Publications by authors named "Ping Xu"

1,556 Publications

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Genome-wide interrogation of gene functions through base editor screens empowered by barcoded sgRNAs.

Nat Biotechnol 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Biomedical Pioneering Innovation Center, Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Genomics, Peking-Tsinghua Center for Life Sciences, Peking University Genome Editing Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Protein and Plant Gene Research, School of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Canonical CRISPR-knockout (KO) screens rely on Cas9-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) to generate targeted gene KOs. These methodologies may yield distorted results because DSB-associated effects are often falsely assumed to be consequences of gene perturbation itself, especially when high copy-number sites are targeted. In the present study, we report a DSB-independent, genome-wide CRISPR screening method, termed iBARed cytosine base editing-mediated gene KO (BARBEKO). This method leverages CRISPR cytosine base editors for genome-scale KO screens by perturbing gene start codons or splice sites, or by introducing premature termination codons. Furthermore, it is integrated with iBAR, a strategy we devised for improving screening quality and efficiency. By constructing such a cell library through lentiviral infection at a high multiplicity of infection (up to 10), we achieved efficient and accurate screening results with substantially reduced starting cells. More importantly, in comparison with Cas9-mediated fitness screens, BARBEKO screens are no longer affected by DNA cleavage-induced cytotoxicity in HeLa-, K562- or DSB-sensitive retinal pigmented epithelial 1 cells. We anticipate that BARBEKO offers a valuable tool to complement the current CRISPR-KO screens in various settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41587-021-00944-1DOI Listing
June 2021

Exploring the bacterial community and fermentation characteristics during silage fermentation of abandoned fresh tea leaves.

Chemosphere 2021 Jun 15;283:131234. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Institute of Tea Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China; Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Growth, Development and Quality Improvement, Ministry of Agriculture, Hangzhou, 310058, China. Electronic address:

The potential application of silage fermentation on abandoned fresh tea leaves (AFTL) was investigated. Dynamic profiles of fermentation-related components, characteristic components and the bacterial community of AFTL during ensiling were analysed. The results showed that after ensiling for 60 days, the concentrations of lactic, acetic and propionic acid increased, whereas a high pH value (4.80) and NH-N content (106 g/kg TN) were detected. Characteristic components, including caffeine, polyphenols, theanine and catechins, were well preserved. The microbial community changed significantly, and Lactobacillus (63.6%) became the dominant phylum. Spearman rank correlation revealed a positive correlation between lactic acid concentration and the abundance of Lactobacillus (63.6%) and Klebsiella (25.0%), whereas the abundance of Klebsiella was negatively correlated with catechin concentration. In conclusion, ensiling could be an effective utilization for AFTL and provides a new idea for utilizing idle resources on tea plantations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131234DOI Listing
June 2021

Occurrence, accumulation, and risk assessment of trace metals in tea (Camellia sinensis): A national reconnaissance.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 9;792:148354. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Tea Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China. Electronic address:

Accumulation of potentially toxic elements in soil and tea leaves is a particular concern for tea consumers worldwide. However, the contents of potentially toxic elements and their potential health and ecological risks in Chinese tea gardens have rarely been investigated on the national scale. In this study, we collected 225 paired soil and tea plant samples from 45 tea gardens in 15 provinces of China to survey the current risk of potentially toxic element accumulation in Chinese tea gardens. The results suggest that the average contents of most trace metals in rhizosphere soils meet the risk control standard for agricultural land in China. However, the mean contents of As, Cr, Cd, Zn, Cu, and Ni in rhizosphere soils were 1.94, 2.14, 1.23, 1.15, 1.18, and 1.19 times their corresponding background soil values in China. Cd had the highest geo-accumulation index, followed by As, Zn, Cr, Ni, Cu, Pb, and Mn in rhizosphere soils. Nearly 2.22% and 4.44% of soils were moderately to heavily contaminated with As and Cd, respectively. The risk index ranged from 18.0 to 292, with an average value of 90.0, indicating low to moderate ecological risk in Chinese tea gardens. This is the first national-scale reconnaissance of trace metals in tea across China. Our findings provide a useful reference for ensuring the quality and safety of tea production and mitigating the risk of toxic element accumulation in tea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148354DOI Listing
June 2021

[Arthroscopy combined with high tibial osteotomy for the treatment of knee medial compartment osteoarthritis and its influence on cartilage injury].

Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi 2021 Jun;35(6):690-696

Department of Orthopedics, Affiliated Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou Sichuan, 646000, P.R.China.

Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of arthroscopy combined with high tibial osteotomy (HTO) in the treatment of knee medial compartment osteoarthritis and its influence on cartilage injury.

Methods: The clinical data of 57 patients with knee medial compartment osteoarthritis treated with arthroscopy combined with HTO between March 2017 and March 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 27 males and 30 females with an average age of 52.4 years (range, 44-57 years). The disease duration ranged from 3 to 6 years, with an average of 3.6 years. Twenty-one cases were grade Ⅰ and 36 cases were grade Ⅱ according to Kellgren-Lawrence classification. Flexion contracture of knee joint ranged from 0° to 8° with an average of 1.36° and varus deformity ranged from 5° to 10° with an average of 7.60°. Preoperative arthroscopic evaluation showed that there were 11 cases with grade Ⅰ, 42 cases with gradeⅡ, and 4 cases with grade Ⅲ according to the international cartilage repair classification system (ICRS). Lysholm score, American Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) score, and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score were used to evaluate knee function before operation, at 3 months, at 1 year after operation, and at last follow-up. Visual analogue scale (VAS) score was used to evaluate pain. The mechanical medial proximal tibial angle (mMPTA) and femoral tibial angle (FTA) were measured before operation and at last follow-up. When the internal fixator was removed, the knee arthroscopy was performed again to explore the cartilage repair condition, and the regeneration level and maturity level were selected for cartilage grading evaluation.

Results: All patients' incisions healed by first intention after operation, and no incision infection or skin necrosis occurred. After operation, the knee joint function of the patients was significantly improved, the pain symptoms were relieved, and the force line measurement reached the target set before operation. The VAS score, Lysholm score, HSS score, and IKDC score were significantly improved at 3 months, 1 year after operation, and at last follow-up when compared with those before operation. They were gradually improved with the time and there were significant differences between time points ( <0.05). mMPTA and FTA were significantly improved at last follow-up when compared with those before operation ( <0.05). When the internal fixator was removed, the arthroscopic re-assessment found that the cartilage regeneration was classified into 10 cases of grade Ⅰ and 47 cases of grade Ⅱ; 18 cases of immature cartilage regeneration and 29 cases of mature cartilage regeneration were found in the knee joints of grade Ⅱ cartilage regeneration. There was no significant difference in the cartilage regeneration grade between different ICRS gradings ( =0.176, =0.916), and the difference in maturity grading was significant ( =10.500, =0.005).

Conclusion: Arthroscopy combined with HTO for the treatment of knee medial compartment osteoarthritis can effectively improve the symptoms and function of the knee joint, and can promote the regeneration of articular cartilage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7507/1002-1892.202101073DOI Listing
June 2021

Solvent-Free Synthesis of Ultrafine Tungsten Carbide Nanoparticles-Decorated Carbon Nanosheets for Microwave Absorption.

Nanomicro Lett 2020 Jul 18;12(1):153. Epub 2020 Jul 18.

MIIT Key Laboratory of Critical Materials Technology for New Energy Conversion and Storage, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001, People's Republic of China.

Carbides/carbon composites are emerging as a new kind of binary dielectric systems with good microwave absorption performance. Herein, we obtain a series of tungsten carbide/carbon composites through a simple solvent-free strategy, where the solid mixture of dicyandiamide (DCA) and ammonium metatungstate (AM) is employed as the precursor. Ultrafine cubic WC nanoparticles (3-4 nm) are in situ generated and uniformly dispersed on carbon nanosheets. This configuration overcomes some disadvantages of conventional carbides/carbon composites and is greatly helpful for electromagnetic dissipation. It is found that the weight ratio of DCA to AM can regulate chemical composition of these composites, while less impact on the average size of WC nanoparticles. With the increase in carbon nanosheets, the relative complex permittivity and dielectric loss ability are constantly enhanced through conductive loss and polarization relaxation. The different dielectric properties endow these composites with distinguishable attenuation ability and impedance matching. When DCA/AM weight ratio is 6.0, the optimized composite can produce good microwave absorption performance, whose strongest reflection loss intensity reaches up to - 55.6 dB at 17.5 GHz and qualified absorption bandwidth covers 3.6-18.0 GHz by manipulating the thickness from 1.0 to 5.0 mm. Such a performance is superior to many conventional carbides/carbon composites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40820-020-00491-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7770940PMC
July 2020

Association Between Postoperative Long-Term Heart Rate Variability and Postoperative Delirium in Elderly Patients Undergoing Orthopedic Surgery: A Prospective Cohort Study.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 31;13:646253. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Anesthesiology, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Postoperative delirium (POD) is a common complication after orthopedic surgery in elderly patients. The elderly may experience drastic changes in autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity and circadian rhythm disorders after surgery. Therefore, we intend to explore the relationship between postoperative long-term heart rate (HR) variability (HRV), as a measure of ANS activity and circadian rhythm, and occurrence of POD in elderly patients.

Methods: The study population of this cohort was elderly patients over 60 years of age who scheduled for orthopedic surgery under spinal anesthesia. Patients were screened for inclusion and exclusion criteria before surgery. Then, participants were invited to wear a Holter monitor on the first postoperative day to collect 24-h electrocardiographic (ECG) data. Parameters in the time domain [the standard deviation of the normal-to-normal (NN) intervals (SDNN), mean of the standard deviations of all the NN intervals for each 5-min segment of a 24-h HRV recording (SDNNI), and the root mean square of successive differences of the NN intervals (RMSSD)] and frequency domain [heart rate (HR), high frequency (HF), low frequency (LF), very low frequency (VLF), ultra low frequency (ULF), and total power (TP)] were calculated. Assessment of delirium was performed daily up to the seventh postoperative day using the Chinese version of the 3-Min Diagnostic Interview for CAM-defined Delirium (3D-CAM). The relationship between HRV and POD, as well as the association between HRV and duration of POD, was assessed.

Results: Of the 294 cases that finally completed the follow-up, 60 cases developed POD. Among the HRV parameters, SDNNI, VLF, and ULF were related to the occurrence of POD. After adjustment for potential confounders, the correlation between HRV indices and POD disappeared. Through stratified analysis, two significant negative correlations emerged: ULF in young-old participants and SDNNI, VLF, and ULF in male patients.

Conclusion: The lower HRV parameters may be related to the occurrence of POD, and this correlation is more significant in young-old and male patients. ANS disorders and rhythm abnormalities reflected by HRV changes may represent a possible mechanism that promotes POD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2021.646253DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8200544PMC
May 2021

Observation of frequency-uncorrelated photon pairs generated by counter-propagating spontaneous parametric down-conversion.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 16;11(1):12628. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, School of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093, China.

We report the generation of frequency-uncorrelated photon pairs from counter-propagating spontaneous parametric down-conversion in a periodically-poled KTP waveguide. The joint spectral intensity of photon pairs is characterized by measuring the corresponding stimulated process, namely, the difference frequency generation process. The experimental result shows a clear uncorrelated joint spectrum, where the backward-propagating photon has a narrow bandwidth of 7.46 GHz and the forward-propagating one has a bandwidth of 0.23 THz like the pump light. The heralded single-photon purity estimated through Schmidt decomposition is as high as 0.996, showing a perspective for ultra-purity and narrow-band single-photon generation. Such unique feature results from the backward-wave quasi-phase-matching condition and does not has a strict limitation on the material and working wavelength, thus fascinating its application in photonic quantum technologies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-92141-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8209226PMC
June 2021

Application of virtual touch tissue imaging quantification in diagnosis of supraspinatus tendon injury.

J Xray Sci Technol 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Ultrasonography, Hebei Medical Universitiy Third Affiliated Hospital, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, China.

Objective: To explore the value of virtual touch imaging and quantification (VTIQ) shear wave elastography (SWE) in diagnosis of supraspinatus tendon tear.

Methods: Eighty patients with unilateral supraspinatus tendon tear underwent shoulder arthroscopy were prospective studied. Tendinopathy, partial-thickness tear or full-thickness tear of supraspinatus tendon were diagnosed according 2D ultrasound examination. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of ultrasonic diagnosis of supraspinatus tendon tear were calculated by arthroscopy as the gold standard. VTIQ was applied to measure the shear-wave velocity (SWV) of both normal and affected supraspinatus tendon. The differences of SWV in three types of supraspinatus tendon tear and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were analyzed.

Results: Among 80 patients, there were 20 tendinopathy, 31 partial tears and 29 full-thickness tears diagnosed by shoulder arthroscopy. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 2D ultrasound in diagnosis of tendinopathy, partial tear and full-thickness tear groups were 78%, 90%and 83%; 71%, 86%and 73%; 86%, 88%and 88%, respectively. SWV of 80 supraspinatus tendon tears was 4.59±1.00 m/s, which was lower than that of normal supraspinatus tendon (4.59±1.00 m/s vs. 6.68±1.05 m/s, P <  0.01). SWV of supraspinatus tendon in tendinopathy, partial tear and full-thickness tear groups respectively were 5.66±0.97, 4.66±1.00, and 3.78±0.55 m/s, all lower than that of the contralateral normal supraspinatus tendon (all P <  0.05). In addition, the analysis of variance and pairwise comparison showed that SWV of supraspinatus tendon among three different degree of injury was statistically significant (all P <  0.001). The cutoff thresholds of SWV was 4.83 m/s to identify tendinopathy tear from partial tear and was 4.08 m/s to identify full-thickness tear from partial-thickness tear.

Conclusion: VTIQ SWE with SWV might identify degree of supraspinatus tendon tear and improve the value of ultrasonography, which should be further evaluated in large multicenter studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/XST-210865DOI Listing
June 2021

2,3-Butanediol synthesis from glucose supplies NADH for elimination of toxic acetate produced during overflow metabolism.

Cell Discov 2021 Jun 8;7(1):43. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

State Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology, Shandong University, Qingdao, Shandong, China.

Overflow metabolism-caused acetate accumulation is a major problem that restricts industrial applications of various bacteria. 2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) synthesis in microorganisms is an ancient metabolic process with unidentified functions. We demonstrate here that acetate increases and then decreases during the growth of a bacterium Enterobacter cloacae subsp. dissolvens SDM. Both bifunctional acetaldehyde/ethanol dehydrogenase AdhE-catalyzed ethanol production and acetate-induced 2,3-BD biosynthesis are indispensable for the elimination of acetate generated during overflow metabolism. 2,3-BD biosynthesis from glucose supplies NADH required for acetate elimination via AdhE-catalyzed ethanol production. The coupling strategy involving 2,3-BD biosynthesis and ethanol production is widely distributed in bacteria and is important for toxic acetate elimination. Finally, we realized the co-production of ethanol and acetoin from chitin, the second most abundant natural biopolymer whose catabolism involves inevitable acetate production through the coupling acetate elimination strategy. The synthesis of a non-toxic chemical such as 2,3-BD may be viewed as a unique overflow metabolism with desirable metabolic functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-021-00273-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8187413PMC
June 2021

Disruption of kynurenine pathway reveals physiological importance of tryptophan catabolism in Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata.

Amino Acids 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Education Ministry Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Crop Diseases and Pests, College of Plant Protection, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, China.

Kynurenine pathway is critically important to catabolize tryptophan, to produce eye chromes, and to protect nervous system in insects. However, several issues related to tryptophan degradation remain to be clarified. In the present paper, we identified three genes (karmoisin, vermilion and cardinal) involved in kynurenine pathway in Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata. The karmoisin and cardinal were highly expressed in the pupae and adults having compound eyes. Consistently, high-performance liquid chromatography result showed that three ommochrome peaks were present in adult heads rather than bodies (thoraces, legs, wings and abdomens). RNA interference (RNAi)-aided knockdown of vermilion caused accumulation of tryptophan in both adult heads and bodies, disappearance of ommochromes in the heads and a complete loss of eye color in both pupae and adults. Depletion of cardinal brought about excess of 3-hydroxykynurenine and insufficient ommochromes in the heads and decolored eyes. RNAi of karmoisin resulted in a decrease in ommochromes in the heads, and a partial loss of eye color. Moreover, a portion of karmoisin-, vermilion- or cardinal-silenced adults exhibited negative phototaxis, whereas control beetles showed positive phototaxis. Furthermore, dysfunctions of tryptophan catabolism impaired climbing ability. Our findings clearly illustrated several issues related to kynurenine pathway and provided a new insight into the physiological importance of tryptophan catabolism in H. vigintioctopunctata.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00726-021-03009-4DOI Listing
June 2021

Insight into the influence of donor-acceptor system on graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets for transport of photoinduced charge carriers and photocatalytic H generation.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 May 26;601:326-337. Epub 2021 May 26.

State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, MIIT Key Laboratory of Critical Materials Technology for New Energy Conversion and Storage, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080, China. Electronic address:

The rapid recombination of photogenerated charges is one of the main restriction for promoting the photocatalytic H generation of graphitic carbon nitride (CN) material. Herein, donor-acceptor (D-A) system was introduced into CN nanosheets by oxygen and/or phenyl doping (DA-CN) strategy to facilitate the transport of photoinduced charge carriers and H generation. Experimental and theoretical results revealed that the nanosheet structure of DA-CN shortened the photoexcited charges transport length to the surface, and the D-A system embedded in DA-CN provided the dipole-induced internal electric field for charges transport. As a consequence, compared with pristine CN, DA-CN samples performed the improved transport of photogenerated charges and photocatalytic H evolution. Notably, DA-CN-OP (oxygen and phenyl co-doping) with the strongest dipole-induced internal electric field originated from D-A system displayed the highest photocatalytic H evolution rate at 7.394 mmol gh, which was 7.67 times as that of pristine CN (0.964 mmol gh). This work not only provides a simple strategy to construct highly efficient CN nanosheet photocatalyst with D-A system, but also promote the deep insight into the effect of molecular dipole originated from D-A system on the transport of photoinduced charge carriers and photocatalytic activity for CN material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.05.145DOI Listing
May 2021

Genetic mapping of highly versatile and solvent-tolerant Pseudomonas putida B6-2 (ATCC BAA-2545) as a 'superstar' for mineralization of PAHs and dioxin-like compounds.

Environ Microbiol 2021 May 30. Epub 2021 May 30.

State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, and School of Life Sciences & Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, China.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dioxin-like compounds, including sulfur, nitrogen and oxygen heterocycles, are widespread and toxic environmental pollutants. A wide variety of microorganisms capable of growing with aromatic polycyclic compounds are essential for bioremediation of the contaminated sites and the Earth's carbon cycle. Here, cells of Pseudomonas putida B6-2 (ATCC BAA-2545) grown in the presence of biphenyl (BP) are able to simultaneously degrade PAHs and their derivatives, even when they are present as mixtures, and tolerate high concentrations of extremely toxic solvents. Genetic analysis of the 6.37 Mb genome of strain B6-2 reveals coexistence of gene clusters responsible for central catabolic systems of aromatic compounds and for solvent tolerance. We used functional transcriptomics and proteomics to identify the candidate genes associated with catabolism of BP and a mixture of BP, dibenzofuran, dibenzothiophene and carbazole. Moreover, we observed dynamic changes in transcriptional levels with BP, including in metabolic pathways of aromatic compounds, chemotaxis, efflux pumps and transporters potentially involved in adaptation to PAHs. This study on the highly versatile activities of strain B6-2 suggests it to be a potentially useful model for bioremediation of polluted sites and for investigation of biochemical, genetic and evolutionary aspects of Pseudomonas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.15613DOI Listing
May 2021

Induction of Apoptosis in Cancer Cells by Glutathione Transferase Inhibitor Mediated Hydrophobic Tagging Molecules.

ACS Med Chem Lett 2021 May 3;12(5):720-725. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191, P.R. China.

The abnormally high expression of glutathione transferases is closely associated with cancer incidence and drug resistance. By introducing a hydrophobic moiety to the inhibitor structure, we organized a series of degraders of glutathione transferases and demonstrated them potently inducing apoptosis in cancer cells, presenting their pharmacological potential in cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsmedchemlett.0c00627DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8155291PMC
May 2021

Structure-Activity Study of Nitazoxanide Derivatives as Novel STAT3 Pathway Inhibitors.

ACS Med Chem Lett 2021 May 1;12(5):696-703. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191, P. R. China.

We identified nitazoxanide () as a moderate STAT3 pathway inhibitor through immunoblot analysis and a cell-based IL-6/JAK/STAT3 pathway activation assay. A series of thiazolide derivatives were designed and synthesized to further validate the thiazolide scaffold as STAT3 inhibitors. Eight out of 25 derivatives displayed potencies greater than that of , and their STAT3 pathway inhibitory activities were found to be significantly correlated with their antiproliferative activities in HeLa cells. Derivatives and were observed to be more potent than the positive control , which is under phase I clinical trials. Compared with , also exhibited much improved in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters in rats and efficacies against proliferations in multiple cancer cell lines, indicating a broad-spectrum effect of these thiazolides as antitumor agents targeted on STAT3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsmedchemlett.0c00544DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8155281PMC
May 2021

Nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease and associated risk factors in China: A prospective surveillance study.

J Infect 2021 Jul 25;83(1):46-53. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Henan Provincial Infectious Diseases Hospital, Zhengzhou, China.

Background: We aimed to address the knowledge gap that exists regarding the epidemiological, demographic, and clinical characteristics of nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary diseases (NTM-PDs) among smear-positive patients with symptoms suggestive of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in China.

Methods: Prospective and national surveillance of NTM-PD was performed from 17 hospitals within the China Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Surveillance Study (CNTMS). Patients were eligible for inclusion if they had positive smears during hospitalization. Sputum specimens were collected for molecular species identification.

Results: 6,766 patients with valid results were included, consisting of 6,236 (92.2%) with PTB, 458 (6.8%) with NTM-PD, and 72 (1.0%) with colonization. The proportion of NTM-PD in PTB patients exhibited significant geographic diversity, ranging from 3.2% in the northwest to 9.2% in the south. The most prevalent species was Mycobacterium intracellulare, followed by Mycobacterium abscessus complex. Females, elderly people, and patients with bronchiectasis or COPD are at high risk for developing NTM-PD, while patients with diabetes have a lower risk of NTM-PD when compared with non-diabetic patients. Regarding clinical symptoms, lower rates of persistent cough and weight loss were noted in NTM-PD patients than in PTB patients.

Conclusions: Approximately one-fifteenth of PTB patients are afflicted with nontuberculous mycobacterial infections in China. The prevalence of NTM shows geographic diversity across the country, and it showed a gradual increase from north to south and from west to east. NTM-PD patients are prone to exhibit less severe clinical symptoms than PTB patients, highlighting the importance of raising awareness of NTM diseases to improve decision making on how to best screen, diagnose, and treat NTM in TB-endemic settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2021.05.019DOI Listing
July 2021

Identification of COL3A1 variants associated with sporadic thoracic aortic dissection: a case-control study.

Front Med 2021 May 28. Epub 2021 May 28.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430030, China.

Thoracic aortic dissection (TAD) without familial clustering or syndromic features is known as sporadic TAD (STAD). So far, the genetic basis of STAD remains unknown. Whole exome sequencing was performed in 223 STAD patients and 414 healthy controls from the Chinese Han population (N = 637). After population structure and genetic relationship and ancestry analyses, we used the optimal sequence kernel association test to identify the candidate genes or variants of STAD. We found that COL3A1 was significantly relevant to STAD (P = 7.35 × 10) after 10 000 times permutation test (P = 2.49 × 10). Moreover, another independent cohort, including 423 cases and 734 non-STAD subjects (N = 1157), replicated our results (P = 0.021). Further bioinformatics analysis showed that COL3A1 was highly expressed in dissected aortic tissues, and its expression was related to the extracellular matrix (ECM) pathway. Our study identified a profile of known heritable TAD genes in the Chinese STAD population and found that COL3A1 could increase the risk of STAD through the ECM pathway. We wanted to expand the knowledge of the genetic basis and pathology of STAD, which may further help in providing better genetic counseling to the patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11684-020-0826-1DOI Listing
May 2021

Comment on "Analgesic effect of music during wound care among patients with diaphyseal tibial fractures: Randomized controlled trial".

Eur J Pain 2021 May 27. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Psychiatry, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejp.1812DOI Listing
May 2021

Cell subtypes and immune dysfunction in peritoneal fluid of endometriosis revealed by single-cell RNA-sequencing.

Cell Biosci 2021 May 26;11(1):98. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women's Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 1 Xue Shi Road, Hangzhou, 310006, Zhejiang, People's Republic of China.

Background: Endometriosis is a refractory and recurrent disease and it affects nearly 10% of reproductive-aged women and 40% of infertile patients. The commonly accepted theory for endometriosis is retrograde menstruation where endometrial tissues invade into peritoneal cavity and fail to be cleared due to immune dysfunction. Therefore, the comprehensive understanding of immunologic microenvironment of peritoneal cavity deserves further investigation for the previous studies mainly focus on one or several immune cells.

Results: High-quality transcriptomes were from peritoneal fluid samples of patients with endometriosis and control, and firstly subjected to 10 × genomics single-cell RNA-sequencing. We acquired the single-cell transcriptomes of 10,280 cells from endometriosis sample and 7250 cells from control sample with an average of approximately 63,000 reads per cell. A comprehensive map of overall cells in peritoneal fluid was first exhibited. We unveiled the heterogeneity of immune cells and discovered new cell subtypes including T cell receptor positive (TCR+) macrophages, proliferating macrophages and natural killer dendritic cells in peritoneal fluid, which was further verified by double immunofluorescence staining and flow cytometry. Pseudo-time analysis showed that the response of macrophages to the menstrual debris might follow the certain differentiation trajectory after endometrial tissues invaded into the peritoneal cavity, that is, from antigen presentation to pro-inflammation, then to chemotaxis and phagocytosis. Our analyses also mirrored the dysfunctions of immune cells including decreased phagocytosis and cytotoxic activity and elevated pro-inflammatory and chemotactic effects in endometriosis.

Conclusion: TCR+ macrophages, proliferating macrophages and natural killer dendritic cells are firstly reported in human peritoneal fluid. Our results also revealed that immune dysfunction happens in peritoneal fluid of endometriosis, which may be responsible for the residues of invaded menstrual debris. It provided a large-scale and high-dimensional characterization of peritoneal microenvironment and offered a useful resource for future development of immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13578-021-00613-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8157653PMC
May 2021

Prevalence and influencing factors of anxiety and depression symptoms among the first-line medical staff in Wuhan mobile cabin hospital during the COVID-19 epidemic: A cross-sectional survey.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 May;100(21):e25945

The First People's Hospital of Changde City, Changde, Hunan Province.

Abstract: To investigate the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms and the associated risk factors among first-line medical staff in Wuhan during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic.From March 5 to 15, 2020, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale and Hamilton Depression scale were used to investigate the anxiety and depression status of medical staff in Wuhan Cabin Hospital (a Hospital). Two hundred seventy-six questionnaires were received from 96 doctors and 180 nurses, including 79 males and 197 females.During the COVID-19 epidemic, the prevalence rate of anxiety and depression was 27.9% and 18.1%, respectively, among 276 front-line medical staff in Wuhan. The prevalence rate of anxiety and depression among doctors was 19.8% and 11.5%, respectively, and the prevalence rate of anxiety and depression among nurses was 32.2% and 21.7%, respectively. Females recorded higher total scores for anxiety and depression than males, and nurses recorded higher scores for anxiety and depression than doctors.During the COVID-19 epidemic, some first-line medical staff experienced mental health problems such as depression and anxiety. Nurses were more prone to anxiety and depression than doctors. Effective strategies toward to improving the mental health should be provided to first-line medical staff, especially female medical staff and nurses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000025945DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8154487PMC
May 2021

Temporal and spatial characterization of negative regulatory T cells in HIV-infected/AIDS patients raises new diagnostic markers and therapeutic strategies.

J Clin Lab Anal 2021 May 24:e23831. Epub 2021 May 24.

Central Lab, The Fifth People's Hospital of Suzhou, Suzhou, China.

Background: Negative regulatory T cells (Tregs) not only deplete effector T cells but also inhibit the clearance of HIV during infection, which may allow Tregs to be used as informative diagnostic markers. To facilitate both diagnosis and treatment, a thorough understanding of these regulators by characterizing them on temporal and spatial scales is strongly required.

Methods: Hundred HIV-infected/AIDS patients, including 87 males, with an average age of 35.8 years, as well as 20 healthy controls, were enrolled. Flow cytometry was used to analyze CD3+T cells, CD4+T cells, and CD8+T cells to evaluate the immune status of the participants. Then, a group of representative negative regulatory T cells, including CD4+PD-1+T cells, CD4+PD-1 T cells, CD8+PD-1+T cells, and CD4+CD25 Tregs was also analyzed to explore their effects on disease progression and intercorrelation.

Results: The percentages of CD4 PD-1 T cells and CD4 CD25 Tregs increased in patients with the same ultrahigh significance. Temporally, the patients with both intermediate-stage and late-stage disease had higher percentages of CD4 PD-1 T cells; however, the percentage of CD4 CD25 Tregs only increased in the patients with late-stage disease. In addition, CD4 PD-1 T cells but not CD4 CD25 Tregs were negatively correlated with the absolute CD4 T cell count. Spatially, no correlations between CD4 PD-1 T cells and CD4 CD25 Tregs were observed, which suggests these Tregs function differently during immunosuppression.

Conclusions: This study characterized negative regulatory T cells in HIV-infected/AIDS patients at both temporal and spatial scales and found that CD4 CD25 Tregs and CD4 PD-1 T cells could be used as potential diagnostic markers for identifying different disease stages and monitoring disease progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcla.23831DOI Listing
May 2021

Proteogenomics Study of TMCC 70007-A Dominant Yeast in the Fermentation Process of Pu-erh Tea.

J Proteome Res 2021 06 19;20(6):3290-3304. Epub 2021 May 19.

Key Laboratory of Microbial Diversity in Southwest China, Ministry of Education, and Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Bio-resources, Yunnan Institute of Microbiology, School of Life Sciences, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091, China.

plays an essential role in pile-fermenting of Pu-erh tea. Its ability to assimilate various carbon and nitrogen sources makes it available for application in a wide range of industry sectors. The genome of TMCC 70007 isolated from pile-fermented Pu-erh tea was sequenced and assembled. Proteomics analysis indicated that 4900 proteins in TMCC 70007 were expressed under various culture conditions. Proteogenomics mapping revealed 48 previously unknown genes and corrected 118 gene models predicted by GeneMark-ES. Ortho-proteogenomics analysis identified 17 previously unidentified genes in LS3, the first strain with a sequenced genome among the genus as well. More importantly, five species specific genes were identified from TMCC 70007, which could serve as a barcode for strain typing and were applicable for fermentation process protection of this industrial species. The datasets generated from tea aqueous extract culture not only increased the proteome coverage and accuracy but also contributed to the identification of proteins related to polyphenols and caffeine, which were considered to change greatly during the microbial fermentation of Pu-erh tea. This study provides a proteome perspective on TMCC 70007, which was considered to be an important strain in the production of Pu-erh tea. The systematic proteogenomics analysis not only made a better annotation on the genome of TMCC 70007 as previous proteogenomics study but also provided solution for fermentation process protection on valuable industrial species with species specific genes uniquely identified from proteogenomics study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jproteome.1c00205DOI Listing
June 2021

Intermittent Hypoxic Preconditioning: A Potential New Powerful Strategy for COVID-19 Rehabilitation.

Front Pharmacol 2021 30;12:643619. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

College of Rehabilitation Science, Shanghai University of Medicine and Health Sciences, Shanghai, China.

COVID-19 is a highly infectious respiratory virus, which can proliferate by invading the ACE2 receptor of host cells. Clinical studies have found that the virus can cause dyspnea, pneumonia and other cardiopulmonary system damage. In severe cases, it can lead to respiratory failure and even death. Although there are currently no effective drugs or vaccines for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19, the patient's prognosis recovery can be effectively improved by ameliorating the dysfunction of the respiratory system, cardiovascular systems, and immune function. Intermittent hypoxic preconditioning (IHP) as a new non-drug treatment has been applied in the clinical and rehabilitative practice for treating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), diabetes, coronary heart disease, heart failure, hypertension, and other diseases. Many clinical studies have confirmed that IHP can improve the cardiopulmonary function of patients and increase the cardiorespiratory fitness and the tolerance of tissues and organs to ischemia. This article introduces the physiological and biochemical functions of IHP and proposes the potential application plan of IHP for the rehabilitation of patients with COVID-19, so as to provide a better prognosis for patients and speed up the recovery of the disease. The aim of this narrative review is to propose possible causes and pathophysiology of COVID-19 based on the mechanisms of the oxidative stress, inflammation, and immune response, and to provide a new, safe and efficacious strategy for the better rehabilitation from COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.643619DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8120309PMC
April 2021

Frequency and phenotypic characteristics of RPE65 mutations in the Chinese population.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2021 Apr 13;16(1):174. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Eye Institute, Eye and ENT Hospital, College of Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032, China.

Background: The retinoid isomerohydrolase RPE65 has received considerable attention worldwide since a successful clinical gene therapy was approved in 2017 as the first treatment for vision loss associated with RPE65-mediated inherited retinal disease. Identifying patients with RPE65 mutations is a prerequisite to assessing the patients' eligibility to receive RPE65-targeted gene therapies, and it is necessary to identify individuals who are most likely to benefit from gene therapies. This study aimed to investigate the RPE65 mutations frequency in the Chinese population and to determine the genetic and clinical characteristics of these patients.

Results: Only 20 patients with RPE65 mutations were identified, and RPE65 mutations were determined to be the 14th most common among all patients with genetic diagnoses. Ten novel variants and two hotspots associated with FAP were identified. A literature review revealed that a total of 57 patients of Chinese origin were identified with pathogenic mutations in the RPE65 gene. The mean best Snellen corrected visual acuity was worse (mean 1.3 ± 1.3 LogMAR) in patients older than 20 years old than in those younger than 15 years old (0.68 ± 0.92 LogMAR). Bone spicule-like pigment deposits (BSLPs) were observed in six patients; they were older than those without BSLP and those with white-yellow dots. Genotype-phenotype analysis revealed that truncating variants seem to lead to a more severe clinical presentation, while best corrected visual acuity testing and fundus changes did not correlate with specific RPE65 variants or mutation types.

Conclusions: This study provides a detailed clinical-genetic assessment of patients with RPE65 mutations of Chinese origin. These results may help to elucidate RPE65 mutations in the Chinese population and may facilitate genetic counseling and the implementation of gene therapy in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-021-01807-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8097799PMC
April 2021

iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis of silkworm infected with Beauveria bassiana.

Mol Immunol 2021 Jul 28;135:204-216. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

School of Biotechnology, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang, 212018, China; Sericultural Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhenjiang, 212018, China. Electronic address:

Beauveria bassiana is a harmful pathogen to the economically important insect silkworm, always causes serious disease to the silkworm, which results in great losses to the sericulture industry. In order to explore the silkworm (Bombyx mori) response to B. bassiana infection, differential proteomes of the silkworm responsive to B. bassiana infection were identified with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) at the different stage of the 3rd instar silkworm larvae. Among the 5040 proteins identified with confidence level of ≥95 %, total 937 proteins were differentially expressed, of which 488 proteins were up-regulated and 449 proteins were down-regulated. 23, 15, 250, 649 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were reliably quantified by iTRAQ analysis in the B. bassiana infected larvae at 18, 24, 36, 48 h post infection (hpi) respectively. Based on GO annotations, 6, 4, 128, 316 DEPs were involved in biological processes, 12, 5, 143, 376 DEPs were involved in molecular functions, and 6, 3, 108, 256 DEPs were involved in cell components at 18, 24, 36, 48 hpi respectively. KEGG pathway analysis displayed that 18, 12, 210, 548 DEPs separately participated in 63, 35, 201, 264 signal transduction pathways at different time of infection, and moreover a higher proportion of DEPs involved in metabolic pathways. The cluster analysis on the DEPs of different infection stages distinguished a co-regulated DEP, lysozyme precursor, which was up-regulated at both the mRNA level and the protein level, indicating that the lysozyme protein kept playing an important role in defending the silkworm against B. bassiana infection. This was the first report using an iTRAQ approach to analyze proteomes of the whole silkworm against B. bassiana infection, which contributes to better understanding the defense mechanisms of silkworm to B. bassiana infection and provides important experimental data for the identification of key factors involved in the interaction between the pathogenic fungus and its host.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molimm.2021.04.018DOI Listing
July 2021

Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Anisotropy of Unidirectional CFRP Composites.

Authors:
Jun Hong Ping Xu

Materials (Basel) 2021 Apr 11;14(8). Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shinshu University, Ueda 386-8567, Japan.

Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites have excellent mechanical properties and electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding performance. Recently, their EMI shielding performance has also attracted great attention in many industrial fields to resolve electromagnetic pollution. The present paper mainly investigated the EMI shielding anisotropy of CFRP materials using a specified set-up of free-space measurement. The electrical conductivity of unidirectional CFRP composites was identified to vary with the fiber orientation angles, and the formula was proposed to predict the results consistent with the experimental. The obvious EMI shielding anisotropy of unidirectional CFRP composites was clarified by free-space measurement. The theoretical formula can predict the EMI shielding value at different carbon fiber orientation angles, and the predicted results were highly consistent with the experimental results. A comparison of the free-space measurement and the coaxial transmission line method was also conducted, which indicated that special attention should be paid to the influence of the anisotropy of CFRP composites on the shielding results. With those results, the mechanism of EMI shielding anisotropy of CFRP composites is clarified, which will provide an effective design of EMI shielding products with a designable shielding direction and frequency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14081907DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8070076PMC
April 2021

Association of , a Gene Involved in Strigolactone Signaling, with Yield Contributing Traits in Wheat.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 3;22(7). Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Key Laboratory of Crop Gene Resources and Germplasm Enhancement, Institute of Crop Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China.

Tillering is a crucial agronomic trait of wheat; it determines yield and plant architecture. Strigolactones (SLs) have been reported to inhibit plant branching. D14, a receptor of SLs, has been described to affect tillering in rice, yet it has seldomly been studied in wheat. In this study, three homoeologous genes, , , and , were identified. , , and were constitutively expressed, and had a higher expression level in most tissues. TaD14 proteins were localized in both cytoplasm and nucleus. An SNP and a 22 bp insertion/deletion (Indel) at the exon regions of were detected, forming three haplotypes, namely , , and . Due to the frameshift mutation in the coding region of , the interaction of 4D-HapII with TaMAX2 and TaD53 was blocked, which led to the blocking of SL signal transduction. Based on the two variation sites, two molecular markers, namely and , were developed. Association analysis suggested that haplotypes of were associated with effective tillering number (ETN) and thousand kernel weight (TKW) simultaneously in four environments. The favorable haplotype underwent positive selection in global wheat breeding. This study provides insights into understanding the function of natural variations of and develops two useful molecular markers for wheat breeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22073748DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8038469PMC
April 2021

A dye combination for the staining of pollen coat and pollen wall.

Plant Reprod 2021 Jun 26;34(2):91-101. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Plant Molecular Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai, 200234, China.

The pollen coat, which forms on the pollen surface, consists of a lipid-protein matrix. It protects pollen from desiccation and is involved in adhesion, pollen-stigma recognition, and pollen hydration during interactions with the stigma. The classical methods used for pollen coat observation are scanning and transmission electron microscopy. In this work, we screened a collection of fluorescence dyes and identified two fluorescent brighteners FB-52 and FB-184. When they were used together with the exine-specific dye, Basic fuchsin, the pollen coat and the exine structures could be clearly visualized in the pollen of Brassica napus. This co-staining method was applied successfully in staining pollen from Fraxinus chinensis, Calystegia hederacea, and Petunia hybrida. Using this method, small pollen coat-containing cavities were detected in the outer pollen wall layer of Oryza sativa and Zea mays. We further showed these dyes are compatible with fluorescent protein markers. In the Arabidopsis thaliana transgenic line of GFP-tagged pollen coat protein GRP19, GRP19-GFP was observed to form particles at the periphery of pollen coat. This simple staining method is expected to be widely used for the studies of the palynology as well as the pollen-stigma interaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00497-021-00412-5DOI Listing
June 2021

KCNN4 promotes the progression of lung adenocarcinoma by activating the AKT and ERK signaling pathways.

Cancer Biomark 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Pathology, School of Basic Medical Sciences and Sir Run Run Hospital and Key Laboratory of Antibody Technique of National Health Commission, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

Background: Potassium channels, encoded by more than seventy genes, are cell excitability transmembrane proteins and become evident to play essential roles in tumor biology.

Objective: The deregulation of potassium channel genes has been related to cancer development and patient prognosis. The objective of this study is to understand the role of potassium channels in lung cancer.

Methods: We examined all potassium channel genes and identified that KCNN4 is the most significantly overexpressed one in lung adenocarcinoma. The role and mechanism of KCNN4 in lung adenocarcinoma were further investigated by in vitro cell and molecular assay and in vivo mouse xenograft models.

Results: We revealed that the silencing of KCNN4 significantly inhibits cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and tumorigenicity of lung adenocarcinoma. Further studies showed that knockdown of KCNN4 promotes cell apoptosis, induces cell cycle arrested in the S phase, and is associated with the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) process. Most importantly, we demonstrated that KCNN4 regulates the progression of lung adenocarcinoma through P13K/AKT and MEK/ERK signaling pathways. The use of inhibitors that targeted AKT and ERK also significantly inhibit the proliferation and metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma cells.

Conclusions: This study investigated the function and mechanism of KCNN4 in lung adenocarcinoma. On this basis, this means that KCNN4 can be used as a tumor marker for lung adenocarcinoma and is expected to become an important target for a potential drug.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/CBM-201045DOI Listing
April 2021

Urinary Proteomic Characteristics of Hyperuricemia and Their Possible Links with the Occurrence of Its Concomitant Diseases.

ACS Omega 2021 Apr 29;6(14):9500-9508. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

State Key Laboratory of Proteomics, Beijing Proteome Research Center, National Center for Protein Sciences (Beijing), Beijing Institute of Lifeomics, Beijing 102206, China.

Hyperuricemia (HUA), a chronic disease caused by metabolic disorders of purine, is often accompanied by other diseases such as gout, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and hyperlipidemia. However, little is known about the relationship between HUA and these diseases on the protein level. We performed label-free liquid chromatography MS/MS spectrometry analysis of urine samples from 26 HUA patients and 25 healthy controls, attempting to establish the possible protein links between HUA and these diseases by profiling urine proteome. A total of 2119 proteins were characterized in sample proteomes. Among them, 11 were found decreased and 2 were found increased in HUA samples. Plausible pathways found by enrichment analysis of these differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) include the processes for insulin receptor recycling and lipid metabolism, suggesting potential links between HUA and T2DM and hyperlipidemia. The abundance changes of three key proteins (VATB1, CFAD, and APOC3) involved in these processes were validated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In conclusion, our result provides proteomic evidence, for the first time, that the aberrant pathways enriched by described key DEPs are closely related to the incidence of HUA and its concomitant diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.0c06229DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8047722PMC
April 2021

Facile synthesis of carbon dots from Tagetes erecta as a precursor for determination of chlorpyrifos via fluorescence turn-off and quinalphos via fluorescence turn-on mechanisms.

Chemosphere 2021 Sep 9;279:130515. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Chemistry, Research Institute of Chem-Bio Diagnostic Technology, Chung-Ang University, 84 Heukseok-ro, Dongjak-gu, Seoul, 06974, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Convenient one-pot synthetic route for the fabrication of carbon dots (CDs) from Tagetes erecta flower (TEF), named as "TEF-CDs', through solvo(hydro)-thermal carbonization of the TEF was developed. The TEF-CDs revealed high selectivity towards chlorpyrifos and quinalphos, acting as a fluorescent probe. The CDs synthesized from T. erecta flower showed a strong blue color at 495 nm when excited at 420 nm, along with the exhibition of a strong quantum yield of 63.7%. The synthesized CDs revealed their richness in the surface-active organic group that synthesized CDs from T. erecta flower are mainly comprised of C, O, and N, which were crystalline in structure that was revealed by TEM image and XRD spectra. Furthermore, when the probe was exposed to different pH conditions, no major noticeable changes were recorded. Moreover, when the probe was exposed to chlorpyrifos and quinalphos, we have noticed that fluorescence spectra was turned off when the probe was exposed to chlorpyrifos and "turned on" after the exposure quinalphos. Moreover, fluorescence spectral changes showed a good linearity with chlorpyrifos and quinalphos concentrations in the range of 0.05-100.0 μM for chlorpyrifos and 0.01-50.0 μM for quinalphos. The limit of detection are 2.1 ng mL and 1.7 ng mL for chlorpyrifos and quinalphos, respectively. Finally, the TEF-CDs-based fluorescent nanoprobe was successfully applied to estimate chlorpyrifos and quinalphos with an effective accuracy in rice and fruit samples with rapid detection time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130515DOI Listing
September 2021