department of Neurology of Zhongshan Hospital, MOE Frontier Center for Brain Science, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Previous work has shown that the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT) is an important region that is involved in the conditioned context-induced retrieval of morphine withdrawal memory. However, the upstream neural circuits that activate the PVT to participate in the conditioned context-induced retrieval of morphine withdrawal memory remain unknown. In the present work, we find that the conditioned context activates projection neurons from the prelimbic cortex (PrL) to the PVT, and the inhibition of PrL-PVT projection neurons inhibits the conditioned context-induced retrieval of morphine withdrawal memory; the conditioned context induces an increase in Arc expression, intrinsic excitability, and glutamate output in PrL-PVT projection neurons in morphine-withdrawn mice. These results suggest that the activity of PrL-PVT projection neurons is necessary for the retrieval of morphine withdrawal memory, and the conditioned context causes a plastic change in the activity in these projection neurons during the withdrawal memory retrieval.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2021.108958DOI Listing
April 2021

HPLC-MS and Network Pharmacology Analysis to Reveal Quality Markers of Huo-Xue-Jiang-Tang Yin, a Chinese Herbal Medicine for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 15;2021:1072975. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Hospital Chinese Medicine Preparation, Shenzhen Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital, Shenzhen 518033, China.

Huo-Xue-Jiang-Tang Yin (HXJTY) is a Chinese medicine formulation, which has been widely used for the treatment of various lipometabolism- and glycometabolism-related diseases in clinics. Currently, HXJTY is mainly prescribed to treat patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), yet its chemical and pharmacologic profiles remain to be elucidated. Here, the potential bioactive compound and action mechanism were investigated using chemical and network pharmacology analysis. A rapid HPLC-MS was employed to identify and quantify the component of HXJTY. On the basis of the identified chemical markers from HXJTY, a network pharmacology study, including target gene prediction and functional enrichment, was applied to screen out the main quality markers of HXJTY and explore its potential mechanism for the treatment of T2DM. The results showed that a total of 22 components were identified and quantified from HXJTY by HPLC-MS. Furthermore, 12 active components such as astragaloside IV, calycosin-7-O--D-glucoside, hydroxysafflor yellow A, and others were proposed as quality markers of HXJTY for treating T2DM based on network pharmacology analysis. In addition, 125 corresponding possible therapeutic target genes of T2DM were obtained. These target genes are mainly related to peptidase activity, hydrolase activity, phosphatase activity, and cofactor binding, suggesting the involvement of PI3K-Akt, MAPK, AGE-RAGE, and Rap1 signaling pathways in HXJTY-treated T2DM. Our results may provide a useful approach to identify potential quality markers and molecular mechanism of HXJTY for treating T2DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/1072975DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7984925PMC
March 2021

[CRISPR/Cas-based genome editing in Aspergillus niger].

Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao 2021 Mar;37(3):980-990

Tianjin Institute of Industrial Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Tianjin 300308, China.

Aspergillus niger is a vital industrial workhouse widely used for the production of organic acids and industrial enzymes. This fungus is a crucial cell factory due to its innate tolerance to a diverse range of abiotic conditions, high production titres, robust growth during industrial scale fermentation, and status as a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) organism. Rapid development of synthetic biology and systems biology not only offer powerful approaches to unveil the molecular mechanisms of A. niger productivity, but also provide more new strategies to construct and optimize the A. niger cell factory. As a new generation of genome editing technology, the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR associated (Cas) system brings a revolutionary breakthrough in targeted genome modification for A. niger. In this review, we focus on current advances to the CRISPR/Cas genome editing toolbox, its application on gene modification and gene expression regulation in this fungal. Moreover, the future directions of CRISPR/Cas genome editing in A. niger are highlighted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13345/j.cjb.200613DOI Listing
March 2021

Dominance of comammox Nitrospira in soil nitrification.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 18;780:146558. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China; Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory for Water Pollution Control and Environmental Safety, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

The first and limiting step of nitrification is catalyzed by ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB). Recently, complete ammonia oxidizers (comammox Nitrospira) have been discovered to perform complete nitrification in one cell, yet their role in soil nitrification is still unclear. This study investigated the abundance and contribution of aerobic ammonia oxidizers in typical soil habitats, and assessed the role of comammox Nitrospira in ammonia-oxidizing communities. The results showed that comammox Nitrospira were dominant in 70% of the samples and their abundance displayed a significant positive correlation with nitrification potential. The median amoA gene transcription level of comammox Nitrospira exceeded that of AOA and AOB in in-situ soils. The abundance of comammox Nitrospira was negatively correlated with soil pH, dominating in 84% of soil samples with pH < 6.17. The results challenge the role of AOA and AOB in soils, highlighting the importance of comammox Nitrospira in soil nitrification, especially in acid soils. This work supports better understanding and regulation of the soil nitrogen cycle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.146558DOI Listing
March 2021

Sodium acetate, propionate, and butyrate reduce fat accumulation in mice via modulating appetite and relevant genes.

Nutrition 2021 Feb 12;87-88:111198. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Key laboratory of Animal Disease-resistant Nutrition and Feed of China Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Key laboratory of Animal Disease-resistant Nutrition of Sichuan Province, Ya'an, Sichuan Province, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: Acetate, propionate, and butyrate, three of the most common short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), can be produced when some non-digestible carbohydrates enter the large intestine and undergo bacterial fermentation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of these three SCFAs on appetite regulation and lipid metabolism and to determine the extent that appetite contributes to the beneficial influences of SCFAs.

Methods: In a 35-d study, 48 C57BL/6J male mice were randomly allocated to six groups: control; 5% sodium acetate; 5% sodium propionate; 5% sodium butyrate; pair fed 1; and pair fed 2.

Results: The study showed that dietary supplementation of sodium acetate reduced serum triacylglycerol, free fatty acids, glucose, and interleukin (IL)-6 levels (P < 0.05), increased serum glucagon-like peptide 1, and leptin levels (P < 0.05), downregulated the mRNA expressions of fatty acid synthase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, and lipoprotein lipase (P < 0.05), and upregulated the mRNA expressions of fasting-induced adipose factor, nuclear respiratory factor 1, mitochondrial transcription factor A, tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 9, cytochrome-C oxidase IV and free fatty acid receptor 2 (P < 0.05). Sodium propionate also reduced serum IL-1β level (P < 0.05), increased serum peptide YY level (P < 0.05), downregulated the mRNA expressions of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (P < 0.05), and upregulated the mRNA expression of transmembrane protein 26 (P < 0.05). Additionally, sodium butyrate decreased average daily feed intake (P < 0.05) downregulated the mRNA expression of myosin heavy-chain (MyHc) Ⅱb (P < 0.05), and upregulated the mRNA expressions of lipase hormone-sensitive, MyHC Ⅱa and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1α (P < 0.05). Moreover, the metabolic benefits of SCFAs were partly attributed to the reduction of feed intake.

Conclusion: Taken together, SCFAs could reduce appetite and fat accumulation via modulating relevant genes and hormones, which might further illustrate the potential mechanisms that underlay the effects of SCFAs on lipid homeostasis and control of body weight.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2021.111198DOI Listing
February 2021

Assembly and comparative analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome of Suaeda glauca.

BMC Genomics 2021 Mar 9;22(1):167. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

State Key Laboratory of Ecological Pest Control for Fujian and Taiwan Crops, College of Plant Protection, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Haixia Applied Plant Systems Biology, Center for Genomics and Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002, China.

Background: Suaeda glauca (S. glauca) is a halophyte widely distributed in saline and sandy beaches, with strong saline-alkali tolerance. It is also admired as a landscape plant with high development prospects and scientific research value. The S. glauca chloroplast (cp) genome has recently been reported; however, the mitochondria (mt) genome is still unexplored.

Results: The mt genome of S. glauca were assembled based on the reads from Pacbio and Illumina sequencing platforms. The circular mt genome of S. glauca has a length of 474,330 bp. The base composition of the S. glauca mt genome showed A (28.00%), T (27.93%), C (21.62%), and G (22.45%). S. glauca mt genome contains 61 genes, including 27 protein-coding genes, 29 tRNA genes, and 5 rRNA genes. The sequence repeats, RNA editing, and gene migration from cp to mt were observed in S. glauca mt genome. Phylogenetic analysis based on the mt genomes of S. glauca and other 28 taxa reflects an exact evolutionary and taxonomic status of S. glauca. Furthermore, the investigation on mt genome characteristics, including genome size, GC contents, genome organization, and gene repeats of S. gulaca genome, was investigated compared to other land plants, indicating the variation of the mt genome in plants. However, the subsequently Ka/Ks analysis revealed that most of the protein-coding genes in mt genome had undergone negative selections, reflecting the importance of those genes in the mt genomes.

Conclusions: In this study, we reported the mt genome assembly and annotation of a halophytic model plant S. glauca. The subsequent analysis provided us a comprehensive understanding of the S. glauca mt genome, which might facilitate the research on the salt-tolerant plant species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-021-07490-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7941912PMC
March 2021

Ultrafast-response, highly-sensitive and recyclable colorimetric/fluorometric dual-channel chemical warfare agent probes.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Mar 10;415:125619. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

State Key Laboratory of Supramolecular Structure and Materials, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, PR China. Electronic address:

In this paper, two donor (D)-acceptor (A) type of small organic fluorescent molecules (T1 and T2) based on terpyridine group are synthesized, characterized and used as colorimetric/fluorometric dual-channel probes towards diethylchlorophosphate (DCP, the mimic of chemical warfare agent sarin) not only in solution but also in gas phase featuring instantaneous responses, excellent recyclability, high selectivity and sensitivity. Interestingly though the discriminated units of both chemosensors are terpyridine, their fluorescent responded signals are different, which is due to the different electron-donating substituents of T1 and T2 caused the different responded mechanism to DCP. And the possible sensing mechanism was proved by using nuclear magnetic resonance (H NMR, P NMR) spectra and natural transition orbitals calculations. Furthermore, facile testing filter paper-constructed strips with the visualization of colorimetric/fluorometric dual-channel responses based on T1 and T2 have been fabricated for real-time, on-site high selective and sensitive, recyclable monitor of DCP vapor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125619DOI Listing
March 2021

GJA1-20K Enhances Mitochondria Transfer from Astrocytes to Neurons via Cx43-TnTs After Traumatic Brain Injury.

Cell Mol Neurobiol 2021 Mar 16. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Neurosurgery, The People's Hospital of Shanghai Pudong New Area Affiliated to Shanghai University of Medicine and Health Sciences, Shanghai, 201299, China.

Astrocytes are crucial in neural protection after traumatic brain injury (TBI), a global health problem causing severe brain tissue damage. Astrocytic connexin 43 (Cx43), encoded by GJA1 gene, has been demonstrated to facilitate the protection of astrocytes to neural damage with unclear mechanisms. This study aims to explore the role of GJA1-20K/Cx43 axis in the astrocyte-neuron interaction after TBI and the underlying mechanisms. Primarily cultured cortical neurons isolated from embryonic C57BL/6 mice were treated by compressed nitrogen-oxygen mixed gas to simulate TBI-like damage in vitro. The transwell astrocyte-neuron co-culture system were constructed to recapitulate the interaction between the two cell types. Quantitative PCR was applied to analyze mRNA level of target genes. Western blot and immunofluorescence were conducted to detect target proteins expression. GJA1-20K overexpression significantly down-regulated the expression of phosphorylated Cx43 (p-Cx43) without affecting the total Cx43 protein level. Besides, GJA1-20K overexpression obviously enhanced the dendrite length, as well as the expression levels of function and synthesis-related factors of mitochondria in damaged neurons. GJA1-20K up-regulated functional Cx43 expression in astrocytes, which promoted mitochondria transmission from astrocytes to neurons which might be responsible to the protection of astrocyte to neurons after TBI-like damage in vitro.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10571-021-01070-xDOI Listing
March 2021

Effects of dietary Bacillus coagulans and yeast hydrolysate supplementation on growth performance, immune response and intestinal barrier function in weaned piglets.

J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2021 Mar 14. Epub 2021 Mar 14.

Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of Ministry of Education, Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.

The present study investigated the effects of Bacillus coagulans and yeast hydrolysate supplementation on growth performance, immune response and intestinal barrier function of weaned piglets. Twenty-four weaned piglets with an average body weight (BW) of 6.89 ± 0.15 kg were divided into four diets for 28 days. The treatments were basal diet (control), basal diet supplemented with antibiotic (20 mg/kg colistin sulphate and 40 mg/kg bacitracin zinc, AT), probiotics (400 mg/kg Bacillus coagulans ≥5 × 109 CFU/g, BC) or yeast hydrolysate (5000 mg/kg yeast hydrolysate, YH). Average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) were improved by AT and YH diets (p < 0.05), while BC diet only increased ADG (p < 0.05). The complement 3 (C3), lysozyme (LZM) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) concentrations in serum were increased in BC diet (p < 0.05). Feeding AT and YH caused the increase of jejunal villus height (p < 0.05), and a higher ratio of villus height/crypt depth was observed in AT, BC and YH groups (p < 0.05). The mRNA expression of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) in jejunal mucosa was up-regulated by AT, BC and YH diets (p < 0.05). Dietary AT, BC or YH inclusion decreased the interleukin-1β (IL-1β) concentration and TNF-α mRNA expression (p < 0.05), and YH supplementation even down-regulated toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and CD14 expressions (p < 0.05). In summary, the dietary administration of BC or YH both improves growth performance through promoting the intestinal barrier function, indicating both of them can serve as potential alternatives to antibiotics growth promoters for the piglet production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpn.13529DOI Listing
March 2021

The Nutritional Significance of Intestinal Fungi: Alteration of Dietary Carbohydrate Composition Triggers Colonic Fungal Community Shifts in a Pig Model.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 Apr 27;87(10). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of the Ministry of Education of China, Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition and Feed of the Ministry of Agriculture of China, Key Laboratory of Animal Disease-Resistant Nutrition of Sichuan Province, Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China

Carbohydrates represent the most important energy source in the diet of humans and animals. A large number of studies have shown that dietary carbohydrates (DCHO) are related to the bacterial community in the gut, but their relationship with the composition of intestinal fungi is still unknown. Here, we report the response of the colonic fungal community to different compositions of DCHO in a pig model. Three factors, ratio (2:1, 1:1, and 1:2) of amylose to amylopectin (AM/AP), level of nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP; 1%, 2%, and 3%), and mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS; 400, 800, and 1,200 mg/kg body weight), were considered according to an L9 (3) orthogonal design to form nine diets with different carbohydrate compositions. Sequencing based on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform targeting the internal transcribed spacer 1 region showed that the fungal community in the colon of the pigs responded to DCHO in the order of MOS, AM/AP, and NSP. A large part of some low-abundance fungal genera correlated with the composition of DCHO, represented by , , , , , , and , were also associated with the concentration of glucose and fructose, as well as the activity of β-d-glucosidase in the colonic digesta, suggesting a role of these fungi in the degradation of DCHO in the colon of pigs. Our study provides direct evidence for the relationship between the composition of DCHO and the fungal community in the colon of pigs, which is helpful to understand the function of gut microorganisms in pigs. Although fungi are a large group of microorganisms along with bacteria and archaea in the gut of monogastric animals, the nutritional significance of fungi has been ignored for a long time. Our previous studies revealed a distinct fungal community in the gut of grazing Tibetan pigs (J. Li, D. Chen, B. Yu, J. He, et al., Microb Biotechnol 13:509-521, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1111/1751-7915.13507) and a close correlation between fungal species and short-chain fatty acids, the main microbial metabolites of carbohydrates in the hindgut of pigs (J. Li, Y. Luo, D. Chen, B. Yu, et al., J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr 104:616-628, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1111/jpn.13300). These groundbreaking findings indicate a potential relationship between intestinal fungi and the utilization of DCHO. However, no evidence directly proves the response of intestinal fungi to changes in DCHO. Here, we show a clear alteration of the colonic fungal community in pigs triggered by different compositions of DCHO simulated by varied concentrations of starch, nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP), and oligosaccharides. Our results highlight the potential involvement of intestinal fungi in the utilization of nutrients in monogastric animals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00038-21DOI Listing
April 2021

Wheat bran fermented by mixed fungal strains improves the digestibility of crude fiber and may benefit the gut health without impacting the growth performance in weaned pigs.

Food Funct 2021 Apr 10;12(7):2962-2971. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of Ministry of Education of China, Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition and Feed of Ministry of Agriculture of China, Key laboratory of Animal Disease-resistant Nutrition of Sichuan Province, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan, People's Republic of China.

This study was conducted to compare the effect of raw (WB) or mixed fungi-fermented wheat bran (FWB) on the growth, nutrient digestibility and intestinal health in weaned piglets. After the preparation of FWB, twenty-one cross-bred weaned piglets (7.20 ± 0.5 kg) were separated into three groups for a 40-day trial. The pigs in the control group were fed a basal corn-soybean meal diet. For the other two groups, 8% of expanded corn in the basal diet was replaced by equivalent WB or FWB. Results showed that the content of main nutrients and the composition of dietary fiber in FWB improved compared to that for WB. The digestibility of fiber in pigs fed FWB improved (P < 0.05) compared to the control and/or WB without affecting their growth performance. Both WB and FWB decreased the conditional pathogen (Streptococcus) or/and E. coli virulence factor (STb) in the colon compared to control (P < 0.05), and the ratio of villus height to crypt depth (VCR) in jejunum increased (P < 0.05). The number of goblet cells, the expression of MUC-1 and pBD1 in jejunal mucosa, and the proportion of blood CD4 T lymphocyte subset improved (P < 0.05) by FWB rather than WB. Furthermore, although only WB elevated (P < 0.05) the concentration of butyrate in the colon, both WB and FWB increased the number of butyrate-producing bacteria (P < 0.05) compared to the control. Thus, the main advantage of FWB over WB in weaned pigs is its improvement in fiber digestibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1fo00273bDOI Listing
April 2021

Long noncoding RNA NKILA transferred by astrocyte-derived extracellular vesicles protects against neuronal injury by upregulating NLRX1 through binding to mir-195 in traumatic brain injury.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 03 3;13(6):8127-8145. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Neurosurgery, Shanghai Pudong New Area People's Hospital, Shanghai 201200, P.R. China.

The study aims to investigate the effects of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) transmitted nuclear factor-κB interacting lncRNA (NKILA)-containing astrocyte-derived small extracellular vesicles (EVs) on traumatic brain injury (TBI). TBI was modeled by exposing human neurons to mechanical injury and by controlled cortical impact in a mouse model. The gain- and loss-function approaches were conducted in injured neurons to explore the role of NKILA, microRNA-195 (miR-195) and nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat containing family member X1 (NLRX1) in neuronal injury. EVs extracted from NKILA-overexpressing astrocytes were used to treat injured neurons. It was revealed that NKILA was downregulated in injured neurons. Astrocyte co-culture participated in the upregulation of NKILA in injured neurons. Additionally, NKILA could competitively bind to miR-195 that directly targeted NLRX1. Next, the upregulation of NLRX1 or NKILA relived neuronal injury by promoting neuronal proliferation but inhibiting apoptosis. Astrocyte-derived EVs transferred NKILA into neurons, which led to the downregulation of miR-195, upregulation of NLRX1, increased cell proliferation, and decreased cell apoptosis. The experiments validated that NKILA-containing EVs promoted brain recovery following TBI. Collectively, astrocyte-derived EVs carrying NKILA was found to alleviate neuronal injury in TBI by competitively binding to miR-195 and upregulating NLRX1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.202618DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8034961PMC
March 2021

Intratumoral immunotherapy with STING agonist, ADU-S100, induces CD8+ T-cell mediated anti-tumor immunity in an esophageal adenocarcinoma model.

Oncotarget 2021 Feb 16;12(4):292-303. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Esophageal and Lung Institute, Allegheny Health Network, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Background: Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is a deadly disease with limited treatment options. STING is a transmembrane protein that activates transcription of interferon genes, resulting in stimulation of APCs and enhanced CD8+ T-cell infiltration. The present study evaluates STING agonists, alone and in combination with radiation to determine durable anticancer activity in solid tumors.

Materials And Methods: Esophagojejunostomy was performed on rats to induce reflux leading to the development of EAC. At 32 weeks post operatively, rats received intratumorally either 50 μg STING (ADU-S100) or placebo (PBS), +/- 16Gy radiation. Drug activity was evaluated by pre- and post- treatment MRI, histology, immunofluorescence and RT-PCR.

Results: Mean MRI tumor volume decreased by 30.1% and 50.8% in ADU-S100 and ADU-S100 + radiation animals and increased by 76.7% and 152.4% in placebo and placebo + radiation animals, respectively ( < 0.0001). Downstream gene expression, pre- to on- and post- treatment, demonstrated significant upregulation of IFNβ, TNFα, IL-6, and CCL-2 in the treatment groups vs. placebo. On- or post- treatment, radiation alone, ADU-S100 alone, and ADU-S100 + radiation groups demonstrated enhanced PD-LI expression, induced by upregulation of CD8+ T-cells ( < 0.01).

Conclusions: ADU-S100 +/- radiation exhibits potent antitumor activity and a promising immunomodulatory profile in a EAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.27886DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7899550PMC
February 2021

Functional CYP3A variants affecting tacrolimus trough blood concentrations in Chinese renal transplant recipients.

Pharmacogenomics J 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Medical Genetics, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

The aim of this study was to identify novel genetic variants affecting tacrolimus trough blood concentrations. We analyzed the association between 58 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the CYP3A gene cluster and the log-transformed tacrolimus concentration/dose ratio (log (C/D)) in 819 renal transplant recipients (Discovery cohort). Multivariate linear regression was used to test for associations between tacrolimus log (C/D) and clinical factors. Luciferase reporter gene assays were used to evaluate the functions of select SNPs. Associations of putative functional SNPs with log (C/D) were further tested in 631 renal transplant recipients (Replication cohort). Nine SNPs were significantly associated with tacrolimus log (C/D) after adjustment for CYP3A5*3 and clinical factors. Dual luciferase reporter assays indicated that the rs4646450 G allele and rs3823812 T allele were significantly associated with increased normalized luciferase activity ratios (p < 0.01). Moreover, CYP3A7*2 was associated with higher TAC log(C/D) in the group of CYP3A5 expressers. Age, serum creatinine and hematocrit were significantly associated with tacrolimus log (C/D). CYP3A7*2, rs4646450, and rs3823812 are proposed as functional SNPs affecting tacrolimus trough blood concentrations in Chinese renal transplant recipients. Clinical factors also significantly affect tacrolimus metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41397-021-00216-wDOI Listing
March 2021

[Methanol dehydrogenase, a key enzyme of one-carbon metabolism: a review].

Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao 2021 Feb;37(2):530-540

School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, Anhui, China.

One-carbon compounds such as methanol and methane are cheap and readily available feedstocks for biomanufacturing. Oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde catalyzed by methanol dehydrogenase (MDH) is a key step of microbial one-carbon metabolism. A variety of MDHs that depend on different co-factors and possess different enzymatic properties have been discovered from native methylotrophs. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent MDHs are widely used in constructing synthetic methylotrophs, whereas this type of MDH usually suffers from low methanol oxidation activity and low affinity to methanol. Consequently, methanol oxidation is considered as a rate-limiting step of methanol metabolism in synthetic methylotrophs. To accelerate methanol oxidation, thereby improving the methanol utilization efficiency of synthetic methylotrophs, massive researches have focused on discovery and engineering of MDHs. In this review, we summarize the ongoing efforts to discover, characterize, and engineer various types of MDHs as well as the applications of MDHs in synthetic methylotrophs. Directed evolution of MDH and construction of multi-enzyme complexes are described in detail. In the future prospective part, we discuss the potential strategies of growth-coupled protein evolution and rational protein design for acquisition of superior MDHs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13345/j.cjb.200335DOI Listing
February 2021

Effects of dietary ferulic acid supplementation on growth performance and skeletal muscle fiber type conversion in weaned piglets.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 Feb 14. Epub 2021 Feb 14.

Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, Sichuan, 611130, People's Republic of China.

Background: Ferulic acid (FA) is a common polyphenolic compound. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of dietary FA supplementation on growth performance and muscle fiber type conversion in weaned piglets. In this study, eighteen 21-day-old DLY (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) weaned piglets were randomly divided into control, 0.05% FA, and 0.45% FA groups.

Results: Our study showed that dietary FA supplementation had no effect on growth performance, but it could upregulate the expression of slow myosin heavy chain (MyHC) protein, increase the activities of succinic dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase, and downregulate the expression of fast MyHC protein. Dietary FA supplementation also increased the expression levels of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase, sirtuin 1 (Sirt1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), myocyte enhancer factor 2C, and troponin I-SS, increased the proportion of slow-twitch fiber, and decreased the proportion of fast-twitch fiber. In addition, our results showed that dietary FA supplementation increased the messenger RNA abundance of mitochondrial nuclear transcription genes, including ATP synthase membrane subunit c locus 1, cytochrome oxidase subunit 1, nuclear respiratory factor 1, mitochondrial transcription factor A, mitochondrial transcription factor B1, and cytochrome c.

Conclusion: We provided the first evidence that FA could promote muscle fiber type conversion from fast-twitch to slow-twitch via the Sirt1/AMP-activated protein kinase/PGC-1α signaling pathway and could improve the mitochondrial function in weaned piglets. This means that FA can be used as a dietary supplement to improve the quality of pork. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.11157DOI Listing
February 2021

A novel SAD process: Match of anammox and denitrification.

Water Res 2021 Apr 25;193:116874. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Environmental & Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Anammox biotechnology has been widely applied for its attractive advantages, but its application has been seriously limited due to the instinctive drawback of nitrate production. In this work, a novel Sequential Anammox and Denitrification (SAD) system was developed for the advanced nitrogen removal by using solid carbon source (SCS) and coupling anammox with denitrification. The long-term operation results demonstrated that the SAD system could remove the total nitrogen (TN) efficiently, with the effluent TN concentration of 1.4 ± 0.5 mg N/L, the TN removal efficiency (NRE) of 99.3 ± 0.2%, and the TN removal rate (NRR) of 1.7 ± 0.1 kg/(m·d). The determination results showed that SCS had a good property for sustained release of COD, with a dissolved organic yield (by COD) of 1.1 g-COD/g-rice. When the addition rate was set at 6 g-rice/7-days, the COD release rate of 0.9 kg-COD/(m·d) from SCS matched the nitrate production rate of 1.2 × 10 kg-N/(m·d) from anammox with consumption ratio of 7.5. The analysis on the microbial community revealed that Candidatus_Brocadia and Denitratisoma were the dominant functional bacteria for anammox and denitrification, which contributed to about 92.7% and 6.6% of the total nitrogen removal, respectively. This work is helpful for the innovation and application of anammox-based technology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2021.116874DOI Listing
April 2021

Effects of Chronic Exposure to Low Levels of Dietary Aflatoxin B on Growth Performance, Apparent Total Tract Digestibility and Intestinal Health in Pigs.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Jan 29;11(2). Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, Yaan 625014, China.

This study aimed to investigate the effects of chronic exposure to low levels of dietary aflatoxin B (AFB) on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility and intestinal health in pigs. In a 102-day experiment, fourteen barrows (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire, initial BW = 38.21 ± 0.45 kg) were randomly divided into control (CON, basal diet) and AFB groups (the basal diet supplemented with 280 μg/kg AFB). Results revealed that the AFB exposure decreased the final BW, ADFI and ADG in pigs ( < 0.10). AFB exposure also decreased the apparent total tract digestibility of dry mater and gross energy at 50 to 75 kg and 105 to 135 kg stages, and decreased the apparent total tract digestibility of ether extract at 75 to 105 kg stage ( < 0.05). Meanwhile, AFB exposure increased serum diamine oxidase activity and reduced the mRNA abundance of sodium-glucose cotransporter 1, solute carrier family 7 member 1 and zonula occluden-1 in the jejunal mucosa ( < 0.05). Furthermore, AFB exposure decreased superoxide dismutase activity ( < 0.05) and increased 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine content ( < 0.10) in jejunal mucosa. AFB exposure also increased tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and transforming growth factor-β mRNA abundance in jejunal mucosa and upregulated population in colon ( < 0.05). The data indicated that chronic exposure to low levels of dietary AFB suppressed growth performance, reduced the apparent total tract digestibility and damaged intestinal barrier integrity in pigs, which could be associated with the decreased intestinal antioxidant capacity and the increased pro-inflammatory cytokine production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11020336DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7911249PMC
January 2021

Changes in levels of coagulation parameters in different trimesters among Chinese pregnant women.

J Clin Lab Anal 2021 Apr 5;35(4):e23724. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Hubei Provincial Hospital of Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine, Wuhan, China.

Background: This article is to explore changes in levels of coagulation parameters in different trimesters among healthy pregnant women in China.

Methods: A total of 760 eligible women were enrolled (first-trimester group: n = 183, second-trimester group: n = 183, third-trimester group: n = 263, non-pregnant group: n = 131). Seven parameters including prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), fibrinogen (FIB), D-dimer (DD), fibrinogen degradation products (FDP), and antithrombin III (ATIII), of all participants were collected. The non-parametric 2.5th-97.5th percentiles reference intervals were calculated for each parameter.

Results: The reference intervals for FIB, PT, APTT, TT, FDP, DD, and ATIII at first trimester were 2.11-4.32 g/L, 10.90-13.85 s, 24.60-39.28 s, 12.95-15.88 s, 0.04-2.55 μg/mL, 0.03-1.15 μg/mL, and 75.57%-125.31%, respectively. The reference intervals at second trimester were 2.31-4.77 g/L, 9.70-12.64 s, 24.16-35.43 s, 12.95-15.88 s, 0.15-7.40 μg/mL, 0.08-2.13 μg/mL, and 74.35%-119.28%, respectively. For the third-trimester, the intervals were 2.39-4.96 g/L, 9.20-11.95 s, 23.90-35.51 s, 13.41-18.00 s, 0.55-13.43 μg/mL, 0.15-3.60 μg/mL, and 71.61%-118.29%, respectively. The third-trimester group showed decreased PT, APTT, and ATIII and increased FIB, TT, DD and FDP as compared with the other groups.

Conclusion: In this study, level changes of coagulation parameters in different trimesters were observed. And the ranges for coagulation parameters were presented, which may provide some reference for clinicians to more accurately monitor the coagulation and fibrinolytic system in pregnant women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcla.23724DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8059730PMC
April 2021

In-situ generation of large numbers of genetic combinations for metabolic reprogramming via CRISPR-guided base editing.

Nat Commun 2021 01 29;12(1):678. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Key Laboratory of Systems Microbial Biotechnology, Tianjin Institute of Industrial Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Tianjin, China.

Reprogramming complex cellular metabolism requires simultaneous regulation of multigene expression. Ex-situ cloning-based methods are commonly used, but the target gene number and combinatorial library size are severely limited by cloning and transformation efficiencies. In-situ methods such as multiplex automated genome engineering (MAGE) depends on high-efficiency transformation and incorporation of heterologous DNA donors, which are limited to few microorganisms. Here, we describe a Base Editor-Targeted and Template-free Expression Regulation (BETTER) method for simultaneously diversifying multigene expression. BETTER repurposes CRISPR-guided base editors and in-situ generates large numbers of genetic combinations of diverse ribosome binding sites, 5' untranslated regions, or promoters, without library construction, transformation, and incorporation of DNA donors. We apply BETTER to simultaneously regulate expression of up to ten genes in industrial and model microorganisms Corynebacterium glutamicum and Bacillus subtilis. Variants with improved xylose catabolism, glycerol catabolism, or lycopene biosynthesis are respectively obtained. This technology will be useful for large-scale fine-tuning of multigene expression in both genetically tractable and intractable microorganisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-21003-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7846839PMC
January 2021

Deciphering correlation between permeability and size of anammox granule: "pores as medium".

Water Res 2021 Mar 11;191:116832. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Environmental & Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Anammox granular sludge bed technology has been widely applied for its attractive advantages. Efficient mass transfer is an important factor for the anammox granules to play their role. In this study, steady-state anammox granules were used to investigate the correlation between the permeability and granule size with the granule pore as pivot. The results of size distribution showed that the anammox granules could be divided into 6 groups: 200-500 µm (I), 500-1000 µm (II), 1000-1500 µm (III), 1500-2000 µm (IV), 2000-3000 µm (V) and ≥3000 µm (VI). The results of settling experiment demonstrated that the permeability of anammox granules was negatively correlated with the granule size. The fluid collection efficiency declined from 39.4% to 9.3% for granule group I to III, and further to 0 for granule group IV to VI (granule size was larger than 1.5 mm). The observation of micro-CT revealed that the pore structure of anammox granules varied significantly with the increase of granule size, forming a denser surface layer and sparser interior. The chemical analysis and microscopic observation indicated that the pore plugging of surface layer by cell proliferation and EPS secretion was the main cause for the permeability deterioration. The findings of this study will help to understand the mass transfer of anammox granules and promote the development of anammox processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2021.116832DOI Listing
March 2021

Inputs from paraventricular nucleus of thalamus and locus coeruleus contribute to the activation of central nucleus of amygdala during context-induced retrieval of morphine withdrawal memory.

Exp Neurol 2021 Apr 13;338:113600. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Department of Neurology of Zhongshan Hospital, MOE Frontier Center for Brain Science, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Institutes of Brain Science, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Blue Cross Brain Hospital, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Drug relapse can be mainly ascribed to the retrieval of drug withdrawal memory induced by conditioned context. Previous studies have shown that the central nucleus of the amygdala lateral division (CeL) could be activated by conditioned context. However, what source of input that activates the CeL during conditioned context-induced retrieval of morphine-withdrawal memory remains unknown. In this study, using retrograde labeling, immunohistochemistry, local microinjection and chemogenetic technologies, we found that (1) Conditioned context induced an activation of the CeL and the inhibition of the CeL inhibited the context-induced retrieval of morphine-withdrawal memory; (2) the inhibition of the paraventricular nucleus of thalamus (PVT) or PVT-CeL projection neurons caused an attenuation of the activation of the CeL by conditioned context and conditioned place aversion (CPA); (3) the inhibition of the locus coeruleus (LC) or LC-CeL projection neurons decreased the activation of the CeL by conditioned context and CPA. These results suggest that the CeL is necessary for conditioned context-induced retrieval of morphine-withdrawal memory and inputs from PVT and LC contribute to the activation of the CeL during context-induced retrieval of morphine withdrawal memory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.expneurol.2021.113600DOI Listing
April 2021

Efficacy of Magnetic Sphincter Augmentation Across the Spectrum of GERD Disease Severity.

J Am Coll Surg 2021 Mar 30;232(3):288-297. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Esophageal Institute, Allegheny Health Network, Pittsburgh, PA.

Background: The performance and durability of various types of fundoplication are variable when stratified by disease severity. To date, magnetic sphincter augmentation (MSA) has not been evaluated in this context. We designed this study to determine the efficacy of MSA in the treatment of severe GERD.

Study Design: Guided by previous studies, a DeMeester score (DMS) ≥ 50 was used as a cutoff point to define severe reflux disease. Subjects were divided into 2 groups using this cutoff, and outcomes of severe cases were compared with those with less severe disease (DMS < 50).

Results: A total of 334 patients underwent MSA. Patients with severe disease had a higher mean preoperative DMS compared with those with mild to moderate GERD (79.2 [53.2] vs 22.8 [13.7], p < 0.0001). At a mean postoperative follow-up of 13.6 (10.4) months, there was no difference between the mean GERD Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQL) total scores in patients with severe disease compared with those with less severe GERD (8.8 [10] vs 9.2 [10.8], p = 0.9204). Postoperative mean DMS was not different between groups (17.3[23.0] vs 14.1[33.9], p = 0.71), and there was no difference in the prevalence of esophagitis (p = 0.52). Patients with severe disease were less likely to be free from use of proton pump inhibitors after surgery (85% vs 93.1%, p = 0.041). There were similar rates of postoperative dysphagia (10% vs 14%, p = 0.42) and need for device removal (3% vs 5%, p = 0.7463).

Conclusions: MSA is an effective treatment in patients with severe GERD and leads to significant clinical improvement across the spectrum of disease severity, with few objective outcomes being superior in patients with mild-to-moderate reflux disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2020.11.012DOI Listing
March 2021

Corrigendum to "Performance of double circulation anaerobic sludge bed reactor: Biomass self-balance" [Bioresour. Technol. 320 (2020) 124407].

Bioresour Technol 2021 Feb 23;322:124531. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Environmental & Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2020.124531DOI Listing
February 2021

Prenatal exposure and transplacental transfer of perfluoroalkyl substance isomers in participants from the upper and lower reaches of the Yangtze River.

Environ Pollut 2021 Feb 6;270:116202. Epub 2020 Dec 6.

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, Institution of Environmental Health, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China. Electronic address:

Data on gestational exposure characteristics and transplacental transfer are quite limited for perfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) isomers, especially those from large-scale comparative studies. To fill this gap, we examined isomers of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) in matched maternal and cord serum from Mianyang and Hangzhou, which are located in the upper and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China, respectively. These data were compared with those from our previous study on Wuhan in the middle reach. The average ΣPFAS concentration increased from upstream to downstream (Mianyang (4.44 ng/mL) < Wuhan (9.88 ng/mL) < Hangzhou (19.72 ng/mL)) and may be related to the per capita consumption expenditure of each city. The ln-transformed PFAS concentrations showed significant differences between Mianyang and Hangzhou after adjusting confounding factors (p < 0.05). The percentages of linear PFOS and PFOA in maternal and cord serum from these cities all exceeded those in electrochemical fluorination products. The isomer profiles of PFASs in maternal and cord serum might be greatly influenced by local production processes of PFASs and residents' dietary habits. The transplacental transfer efficiencies decreased significantly with increasing concentrations in maternal serum for ΣPFAS, ΣPFOS, ΣPFOA, ΣPFHxS, n-PFOS, iso-PFOS, 4m-PFOS, 1m-PFOS, n-PFOA, n-PFHxS, and br-PFHxS (Spearman rank correlation coefficients (r) = 0.373-0.687, p < 0.01). These findings support an understanding of the regional characteristics in maternal exposure to PFASs along the Yangtze River, isomeric profiles of PFASs in these regions, and the transplacental transfer processes of PFAS isomers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.116202DOI Listing
February 2021