Publications by authors named "Ping Geng"

36 Publications

Bioactive Ingredients and Medicinal Values of (Maitake).

Foods 2021 Jan 5;10(1). Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Food Safety and Technology Research Center, Department of Applied Biology & Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong.

(), generally known as hen-of-the-woods or maitake in Japanese and hui-shu-hua in Chinese, is an edible mushroom with both nutritional and medicinal properties. This review provides an up-to-date and comprehensive summary of research findings on its bioactive constituents, potential health benefits and major structural characteristics. Since the discovery of the D-fraction more than three decades ago, many other polysaccharides, including β-glucans and heteroglycans, have been extracted from the fruiting body and fungal mycelium, which have shown significant antitumor and immunomodulatory activities. Another class of bioactive macromolecules in is composed of proteins and glycoproteins, which have shown antitumor, immunomodulation, antioxidant and other activities. A number of small organic molecules such as sterols and phenolic compounds have also been isolated from the fungus and have shown various bioactivities. It can be concluded that the mushroom provides a diverse array of bioactive molecules that are potentially valuable for nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications. More investigation is needed to establish the structure-bioactivity relationship of and to elucidate the mechanisms of action behind its various bioactive and pharmacological effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10010095DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7824844PMC
January 2021

Baicalin Inhibits Influenza A Virus Infection Promotion of M1 Macrophage Polarization.

Front Pharmacol 2020 6;11:01298. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Department of Biological Medicines & Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Immunotherapeutics, Fudan University School of Pharmacy, Shanghai, China.

Background And Aims: The natural compound baicalin (BA) possesses potent antiviral properties against the influenza virus. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of this antiviral activity and whether macrophages are involved remain unclear. In this study, we, therefore, investigated the effect of BA on macrophages.

Methods: We studied macrophage recruitment, functional phenotypes (M1/M2), and the cellular metabolism flow cytometry, qRT-PCR, immunofluorescence, a cell culture transwell system, and GC-MS-based metabolomics both in H1N1 A virus-infected mice and .

Results: BA treatment drastically reduced macrophage recruitment (CD11b, F4/80) by approximately 90% while maintaining the proportion of M1-polarized macrophages in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of infected mice. This BA-stimulated macrophage M1 phenotype shift was further verified in ANA-1 and primary peritoneal macrophages by measuring macrophage M1 polarization signals (CD86, iNOS, TNF-α, ratio, and IL-1β cleavage). Meanwhile, we observed an activation of the IFN pathway (upregulation of and ), an inhibition of influenza virus replication (as measured by the gene), and distinct cellular metabolic responses in BA-treated cells.

Conclusion: BA triggered macrophage M1 polarization, IFN activation, and other cellular reactions, which are beneficial for inhibition of H1N1 A virus infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.01298DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7574031PMC
October 2020

High-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy versus non-invasive ventilation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients after extubation: a multicenter, randomized controlled trial.

Crit Care 2020 08 6;24(1):489. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Emergency Department, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, 100730, China.

Background: High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy is being increasingly used to prevent post-extubation hypoxemic respiratory failure and reintubation. However, evidence to support the use of HFNC in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with hypercapnic respiratory failure after extubation is limited. This study was conducted to test if HFNC is non-inferior to non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in preventing post-extubation treatment failure in COPD patients previously intubated for hypercapnic respiratory failure.

Methods: COPD patients with hypercapnic respiratory failure who were already receiving invasive ventilation were randomized to HFNC or NIV at extubation at two large tertiary academic teaching hospitals. The primary endpoint was treatment failure, defined as either resumption of invasive ventilation or switching to the other study treatment modality (NIV for patients in the NFNC group or vice versa).

Results: Ninety-six patients were randomly assigned to the HFNC group or NIV group. After secondary exclusion, 44 patients in the HFNC group and 42 patients in the NIV group were included in the analysis. The treatment failure rate in the HFNC group was 22.7% and 28.6% in the NIV group-risk difference of - 5.8% (95% CI, - 23.8-12.4%, p = 0.535), which was significantly lower than the non-inferior margin of 9%. Analysis of the causes of treatment failure showed that treatment intolerance in the HFNC group was significantly lower than that in the NIV group, with a risk difference of - 50.0% (95% CI, - 74.6 to - 12.9%, p = 0.015). One hour after extubation, the mean respiratory rates of both groups were faster than their baseline levels before extubation (p < 0.050). Twenty-four hours after extubation, the respiratory rate of the HFNC group had returned to baseline, but the NIV group was still higher than the baseline. Forty-eight hours after extubation, the respiratory rates of both groups were not significantly different from the baseline. The average number of daily airway care interventions in the NIV group was 7 (5-9.3), which was significantly higher than 6 (4-7) times in the HFNC group (p = 0.006). The comfort score and incidence of nasal and facial skin breakdown of the HFNC group was also significantly better than that of the NIV group [7 (6-8) vs 5 (4-7), P < 0.001] and [0 vs 9.6%, p = 0.027], respectively.

Conclusion: Among COPD patients with severe hypercapnic respiratory failure who received invasive ventilation, the use of HFNC after extubation did not result in increased rates of treatment failure compared with NIV. HFNC also had better tolerance and comfort than NIV.

Trial Registration: chictr.org ( ChiCTR1800018530 ). Registered on 22 September 2018, http://www.chictr.org.cn/usercenter.aspx.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13054-020-03214-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7407427PMC
August 2020

Baicalin down-regulating hepatitis B virus transcription depends on the liver-specific HNF4α-HNF1α axis.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2020 09 17;403:115131. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Department of Biological Medicines & Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Immunotherapeutics, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203, PR China. Electronic address:

Baicalin (BA) inhibits hepatitis B virus (HBV) RNAs production and reduces levels of the related hepatocyte nuclear factors (HNFs), although the underlying mechanism is unclear. In this study, we investigated the specific pathway by which BA regulates HBV transcription through the HBV-related HNFs. Following transfection of HepG2 cells with pHBV1.2, we observed that BA inhibited the production of HBV RNAs and viral proteins in a time- and dose-dependent manner. These effects were consistent with the downregulation of HNF1α, which was abolished by HNF1α-shRNA. The shRNA of HNF4α, the upstream gene of HNF1α, also remarkedly reduced HNF1α expression and impaired the anti-HBV efficacy of BA, indicating that this function of BA depended on HNF4α/HNF1α axis. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that BA significantly reduced HNF4α-HNF1α transactivation activity. The similar effects of BA were observed in entecavir (ETV)-resistant HBV transfected HepG2 cells. Thus, we proposed a mechanism for the anti-HBV activity of BA in an HNF4α-HNF1α-dependent manner, which impaired HNF4α and HNF1α transactivation, and effectively inhibited HBV transcription and viral replication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2020.115131DOI Listing
September 2020

[Xuebijing injection attenuates hydrogen sulfide-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction by upregulating claudin-5 expression].

Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 2020 Apr;32(4):443-448

Department of Emergency Medicine, the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, Jiangsu, China. Corresponding author: Zhang Jinsong, Email:

Objective: To study the new mechanism of Xuebijing injection improving the function of pulmonary vascular barrier from the perspective of claudin-5 protein.

Methods: Acute lung injury (ALI) model was induced by hydrogen sulfide (HS) exposure. (1) In vivo study: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into control group, HS exposure group (exposure to 300×10 HS for 3 hours), Xuebijing control group (Xuebijing injection 4 mL/kg , twice a day, for 3 days), and Xuebijing intervention group (HS exposure after pretreatment of Xuebijing injection) according to random number method, with 6 rats in each group. At different time points (0, 6, 12 and 24 hours) after the model was made successfully, the total protein content in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of rats were detected respectively, and the pulmonary permeability index (PPI) was calculated (PPI = protein content in BALF/protein content in plasma), lung dry/wet weight ratio (W/D) was detected, and claudin-5 mRNA expression in lung tissue was measured by real time-polymerase chain reaction. (2) In vitro test: human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMECs) were divided into blank control group, NaHS treatment group (co-incubated with 500 μmol/L NaHS for 12 hours), Xuebijing control group (2 g/L Xuebijing injection for 24 hours), and Xuebijing intervention group (2 g/L Xuebijing injection pre-treated for 24 hours, then co-incubated with 500 μmol/L NaHS for 12 hours). The HPMECs claudin-5 protein expression and monolayer permeability changes were measured at different co-incubation time (1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 hours) by Western Blot and fluoresceinsodium.

Results: (1) In vivo study: compared with the control group, the lung W/D ratio increased significantly at 6 hours and peaked at 12 hours after HS exposure in rats (4.67±0.11 vs. 4.26±0.06, P < 0.01). The expression of claudin-5 mRNA in lung tissue was significantly decreased, which was 89% of control group 6 hours after exposure (P < 0.01). The total protein content in BALF and PPI at 12 hours after exposure were significantly higher than those in the control group [total protein content (mg/L): 262.31±14.24 vs. 33.30±3.09, PPI: (11.72±0.57)×10 vs. (1.21±0.08)×10, both P < 0.01], while the results in Xuebijing intervention group were significantly decreased [total protein content (mg/L): 153.25±7.32 vs. 262.31±14.24, PPI: (5.79±0.23)×10 vs. (11.72±0.57)×10, both P < 0.01]. (2) In vitro test: compared with the blank control group, after incubating HPMECs with NaHS, the permeability of monolayer endothelial cells gradually increased, reaching the highest level in 12 hours, about twice of that in the blank control group, while claudin-5 protein expression decreased to the lowest level at 12 hours (claudin-5/β-actin: 0.42±0.03 vs. 1.03±0.05, P < 0.01). After intervention with Xuebijing, the permeability of endothelial cells was significantly improved (fluorescence intensity of fluorescein sodium: 1.46±0.10 vs. 1.89±0.11, P < 0.01), and the decrease of claudin-5 protein was reduced (claudin-5/β-actin: 0.68±0.04 vs. 0.38±0.03, P < 0.01).

Conclusions: Xuebijing injection may improve pulmonary vascular barrier function in ALI by upregulating claudin-5 expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn121430-20200319-00220DOI Listing
April 2020

Characterization of Maca (Lepidium meyenii/Lepidium peruvianum) Using a Mass Spectral Fingerprinting, Metabolomic Analysis, and Genetic Sequencing Approach.

Planta Med 2020 Jul 20;86(10):674-685. Epub 2020 May 20.

Methods and Application of Food Composition Lab, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agriculture Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD, USA.

Maca (, synonym ) was analyzed using a systematic approach employing principal component analysis of flow injection mass spectrometry fingerprints (no chromatographic separation) to guide the selection of samples for metabolite profiling and DNA next generation sequencing. Samples consisted of 39 commercial maca supplements from 11 manufacturers, 31 unprocessed maca tubers grown in Peru and China, and a historic non-tuber maca sample from Peru. Principal component analysis of flow injection mass spectrometry fingerprints initially placed all the maca samples in three classes with similar chemical composition: commercial maca samples, tubers grown in Peru, and tubers grown in China. Metabolite profiling identified 67 compounds in the negative mode and 51 compounds in the positive mode. Compounds identified by metabolite profiling (macamides, glucosinolates, amino acids, fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, saccharides, imidazoles) were then used to identify ions in the flow injection mass spectrometry fingerprints. The tuber fingerprints were analyzed by factorial multivariate analysis of variance revealing that black, red, and yellow maca from Peru and black and yellow maca from China were compositionally different with respect to color and country. Critical ions were identified that allowed for the differentiation of maca between colors from the same country or between two countries with the same color. Genetically, all samples were confirmed to be based on next generation sequencing at three gene regions (ITS2, , and ) and comparison to recorded sequences of vouchered standards.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1161-0372DOI Listing
July 2020

Involvement of claudin-5 in HS-induced acute lung injury.

J Toxicol Sci 2020 ;45(5):293-304

Department of Emergency Medicine, Northern Jiangsu People's Hospital, Yangzhou University College of Clinical Medicine, China.

Acute exposure to hydrogen sulfide (HS) can cause fatal acute lung injury (ALI). However, the mechanisms of HS-induced ALI are still not fully understood. This study aims to investigate the role of the tight junction protein claudin-5 in HS-induced ALI. In our study, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were exposed to HS to establish the ALI model, and in parallel, human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMECs) were incubated with NaHS (a HS donor) to establish a cell model. Lung immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy assays were used to identify HS-induced ALI, and the expression of claudin-5, p-AKT/t-AKT and p-FoxO1/t-FoxO1 was detected. Our results show that HS promoted the formation of ALI by morphological investigation and decreased claudin-5 expression. Dexamethasone (Dex) could partly attenuate NaHS-mediated claudin-5 downregulation, and the protective effects of Dex could be partially blocked by LY294002, a PI3K/AKT/FoxO1 pathway antagonist. Moreover, as a consequence of the altered phosphorylation of AKT and FoxO1, a change in claudin-5 with the same trend was observed. Therefore, the tight junction protein claudin-5 might be considered a therapeutic target for the treatment of ALI induced by HS and other hazardous gases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2131/jts.45.293DOI Listing
September 2020

Aceso: PICO-guided Evidence Summarization on Medical Literature.

IEEE J Biomed Health Inform 2020 Apr 3;PP. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) aims to apply the best available evidence gained from scientific methods to clinical decision making. A generally accepted criterion to formulate evidence is to use the PICO framework, where PICO stands for Problem/Population, Intervention, Comparison, and Outcome. Automatic extraction of PICO-related sentences from medical literature is crucial to the success of many EBM applications. In this work, we present our Aceso system, which automatically generates PICO-based evidence summaries from medical literature. In Aceso , we adopt an active learning paradigm, which helps to minimize the cost of manual labeling and to optimize the quality of summarization with limited labeled data. An UMLS2Vec model is proposed to learn a vector representation of medical concepts in UMLS , and we fuse the embedding of medical knowledge with textual features in summarization. The evaluation shows that our approach is better on identifying PICO sentences against state-of-the-art studies and outperforms baseline methods on producing high-quality evidence summaries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JBHI.2020.2984704DOI Listing
April 2020

Noninvasive In Situ Ratiometric Imaging of Biometals Based on Self-Assembled Peptide Nanoribbon.

Anal Chem 2020 04 2;92(8):5838-5845. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Molecular Therapeutics and New Drug Development, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China.

Development of probes for accurate sensing and imaging of biometals in situ is still a growing interest owing to their crucial roles in cellular metabolism, neurotransmission, and apoptosis. Among them, Zn and Cu are two important cooperative biometals closely related to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Herein, we developed a multifunctional probe based on self-assembling peptide nanoribbon for ratiometric sensing of Zn, Cu, or Zn and Cu simultaneously. Uniform peptide nanoribbon (AQZ@NR) was rationally designed by coassembling a Zn-specific ligand AQZ-modified peptide (AQZKL-7) with peptide KL-7. The nanoribbon further combined with Cu-sensitive near-infrared quantum dots (NIR QDs) and Alexa Fluor 633 as an inner reference molecule, which was endowed with the capability for ratiometric Zn and Cu imaging at the same time. The peptide-based probe exhibited good specificity to Zn and Cu without interference from other ions. Importantly, the nanoprobe was successfully applied for noninvasive Zn and Cu monitoring in both living cells and zebrafish via multicolor fluorescence imaging. This gives insights into the dynamic Zn and Cu distribution in an intracellular and in vivo mode, as well as understanding the neurotoxicity of high concentration of Zn and Cu. Therefore, the self-assembled nanoprobe shows great promise in multiplexed detection of many other biometals and biomolecules, which will benefit the diagnosis and treatment of AD in clinical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.9b05490DOI Listing
April 2020

Authentication of black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) dietary supplements based on chemometric evaluation of hydroxycinnamic acid esters and hydroxycinnamic acid amides.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2019 Nov 6;411(27):7147-7156. Epub 2019 Sep 6.

Methods and Application of Food Composition Laboratory, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD, 20705, USA.

Ester and amide derivatives of hydroxycinnamic acids are found in black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) and other Actaea plants. These two compound groups were evaluated for authentication of black cohosh dietary supplements. The hydroxycinnamic acid esters (HCAE) were profiled by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection (UPLC-PDA). The hydroxycinnamic acid amides (HCAA) were acquired simultaneously by mass spectrometry-multiple reaction monitoring (UPLC-MRM) mode. In contrast with the traditional HCAE method using 8 compounds, profiles of HCAA using only 4 feruloyl dopamine-O-hexosides was more convenient for peak by peak comparison. Partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was applied to both HCAE and HCAA datasets. Authenticated plant samples of five Actaea species were randomly divided into training and test sets to build and validate the two PLS-DA models. Both models provided reasonable estimates for the classification of A. racemosa and other Actaea plant samples. However, HCAA model performs better in sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. Assessment of supplement samples provided quite different results for the solid and liquid dietary supplement samples, indicating the dosage form could affect the composition of marker compounds. Graphical abstract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-019-02082-9DOI Listing
November 2019

Glycopeptide Nanofiber Platform for Aβ-Sialic Acid Interaction Analysis and Highly Sensitive Detection of Aβ.

Anal Chem 2019 07 17;91(13):8129-8136. Epub 2019 Jun 17.

School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering , East China Normal University , Shanghai 200241 , China.

The variation of amyloid β peptide (Aβ) concentration and Aβ aggregation are closely associated with the etiology of Alzheimer's diseases (AD). The interaction of Aβ with the monosialoganglioside-rich neuronal cell membrane has been suggested to influence Aβ aggregation. Therefore, studies on the mechanism of Aβ and sialic acids (SA) interaction would greatly contribute to better understanding the pathogenesis of AD. Herein, we report a novel approach for Aβ-SA interaction analysis and highly sensitive Aβ detection by mimicing the cell surface presentation of SA clusters through engineering of SA-modified peptide nanofiber (SANF). The SANF displayed well-ordered 1D nanostructure with high density of SA on surface. Using FAM-labeled Aβ fragments of Aβ, Aβ, and Aβ, the interaction between Aβ and SA was evaluated by the fluorescence titration experiments. It was found that the order of the SA-binding affinity was Aβ > Aβ > Aβ. Importantly, the presence of full-length Aβ monomer triggered a significant fluorescence enhancement due to the multivalent binding of Aβ to the nanofiber. This fluorescent turn-on response showed high selectivity and sensitivity for Aβ detection and the method was further used for Aβ aggregation process monitoring and inhibitor screening. The results suggest the proposed strategy is promising to serve as a tool for mechanism study and the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.9b00377DOI Listing
July 2019

High flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy versus non-invasive ventilation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with acute-moderate hypercapnic respiratory failure: an observational cohort study.

Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2019 5;14:1229-1237. Epub 2019 Jun 5.

Department of Emergency, The First Affiliated Hospital, and College of Clinical Medicine of Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang, People's Republic of China.

Background: High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy in acute hypoxic respiratory failure is becoming increasingly popular. However, evidence to support the use of HFNC in acute respiratory failure (ARF) with hypercapnia is limited.

Methods: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with moderate hypercapnic ARF (arterial blood gas pH 7.25-7.35, PaCO>50 mmHg) who received HFNC or non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in the intensive care uint from April 2016 to March 2018 were analyzed retrospectively. The endpoint was treatment failure, defined as either invasive ventilation, or a switch to the other study treatment (NIV for patients in the NFNC group, and vice-versa), and 28-day mortality.

Results: Eighty-two COPD patients (39 in the HFNC group and 43 in the NIV group) were enrolled in this study. The mean age was 71.8±8.2 and 54 patients (65.9%) were male. The treatment failed in 11 out of 39 patients with HFNC (28.2%) and in 17 of 43 patients with NIV (39.5%) (=0.268). No significant differences were found for 28-day mortality (15.4% in the HFNC group and 14% in the NIV group, =0.824). During the first 24 hrs of treatment, the number of nursing airway care interventions in the HFNC group was significantly less than in the NIV group, while the duration of device application was significantly longer in the HFNC group (all <0.05). Skin breakdown was significantly more common in the NIV group (20.9% vs 5.1%, <0.05).

Conclusion: Among COPD patients with moderate hypercarbic ARF, the use of HFNC compared with NIV did not result in increased rates of treatment failure, while there were fewer nursing interventions and skin breakdown episodes reported in the HFNC group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S206567DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6556470PMC
January 2020

[Benefits and risks of stress ulcer prevention with proton pump inhibitors for critical patients: an observational cohort study with 1 972 patients].

Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 2019 May;31(5):539-544

Department of Emergency, Northern Jiangsu People's Hospital, Clinical Medical College, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225001, Jiangsu, China. Corresponding author: Tan Dingyu, Email:

Objective: To investigate the benefits and risks of stress ulcer prevention (SUP) using proton pump inhibitors (PPI) for critical patients.

Methods: The clinical data of adult critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of Northern Jiangsu People's Hospital from January 2016 to December 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. All patients who were treated with PPI for SUP within the first 48 hours after ICU admission were enrolled in the SUP group. Those who not received PPI were enrolled in the control group. A one-to-one propensity score matching (PSM) was performed to control for potential biases. The gender, age, underlying diseases, main diagnosis of ICU, drug use before ICU admission, sequential organ failure score (SOFA) at ICU admission, risk factors of stress ulcer (SU) and PPI usage were recorded. The end point was the incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding, hospital acquired pneumonia, Clostridium difficile infection and 30-day mortality. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were plotted, and survival analysis was performed using the log-rank test.

Results: 1 972 critical patients (788 in the SUP group and 1 184 in the control group) were enrolled, and each group enrolled 358 patients after PSM. Prior to PSM, compared with the control group, the SUP group had older patients, more underlying diseases, higher proportion of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), acute cerebrovascular disease, acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) and poisoning in main diagnosis of ICU, more serious illness, and more risk factors of SU, indicating that ICU physicians were more likely to prescribe SUP for these patients. The incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding in the SUP group was significantly lower than that in the control group [1.8% (14/788) vs. 3.7% (44/1 184), P < 0.05], while the incidence of hospital acquired pneumonia and 30-day mortality were significantly higher than those in the control group [6.6% (52/788) vs. 3.5% (42/1 184), 17.9% (141/788) vs. 13.1% (155/1 184), both P < 0.01]. There was no significant difference in the incidence of Clostridium difficile infection between the SUP group and the control group [2.9% (23/788) vs. 1.8% (21/1 184), P > 0.05]. After the propensity scores for age, underlying diseases, severity of illness and SU risk factors were matched, there was no significant difference in the incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding or 30-day mortality between the SUP group and the control group [2.2% (8/358) vs. 3.4% (12/358), 15.9% (57/358) vs. 13.7% (49/358), both P > 0.05], but the incidence of hospital acquired pneumonia in the SUP group was still significantly higher than that in the control group [6.7% (24/358) vs. 3.1% (11/358), P < 0.05]. Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis showed that the 30-day cumulative survival rate of the SUP group was significantly lower than that of the control group before the PSM (log-rank test: χ = 9.224, P = 0.002). There was no significant difference in the 30-day cumulative survival rate between the two groups after PSM (log-rank test: χ = 0.773, P = 0.379).

Conclusions: For critical patients, the use of PPI for SUP could not significantly reduce the incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding and mortality, but increase the risk of hospital acquired pneumonia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.2095-4352.2019.05.004DOI Listing
May 2019

Duration of cardiac arrest requires different ventilation volumes during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a pig model.

J Clin Monit Comput 2020 Jun 10;34(3):525-533. Epub 2019 Jun 10.

Department of Emergency, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, 100730, China.

There are few studies examining the ventilation strategies recommended by current CPR guidelines. We investigated the influence of different minute volume applying to untreated cardiac arrest with different duration, on resuscitation effects in a pig model. 32 Landrace pigs with 4 or 8 min (16 pigs each) ventricular fibrillation (VF) randomly received two ventilation strategies during CPR. "Guideline" groups received mechanical ventilation with a tidal volume of 7 ml/kg and a frequency of 10/min, while "Baseline" groups received a tidal volume (10 ml/kg) and a frequency used at baseline to maintain an end-tidal PCO (PCO) between 35 and 40 mmHg before VF. Mean airway pressures and intrathoracic pressures (P) in the Baseline-4 min group were significantly higher than those in the Guideline-4 min group (all P < 0.05). Similar results were observed in the 8 min pigs, except for no significant difference in minimal P and PCO during 10 min of CPR. Venous pH and venous oxygen saturation were significantly higher in the Baseline-8 min group compared to the Guideline-8 min group (all P < 0.05). Aortic pressure in the Baseline-8 min group was higher than in the Guideline-8 min group. Seven pigs in each subgroup of 4 min VF models achieved the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Higher ROSC was observed in the Baseline-8 min group than in the Guideline-8 min group (87.5% vs. 37.5%, P = 0.039). For 4 min VF but not 8 min VF, a guideline-recommended ventilation strategy had satisfactory results during CPR. A higher minute ventilation resulted in better outcomes for subjects with 8 min of untreated VF through thoracic pump.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10877-019-00336-6DOI Listing
June 2020

Full recovery after prolonged resuscitation from cardiac arrest due to propafenone intoxication: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Apr;97(15):e0285

Department of Emergency Medicine, Northern Jiangsu People's Hospital, Yangzhou China Division of Emergency Medicine, Department of Surgery, Saint Louis University Hospital, Saint Louis, Missouri, USA.

Rationale: The prognosis of cardiac arrest (CA) induced by propafenone intoxication was thought to be very poor. The maximal duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for propafenone induced CA is unknown.

Patient Concerns: We describe a case that was successfully resuscitated after prolonged CPR (totaling 340 minutes during one hospital visit) for propafenone intoxication without subsequent neurological sequela.

Diagnoses: A previously healthy 36-year-old female who developed multiple and prolonged CAs after consuming 98 tablets of 50mg propafenone. The CPR duration of this case, to the best of our knowledge, is the longest of all existing propafenone-induced CPR events to still have full recovery. We also analyse the contributing factors to this successful CPR.

Interventions: Sodium bicarbonate, inotropic drugs and pacemaker application did not prevent the occurrence of CA. A full recovery was eventually achieved after prolonged CPR with a mechanical CPR device, blood purification and other aggressive supportive treatments.

Outcomes: Full recovery without neurological sequela.

Lessons: Prolonged CPR including the application of mechanical CPR devices should be considered in propafenone-related CA, especially in young patients without significant comorbidities and delayed resuscitation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000010285DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5908564PMC
April 2018

Synergistic combination of biomass torrefaction and co-gasification: Reactivity studies.

Bioresour Technol 2017 Dec 1;245(Pt A):225-233. Epub 2017 Sep 1.

Key Laboratory of Ocean Energy Utilization and Energy Conservation of Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, No. 2 Linggong Road, Ganjingzi District, Dalian City 116024, China.

Two typical biomass feedstocks obtained from woody wastes and agricultural residues were torrefied or mildly pyrolized in a fixed-bed reactor. Effects of the torrefaction conditions on product distributions, compositional and energetic properties of the solid products, char gasification reactivity, and co-gasification behavior between coal and torrefied solids were systematically investigated. Torrefaction pretreatment produced high quality bio-solids with not only increased energy density, but also concentrated alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM). As a consequence of greater retention of catalytic elements in the solid products, the chars derived from torrefied biomass exhibited a faster conversion than those derived from raw biomass during CO gasification. Furthermore, co-gasification of coal/torrefied biomass blends exhibited stronger synergy compared to the coal/raw biomass blends. The results and insights provided by this study filled a gap in understanding synergy during co-gasification of coal and torrefied biomass.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2017.08.197DOI Listing
December 2017

Antifatigue Functions and Mechanisms of Edible and Medicinal Mushrooms.

Biomed Res Int 2017 14;2017:9648496. Epub 2017 Aug 14.

Department of Applied Biology & Chemical Technology, State Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine and Molecular Pharmacology in Shenzhen, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong.

Fatigue is the symptom of tiredness caused by physical and/or psychological stresses. As fatigue is becoming a serious problem in the modern society affecting human health, work efficiency, and quality of life, effective antifatigue remedies other than pharmacological drugs or therapies are highly needed. Mushrooms have been widely used as health foods, because of their various bioactive constituents such as polysaccharides, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber. This paper reviews the major findings from previous studies on the antifatigue effects, the active components of mushrooms, and the possible mechanisms. Many studies have demonstrated the antifatigue effects of edible and medicinal mushrooms. These mushrooms probably mitigate human fatigue through effects on the functional systems, including the muscular, cardiovascular, hormone, and immune system. The bioactive constituents that contribute to the antifatigue effects of mushrooms may include polysaccharides, peptides, nucleosides, phenolic compounds, and triterpenoids. Further research is still needed to identify the active ingredients and to investigate their mechanism of action on the antifatigue effects. Since most previous studies have been carried out in animal models, more human trials should be performed to verify the antifatigue function of edible and medicinal mushrooms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2017/9648496DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5584359PMC
July 2018

Isolation of four phenolic compounds from Mangifera indica L. flowers by using normal phase combined with elution extrusion two-step high speed countercurrent chromatography.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2017 Mar 15;1046:211-217. Epub 2017 Jan 15.

State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, 15 3rd North East Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100029, China. Electronic address:

Two-step high speed countercurrent chromatography method, following normal phase and elution-extrusion mode of operation by using selected solvent systems, was introduced for phenolic compounds separation. Phenolic compounds including gallic acid, ethyl gallate, ethyl digallate and ellagic acid were separated from the ethanol extract of mango (Mangifera indica L.) flowers for the first time. In the first step, gallic acid of 3.7mg and ethyl gallate of 3.9mg with the purities of 98.87% and 99.55%, respectively, were isolated by using hexane-ethylacetate-methanol-water (4:6:4:6, v/v) in normal phase high speed countercurrent chromatography from 200mg of crude extract, while ethyl digallate and ellagic acid were collected in the form of mixture fraction. In the second step, further purification of the mixture was carried out with the help of another selected solvent system of dichloromethane-methanol-water (4:3:2, v/v) following elusion-extrusion mode of operation. Ethyl digallate of 3.8mg and ellagic acid of 5.7mg were separated well with high purities of 98.68% and 99.71%, respectively. The separated phenolic compounds were identified and confirmed by HPLC, UPLC-QTOF/ESI-MS, H and C NMR spectrometric analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchromb.2017.01.018DOI Listing
March 2017

Feruloyl dopamine-O-hexosides are efficient marker compounds as orthogonal validation for authentication of black cohosh (Actaea racemosa)-an UHPLC-HRAM-MS chemometrics study.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2017 Apr 3;409(10):2591-2600. Epub 2017 Feb 3.

Food Composition and Methods Development Laboratory, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD, 20705, USA.

Due to the complexity and variation of the chemical constituents in authentic black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) and its potential adulterant species, an accurate and feasible method for black cohosh authentication is not easy. A high-resolution accurate mass (HRAM) LC-MS fingerprinting method combined with chemometric approach was employed to discover new marker compounds. Seven hydroxycinnamic acid amide (HCAA) glycosides are proposed as potential marker compounds for differentiation of black cohosh from related species, including two Asian species (A. foetida, A. dahurica) and two American species (A. pachypoda, A. podocarpa). These markers were putatively identified by comparing their mass spectral fragmentation behavior with those of their authentic aglycone compounds and phytochemistry reports. Two isomers of feruloyl methyldopamine 4-O-hexoside ([M + H] 506) and one feruloyl tyramine 4-O-hexoside ([M + H] 476) contributed significantly to the separation of Asian species in principle component analysis (PCA) score plot. The efficacy of the models built on four reasonable combinations of these markers in differentiating black cohosh and its adulterants were evaluated and validated by partial least-square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Two models based on these reduced dataset achieved 100% accuracy based on the current sample collection, including the model that used only three feruloyl dopamine-O-hexoside isomers ([M + H] 492) and one feruloyl dopamine-O-dihexoside ([M + H-hexosyl] at m/z 492). Graphical abstract Hydroxycinnamic acid amide glycosides are proposed as potential marker compounds for authentication of black cohosh.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-017-0205-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5360482PMC
April 2017

Separation of phenolic acids from sugarcane rind by online solid-phase extraction with high-speed counter-current chromatography.

J Sep Sci 2017 Feb 3;40(4):991-998. Epub 2017 Jan 3.

State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University Of Chemical Technology, Beijing, P. R. China.

Sugarcane rind contains some functional phenolic acids. The separation of these compounds from sugarcane rind is able to realize the integrated utilization of the crop and reduce environment pollution. In this paper, a novel protocol based on interfacing online solid-phase extraction with high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was established, aiming at improving and simplifying the process of phenolic acids separation from sugarcane rind. The conditions of online solid-phase extraction with HSCCC involving solvent system, flow rate of mobile phase as well as saturated extent of absorption of solid-phase extraction were optimized to improve extraction efficiency and reduce separation time. The separation of phenolic acids was performed with a two-phase solvent system composed of butanol/acetic acid/water at a volume ratio of 4:1:5, and the developed online solid-phase extraction with HSCCC method was validated and successfully applied for sugarcane rind, and three phenolic acids including 6.73 mg of gallic acid, 10.85 mg of p-coumaric acid, and 2.78 mg of ferulic acid with purities of 60.2, 95.4, and 84%, respectively, were obtained from 150 mg sugarcane rind crude extracts. In addition, the three different elution methods of phenolic acids purification including HSCCC, elution-extrusion counter-current chromatography and back-extrusion counter-current chromatography were compared.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jssc.201600887DOI Listing
February 2017

Comprehensive characterization of C-glycosyl flavones in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germ using UPLC-PDA-ESI/HRMS and mass defect filtering.

J Mass Spectrom 2016 Oct;51(10):914-930

Food Composition and Methods Development Laboratory, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD, 20705, USA.

A comprehensive characterization of C-glycosyl flavones in wheat germ has been conducted using multi-stage high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS ) in combination with a mass defect filtering (MDF) technique. MDF performed the initial search of raw data with defined C-glycosyl flavone mass windows and mass defect windows to generate the noise-reduced data focusing on targeted flavonoids. The high specificity of the exact mass measurement permits the unambiguous discrimination of acyl groups (nominal masses of 146, 162 and 176.) from sugar moieties (rhamnose, glucose or galactose and glucuronic acid). A total of 72 flavone C-glycosyl derivatives, including 2 mono-C-glycosides, 34 di-C-glycosides, 15 tri-glycosides, 14 acyl di-C-glycosides and 7 acyl tri-glycosides, were characterized in wheat germ, some of which were considered to be important marker compounds for differentiation of whole grain and refined wheat products. The 7 acylated mono-O-glycosyl-di-C-glycosyl flavones and some acylated di-C-glycosyl flavones are reported in wheat for the first time. The frequent occurrence of numerous isomers is a remarkable feature of wheat germ flavones. Both UV and mass spectra are needed to maximize the structure information obtained for data interpretation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5067219PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jms.3803DOI Listing
October 2016

Self-assembly graphitic carbon nitride quantum dots anchored on TiO2 nanotube arrays: An efficient heterojunction for pollutants degradation under solar light.

J Hazard Mater 2016 10 3;316:159-68. Epub 2016 May 3.

Environmental Engineering Program, School of Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China; Fok Ying Tung Graduate School, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China; Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China. Electronic address:

In this study, an efficient heterojunction was constructed by anchoring graphitic carbon nitride quantum dots onto TiO2 nanotube arrays through hydrothermal reaction strategy. The prepared graphitic carbon nitride quantum dots, which were prepared by solid-thermal reaction and sequential dialysis process, act as a sensitizer to enhance light absorption. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the charge transfer and separation in the formed heterojunction were significantly improved compared with pristine TiO2. The prepared heterojunction was used as a photoanode, exhibiting much improved photoelectrochemical capability and excellent photo-stability under solar light illumination. The photoelectrocatalytic activities of prepared heterojunction were demonstrated by degradation of RhB and phenol in aqueous solution. The kinetic constants of RhB and phenol degradation using prepared photoelectrode are 2.4 times and 4.9 times higher than those of pristine TiO2, respectively. Moreover, hydroxyl radicals are demonstrated to be dominant active radicals during the pollutants degradation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2016.05.004DOI Listing
October 2016

Novel phosphorus doped carbon nitride modified TiO₂ nanotube arrays with improved photoelectrochemical performance.

Nanoscale 2015 Oct;7(39):16282-9

Environmental Engineering Program, School of Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.

Novel phosphorus-doped graphitic-carbon nitride (P-C3N4) modified vertically aligned TiO2 nanotube arrays (NTs) were designed and synthesized. They can significantly enhance the conduction and utilization of photogenerated charge carriers of TiO2 NTs. The heterostructure was successfully fabricated through a three-step process: electrochemical anodization and wet-dipping followed by thermal polymerization. The prepared P-C3N4/TiO2 NTs exhibit enhanced light-absorption characteristics and improved charge separation and transfer ability, thus resulting in a 3-fold photocurrent (1.98 mA cm(-2) at 0 V vs. Ag/AgCl) compared with that of pure TiO2 NTs (0.66 mA cm(-2) at 0 V vs. Ag/AgCl) in 1 M NaOH solution. The prepared P-C3N4/TiO2 NT photoelectrodes also present excellent photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic capabilities in the degradation of methylene blue (MB). The kinetic rate of P-C3N4/TiO2 NTs in the photoelectrocatalytic process for MB is 2.7 times that of pristine TiO2 NTs. Furthermore, the prepared sample was used as a photoanode for solar-driven water splitting, giving a H2 evolution rate of 36.6 μmol h(-1) cm(-2) at 1.0 V vs. RHE under simulated solar light illumination. This novel structure with a rational design for a visible light response shows potential for metal free materials in photoelectrochemical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c5nr04562bDOI Listing
October 2015

Use of fuzzy chromatography mass spectrometric (FCMS) fingerprinting and chemometric analysis for differentiation of whole-grain and refined wheat (T. aestivum) flour.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2015 Oct 15;407(26):7875-88. Epub 2015 Sep 15.

Food Composition and Methods Development Laboratory, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Building 161, BARC-East, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD, 20705, USA.

A fuzzy chromatography mass spectrometric (FCMS) fingerprinting method combined with chemometric analysis has been established for rapid discrimination of whole-grain flour (WF) from refined wheat flour (RF). Bran, germ, endosperm, and WF from three local cultivars or purchased from a grocery store were studied. The state of refinement (whole vs. refined) of wheat flour was differentiated successfully by use of principal-components analysis (PCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), despite potential confounding introduced by wheat class (red vs. white; hard vs. soft) or resources (different brands). Twelve discriminatory variables were putatively identified. Among these, dihexoside, trihexoside, apigenin glycosides, and citric acid had the highest peak intensity for germ. Variable line plots indicated phospholipids were more abundant in endosperm. Samples of RF and WF from three cultivars (Hard Red, Hard White, and Soft White) were physically mixed to furnish 20, 40, 60, and 80 % WF of each cultivar. SIMCA was able to discriminate between 100 %, 80 %, 60 %, 40 %, and 20 % WF and 100 % RF. Partial least-squares (PLS) regression was used for prediction of RF-to-WF ratios in the mixed samples. When PLS models were used the relative prediction errors for RF-to-WF ratios were less than 6 %. Graphical Abstract Workflow of targeting discriminatory compounds by use of FCMS and chemometric analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-015-9007-5DOI Listing
October 2015

Differentiation of Whole Grain from Refined Wheat (T. aestivum) Flour Using Lipid Profile of Wheat Bran, Germ, and Endosperm with UHPLC-HRAM Mass Spectrometry.

J Agric Food Chem 2015 Jul 2;63(27):6189-211. Epub 2015 Jul 2.

Food Composition and Methods Development Laboratory, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, United States.

A comprehensive analysis of wheat lipids from milling fractions of bran, germ, and endosperm was performed using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution accurate-mass multistage mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRAM-MS(n)) with electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) in both positive and negative modes. About 155 lipid compounds, including free fatty acids (FA), oxylipins, alk(en)ylresorcinols (ARs), γ-oryzanol, sphingolipids, triglycerides (TGs), diglycerides (DGs), phospholipids, and galactolipids were characterized from the three milling fractions. Galactolipids and phospholipids were proposed to be potential discriminatory compounds for refined flour, whereas γ-oryzanols, ARs, TGs, and DGs could distinguish whole wheat flour from a refined one based on principal component analysis (PCA).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.5b01599DOI Listing
July 2015

Metabolomic assessment reveals an elevated level of glucosinolate content in CaCl₂ treated broccoli microgreens.

J Agric Food Chem 2015 Feb 5;63(6):1863-8. Epub 2015 Feb 5.

Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Food Composition and Methods Development Laboratory, and §Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Food Quality Laboratory, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service , Beltsville, Maryland 20705, United States.

Preharvest calcium application has been shown to increase broccoli microgreen yield and extend shelf life. In this study, we investigated the effect of calcium application on its metabolome using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. The data collected were analyzed using principal component analysis and orthogonal projection to latent structural discriminate analysis. Chemical composition comparison shows that glucosinolates, a very important group of phytochemicals, are the major compounds enhanced by preharvest treatment with 10 mM calcium chloride (CaCl2). Aliphatic glucosinolates (glucoerucin, glucoiberin, glucoiberverin, glucoraphanin, pentyl glucosinolate, and hexyl glucosinolate) and indolic glucosinolates (glucobrassicin, neoglucobrassicin, and 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin) were increased significantly in the CaCl2 treated microgreens using metabolomic approaches. Targeted glucosinolate analysis using the ISO 9167-1 method was further employed to confirm the findings. Results indicate that glucosinolates can be considered as a class of compounds that are responsible for the difference between two groups and a higher glucosinolate level was found in CaCl2 treated groups at each time point after harvest in comparison with the control group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf504710rDOI Listing
February 2015

Voltage compensation based calibration measurement of 3D-acceleration transducer in fall detection system for the elderly.

Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2014 ;2014:2773-6

The fall detection algorithm, which can recognize the fall of human body by collecting the acceleration signals in different directions of the body, is an important part of fall detection system for the elderly. The system, however, may have errors during analyzing the acceleration signal, due to that the coordinate system of the transducer does not coincide with the one of human motion. Furthermore, voltage variation of the battery also influences the accuracy of the acceleration signal. Therefore, in this paper, a fall detection system based on the 3D-acceleration transducer MMA7260 is designed, which can calibrate the acceleration data through compensation of voltage and transformation of coordinates. Experiments illustrated that the proposed method can accurately transform the collected data from the coordinate system of the transducer to that of the human motion, and can recognize various postural changes in the course of the motion of human body.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/EMBC.2014.6944198DOI Listing
October 2015

[Value of arterial lactic acid and buffer excess in predicting the prognosis of patients with paraquat poisoning].

Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi 2013 Sep;31(9):667-70

The SuBai People's Hospital, Affiliated Hospital of Yangzhou University, Jiangsu,Yangzhou 225000, China.

Objective: To investigate the early prognostic values of arterial lactate and base excess (BE) in patients with paraquat poisoning.

Methods: Seventy-five patients with paraquat poisoning were divided into sudden death group (n = 10) who died within 24 h after admission, recent death group (n = 31) who died more than 24 h after admission, and survival group (n = 34). Arterial lactate and BE were measured on admission and at 24 h after admission. The prognostic values of arterial lactate and BE were analyzed.

Results: The arterial lactate measured on admission was significantly higher in the sudden death group than in the recent death group and survival group (P < 0.01), but there was no significant difference in arterial lactate between the recent death group and survival group (P = 0.309). The BE measured on admission was significantly lower in the sudden death group than in the recent death group and survival group, and it was significantly lower in the recent death group than in the survival group (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). At 24 h after admission, the recent death group had a significantly higher arterial lactate (P < 0.01) and a significantly lower BE (P < 0.01), as compared with the survival group. The logistic regression analysis showed that the two indices were significantly associated with prognosis (P < 0.01). On admission, the areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUCs) of arterial lactate and BE for predicting death were 0.692 and 0.787, respectively, and the cut-off values were 3.25 mmol/L and -1.75 mmol/L, respectively; the AUCs of arterial lactate and BE for predicting sudden death were 0.995 and 1, respectively, and the cut-off values were 7.1 mmol/L and -12.8 mmol/L, respectively. At 24 h after admission, the AUCs of arterial lactate and BE for predicting death were 0.743 and 0.822, respectively, and the cut-off values were 2.15 mmol/L and -5.55 mmol/L, respectively.

Conclusion: Arterial lactate and BE have certain values in predicting the death, especially the sudden death, in patients with acute paraquat poisoning.
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September 2013

Effects of sucrose and urea on soy hull pectic polysaccharide gel induced by D-glucono-1,5-lactone.

Carbohydr Polym 2013 Oct 29;98(1):542-5. Epub 2013 Jun 29.

School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering and Food Safety, Food Science Research Institute, Bohai University, 19 Keji Road, Jinzhou 121013, China.

Gelation properties of pectic polysaccharide extracted with ammonium oxalate from soybean hulls assisted by microwave were seldom studied. Water mobility in soy hull pectic polysaccharide (SHPP) was firstly studied by low field NMR. D-Glucono-1,5-lactone (GDL) and sucrose both could decrease spin-spin relaxation times (T2) of SHPP solutions which indicated the SHPP network formed. Rheological analysis conformed that SHPP gel was formed induced by GDL and enhanced by sucrose. Urea can increase T2 and collapse the network of SHPP. TGA was used to draw the profiles of water desorption from SHPP solutions or gels, during heating at a controlled rate. It was found that sucrose increased the bound water content and urea acted a conversely role. Hydrogen bond is the main force to maintain SHPP gel network.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2013.06.048DOI Listing
October 2013

Physiological oxygen level is critical for modeling neuronal metabolism in vitro.

J Neurosci Res 2012 Feb 17;90(2):422-34. Epub 2011 Oct 17.

Department of Neuroscience, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.

In vitro models are important tools for studying the mechanisms that govern neuronal responses to injury. Most neuronal culture methods employ nonphysiological conditions with regard to metabolic parameters. Standard neuronal cell culture is performed at ambient (21%) oxygen levels, whereas actual tissue oxygen levels in the mammalian brain range from 1% to 5%. In this study, we examined the consequences of oxygen level on the viability and metabolism of primary cultures of cortical neurons. Our results indicate that physiological oxygen level (5% O(2)) has a beneficial effect on cortical neuronal survival and mitochondrial function in vitro. Moreover, oxygen level affects metabolic fluxes: glucose uptake and glycolysis was enhanced at physiological oxygen level, whereas glucose oxidation and fatty acid oxidation were reduced. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was more activated in 5% O(2) and appears to play a role in these metabolic effects. Inhibiting AMPK activity with compound C decreased glucose uptake, intracellular ATP level, and viability in neurons cultured in 5% O(2). These data indicate that oxygen level is an important parameter to consider when modeling neuronal responses to stress in vitro.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jnr.22765DOI Listing
February 2012