Publications by authors named "Ping Chang"

116 Publications

Impaired airway epithelial barrier integrity was mediated by PI3Kδ in a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Mar 24;95:107570. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Cell-cell junctions are critical for the maintenance of cellular as well as tissue polarity and integrity. Dysfunction of airway epithelial barrier has been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI). Yet the role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase delta (PI3Kδ) in dysregulation of airway epithelial barrier integrity in ALI has not been addressed. Mice were subjected to intratracheal instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to generate a ALI model. Two pharmacological inhibitors of PI3Kδ, IC87114 and AMG319, were respectively given to the mice. Expression of p110δ and its downstream substrate phospho-AKT (Ser473) was increased in LPS-exposed lungs. These increases were inhibited by IC87114 or AMG319. LPS led to pronounced lung injury that was accompanied by significant airway neutrophil recruitment and bronchial epithelial morphological alterations 72 h after exposure. We also found compromised expression of adherens junction protein E-cadherin and tight junction protein claudin-2 in the airway epithelial cells. Treatment with either IC87114 or AMG319 not only attenuated LPS-induced edema, lung injury and neutrophilc inflammation, reduced total protein concentration and IL-6, TNF-α secretion in BALF, but also restored epithelial E-cadherin and claudin-2 expression. In summary, our results showed that LPS can induce a delayed effect on airway epithelial barrier integrity that is mediated by PI3Kδ in a mouse model of ALI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2021.107570DOI Listing
March 2021

Distinct roles of PI3Kδ and PI3Kγ in a toluene diisocyanate-induced murine asthma model.

Toxicology 2021 Apr 9;454:152747. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

TDI-induced asthma is characterized by neutrophil-dominated airway inflammation and often associated with poor responsiveness to steroid treatment. Both PI3Kδ and PI3Kγ have been demonstrated to play important proinflammatory roles in ovalbumin-induced asthma. We've already reported that blocking pan PI3K effectively attenuated TDI-induced allergic airway inflammation. Yet the specific functions of PI3Kδ and PI3Kγ in TDI-induced asthma are still unclear. Male BALB/c mice were first dermally sensitized and then challenged with TDI to generate an asthma model. Sellective inhibitors of PI3Kδ (IC-87114, AMG319) and PI3Kγ (AS252424, AS605240) were respectively given to the mice after each airway challenge. Treatment with IC-87114 or AMG319 after TDI exposure led to significantly decreased airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), less neutrophil and eosinophil accumulation, attenuated airway smooth muscle (ASM) thickening, less M1 and M2 macrophages in lung, as well as lower levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 and IL-18 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and recovered IL-10 production. While mice treated with AS252424 or AS605240 had increased AHR, more severe ASM thickening, larger numbers of neutrophils and eosinophils, more M1 but less M2 macrophages, and higher BALF levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-18 when compared with those treated with vehicle. These data revealed that pharmacological inhibition of PI3Kδ attenuates TDI-induced airway inflammation while PI3Kγ inhibition exacerbates TDI-induced asthma, indicating distinct biological functions of PI3Kδ and PI3Kγ in TDI-induced asthma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2021.152747DOI Listing
April 2021

Characterization of red sand dust pollution control performance via static and dynamic laboratorial experiments when applying polymer stabilizers.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Mar 4. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Mining and Metallurgy Engineering, WA School of Mines, Curtin University, Building 703, Cassidy St, Kalgoorlie, WA, 6430, Australia.

Red sand dust pollution is of great concern for its occupational and environmental detriments. The current remediation technique includes water spray and non-traditional stabilization via the application of polymer stabilizers. The dust erosion resistance plays a significant role in quantifying the effectiveness of red sand dust suppression. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the reliability and accuracy of five static and dynamic laboratorial methods that are commonly utilized to quantify the dust erosion resistance in the presence of polymers in previous studies, which are wind tunnel simulation, dynamic viscosity test, crust thickness test, penetration resistance test, and unconfined compressive strength test. The advantages and shortcomings of these methods were comprehensively demonstrated. The results illustrated that the penetration resistance test is the most reliable method in terms of the highest accuracy and relatively simpler operation. It also reveals excellent universality for effectively quantifying the dust erosion resistance of red sand with different particle sizes and for different polymers with various concentrations, while the rest of the methods failed to identify. The application of polymers contributes to improved dust erosion resistance for longer crust failure time, higher solution dynamic viscosity and crust penetration resistance, and higher unconfined compressive strength of rending sand samples. PAM outperformed guar gum and xanthan gum on the base of polymer ionicity and molecular weight. This study offers a better understanding in guiding the selection of optimum evaluation methods and polymers for the study of bauxite residue dust control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13169-1DOI Listing
March 2021

Ocean fronts and eddies force atmospheric rivers and heavy precipitation in western North America.

Nat Commun 2021 02 24;12(1):1268. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Geological and Atmospheric Sciences, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA.

Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are responsible for over 90% of poleward water vapor transport in the mid-latitudes and can produce extreme precipitation when making landfall. However, weather and climate models still have difficulty simulating and predicting landfalling ARs and associated extreme precipitation, highlighting the need to better understand AR dynamics. Here, using high-resolution climate models and observations, we demonstrate that mesoscale sea-surface temperature (SST) anomalies along the Kuroshio Extension can exert a remote influence on landfalling ARs and related heavy precipitation along the west coast of North America. Inclusion of mesoscale SST forcing in the simulations results in approximately a 40% increase in landfalling ARs and up to a 30% increase in heavy precipitation in mountainous regions and this remote impact occurs on two-week time scales. The asymmetrical response of the atmosphere to warm vs. cold mesoscale SSTs over the eddy-rich Kuroshio Extension region is proposed as a forcing mechanism that results in a net increase of moisture flux above the planetary boundary layer, prompting AR genesis via enhancing moisture transport into extratropical cyclones in the presence of mesoscale SST forcing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-21504-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7904778PMC
February 2021

Maintenance of mid-latitude oceanic fronts by mesoscale eddies.

Sci Adv 2020 Jul 31;6(31):eaba7880. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Key Laboratory of Physical Oceanography and Frontiers Science Center for Deep Ocean Multispheres and Earth System, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China.

Oceanic fronts associated with strong western boundary current extensions vent a vast amount of heat into the atmosphere, anchoring mid-latitude storm tracks and facilitating ocean carbon sequestration. However, it remains unclear how the surface heat reservoir is replenished by ocean processes to sustain the atmospheric heat uptake. Using high-resolution climate simulations, we find that the vertical heat transport by ocean mesoscale eddies acts as an important heat supplier to the surface ocean in frontal regions. This vertical eddy heat transport is not accounted for by the prevailing inviscid and adiabatic ocean dynamical theories such as baroclinic instability and frontogenesis but is tightly related to the atmospheric forcing. Strong surface cooling associated with intense winds in winter promotes turbulent mixing in the mixed layer, destructing the vertical shear of mesoscale eddies. The restoring of vertical shear induces an ageostrophic secondary circulation transporting heat from the subsurface to surface ocean.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aba7880DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7399485PMC
July 2020

Continuous positive airway pressure improves respiratory mechanics and efficiency of neural drive in stable COPD: an exploratory study.

J Thorac Dis 2020 Mar;12(3):626-638

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510282, China.

Background: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a major treatment strategy for severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), especially with respiratory failure. However, it remains inconclusive whether CPAP affects respiratory mechanics and neural drive in stable COPD patients without respiratory failure.

Methods: Twenty-two COPD patients without respiratory failure received CPAP starting from 4 to 10 cmHO in 1 cmHO increments. Respiratory pattern, end expiatory lung volume (EELV), dynamic PEEPi (PEEPi), airway resistance (Raw), pressure-time product of diaphragmatic pressure (PTPdi) and esophageal pressure (PTPeso), root mean square (RMS) of diaphragm electromyogram (EMGdi) and ratio of ventilation (Ve) to EMGdi (i.e., Ve/RMS) were measured before and at each level of continue positive airway pressure (CPAP). A subgroup analysis was performed between patients with and without inspiratory muscle weakness.

Results: Nineteen patients completed the treatment. The respiratory pattern improved significantly after CPAP. Raw, PTPdi, and Pdi decreased significantly. ΔEELV decreased at 4 cmHO (P<0.05), but increased significantly at >8 cmHO. PEEPi decreased from 2.18±0.98 to 1.37±0.55 cmHO. RMS increased while Ve/RMS improved significantly after CPAP (P<0.05). Besides, CPAP could significantly improve respiratory mechanics in patients with inspiratory muscle weakness.

Conclusions: CPAP improves respiratory pattern, PEEPi, Raw, work of breathing and efficiency of neural drive in COPD patients without respiratory failure, but easily increases dynamic pulmonary hyperinflation. These effects on respiratory mechanics are significant in patients with inspiratory muscle weakness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd.2019.12.120DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7139021PMC
March 2020

Combined Treatment With Hydrocortisone, Vitamin C, and Thiamine for Sepsis and Septic Shock: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Chest 2020 Jul 31;158(1):174-182. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou. Electronic address:

Background: Whether hydrocortisone, vitamin C, and thiamine treatment can reduce the mortality of patients with sepsis is controversial.

Research Question: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of hydrocortisone, vitamin C, and thiamine combination treatment for patients with sepsis or septic shock (HYVCTTSSS).

Study Design And Methods: This single-blind, randomized controlled trial evaluated treatment with hydrocortisone (50 mg every 6 h for 7 days), vitamin C (1.5 g every 6 h for 4 days), and thiamine (200 mg every 12 h for 4 days) vs placebo (normal saline) in patients with sepsis. The intention-to-treat analysis was used. Primary outcome was 28-day all-cause mortality, and secondary outcomes were organ protection, procalcitonin reduction, and adverse events related to hydrocortisone, vitamin C, and thiamine.

Results: Eighty patients were randomized to receive combination treatment (n = 40) or normal saline (n = 40). No difference in 28-day all-cause mortality was observed (27.5% vs 35%, respectively; P = .47); however, treatment was associated with a significant improvement of 72-h change in Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (P = .02). In adverse events analysis, the treatment group exhibited more incidents of hypernatremia (P = .005). In prespecified subgroup analysis, patients of the treatment subgroup diagnosed with sepsis within 48 h showed lower mortality than those in the control subgroup (P = .02). The study was terminated after the midterm analysis.

Interpretation: Among patients with sepsis or septic shock, the combination of hydrocortisone, vitamin C, and thiamine did not reduce mortality compared with placebo.

Trial Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT03258684; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2020.02.065DOI Listing
July 2020

Corrigendum: Improvement of Sepsis Prognosis by Ulinastatin: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Front Pharmacol 2019;10:1697. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Department of Intensive Care Unit, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2019.01370.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2019.01697DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7048167PMC
February 2020

[Efficacy and safety of early physical therapy for acute gastrointestinal injury during mechanical ventilation in patients with sepsis: a randomized controlled pilot trial].

Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2019 Nov;39(11):1298-1304

Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510282, China.

Objective: To investigate the therapeutic effect and safety of early physical therapy for acute gastrointestinal injury (AGI) in septic patients receiving mechanical ventilation.

Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted in the ICU of a tertiary teaching hospital from May, 2017 to March, 2018. The patients diagnosed with sepsis complicated by AGI during mechanical ventilation were recruited and block-randomized into intervention group and control group. Both groups received standard therapy of sepsis, and the patients in the intervention group also received physical therapy as soon as they were hemodynamically stable. The outcome measures included the recovery of AGI, ICU mortality, duration and outcomes of mechanical ventilation and the length of ICU stay.

Results: A total of 60 patients were initially included, and 34 of them completed the study, including 16 in the intervention group and 18 in the control group. After physical rehabilitation, the number of patients with a cure of AGI did not significantly differ between the two group ( > 0.05). Nonetheless, the reduction of AGI scores after the treatments differed significantly between the intervention group and the control group (-1.9±2.1 0.9± 1.6, < 0.05). No significant differences were found between the two groups in ICU mortality, duration and outcomes of mechanical ventilation, or the length of ICU stay ( > 0.05). In the intervention group, the incidence of exercise-related adverse events was 3.33%, and severe organ injury or death occurred in none of patients.

Conclusions: Early rehabilitation therapy does not reduce the incidence of AGI but can lower AGI scores and alleviate gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with sepsis during mechanical ventilation. The results still await further verification by welldesigned multicenter clinical trials with large sample sizes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12122/j.issn.1673-4254.2019.11.06DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6926083PMC
November 2019

Improvement of Sepsis Prognosis by Ulinastatin: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Front Pharmacol 2019 26;10:1370. Epub 2019 Nov 26.

Department of Intensive Care Unit, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Ulinastatin has been prescribed to treat sepsis. However, there is doubt regarding the extent of any improvement in outcomes to guide future decision making. To evaluate the effects of ulinastatin on mortality and related outcomes in sepsis patients. Thirteen randomized controlled trials and two prospective studies published before September 1, 2018, that included 1358 patients with sepsis, severe sepsis, or septic shock were evaluated. The electronic databases searched in this study were PubMed, Medline, Embase, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) for Chinese Technical Periodicals. Ulinastatin significantly decreased the all-cause mortality {odds ratio (OR) = 0.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.35-0.66], p < 0.00001, I = 13%}, Acute Physiology, Age, Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score {mean difference (MD) = -2.40, 95% CI [-4.37, -0.44], p = 0.02, I = 66%}, and reduced the incidence of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) (OR = 0.3, 95% CI [0.18, 0.49], p < 0.00001, I = 0%). Ulinastatin also decreased the serum levels of IL-6 (MD = -88.5, 95% CI [-123.97, -53.04], p < 0.00001), TNF-α (MD = -56.22, 95% CI [-72.11, -40.33], p < 0.00001), and increased the serum levels of IL-10 (MD = 37.73, 95% CI [16.92, 58.54], p = 0.0004). Ulinastatin administration did not lead to any difference in the occurrence of adverse events. Ulinastatin improved all-cause mortality and other related outcomes in patients with sepsis or septic shock. The results of this meta-analysis suggest that ulinastatin may be an effective treatment for sepsis and septic shock.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2019.01370DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6893897PMC
November 2019

Discovery and Biological Evaluation of New Selective Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors with Anti-Aβ Aggregation Activity through Molecular Docking-Based Virtual Screening.

Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2020 Feb 7;68(2):161-166. Epub 2019 Dec 7.

Department of Pharmacy, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University.

Discovery of novel multifunctional inhibitors targeting acetylcholinesterase (AChE) has becoming a hot spot in anti-Alzheimer's disease (AD) drug development. In the present study, four potent small molecule inhibitors (A01, A02, A03 and A04) of AChE with new chemical scaffold were identified. Inhibitor A03 displayed the most potent inhibition activity on AChE at enzymatic level with IC value of 180 nM, and high selectivity towards AChE over butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) by more than 100-fold. The binding modes of compounds A01-A04 were carefully analyzed by molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to provide informative clues for further structure modification. Finally, the anti-amyloid beta (Aβ) aggregation and neuroprotective activity were also well investigated. Our findings highlighted the therapeutic promise of AChE inhibitors A01-A04 for AD treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/cpb.c19-00927DOI Listing
February 2020

Adjunctive granisetron therapy in patients with sepsis or septic shock (GRANTISS): Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2019 Sep;98(39):e17354

Department of Pathophysiology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Proteomics, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Introduction: The incidence, mortality, and treatment costs of sepsis are high and, thus, present a major challenge for critical care medicine. Our previous studies suggest that intestinal metabolite granisetron has a potential therapeutic effect on sepsis. Granisetron is a clinically widely used antiemetic, which is safe, inexpensive, and reliable. However, its value in the treatment of sepsis remains unclear. This study aims to explore the efficacy and safety of granisetron in the treatment of sepsis.

Methods And Analysis: A single-center, single-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial will be conducted on 154 patients with sepsis. Patients who meet sepsis 3.0 diagnostic criteria, aged ≥18 and ≤80 years, with PCT ≥ 2 ng/mL will be recruited. Patients will be randomized to receive intravenous granisetron 3 mg every 8 hours (n = 77) or an equal volume of normal saline (n = 77) for a treatment period of 4 days or to ICU discharge. The primary outcome is 28-day all-cause mortality. Secondary outcome measures include requirements for organ function support, changes of organ function, changes in infection biomarkers, changes in inflammatory and immune biomarkers, and the proportion of new organ failure. Adverse events and serious adverse events also will be observed closely.

Ethics And Dissemination: The study was approved by the Clinical Ethics Committee of Zhujiang Hospital of Southern Medical University (2018-ZZJHZX-009). The trial results will be disseminated at national and international conferences and through peer-reviewed journal.

Trial Registration: NCT03924518.URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.

Protocol Date: 1 May 2019. version 2.1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000017354DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6775362PMC
September 2019

Enteric dysbiosis is associated with sepsis in patients.

FASEB J 2019 11 28;33(11):12299-12310. Epub 2019 Aug 28.

Department of Intensive Care Unit, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Sepsis is defined as a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to microbial infection. For decades, the potential role of gut microbiota in sepsis pathogenesis has been revealed. However, the systemic and functional link between gut microbiota and sepsis has remained unexplored. To address this gap in knowledge, we carried out systematic analyses on clinical stool samples from patients with sepsis, including 16S rDNA sequencing, metabolomics, and metaproteomics analyses. In addition, we performed fecal microbiota transplantation from human to mice to validate the roles of gut microbiota on sepsis progression. We found that the composition of gut microbiota was significantly disrupted in patients with sepsis compared with healthy individuals. Besides, the microbial functions were significantly altered in septic feces as identified by metabolomics and metaproteomics analyses. Interestingly, mice that received septic feces exhibited more severe hepatic inflammation and injury than mice that received healthy feces after cecal ligation and puncture. Finally, several strains of intestinal microbiota and microbial metabolites were corelated with serum total bilirubin levels in patients with sepsis. Taken together, our data indicated that sepsis development is associated with the disruption of gut microbiota at both compositional and functional levels, and such enteric dysbiosis could promote organ inflammation and injury during sepsis.-Liu, Z., Li, N., Fang, H., Chen, X., Guo, Y., Gong, S., Niu, M., Zhou, H., Jiang, Y., Chang, P., Chen, P. Enteric dysbiosis is associated with sepsis in patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.201900398RRDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6902702PMC
November 2019

Weakening Atlantic Niño-Pacific connection under greenhouse warming.

Sci Adv 2019 Aug 21;5(8):eaax4111. Epub 2019 Aug 21.

Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Allégaten 70, 5007 Bergen, Norway.

Sea surface temperature variability in the equatorial eastern Atlantic, which is referred to as an Atlantic Niño (Niña) at its warm (cold) phase and peaks in boreal summer, dominates the interannual variability in the equatorial Atlantic. By strengthening of the Walker circulation, an Atlantic Niño favors a Pacific La Niña, which matures in boreal winter, providing a precursory memory for El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) predictability. How this Atlantic impact responds to greenhouse warming is unclear. Here, we show that greenhouse warming leads to a weakened influence from the Atlantic Niño/Niña on the Pacific ENSO. In response to anomalous equatorial Atlantic heating, ascending over the equatorial Atlantic is weaker due to an increased tropospheric stability in the mean climate, resulting in a weaker impact on the Pacific Ocean. Thus, as greenhouse warming continues, Pacific ENSO is projected to be less affected by the Atlantic Niño/Niña and more challenging to predict.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aax4111DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6703873PMC
August 2019

Identification of novel and potent small-molecule inhibitors of tubulin with antitumor activities by virtual screening and biological evaluations.

J Comput Aided Mol Des 2019 07 5;33(7):659-664. Epub 2019 Jun 5.

Department of Pharmacy, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, 107 Wenhua Xilu, Jinan, 250012, People's Republic of China.

Microtubules (made up of α and β-tubulin subunits) play an essential role in the process of mitosis and cell proliferation, thus making them an ideal target for anticancer drugs discovery. Microtubule-targeted drugs, including taxanes and vinca alkaloids, can suppress microtubule dynamics, cause mitotic block and apoptosis, which have been widely used in the treatment of various cancers. There are three unique binding sites (taxanes, vinca alkaloids, and colchicine) in tubulin can be targeted to develop tubulin inhibitors. In this study, we selected the colchicine binding site in tubulin as our target. By performing molecular docking-based virtual screening combined with in vitro tubulin polymerization inhibition assay, we identified two novel and potent tubulin inhibitors (9 and 19). These two compounds arrested cell cycle progression at the G2/M phase and induced apoptosis at sub μM concentrations. In addition, they displayed potent antiproliferative activity with IC values in the nM range. Finally, the probable binding modes of 9 and 19 were probed by molecular docking. These two compounds with novel scaffold will shed new light on the lead molecules discovery and the design of new microtubule-targeting agents (MTAs).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10822-019-00206-yDOI Listing
July 2019

Practice of Extracorporeal Therapies for Septic Acute Kidney Injury Patients in Intensive Care Units in Mainland China.

Blood Purif 2019 12;47 Suppl 3:1-6. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Medical Affairs, Baxter Healthcare (Asia) Pte Ltd, Singapore, Singapore,

Background: Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) and other extracorporeal therapies for acute kidney injury (AKI) and other organ dysfunction syndromes in critically ill patients are common in the intensive care unit (ICU). Many studies have focused on clinical practice for managing these conditions. However, there are few studies that describe the utilization of extracorporeal therapies, especially CRRT, in patients with sepsis-associated AKI.

Summary: Two hundred ICU physicians were included in a survey from February 28, 2017, to March 20, 2017, on the current status of septic AKI and clinical practice in CRRT. According to the responses, 40% of sepsis patients in the ICU had AKI, and 25% required extracorporeal therapies. However, 29% of candidates gave up therapy for medical or nonmedical reasons. Overall survival for sepsis was 60%; among survivors, 80% were dialysis free at discharge. CRRT was the most common modality of extracorporeal therapy in the ICU, and 82% of physicians chose convection as the major clearance mode. The survey showed 30% of physicians saw the removal of inflammatory mediators as the major objective of extracorporeal therapies; however, only 18.5% of physicians considered inflammation as a measure to trigger CRRT. The median treatment duration of CRRT in China was 12 h per day for 5 days. Key Messages: There were some similarities and differences in CRRT practice for septic AKI patients in China and globally. The differences reveal some insights into improving the outcomes of these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000499456DOI Listing
May 2019

Hemofilter with Adsorptive Capacities: Case Report Series.

Blood Purif 2019 12;47 Suppl 3:1-6. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Medical Affairs, Baxter Healthcare (Asia) Pte Ltd, Singapore, Singapore.

Background: oXiris is a blood purification product that has been launched recently in China. In addition to renal function support and fluid management capabilities, it can also adsorb cytokines and endotoxins. This may complement standard treatment for septic acute kidney injury (AKI) patients to control the amplitude of systemic inflammatory response responsible for acute tissue and organ damage. Objectives of our study are to elucidate characteristics of septic AKI patients who respond to treatment with oXiris and to describe the performance of oXiris through patient cases in the absence of large randomized trials on clinical use of oXiris for septic AKI patients in China.

Summary: Here, we present 4 cases managed in intensive care units of major hospitals in China. Key practical aspects from an expert meeting discussing these cases have been included as guidance for the use of oXiris in septic AKI patients. Key Messages: Based on the experience gathered from 4 cases, oXiris should be used early in the treatment of septic AKI patients as an adjuvant therapy with good infection source control. It should not be used to delay or replace infection source control. These cases also demonstrated that patients with high risk of bleeding can use oXiris without additional anticoagulation for up to 36 h without implications on serum protein levels and platelet count. Short of definitive biomarkers to gauge the ideal blood purification initiation and discontinuation time for septic AKI patients, clinical judgment is key to determining optimal use of oXiris in septic AKI patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000499357DOI Listing
May 2019

Pantropical climate interactions.

Science 2019 03;363(6430)

Department of Oceanography, 3146 TAMU, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA.

The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which originates in the Pacific, is the strongest and most well-known mode of tropical climate variability. Its reach is global, and it can force climate variations of the tropical Atlantic and Indian Oceans by perturbing the global atmospheric circulation. Less appreciated is how the tropical Atlantic and Indian Oceans affect the Pacific. Especially noteworthy is the multidecadal Atlantic warming that began in the late 1990s, because recent research suggests that it has influenced Indo-Pacific climate, the character of the ENSO cycle, and the hiatus in global surface warming. Discovery of these pantropical interactions provides a pathway forward for improving predictions of climate variability in the current climate and for refining projections of future climate under different anthropogenic forcing scenarios.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aav4236DOI Listing
March 2019

Clinical and prognostic significance of circulating levels of angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2 in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Oncotarget 2018 Dec 28;9(102):37721-37732. Epub 2018 Dec 28.

Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) and angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) play critical roles in angiogenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In addition, recent data suggest that Ang-1/Ang-2 are involved in regulating the immune response. The aim of our study was to explore the clinical prognostic significance of plasma Ang-1 and Ang-2 in HCC. We prospectively enrolled and collected data and blood samples from 767 HCC patients treated at MD Anderson Cancer Center between 2001 and 2014. Controls consisted of cirrhotic patients ( = 75) and healthy volunteers ( = 200). The cutoff value was the median level of each angiogenic factor. Overall survival (OS) was estimated by Kaplan-Meier curves and compared by the log-rank test. Higher plasma Ang-2 was significantly associated with advanced clinicopathologic features of advanced HCC and lower OS. Median OS was 61.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 45.1-78.5 months) for low Ang-2 compared with 28.5 months (95% CI, 24.8-32.1 months) for high Ang-2 ( < 0.001). In contrast, higher Ang-1 was associated with longer OS. Median OS was 37.2 months (95% CI, 31.0-43.4 months) for high Ang-1 compared with 26.2 months (95% CI, 22.2-30.3 months) for those with low Ang-1 (p = 0.043). In conclusion, our findings indicate that plasma Ang-1 and Ang-2 levels are potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.26507DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6340869PMC
December 2018

Intestinal Microbiota Mediates the Susceptibility to Polymicrobial Sepsis-Induced Liver Injury by Granisetron Generation in Mice.

Hepatology 2019 04 5;69(4):1751-1767. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Department of Intensive Care Unit, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Sepsis-induced liver injury is recognized as a key problem in intensive care units. The gut microbiota has been touted as an important mediator of liver disease development; however, the precise roles of gut microbiota in regulating sepsis-induced liver injury are unknown. Here, we aimed to investigate the role of the gut microbiota in sepsis-induced liver injury and the underlying mechanism. Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) was used to induce polymicrobial sepsis and related liver injury. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) was used to validate the roles of gut microbiota in these pathologies. Metabolomics analysis was performed to characterize the metabolic profile differences between sepsis-resistant (Res; survived to 7 days after CLP) and sepsis-sensitive (Sen; moribund before or approximately 24 hours after CLP) mice. Mice gavaged with feces from Sen mice displayed more-severe liver damage than did mice gavaged with feces from Res mice. The gut microbial metabolic profile between Sen and Res mice was different. In particular, the microbiota from Res mice generated more granisetron, a 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 (5-HT ) receptor antagonist, than the microbiota from Sen mice. Granisetron protected mice against CLP-induced death and liver injury. Moreover, proinflammatory cytokine expression by macrophages after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge was markedly reduced in the presence of granisetron. Both treatment with granisetron and genetic knockdown of the 5-HT receptor in cells suppressed nuclear factor kappa B (NF-кB) transactivation and phosphorylated p38 (p-p38) accumulation in macrophages. Gut microbial granisetron levels showed a significantly negative correlation with plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT)/aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels in septic patients. Conclusion: Our study indicated that gut microbiota plays a key role in the sensitization of sepsis-induced liver injury and associates granisetron as a hepatoprotective compound during sepsis development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.30361DOI Listing
April 2019

Antiproliferative effect of 2-Hydroxy-6-tridecylbenzoic acid from ginkgo biloba sarcotestas through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor pathway in triple-negative breast cancer cells.

Nat Prod Res 2020 Mar 16;34(6):893-897. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

College of Food Science and Technology, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang, China.

This study aims to isolate the potential antiproliferative and cytotoxic compounds from ginkgo biloba sarcotestas (GBS) and investigates the underlying mechanism in human MDA-MB-231 and mouse 4T-1 triple-negative breast cancer cells. Our results showed that 2-Hydroxy-6-tridecylbenzoic acid was isolated by cytotoxicity-guided fractionation where different fractions were assessed using MTT assay against MDA-MB-231 and 4T-1 cells. Colony formation assay showed that 2-Hydroxy-6-tridecylbenzoic acid significantly inhibited cell proliferation. The inhibition was associated with the enhancement of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1B1 expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner and no significant change of CYP1A1 expression by qPCR and Western blot assays in MDA-MB-231 and 4T-1 cells. The mechanism was further demonstrated by the activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway with the upregulation of AhR, AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT) and AhR-dependent xenobiotic response elements (XRE) activity. These findings may have implications for development of anticancer agents containing 2-Hydroxy-6-tridecylbenzoic acid as functional additives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2018.1508144DOI Listing
March 2020

Enteral nutrition feeding in Chinese intensive care units: a cross-sectional study involving 116 hospitals.

Crit Care 2018 Sep 24;22(1):229. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Nanjing General Hospital of Nanjing Military Command, No.305 Zhongshan East Road, Nanjing, 210002, China.

Background: There is a lack of large-scale epidemiological data on the clinical practice of enteral nutrition (EN) feeding in China. This study aimed to provide such data on Chinese hospitals and to investigate factors associated with EN delivery.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was launched in 118 intensive care units (ICUs) of 116 mainland hospitals and conducted on April 26, 2017. At 00:00 on April 26, all patients in these ICUs were included. Demographic and clinical variables of patients on April 25 were obtained. The dates of hospitalization, ICU admission and nutrition initiation were reviewed. The outcome status 28 days after the day of investigation was obtained.

Results: A total of 1953 patients were included for analysis, including 1483 survivors and 312 nonsurvivors. The median study day was day 7 (IQR 2-19 days) after ICU entry. The proportions of subjects starting EN within 24, 48 and 72 h after ICU entry was 24.8% (84/352), 32.7% (150/459) and 40.0% (200/541), respectively. The proportion of subjects receiving > 80% estimated energy target within 24, 48, 72 h and 7 days after ICU entry was 10.5% (37/352), 10.9% (50/459), 11.8% (64/541) and 17.8% (162/910), respectively. Using acute gastrointestinal injury (AGI) 1 as the reference in a Cox model, patients with AGI 2-3 were associated with reduced likelihood of EN initiation (HR 0.46, 95% CI 0.353-0.599; p < 0.001). AGI 4 was significantly associated with lower hazard of EN administration (HR 0.056; 95% CI 0.008-0.398; p = 0.004). In a linear regression model, greater Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores (coefficient - 0.002, 95% CI - 0.008 to - 0.001; p = 0.024) and male gender (coefficient - 0.144, 95% CI - 0.203 to - 0.085; p < 0.001) were found to be associated with lower EN proportion. As compared with AGI 1, AGI 2-3 was associated with lower EN proportion (coefficient - 0.206, 95% CI - 0.273 to - 0.139; p < 0.001).

Conclusions: The study showed that EN delivery was suboptimal in Chinese ICUs. More attention should be paid to EN use in the early days after ICU admission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13054-018-2159-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6151932PMC
September 2018

Applying Regional Citrate Anticoagulation in Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy for Acute Kidney Injury Patients with Acute Liver Dysfunction: a Retrospective Observational Study.

Kidney Blood Press Res 2018 3;43(4):1065-1074. Epub 2018 Jul 3.

Background/aims: Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is a treatment for acute kidney injury (AKI) patients. It has become a controversy about whether patients with liver dysfunction should perform CRRT with regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA).

Methods: This retrospective observational study enrolled 145 AKI patients (275 CRRT sessions) who received CRRT with RCA and had no history of chronic liver disease. Circuit survival time, blood pressure, trans-membrane pressure (TMP), acid-base and electrolyte status were recorded and analyzed. The severity of liver dysfunction was determined by total bilirubin (TBil) and international normalized ratio (INR), while the accumulation degree of citrates was quantified by total/ ionized calcium (tCa/iCa) raito.

Results: Our results showed that there was no correlation of tCa/iCa ratio with TBil or INR. And tCa/iCa ratio was not related to the disturbances of pH, lactates, sodium, magnesium, blood pressure or TMP despite that high tCa/iCa ratios might be related to the decrease of circuit survival time. TBil did not correlate with the above indexes, except for lactates levels. INR did not correlate with the above indexes except for lactates levels and blood pressure. In addition, neither was TBil, INR, nor tCa/iCa ratio, related with fatal outcomes (22.76% of the patients).

Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that, with proper monitoring and adjustment of citrates and calcium infusion, applying RCA in CRRT is reasonably safe for AKI patients with acute liver dysfunction, as long as circuit time stays below roughly 50 hours.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000491057DOI Listing
November 2018

Nanocrystals Technology for Transdermal Delivery of Water-Insoluble Drugs.

Curr Drug Deliv 2018 ;15(9):1221-1229

School of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Qilu University of Technology (Shandong Academy of Sciences), Jinan 250353, China.

The poor penetration and low bioavailability are the main challenges for transdermal drug delivery. Nanocrystals technology is an attractive method for water-insoluble drug transdermal delivery, as the literature demonstrated that the penetration and bioavailability of the transdermal delivered water-insoluble drugs significantly enhanced and improved by the nanocrystals technology. Currently, the nanocrystals technology has been applied in transdermal delivery of cosmeceutical and for therapy of skin diseases, such as diclofenac acid, tretinoin and rutin. This review focused on the advantages of the nanocrystals technology for transdermal delivery. The special features of nanocrystals for the transdermal delivery of poorly soluble drugs are reviewed (skin disease treatment, safety and compliance, applying to cosmeceutical). Furthermore, the factors of influencing the nanocrystals penetration and the approaches of improving nanocrystals transdermal delivery are also discussed in detail.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1567201815666180518124345DOI Listing
December 2018

ADJunctive Ulinastatin in Sepsis Treatment in China (ADJUST study): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Trials 2018 Feb 21;19(1):133. Epub 2018 Feb 21.

Medical Intensive Care Unit, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, 1 Shuai Fu Yuan, Beijing, 100730, China.

Background: Sepsis is a major challenge in critical care and is associated with high mortality. Current management of sepsis and septic shock remains mainly supportive. Both basic and clinical research has shown that ulinastatin can improve the prognosis of sepsis. The aim of this trial is to evaluate the efficacy and safety profiles of ulinastatin compared with placebo.

Methods/design: In this multi-center, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial we are recruiting a total of 348 subjects meeting "The Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock" (Sepsis-3). Subjects will be randomized (1:1) to receive ulinastatin 400,000 IU three times a day for 10 days or matching placebo and usual care simultaneously. The primary outcome is 28-day all-cause mortality. Adverse events and serious adverse events will be monitored closely.

Discussion: ADJUST is a large, multi-center, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial of ulinastatin in mainland China and is well-designed on the basis of previous studies. The results of this trial may help to provide evidence-based recommendations for treatment of sepsis.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT02647554 . First registered on 27 December 2015, and last verified in December of 2016. Protocol version: 2.1, verified on 19 July 2016.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-018-2513-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5822617PMC
February 2018

The inhibitory effect of chitosan oligosaccharides on β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) in HEK293 APPswe cells.

Neurosci Lett 2018 02 23;665:80-85. Epub 2017 Nov 23.

Department of Food Science, College of Biochemical Engineering, Beijing Union University, Beijing 100023, China. Electronic address:

Amyloid precursor protein (APP) proteolysis is essential for the production of β-amyloid peptides (Aβ) that form senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains. The β-site amyloid protein precursor cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is the rate limiting enzyme in the generation of Aβ from APP, inhibition of BACE1 is thereby considered as an attractive strategy for anti-AD drug discovery. Chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) has been shown to possess various biological activities. Here we investigated the potential inhibitory effect of COS on both BACE1 expression in HEK293 APPswe cells and BACE1 enzymatic activity in vitro. The results showed that COS (100-500μg/ml) dose-dependently decreased the cell apoptosis, and potently repressed the secretion of both Aβ40 and Aβ42 as determined by ELISA. Moreover, treatment with COS resulted in a dramatic reduction in BACE1 mRNA and protein expression level, eIF2α phosphorylation as well as BACE1 enzymatic activity. Taken together, our findings indicate that COS can ameliorate Aβ-associated neurotoxicity, which may be, at least in part, attributable to reductions in BACE1 enzymatic activity and expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2017.11.052DOI Listing
February 2018

Deglacial Tropical Atlantic subsurface warming links ocean circulation variability to the West African Monsoon.

Sci Rep 2017 11 13;7(1):15390. Epub 2017 Nov 13.

Center for Climatic Research, Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, 53706, USA.

Multiple lines of evidence show that cold stadials in the North Atlantic were accompanied by both reductions in Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and collapses of the West African Monsoon (WAM). Although records of terrestrial change identify abrupt WAM variability across the deglaciation, few studies show how ocean temperatures evolved across the deglaciation. To identify the mechanism linking AMOC to the WAM, we generated a new record of subsurface temperature variability over the last 21 kyr based on Mg/Ca ratios in a sub-thermocline dwelling planktonic foraminifera in an Eastern Equatorial Atlantic (EEA) sediment core from the Niger Delta. Our subsurface temperature record shows abrupt subsurface warming during both the Younger Dryas (YD) and Heinrich Event 1. We also conducted a new transient coupled ocean-atmosphere model simulation across the YD that better resolves the western boundary current dynamics and find a strong negative correlation between AMOC strength and EEA subsurface temperatures caused by changes in ocean circulation and rainfall responses that are consistent with the observed WAM change. Our combined proxy and modeling results provide the first evidence that an oceanic teleconnection between AMOC strength and subsurface temperature in the EEA impacted the intensity of the WAM on millennial time scales.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-15637-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5684145PMC
November 2017

Alpha-Lipoic Acid Suppresses Extracellular Histone-Induced Release of the Infammatory Mediator Tumor Necrosis Factor-α by Macrophages.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2017 23;42(6):2559-2568. Epub 2017 Aug 23.

Department of Intensive Care Unit, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Background/aims: This study investigated signaling pathways via which extracellular histones induce the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) release from the macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 and the anti-inflammatory efficacy of the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid (ALA).

Methods: ELISA and western blotting analyses were conducted to detect the release of TNF-α from histone-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages and the associated phospho-activation of MAPKs (ERK and p38) and NF-κB p65. The effects of ALA on the release of TNF-α and phospho-activation of the MAPKs and NF-κB p65 were studied. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: Extracellular histones dose-dependently induced TNF-α release from RAW 264.7 cells and increased the phosphorylation of p38, ERK, and NF-κB p65. TNF-α release was markedly suppressed by p38, ERK, and NF-kB inhibitors. ALA reduced histone-induced TNF-α release, ERK/p38 MAPK activation, and NF-kB activation without affecting macrophage viability.

Conclusion: Histones induce TNF-α release from macrophages by activating the MAPK and NF-kB signaling pathways, while ALA suppresses this response by inhibiting ERK, p38 and NF-kB. These findings identify potentially critical inflammatory signaling pathways in sepsis and molecular targets for sepsis treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000480217DOI Listing
November 2017

Renal replacement therapy practices for patients with acute kidney injury in China.

PLoS One 2017 10;12(7):e0178509. Epub 2017 Jul 10.

International Renal Research Institute of Vicenza (IRRIV), San Bortolo Hospital, Vicenza, Italy.

Recent data indicate AKI is very common among hospitalized Chinese patients and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is increasingly offered for treatment. However, only anecdotal information regarding CRRT's use in relation to other modalities and the specific manner in which it is prescribed exists currently. This report summarizes the results of a comprehensive physician survey designed to characterize contemporary dialytic management of AKI patients in China, especially with respect to the utilization of CRRT. The survey queried both nephrologists and critical care physicians across a wide spectrum of hospitals about factors influencing initial RRT modality selection, especially patient clinical characteristics and willingness to receive RRT, treatment location, and institutional capabilities. For patients initially treated with CRRT, data related to indication, timing of treatment initiation, dose, anticoagulation technique, and duration of therapy were also collected. Among AKI patients considered RRT candidates, the survey indicated 15.1% (95% CI, 12.3%-17.9%) did not actually receive dialysis at Chinese hospitals. The finding was largely attributed to prohibitively high therapy costs in the view of patients or their families. The survey confirmed the dichotomy in RRT delivery in China, occurring both in the nephrology department (with nephrologists responsible) and the intensive care unit (with critical care physicians responsible). For all patients who were offered and received RRT, the survey participants reported 63.9% (56.4%-71.3%) were treated initially with CRRT and 24.8% (19.2%-30.3%) with intermittent hemodialysis (HD) (P<0.001). The mean percentage of patients considered hemodynamically unstable at RRT initiation was 36.2% (31.3%-41.1%), although this figure was two-fold higher in patients treated initially with CRRT (43.1%; 35.8%-50.4%) in comparison to those initially treated with HD (22.4%; 16.4%-28.4%)(P<0.001). An overwhelming majority of intensive care patients were treated initially with CRRT (86.6%; 79.8-93.4%) while it was the initial modality in only 44.6% (33.5-55.7%) of patients treated in a nephrology department (P<0.001). Approximately 70% of respondents overall reported prescribing a CRRT dose in the range of 20-30 mL/kg/hr while approximately 20% of prescriptions fell above this range. Daily prescribed therapy duration demonstrated a marked divergence from values reported in the literature and standard clinical practice. Overall, the most common average prescribed value (50% of respondents) fell in the 10-20 hr range, with only 18% in the 20-24 hr range. Moreover, 32% of respondents reported an average prescribed value of less than 10 hrs per day. While the percentages for the 10-20 hrs range were essentially the same for nephrology and ICU programs, a daily duration of less than 10 hrs was much more common in nephrology programs (48.0%; 38.3%-57.9%) versus ICU programs (16%; 10.0%-24.6%)(P<0.001). Our analysis demonstrates both similarities and differences between RRT practices for AKI in China and those in the developed world. While some differences are driven by non-medical factors, future studies should explore these issues further as Chinese RRT practices are harmonized with those in the rest of the world.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0178509PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5503167PMC
September 2017

Intrabasin Variability of East Pacific Tropical Cyclones During ENSO Regulated by Central American Gap Winds.

Sci Rep 2017 05 10;7(1):1658. Epub 2017 May 10.

Climate and Ecosystem Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, 94720, USA.

Hurricane Patricia in 2015 was the strongest Pacific hurricane to make landfall in Mexico. Although Patricia fortuitously spared major cities, it reminded us of the threat tropical cyclones (TCs) pose in the eastern North Pacific (ENP) and the importance of improving our understanding and prediction of ENP TCs. Patricia's intensity and the active 2015 ENP hurricane season have been partially attributed to the strong El Niño in 2015, however there is still a lack of fundamental understanding of the relationship between El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and ENP TCs. Here, we demonstrate that ENSO drives intrabasin variability of ENP TCs, with enhanced (reduced) TC frequency in the western portion of the ENP during El Niño (La Niña), but reduced (enhanced) TC frequency in the eastern nearshore area, where landfalling TCs preferentially form. This intrabasin difference is primarily driven by the Central American Gap Winds (CAGW), which intensify (weaken) during El Niño (La Niña), producing low-level anticyclonic (cyclonic) relative vorticity anomalies and thus an unfavorable (favorable) environment for TC genesis. These findings shed new light on the dynamics linking ENP TC activity to ENSO, and highlight the importance of improving CAGW representation in models to make skillful seasonal forecasts of ENP TCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-01962-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5431948PMC
May 2017