Publications by authors named "Ping Yu"

973 Publications

Prediction Model of Pathologic Central Lymph Node Negativity in cN0 Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.

Front Oncol 2021 27;11:727984. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Department of Endocrinology and Breast Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Background: Most patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) have an excellent prognosis. Although central lymph node invasion is frequent, management central lymph node dissection (CLND) remains controversial. The present study retrospectively investigated independent predictors of pathologic central lymph node negativity (pCLN-) and established a prediction model for pCLN- in clinical lymph node negativity (cN0) PTC.

Methods: A total of 2,687 patients underwent thyroid surgery for cN0 PTC from 2013 to 2018 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, and lobectomy plus ipsilateral CLND was the basic surgical extent. Clinicopathological characteristics were reviewed and analyzed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify factors related to pCLN-. A prediction model was established based on the results of multivariate analyses.

Results: The pCLN- rate was 51.5% (1,383/2,687). Multivariate analysis revealed that sex, age, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), size, location, laterality, unifocality and extrathyroidal extension negativity (ETE-) were independent predictors of pCLN-. The nomogram showed good discriminative ability (C-index: 0.784 and 0.787 in derivation and validation groups, respectively) and was well calibrated. We quantified the clinical usefulness of the nomogram by decision curve analysis. The median length of follow-up was 30 (range 12- 83) months, and 190 cases were lost, with a follow-up rate of 92.9% (2,497/2,687). Of the 2,687 patients included, 21 (0.8%) experienced recurrence.

Conclusion: This nomogram, which integrates available preoperative clinicopathological features and intraoperative frozen biopsy outcomes, is a reliable tool with high accuracy to predict pCLN- in cN0 PTC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.727984DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8503674PMC
September 2021

Correction: Khan et al. Anticancer Function and ROS-Mediated Multi-Targeting Anticancer Mechanisms of Copper (II) 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde Complexes. 2019, , 2544.

Molecules 2021 Oct 8;26(19). Epub 2021 Oct 8.

State Key Laboratory for the Chemistry and Molecular Engineering of Medicinal Resources, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004, China.

Due to the previous incorrect characterization of compound , the authors wish to make the following corrections to this paper [...].
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26196070DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8512314PMC
October 2021

BZR1 Physically Interacts with SPL9 to Regulate the Vegetative Phase Change and Cell Elongation in .

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Sep 27;22(19). Epub 2021 Sep 27.

The Key Laboratory of Plant Development and Environmental Adaptation Biology, Ministry of Education, School of Life Science, Shandong University, Qingdao 266237, China.

As sessile organisms, the precise development phase transitions are very important for the success of plant adaptability, survival and reproduction. The transition from juvenile to the adult phase-referred to as the vegetative phase change-is significantly influenced by numbers of endogenous and environmental signals. Here, we showed that brassinosteroid (BR), a major growth-promoting steroid hormone, positively regulates the vegetative phase change in . The BR-deficient mutant and BR-insensitive mutant displayed the increased ratio of leaf width to length and reduced blade base angle. The plant specific transcription factors SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) are key masters for the vegetative phase transition in plants. The expression levels of , and were significantly induced by BR treatment, but reduced in mutant compared to wild-type plants. The gain-of-function transgenic plants displayed the BR hypersensitivity on hypocotyl elongation and partially suppressed the delayed vegetative phase change of and . Furthermore, we showed that BRASSINAZOLE-RESISTANT 1 (BZR1), the master transcription factor of BR signaling pathway, interacted with to cooperatively regulate the expression of downstream genes. Our findings reveal an important role for BRs in promoting vegetative phase transition through regulating the activity of at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms221910415DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8509050PMC
September 2021

Generation of perfect helical Mathieu vortex beams.

Opt Express 2021 Sep;29(20):32439-32452

We introduced a kind of novel perfect optical vortex beam, which we termed herein as perfect helical Mathieu vortex (PHMV) beams. The theoretical mechanism regarding the construction of PHMV beams was divided into two parts: generation of helical Mathieu (HM) beams using the stationary phase method and then Fourier transform of HM beams into the PHMV beams. Accordingly, the experimental system for generating PHMV beams was built as follows. Based on the complex amplitude modulation method, HM beams of different orders and ellipticity were generated using an amplitude-type spatial light modulator (SLM) and a radial-helical phase mask. Subsequently, an achromatic Fourier transform lens was illuminated using the HM beams, and the PHMV beams were presented on the focal plane after the Fourier transform lens. The experimental results were consistent with theoretical predictions. Compared with the classical perfect optical vortex (POV) beams, the PHMV beams still retained the property of ring radius independent of topological charge values. The distribution pattern of the PHMV beams can be controlled by the topological charges and elliptical parameters. Furthermore, two important optical properties of the PHMV beams were theoretically elucidated. First, we proved that the PHMV beams carry a fractional order orbital angular momentum (OAM). Second, we found that the complex amplitudes of any two PHMV beams with the same elliptical parameter but different order numbers are orthogonal to each other.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.433058DOI Listing
September 2021

Assessment of the effect of ethanol extracts from seed kernel on intestinal inflammation using simulated gastrointestinal digestion and a Caco-2/RAW264.7 co-culture system.

Food Funct 2021 Oct 4;12(19):9197-9210. Epub 2021 Oct 4.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047, China.

seeds have multiple bioactivities. There were few studies on the effect of seeds on intestinal inflammation and . The study aimed to investigate the effects of ethanol extracts from seed kernel on intestinal inflammation using simulated gastrointestinal digestion and a Caco-2/RAW264.7 co-culture system. Results showed that the digested ethanol extracts (dEE) were rich in polyphenols, and a total of 17 compounds were tentatively identified using UPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS/MS. dEE increased cell viability, while decreasing the production of reactive oxygen species, and the secretion and gene expression of inflammatory markers (NO, PGE, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6). dEE also down-regulated NF-κB/MAPK pathway activities by suppressing the phosphorylation of relevant signaling molecules (p65, IκBα, ERK and p38), as well as the expression of TLR4 receptor protein. Furthermore, dEE may improve intestinal barrier function by increasing the TEER value, and the expression of tight junction proteins (ZO-1, claudin-1 and occludin). The results suggest the ethanol extracts from seed kernel may have strong anti-inflammatory activities, and a potential application in the prevention or treatment of intestinal inflammation and enhancement of intestinal barrier function in organisms.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1fo01293bDOI Listing
October 2021

Patterns for Patient Engagement with the Hypertension Management and Effects of Electronic Health Care Provider Follow-up on These Patterns: Cluster Analysis.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Sep 28;23(9):e25630. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

College of Biomedical Engineering and Instrument Science, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Background: Hypertension is a long-term medical condition. Electronic and mobile health care services can help patients to self-manage this condition. However, not all management is effective, possibly due to different levels of patient engagement (PE) with health care services. Health care provider follow-up is an intervention to promote PE and blood pressure (BP) control.

Objective: This study aimed to discover and characterize patterns of PE with a hypertension self-management app, investigate the effects of health care provider follow-up on PE, and identify the follow-up effects on BP in each PE pattern.

Methods: PE was represented as the number of days that a patient recorded self-measured BP per week. The study period was the first 4 weeks for a patient to engage in the hypertension management service. K-means algorithm was used to group patients by PE. There was compliance follow-up, regular follow-up, and abnormal follow-up in management. The follow-up effect was calculated by the change in PE (CPE) and the change in systolic blood pressure (CSBP, SBP) before and after each follow-up. Chi-square tests and z scores were used to ascertain the distribution of gender, age, education level, SBP, and the number of follow-ups in each cluster. The follow-up effect was identified by analysis of variances. Once a significant effect was detected, Bonferroni multiple comparisons were further conducted to identify the difference between 2 clusters.

Results: Patients were grouped into 4 clusters according to PE: (1) PE started low and dropped even lower (PELL), (2) PE started high and remained high (PEHH), (3) PE started high and dropped to low (PEHL), and (4) PE started low and rose to high (PELH). Significantly more patients over 60 years old were found in the PEHH cluster (P≤.05). Abnormal follow-up was significantly less frequent (P≤.05) in the PELL cluster. Compliance follow-up and regular follow-up can improve PE. In the clusters of PEHH and PELH, the improvement in PE in the first 3 weeks and the decrease in SBP in all 4 weeks were significant after follow-up. The SBP of the clusters of PELL and PELH decreased more (-6.1 mmHg and -8.4 mmHg) after follow-up in the first week.

Conclusions: Four distinct PE patterns were identified for patients engaging in the hypertension self-management app. Patients aged over 60 years had higher PE in terms of recording self-measured BP using the app. Once SBP reduced, patients with low PE tended to stop using the app, and a continued decline in PE occurred simultaneously with the increase in SBP. The duration and depth of the effect of health care provider follow-up were more significant in patients with high or increased engagement after follow-up.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/25630DOI Listing
September 2021

Modulating OFC Activity With tDCS Alters Regret About Human Decision-Making.

Front Psychol 2021 8;12:706962. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Center for Economic Behavior and Decision-Making (CEBD), Zhejiang University of Finance and Economics, Hangzhou, China.

Regret is a common emotion in daily life. Humans always regret their decision-making choices if the chosen outcome is bad. Neuroscientific studies suggest that the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) influences feelings of regret. We used a transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) device to study the role of regret in participants' decision-making by modulating the activity of the OFC. The two-wheel-of-fortune gamble task was used in our experimental design, and we asked the participants to rate their feelings of regret after the computer presented the obtained and unobtained outcomes. The experimental results revealed that the effect of stimulation type was significant, which indicated that the influence of the OFC in regret was modulated by tDCS. Furthermore, based on analyses (Bonferroni), regret was lower in those who received left anodal/right cathodal stimulation than in those who received sham stimulation, which revealed that modulating the activity of the OFC reduced the emotional intensity of regret. In addition, an inverted U-shaped curve characterized the mean ratings of regret over time.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.706962DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8456022PMC
September 2021

Maternal trichloroethylene exposure and metabolic gene polymorphisms may interact during fetal cardiovascular malformation.

Reprod Toxicol 2021 Sep 21;106:1-8. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Key Laboratory of Birth Defects and Related Diseases of Women and Children (Sichuan University), Ministry of Education, Chengdu, Sichuan, China; Development and Related Diseases of Women and Children Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Chengdu, Sichuan, China. Electronic address:

This study aimed to analyze the potential association between trichloroethylene (TCE) exposure and congenital heart disease (CHD) and to explore the effect of metabolic enzyme gene polymorphisms on heart development. A multicenter case-control study was conducted. The trichloroethylene concentrations were measured by UPLC-MSMS in urine. Fourteen SNPs in the GSTA1, GSTP1, MPO, NAT1, NAT2, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2E1 and EPHX1 genes were genotyped using an improved multiplex ligation detection reaction (iMLDR) technique. A total of 283 cases and 331 controls with maternal urine and/or venous blood were included in the present study. The median NAcDCVC was 7.65 ng/mL in the case group and 7.43 ng/mL in the control group. There was no significant difference in the NAcDCVC concentration between the CHD subtypes and controls (P > 0.05). The GA/AA of GSTA1 rs3957357 could increase the risk of CHDs under the dominant model (aOR = 2.26, 95 % CI: 1.31, 3.90), but other SNPs were not associated with CHDs (P > 0.05). GA or AA genotypes of GSTA1 rs3957357 with lower levels of TCE exposure were 3.53 times at risk relative to mothers carrying the wild type genotype. In conclusion, maternal exposure to trichloroethylene alone is not associated with the occurrence of fetal CHD and CHD subtypes. Maternal GSTA1 rs3957357 may increase the risk of CHD in offspring. TCE exposure and metabolic gene polymorphisms probably interact with each other to induce fetal cardiovascular malformation, but larger sample size studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.reprotox.2021.09.010DOI Listing
September 2021

Clinical researchers' lived experiences with data quality monitoring in clinical trials: a qualitative study.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2021 09 20;21(1):187. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

School of Medicine, Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health, University of Wollongong, Northfields Ave, Wollongong, NSW, 2522, Australia.

Background: Fundamental to the success of clinical research that involves human participants is the quality of the data that is generated. To ensure data quality, clinical trials must comply with the Good Clinical Practice guideline which recommends data monitoring. To date, the guideline is broad, requires technology for enforcement, follows strict industry standards, mostly designed for drug-registration trials and based on informal consensus. It is also unknown what challenges clinical trials and researchers face in implementing data monitoring procedures. Thus, this study aimed to describe researcher experiences with data quality monitoring in clinical trials.

Methods: We conducted semi-structured telephone interviews following a guided-phenomenological approach. Participants were recruited from the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry and were researchers affiliated with a listed clinical study. Each transcript was analysed with inductive thematic analysis before thematic categorisation of themes from all transcripts. Primary, secondary and subthemes were categorised according to the emerging relationships.

Results: Data saturation were reached after interviewing seven participants. Five primary themes, two secondary themes and 21 subthemes in relation to data quality monitoring emerged from the data. The five primary themes included: education and training, ways of working, working with technology, working with data, and working within regulatory requirements. The primary theme 'education and training' influenced the other four primary themes. While 'working with technology' influenced the 'way of working'. All other themes had reciprocal relationships. There was no relationship reported between 'working within regulatory requirements' and 'working with technology'. The researchers experienced challenges in meeting regulatory requirements, using technology and fostering working relationships for data quality monitoring.

Conclusion: Clinical trials implemented a variety of data quality monitoring procedures tailored to their situation and study context. Standardised frameworks that are accessible to all types of clinical trials are needed with an emphasis on education and training.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-021-01385-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8454069PMC
September 2021

Vitamin C reduces vancomycin-related nephrotoxicity through the inhibition of oxidative stress, apoptosis, and inflammation in mice.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Aug;9(16):1319

Department of Pharmacy, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: Vancomycin (VCM) is an antibiotic widely used to treat a range of serious bacterial infections; however, it is associated with nephrotoxicity. Vitamin C (VC) is a classical antioxidant that can alleviate various organ injuries and inflammatory responses by reducing inflammation and oxidative stress. This study aimed to examine the effect of VC on VCM-related nephrotoxicity in mice.

Methods: Mice were randomized into four groups: control, VCM (400 mg/kg/day), VCM (400 mg/kg/day) + VC (200 mg/kg/day), and VC (200 mg/kg/day) groups. Both VCM and VC were administered via intraperitoneal injection for 7 d, after which kidney and blood samples were collected and evaluated. Creatinine (Cr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) were measured.

Results: In the VCM group, kidney index, renal injury score, cell apoptosis, serum Cr and BUN, and kidney Cr, BUN, MDA, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and NF-κB were higher compared to the control group (all P<0.05), while body weight and kidney SOD activity were lower (both P<0.05). By contrast, no differences were observed between the control and VC groups (VC and VCM + VC groups) for all these indicators.

Conclusions: The antioxidant VC reduces VCM-related renal injury by reducing oxidative stress, cell apoptosis, and inflammation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-21-3294DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8422136PMC
August 2021

Claudin-5 Affects Endothelial Autophagy in Response to Early Hypoxia.

Front Physiol 2021 31;12:737474. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical University & Key Laboratory of Zebrafish Model for Development and Disease of Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang, China.

Hypoxic injury to cerebrovascular endothelial cells (ECs) after stroke leads to blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction, which is commonly associated with disruptions of endothelial tight junctions (TJs) and increased permeability. Therefore, maintaining the structural integrity and proper function of the BBB is essential for the homeostasis and physiological function of the central nervous system (CNS). Our previous study revealed that autophagy functions on protecting the BBB by regulating the dynamics of Claudin-5, the essential TJ protein, under short-term starvation or hypoxia conditions. Here, we show that in zebrafish and cells, loss of membranous Claudin-5 conversely determine the occurrence of hypoxia-induced autophagy in cerebrovascular ECs. Absence of endothelial Claudin-5 could partly attenuate endothelial cell apoptosis caused by short-term hypoxic injury. Mechanism studies revealed that under hypoxic conditions, the existence of membranous Claudin-5 affects the stimulation of hypoxia inducible factor 1 subunit alpha (HIF-1a) and the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which are responsible for the translocation of and endocytosis of caveole-packaged Claudin-5 into cytosol. Meanwhile, loss of Claudin-5 affects the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the downstream expression of BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19kDa protein interacting protein 3 (Bnip3). These together suppress the endothelial autophagy under hypoxia. This finding provides a theoretical basis for clarifying the mechanism of hypoxia-induced BBB injury and its potential protection mechanisms.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.737474DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8438321PMC
August 2021

Modulating the Activity of the VMPFC With tDCS Alters the Social Framing Effect.

Front Behav Neurosci 2021 26;15:677006. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Center for Economic Behavior and Decision-Making, Zhejiang University of Finance and Economics, Hangzhou, China.

Numerous experimental studies have replicated the social framing effect-the observation that people's decisions related to economic benefits and feelings depend on the method of presentation. Previous neuroimaging studies have shown that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) plays a part in the influence of framing and how individuals think about the feelings of others. Based on this, we used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to modulate neuronal activity in the VMPFC to determine the likelihood of a direct association between VMPFC activity and the social framing effect. Subsequently, in three stimulation treatments, we assessed the presence of the social framing effect, as demonstrated by a disparity between harm degree and help degree. The findings revealed a social framing effect in the participants in the control group and the sham treatment but no social framing effect in the participants in the anodal or cathodal treatments. Furthermore, sex differences were observed in the sham treatment's social framing effect, whereas no sex differences were observed in the anodal or cathodal treatments. The participants tended to harm the victim after receiving anodal or cathodal tDCS over the VMPFC and did not change their helping behaviour in any stimulations. Consequently, a clear causal link between the behaviour of the VMPFC and the social framing effect was found in the present research.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2021.677006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8426551PMC
August 2021

Impact of exemplar education program on the professional commitment of nursing students: A quasi-experimental study.

Authors:
Liqi Wang Ping Yu

Nurse Educ Today 2021 Aug 31;107:105118. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Centre for Digital Transformation, School of Computing and Information Technology, Universtiy of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: High attrition rate and nursing workforce shortage have been a prevailing world challenge. Professional commitment is a known key factor for attracting and retaining the nursing workforce.

Objective: To design, implement and evaluate the impact of a one-week structured education program, underpinned by the exemplar education strategy, on the professional commitment of undergraduate nursing students.

Design: A quasi-experimental study was designed with pre- and post-intervention measurements. The intervention was a structured, four module education program underpinned by the exemplar education strategy.

Setting: Department of Nursing, Qianjiang College, Hangzhou Normal University, Zhejiang, China.

Participants: 152 third-year nursing students who attended the education program and consented to participate were enrolled in the research.

Methods: The intervention, the education program, was delivered over 16 h in one week of an 18-week semester. It was sequenced in four modules: expert lectures (3 h each), visiting a hospital (3 h), alumni salon (3 h), and submitting a reflection report (4 h). Professional commitment was measured by the Nursing Professional Commitment Scale (NPCS) administered both pre- and post-intervention.

Results: The total professional commitment measurement score was significantly improved after the intervention. There were statistically significant differences before and after intervention in the four dimensions of professional commitment, namely, belief in goals and values, willingness to make an effort, desire to stay in the profession, and intrinsic positive value of work.

Conclusion: The one-week professional education program underpinned by the exemplar education strategy effectively improved the level of professional commitment of the undergraduate nursing students. The program can be transferred into the curriculum to improve nursing students' professional commitment. The methodology can be applied in other aspects of nursing professional development.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2021.105118DOI Listing
August 2021

The Role of the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex in Public Good and Public Bad Games: Evidence From a tDCS Study.

Front Behav Neurosci 2021 19;15:666002. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Center for Economic Behavior and Decision-Making, Zhejiang University of Finance and Economics, Hangzhou, China.

Although humans constitute an exceptionally cooperative species that is able to collaborate on large scales for common benefits, cooperation remains a longstanding puzzle in biological and social science. Moreover, cooperation is not always related to resource allocation and gains but is often related to losses. Revealing the neurological mechanisms and brain regions related to cooperation is important for reinforcing cooperation-related gains and losses. Recent neuroscience studies have found that the decision-making process of cooperation is involved in the function of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). In the present study, we aimed to investigate the causal role of the VMPFC in cooperative behavior concerning gains and losses through the application of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). We integrated cooperation-related gains and losses into a unified paradigm. Based on the paradigm, we researched cooperation behaviors regarding gains in standard public good games and introduced public bad games to investigate cooperative behavior regarding losses. Our study revealed that the VMPFC plays different roles concerning gains and losses in situations requiring cooperation. Anodal stimulation over the VMPFC decreased cooperative behavior in public bad games, whereas stimulation over the VMPFC did not change cooperative behavior in public good games. Moreover, participants' beliefs about others' cooperation were changed in public bad games but not in public good games. Finally, participants' cooperative attitudes were not influenced in the public good or public bad games under the three stimulation conditions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2021.666002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8416764PMC
August 2021

Expression and characterization of a novel lipase from Bacillus licheniformis NCU CS-5 for application in enhancing fatty acids flavor release for low-fat cheeses.

Food Chem 2022 Jan 15;368:130868. Epub 2021 Aug 15.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047, China; Jiangxi Province Key Laboratory of Edible and Medicinal Resources Exploitation, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031, China; New Zealand Institute of Natural Medicine Research, 8 Ha Crescent, Auckland 2104, New Zealand.

A novel lipase from Bacillus licheniformis NCU CS-5 was expressed in different Escherichia coli cells. The recombinant enzyme achieved a high activity (161.74 U/mL) with protein concentration of 0.27 mg/mL under optimal conditions at the large-scale expression of 12 h. The recombinant lipase showed optimal activity at 40 ℃ and pH 10.0, and maintained more than 80% relative activity after 96 h of incubation at pH 9.0-10.0. This typical alkaline lipase was activated under medium temperature conditions (30 and 45 ℃ for 96 h). The lipase exhibited a degree of adaptability in various organic solvents and metal ions, and showed high specificity towards triglycerides with short and medium chain fatty acids. Among different substrates, the lipase showed the strongest binding affinity towards pNPP (Km = 0.674 mM, Vmax = 950.196 μM/min). In the experiments of its application in enhancing fatty acids flavor release for low-fat cheeses, the lipase was found to hydrolyze cheeses and mainly increase the contents of butyric acid, hexanoic acid, caprylic acid and decanoic acid. The results from NMR and GC provided the possibility of enhancing fatty acids flavor released from low-fat cheeses by the lipolysis method.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130868DOI Listing
January 2022

Engineered production of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate in BL21.

Prep Biochem Biotechnol 2021 Aug 25:1-10. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

College of Food Science and Biotechnology, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China.

Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) is the coenzyme of more than 140 enzymes and is widely used in various fields. In this study, to enhance the production of PLP in BL21, the recombinant strain BL21/pETDuet-1-pdxj-zwf-dxs was constructed. The concentration of PLP in this strain was 82.69 mg/L, which was increased by 1.38-fold as compared to that in BL21. Glucose, yeast extract, and pH had an obvious impact on the concentration of PLP, and their optimal levels were 34.89 g/L, 31.17 g/L, and 10.07, respectively. The concentration of PLP under the optimal condition reached 2.23 g/L. The time-course analysis showed that the highest concentration of PLP was 2.32 g/L in recombinant strain after the induction for 12 h by 0.1 mM IPTG in a 1 L shake flask, which was increased by 38.76-fold as compared to that in BL21. This study provides a good basis for the efficient production of PLP in BL21.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10826068.2021.1966801DOI Listing
August 2021

The Influence of Hormone Therapy on secondary diabetes mellitus in Breast Cancer: A Meta-analysis.

Clin Breast Cancer 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Breast Oncology, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China. Electronic address:

Background: Growing evidences have implied that patients with primary breast cancer (BC) were at increased risks of developing diabetes mellitus (DM). However, as a major adjuvant treatment, the influence of hormone therapy (HT) on secondary DM in primary BC remains controversial; we conducted a meta-analysis of existing studies to evaluate the association of hormone therapy and secondary DM.

Methods: We searched online databases (PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane library, Scopus, and Google Scholar) for studies exploring the influence of hormone therapy on secondary DM in BC. The summarized effect sizes (ES) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) are calculated by STATA software utilizing fixed-effect or random-effect models, depending on the heterogeneity of the eligible studies.

Results: Ultimately, 7 retrospective publications including a total of 44,524 primary BC patients are eligible in present meta-analysis. HT use significantly increased the risk of developing DM in primary BC patients, whenever compared with NON-HT BC patients (pooled adjusted HR 1.30, 95% CI: 1.19-1.43) or NORMAL participants (HR 1.19, 95% CI: 1.14-1.25). As to specific HT medications, our sub-analysis demonstrates the risk for DM in tamoxifen (TAM) users elevates by 30% than NON-TAM use BC patients (pooled HR 1.30, 95% CI: 1.20-1.40) and by 18% than NORMAL participants (pooled HR 1.18, 95% CI: 1.12-1.24). However, for aromatase inhibitors (AIs) users, the risks for DM do not elevate significantly. Funnel plots and Egger's tests are used to evaluate publication bias and no apparent bias is detected in all analysis.

Conclusion: The present study is the first meta-analysis which thoroughly reveals that adjuvant HT is a risk factor of secondary DM in primary female BC patients. As to specific HT medications, TAM use significantly enhances the incidence of secondary DM, while AIs use does not influence the DM incidence significantly. Our results can help clinicians to tailor more appropriate strategies for the therapy and follow-up of primary BC patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clbc.2021.06.014DOI Listing
July 2021

Deep Learning for Voltammetric Sensing in a Living Animal Brain.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Aug 18. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Science, Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Living Biosystems, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing, 100190, China.

Numerous neurochemicals have been implicated in the modulation of brain function, making them appealing analytes for sensors and diagnostics. However, it is a grand challenge to selectively measure multiple neurochemicals simultaneously in vivo because of their great variations in concentrations, dynamic nature, and composition. Herein, we present a deep learning-based voltammetric sensing platform for the highly selective and simultaneous analysis of three neurochemicals in a living animal brain. The system features a carbon fiber electrode capable of capturing the mixed dynamics of a neurotransmitter, neuromodulator, and ions. Then a powerful deep neural network is employed to resolve individual chemical and spatial-temporal information. With this, a single electrochemical measurement reveals an interplaying concentration changes of dopamine, ascorbate, and ions in living rat brain, which is unobtainable with existing analytical methodologies. Our strategy provides a powerful means to expedite research in neuroscience and empower sensing-aided diagnostic applications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202109170DOI Listing
August 2021

Synergistic effect of the responses of different tissues against African swine fever virus.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2021 Aug 9. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

African swine fever is an acute, haemorrhagic fever and contagious disease of pigs caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), which has a great impact on the pig farming industry and related international trade. Understanding the response processes of various tissues in pigs after ASFV infection may help to address current major concerns, such as the exploration of key genes for vaccine development, the cooperative mechanism of the host response and the possibility of establishing active herd immunity. ASFV is able to infect core tissues and is associated with acute death. RNA and protein samples were obtained and verified from five tissues, including the lung, spleen, liver, kidney and lymph nodes. Multiple duplicate samples were quantitatively analyzed by corresponding transcriptomic and proteomic comparison. The results showed that different tissues cooperated in responses to ASFV infection and coordinated the defence against ASFV in the form of an inflammatory cytokine storm and interferon activation. The lung and spleen were mainly involved (dominant) in the innate immune response pathway; the liver and kidney were involved in the metabolic regulatory pathway and the inflammatory response; and the lymph nodes cooperated with the liver to complete energy metabolism regulation. The key pathways and responsive genes in each tissue of the contracted pigs were comprehensively mapped by infectomics, providing further evidence to investigate the complicated tie between ASFV and host cells.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.14283DOI Listing
August 2021

Immobilization of lipase on β-cyclodextrin grafted and aminopropyl-functionalized chitosan/FeO magnetic nanocomposites: An innovative approach to fruity flavor esters esterification.

Food Chem 2022 Jan 17;366:130616. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047, China; Jiangxi Province Key Laboratory of Edible and Medicinal Resources Exploitation, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031, China; New Zealand Institute of Natural Medicine Research, 8Ha Crescent, Auckland 2104, New Zealand.

The lipase from Bacillus licheniformis NCU CS-5 was immobilized onto β-cyclodextrin (CD) grafted and aminopropyl-functionalized chitosan-coated FeO magnetic nanocomposites (FeO-CTS-APTES-GA-β-CD). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that not only the functionalized magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized but also the immobilized lipase was successfully produced. The immobilized lipase exhibited higher optimal pH value (10.5) and temperature (60℃) than the free lipase. The pH and thermal stabilities of the immobilized lipase were improved significantly compared to the free lipase. The immobilized lipase remained more than 80% of the relative activity at temperature of 60 ℃ and pH 12.0. The immobilized lipase also remained over 80% of its relative activity after 28 days of storage and 15 cycles of application. The application of the immobilized lipase in esterification of isoamyl acetate and pentyl valerate showed that maximum esterification efficiency was achieved in n-hexane having 68.0% and 89.2% respectively. Therefore, these results indicated that the FeO-CTS-APTES-GA-β-CD nanoparticles are novel carriers for immobilizing enzyme, and the immobilized lipase can be used as an innovative green approach to the synthesis of fruity flavor esters in food industry.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130616DOI Listing
January 2022

Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Based on Electrospun Biomimetic Scaffold Mediated Endothelial Differentiation Facilitating Regeneration and Repair of Abdominal Wall Defects HIF-1α/VEGF Pathway.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 7;9:676409. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of General Surgery, Hernia and Abdominal Wall Surgery Center of Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Application of synthetic or biological meshes is the main therapy for the repair and reconstruction of abdominal wall defects, a common disease in surgery. Currently, no ideal materials are available, and there is an urgent need to find appropriate ones to satisfy clinical needs. Electrospun scaffolds have drawn attention in soft tissue reconstruction. In this study, we developed a novel method to fabricate a composite electrospun scaffold using a thermoresponsive hydrogel, poly (-isopropylacrylamide)-block-poly (ethylene glycol), and a biodegradable polymer, polylactic acid (PLA). This scaffold provided not only a high surface area/volume ratio and a three-dimensional fibrous matrix but also high biocompatibility and sufficient mechanical strength, and could simulate the native extracellular matrix and accelerate cell adhesion and proliferation. Furthermore, rat adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) were seeded in the composite electrospun scaffold to enhance the defect repair and regeneration by directionally inducing ADSCs into endothelial cells. In addition, we found early vascularization in the process was regulated by the hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α)/vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway. In our study, overexpression of HIF-1α/VEGF in ADSCs using a lentivirus system promoted early vascularization in the electrospun scaffolds. Overall, we expect our composite biomimetic scaffold method will be applicable and useful in abdominal wall defect regeneration and repair in the future.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2021.676409DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8293919PMC
July 2021

Electrically Tunable Optical Metasurfaces for Dynamic Polarization Conversion.

Nano Lett 2021 Aug 21;21(15):6690-6695. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstrasse 1, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany.

Dynamic control over the polarization of light is highly desirable in many optical applications, including optical communications, laser science, three-dimensional displays, among others. Conventional methods for polarization control are often based on bulky optical elements. To achieve highly integrated optical devices, metasurfaces, which have been intensively studied in recent years, hold great promises to replace conventional optical elements for a variety of optical functions. In this work, we demonstrate electrically tunable optical metasurfaces for dynamic polarization conversion at visible frequencies. By exploring both the geometric and propagation phase tuning capabilities, rapid and reversible polarization rotation up to 90° is achieved for linearly polarized light. The dynamic functionality is imparted by liquid crystals, which serve as a thin surrounding medium with electrically tunable refractive indices for the metasurface antennas. Furthermore, we expand our concept to demonstrate electrically tunable metasurfaces for dynamic holography and holographic information generation with independently controlled multiple pixels.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.1c02318DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8361430PMC
August 2021

A Clinician-Led, Experience-Based Co-Design Approach for Developing mHealth Services to Support the Patient Self-management of Chronic Conditions: Development Study and Design Case.

JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2021 07 20;9(7):e20650. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia.

Background: Despite the increasing use of mobile health (mHealth) services, such as mHealth apps or SMS text messaging services, that support the patient self-management of chronic conditions, many existing mHealth services lack theoretical guidance. In addition, although often the target audience for requirement acquisition at the initial mHealth app design stage, it is a common challenge for them to fully conceptualize their needs for mHealth services that help self-manage chronic conditions.

Objective: This study proposes a novel co-design approach with the initial requirements for mHealth services proposed by clinicians based on their experiences in guiding patients to self-manage chronic conditions. A design case is presented to illustrate our innovative approach to designing an mHealth app that supports the self-management of patients with obesity in their preparation for elective surgery.

Methods: We adopted a clinician-led co-design approach. The co-design approach consisted of the following four cyclic phases: understanding user needs, identifying an applicable underlying theory, integrating the theory into the prototype design, and evaluating and refining the prototype mHealth services with patients. Expert panel discussions, a literature review, intervention mapping, and patient focus group discussions were conducted in these four phases.

Results: In stage 1, the expert panel proposed the following three common user needs: motivational, educational, and supportive needs. In stage 2, the team selected the Social Cognitive Theory to guide the app design. In stage 3, the team designed and developed the key functions of the mHealth app, including automatic push notifications; web-based resources; goal setting and monitoring; and interactive health-related exchanges that encourage physical activity, healthy eating, psychological preparation, and a positive outlook for elective surgery. Push notifications were designed in response to a patient's risk level, as informed by the person's response to a baseline health survey. In stage 4, the prototype mHealth app was used to capture further requirements from patients in the two focus group discussions. Focus group participants affirmed the potential benefits of the app and suggested more requirements for the function, presentation, and personalization needs. The app was improved based on these suggestions.

Conclusions: This study reports an innovative co-design approach that was used to leverage the clinical experiences of clinicians to produce the initial prototype app and the approach taken to allow patients to effectively voice their needs and expectations for the mHealth app in a focus group discussion. This approach can be generalized to the design of any mHealth service that aims to support the patient self-management of chronic conditions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/20650DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8335618PMC
July 2021

The mechanism driving a solid-solid phase transition in a biomacromolecular crystal.

IUCrJ 2021 Jul 17;8(Pt 4):655-664. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Structural Biophysics Laboratory, Centre for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD 21702, USA.

Solid-solid phase transitions (SSPTs) occur between distinguishable crystalline forms. Because of their importance in application and theory in materials science and condensed-matter physics, SSPTs have been studied most extensively in metallic alloys, inorganic salts and small organic molecular crystals, but much less so in biomacromolecular crystals. In general, the mechanisms of SSPTs at the atomic and molecular levels are not well understood. Here, the ordered molecular rearrangements in biomacromolecular crystals of the adenine riboswitch aptamer are described using real-time serial crystallography and solution atomic force microscopy. Large, ligand-induced conformational changes drive the initial phase transition from the apo unit cell (AUC) to the trans unit cell 1 (TUC1). During this transition, coaxial stacking of P1 duplexes becomes the dominant packing interface, whereas P2-P2 interactions are almost completely disrupted, resulting in 'floating' layers of molecules. The coupling points in TUC1 and their local conformational flexibility allow the molecules to reorganize to achieve the more densely packed and energetically favorable bound unit cell (BUC). This study thus reveals the interplay between the conformational changes and the crystal phases - the underlying mechanism that drives the phase transition. Using polarized video microscopy to monitor SSPTs in small crystals at high ligand concentration, the time window during which the major conformational changes take place was identified, and the kinetics have been simulated. Together, these results provide the spatiotemporal information necessary for informing time-resolved crystallography experiments. Moreover, this study illustrates a practical approach to characterization of SSPTs in transparent crystals.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S2052252521004826DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8256710PMC
July 2021

A case of the third-line treatment of lung adenocarcinoma using nivolumab combined with anlotinib.

Pharmazie 2021 Jul;76(7):338-340

Department of Medical Oncology, Sichuan Cancer Hospital & Institute, Sichuan Cancer Center, School of Medicine, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China;, Email:

Lung adenocarcinoma, a subtype of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), is the most common lung cancer that considerably threatens humans' life. In recent years, the treatment of lung cancers has largely evolved, in which programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) together with its ligand PD Ligand-1 (PD-L1) has become a prevalent target of interest. Being effective to improve the survivability of cancer patients, monoclonal antibody-based immunotherapy that inhibits PD-1 and PD-L1 is playing a vital role in treating a wide spectrum of cancers. Increasing cases of using diversified monoclonal antibodies combined with anlotinib for the treatment of NSCLC have been reported. Herein, we report a case of treating advanced lung adenocarcinoma with the combination of nivolumab and anlotinib. After two cycles of the combination therapy, the patient's condition was effectively improved, demonstrated that this therapy might be effective in treating lung adenocarcinoma.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1691/ph.2021.1420DOI Listing
July 2021

Measuring Success of Patients' Continuous Use of Mobile Health Services for Self-management of Chronic Conditions: Model Development and Validation.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Jul 13;23(7):e26670. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Centre for Digital Transformation, School of Computing and Information Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia.

Background: Mobile health services are gradually being introduced to support patients' self-management of chronic conditions. The success of these services is contingent upon patients' continuous use of them.

Objective: This study aims to develop a model to measure the success of patients' continuous use of mobile health services for the self-management of chronic conditions.

Methods: The proposed model was derived from the information systems continuance model and the information systems success model. This model contains 7 theoretical constructs: information quality, system quality, service quality, perceived usefulness, user satisfaction, perceived health status, and continuous use intention. A web-based questionnaire survey instrument was developed to test the model. The survey was conducted to collect data from 129 patients who used a mobile health app for hypertension management from 2017 to 2019. The questionnaire items were derived from validated instruments and were measured using a 5-point Likert scale. The partial least squares modelling method was used to test the theoretical model.

Results: The model accounted for 58.5% of the variance in perceived usefulness (R=0.585), 52.3% of the variance in user satisfaction (R=0.523), and 41.4% of the variance in patients' intention to make continuous use of mobile health services (R=0.414). The continuous use intention was significantly influenced by their perceived health status (β=.195, P=.03), perceived usefulness (β=.307, P=.004), and user satisfaction (β=.254, P=.04) with the mobile health service. Information quality (β=.235, P=.005), system quality (β=.192, P=.02), and service quality (β=.494, P<.001) had a significantly positive influence on perceived usefulness but not on user satisfaction. Perceived usefulness had a significantly positive influence on user satisfaction (β=.664, P<.001). In a result opposite to the original hypothesis, perceived health status did not negatively influence patients' intention to continue using the mobile health service but showed a significantly positive correlation.

Conclusions: This study developed a theoretical model to predict and explain patients' continuous use of mobile health services for self-management of chronic conditions and empirically tested the model. Perceived usefulness, user satisfaction, and health status contributed to patients' intention to make continuous use of mobile health services for self-managing their chronic conditions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/26670DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8317034PMC
July 2021

Enhancing the production of γ-aminobutyric acid in Escherichia coli BL21 by engineering the enzymes of the regeneration pathway of the coenzyme factor pyridoxal 5'-phosphate.

World J Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Jul 8;37(8):130. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

College of Food Science and Biotechnology, Zhejiang Gongshang University, 149 Jiaogong Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, 310035, People's Republic of China.

The compound γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was widely used in various fields. To enhance the production of GABA in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3), the enzymes of the regeneration pathway of the coenzyme factor pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) were engineered. The recombinant E. coli strain was screened and identified. The initial concentrations of L-monosodium glutamate (L-MSG) had an obvious influence on the production of GABA. The highest concentration of GABA in recombinant E. coli BL21/pET28a-gadA was 5.54 g/L when the initial L-MSG concentration was 10 g/L, whereas it was 8.45 g/L in recombinant E. coli BL21/pET28a-gadA-SNO1-SNZ1 at an initial L-MSG concentration of 15 g/L. The corresponding conversion yields of GABA in these two strains were 91.0% and 92.7%, respectively. When the initial concentrations of L-MSG were more than 15 g/L, the concentrations of GABA in E. coli BL21/pET28a-gadA-SNO1-SNZ1 were significantly higher as compared to those in recombinant E. coli BL21/pET28a-gadA, and it reached a maximum of 13.20 g/L at an initial L-MSG concentration of 25 g/L, demonstrating that the introduction of the enzymes of the regeneration pathway of PLP favored to enhance the production of GABA. This study provides new insight into producing GABA effectively in E. coli BL21(DE3).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11274-021-03103-5DOI Listing
July 2021

Ginseng-Astragalus-oxymatrine injection ameliorates cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression in mice and enhances the immune activity of RAW264.7 cells.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Oct 1;279:114387. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Significance: Ginseng quinquefolium (L.), Astragalus membranaceus, and Sophora flavescens Aiton are popular folk medicines in many Asian countries and regions. These three traditional Chinese herbs and their extracts have been reported to considerably enhance the immune function. G. quinquefolium (L.) is considered the king of herbs in China. Traditionally, G. quinquefolium (L.) is believed to replenish vitality, which is considered as immune enhancement in modern Chinese pharmacy. One of the main uses of Astragalus is immunity enhancement; S. flavescens and oxymatrine obtained from its extract have been used to treat leukopenia. Considering the pharmacological properties of Ginseng, Astragalus, and oxymatrine, we evaluated the immunopotentiation effects of their combination, Ginseng-Astragalus-oxymatrine (GAO), in the present study.

Aim Of The Study: This study aimed to expand the clinical application of GAO and to preliminarily explore its mechanism of action by determining whether GAO injection can enhance immunity in vivo and in vitro.

Methods: Overall, 17 major chemical components in GAO were analysed using HPLC and LC-MS. The immunity-enhancing effect of GAO was studied in the cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced immunosuppressive mouse model and RAW 264.7 cells.

Results: Quantitative analysis showed that the potential active components of GAO include at least ginsenosides, astragaloside IV, and oxymatrine. GAO could significantly improve the nonspecific immunity including the indices of the thymus and spleen, number of peripheral blood leukocytes, levels of TNF-α and IL-6, phagocytic function of macrophages, and cytotoxic activity of natural killer (NK) cells. Additionally, GAO enhanced the humoural immunity, characterised by the antibody production ability of B cells, and cellular immunity, characterised by the activity of T cells, in immunosuppressed mouse. Moreover, GAO could enhance the phagocytic and adhesion functions of RAW 264.7 cells, which may be related to the activation of reactive oxygen species and NF-κB signalling pathway.

Conclusion: GAO could dramatically ameliorate CTX-induced immunosuppression in mouse and stimulate the immune activity in RAW 264.7 cells possibly by activating the NF-κB signalling pathway.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.114387DOI Listing
October 2021

Problematic Internet Usage and Self-Esteem in Chinese Undergraduate Students: The Mediation Effects of Individual Affect and Relationship Satisfaction.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 06 29;18(13). Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Sports Training, Xi'an Physical Education University, Xi'an 710068, China.

The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the mediating effects of individual affect and relationship satisfaction on the relationship between self-esteem and Problematic Internet Use (PIU). Affect was measured using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), relationship satisfaction was assessed using a positive and negative semantic dimension scale, self-esteem was measured using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and PIU was measured using the Problematic Internet Use scale with a sample of 507 Chinese university students (Mage = 20.41 years, SD = 2.49). The relationships between the variables were tested using structural equation modelling with a multiple mediation model. The results revealed that negative affect and the negative semantic dimensions of relationship satisfaction mediated the relationship between self-esteem and PIU. The implications of the results and the study's theoretical contributions are discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18136949DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8296993PMC
June 2021

PD-1 Affects the Immunosuppressive Function of Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells in Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

Front Immunol 2021 14;12:680055. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Biotherapy Center and Cancer Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Background: There is increasing evidence that group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) play an essential role in allergy and parasitic infection. However, the role of ILC2s in human lung cancer remains unclear.

Methods: ILC2s from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from healthy donors (HDs) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, and NSCLC tumor tissues were analyzed multicolor flow cytometry. ILC2s or CD14 cells were sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. qPCR and flow cytometry were performed to assess the gene and protein expression of the indicated molecules. M1-like and M2-like macrophages were induced from CD14 monocytes .

Results: ILC2s were significantly more enriched in PBMCs and tumor tissues from NSCLC patients than in HDs. After screening for the main immune checkpoint molecules, we found that PD-1 was upregulated in ILC2s in NSCLC patients. Functionally, PD-1 ILC2s from tumor tissues expressed higher levels of IL-4 and IL-13 regarding both mRNA and protein levels than PD-1 ILC2s. Furthermore, PD-1 ILC2s robustly boosted M2-like macrophage polarization , by secreting IL-4 and IL-13, while neutralization of IL-4 and IL-13 by antibodies abrogated M2-like macrophage polarization.

Conclusion: ILC2s are enriched in NSCLC patients and upregulate PD-1 expression. Upregulation of PD-1 facilitates the immunosuppressive function of ILC2s. PD-1 ILC2s enhance M2-like macrophage polarization by secreting IL-4 and IL-13. PD-1 acts as a positive regulator of the immunosuppressive function of ILC2s in human NSCLC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.680055DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8237944PMC
June 2021
-->