Publications by authors named "Pim van der Harst"

435 Publications

Prehabilitation to prevent complications after cardiac surgery - A retrospective study with propensity score analysis.

PLoS One 2021 16;16(7):e0253459. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Background: The rising prevalence of modifiable lifestyle-related risk factors (e.g. overweight and physical inactivity) suggests the need for effective and safe preoperative interventions to improve outcomes after cardiac surgery. This retrospective study explored potential short-term postoperative benefits and unintended consequences of a multidisciplinary prehabilitation program regarding in-hospital complications.

Methods: Data on patients who underwent elective cardiac surgery between January 2014 and April 2017 were analyzed retrospectively. Pearson's chi-squared tests were used to compare patients who followed prehabilitation (three times per week, at a minimum of three weeks) during the waiting period with patients who received no prehabilitation. Sensitivity analyses were performed using propensity-score matching, in which the propensity score was based on the baseline variables that affected the outcomes.

Results: Of 1201 patients referred for elective cardiac surgery, 880 patients met the inclusion criteria, of whom 91 followed prehabilitation (53.8% ≥ 65 years, 78.0% male, median Euroscore II 1.3, IQR, 0.9-2.7) and 789 received no prehabilitation (60.7% ≥ 65 years, 69.6% male, median Euroscore II 1.6, IQR, 1.0-2.8). The incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) was significantly lower in the prehabilitation group compared to the unmatched and matched standard care group (resp. 14.3% vs. 23.8%, P = 0.040 and 14.3% vs. 25.3%, P = 0.030). For the other complications, no between-group differences were found.

Conclusions: Prehabilitation might be beneficial to prevent postoperative AF. Patients participated safely in prehabilitation and were not at higher risk for postoperative complications. However, well-powered randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm and deepen these results.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0253459PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8284810PMC
July 2021

Heart failure medication dosage and survival in women and men seen at outpatient clinics.

Heart 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Laboratory for Experimental Cardiology, Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands

Objective: Women with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) may reach optimal treatment effect at half of the guideline-recommended medication dose. This study investigates prescription practice and its relation with survival of patients with HF in daily care.

Methods: Electronic health record data from 13 Dutch outpatient cardiology clinics were extracted for HF receiving at least one guideline-recommended HF medication. Dose changes over consecutive prescriptions were modelled using natural cubic splines. Inverse probability-weighted Cox regression was used to assess the relationship between dose (reference≥50% target dose) and all-cause mortality.

Results: The study population comprised 561 women (29% HFrEF (ejection fraction (EF)<40%), 49% heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (EF≥50%); HFpEF and 615 men (47% and 25%, respectively). During a median follow-up of 3.7 years, 252 patients died (48% women; 167 HFrEF, 84 HFpEF). Nine hundred thirty-four patients (46% women) received ACE inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), 795 (48% women) beta blockers and 178 (42% women) mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs). In both sexes, the mean target dose across prescriptions was 50% for ACEI/ARBs and beta blockers, and 100% for MRAs. ACEI/ARB dose of <50% was associated with lower mortality in women but not in men with HFrEF. This was not seen in patients with HFpEF. Beta-blocker dose was not associated with all-cause mortality.

Conclusion: Patients with HF seen in outpatient cardiology clinics receive half of the guideline-recommended medication dose. Lower ACEI/ARB dose was associated with improved survival in women with HFrEF. These results underscore the importance of (re)defining optimal medical therapy for women with HFrEF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2021-319229DOI Listing
July 2021

The trans-ancestral genomic architecture of glycemic traits.

Nat Genet 2021 06 31;53(6):840-860. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Glycemic traits are used to diagnose and monitor type 2 diabetes and cardiometabolic health. To date, most genetic studies of glycemic traits have focused on individuals of European ancestry. Here we aggregated genome-wide association studies comprising up to 281,416 individuals without diabetes (30% non-European ancestry) for whom fasting glucose, 2-h glucose after an oral glucose challenge, glycated hemoglobin and fasting insulin data were available. Trans-ancestry and single-ancestry meta-analyses identified 242 loci (99 novel; P < 5 × 10), 80% of which had no significant evidence of between-ancestry heterogeneity. Analyses restricted to individuals of European ancestry with equivalent sample size would have led to 24 fewer new loci. Compared with single-ancestry analyses, equivalent-sized trans-ancestry fine-mapping reduced the number of estimated variants in 99% credible sets by a median of 37.5%. Genomic-feature, gene-expression and gene-set analyses revealed distinct biological signatures for each trait, highlighting different underlying biological pathways. Our results increase our understanding of diabetes pathophysiology by using trans-ancestry studies for improved power and resolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-021-00852-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7610958PMC
June 2021

The effect of immediate coronary angiography after cardiac arrest without ST-segment elevation on left ventricular function. A sub-study of the COACT randomised trial.

Resuscitation 2021 07 28;164:93-100. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Intensive care medicine, Noord West Ziekenhuisgroep, Alkmaar, The Netherlands.

Background: The effect of immediate coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients who are successfully resuscitated after cardiac arrest in the absence of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) on left ventricular function is currently unknown.

Methods: This prespecified sub-study of a multicentre trial evaluated 552 patients, successfully resuscitated from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest without signs of STEMI. Patients were randomized to either undergo immediate coronary angiography or delayed coronary angiography, after neurologic recovery. All patients underwent PCI if indicated. The main outcomes of this analysis were left ventricular ejection fraction and end-diastolic and systolic volumes assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging or echocardiography.

Results: Data on left ventricular function was available for 397 patients. The mean (± standard deviation) left ventricular ejection fraction was 45.2% (±12.8) in the immediate angiography group and 48.4% (±13.2) in the delayed angiography group (mean difference: -3.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], -6.75 to 0.37). Median left ventricular end-diastolic volume was 177 ml in the immediate angiography group compared to 169 ml in the delayed angiography group (ratio of geometric means: 1.06; 95% CI, 0.95-1.19). In addition, mean left ventricular end-systolic volume was 90 ml in the immediate angiography group compared to 78 ml in the delayed angiography group (ratio of geometric means: 1.13; 95% CI 0.97-1.32).

Conclusion: In patients successfully resuscitated after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and without signs of STEMI, immediate coronary angiography was not found to improve left ventricular dimensions or function compared with a delayed angiography strategy.

Clinical Trial Registration: Netherlands Trial Register number, NTR4973.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2021.04.020DOI Listing
July 2021

Clopidogrel in noncarriers of CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles versus ticagrelor in elderly patients with acute coronary syndrome: A pre-specified sub analysis from the POPular Genetics and POPular Age trials CYP2C19 alleles in elderly patients.

Int J Cardiol 2021 Jul 20;334:10-17. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Cardiology, St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein, the Netherlands; Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background: Patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who are carrying CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles derive less benefit from clopidogrel treatment. Despite this, in elderly patients, clopidogrel might be preferred over more potent P2Y inhibitors due to a lower bleeding risk. Whether CYP2C19 genotype-guided antiplatelet treatment in the elderly could be of benefit has not been studied specifically.

Methods: Patients aged 70 years and older with known CYP2C19*2 and *3 genotype were identified from the POPular Genetics and POPular Age trials. Noncarriers of loss-of-function alleles treated with clopidogrel were compared to patients, irrespective of CYP2C19 genotype, treated with ticagrelor and to clopidogrel treated carriers of loss-of-function alleles. We assessed net clinical benefit (all-cause death, myocardial infarction, stroke and Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) major bleeding), atherothrombotic outcomes (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke) and bleeding outcomes (PLATO major and minor bleeding).

Results: A total of 991 patients were assessed. There was no significant difference in net clinical benefit (17.2% vs. 15.1%, adjusted hazard ratio (adjHR) 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.77-1.44), atherothrombotic outcomes (9.7% vs. 9.2%, adjHR 1.00, 95%CI 0.66-1.50), and bleeding outcomes (17.7% vs. 19.8%, adjHR 0.80, 95%CI 0.62-1.12) between clopidogrel in noncarriers of loss-of-function alleles and ticagrelor respectively.

Conclusion: In ACS patients aged 70 years and older, there was no significant difference in net clinical benefit and atherothrombotic outcomes between noncarriers of a loss-of-function allele treated with clopidogrel and patients treated with ticagrelor. The bleeding rate was numerically; though not statistically significant, lower in patients using clopidogrel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2021.04.029DOI Listing
July 2021

Prevalence, predictors, and outcomes of clonal hematopoiesis in individuals aged ≥80 years.

Blood Adv 2021 04;5(8):2115-2122

Department of Hematology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Clonal hematopoiesis (CH), characterized by a fraction of peripheral blood cells carrying an acquired genetic variant, emerges with age. Although in general CH is associated with increased mortality and morbidity, no higher risk of death was observed for individuals ≥80 years. Here, we investigated CH in 621 individuals aged ≥80 years from the population-based LifeLines cohort. Sensitive error-corrected sequencing of 27 driver genes at a variant allele frequency ≥1% revealed CH in the majority (62%) of individuals, independent of gender. The observed mutational spectrum was dominated by DNMT3A and TET2 variants, which frequently (29%) displayed multiple mutations per gene. In line with previous results in individuals ≥80 years, the overall presence of CH did not associate with a higher risk of death (hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.70-1.18; P = .48). Being able to assess the causes of death, we observed no difference between individuals with or without CH, except for deaths related to hematological malignancies. Interestingly, comparison of mutational spectra confined to DNMT3A and TET2 vs spectra containing other mutated genes, showed a higher risk of death when mutations other than DNMT3A or TET2 were present (hazard ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-2.08; P = .025). Surprisingly, no association of CH with cardiovascular morbidity was found, irrespective of clone size. Further, CH associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Data on estimated exposure to DNA damaging toxicities (ie, smoking, a history of cancer [as a proxy for previous genotoxic therapy], and job-related pesticide exposure) showed an association with spliceosome and ASXL1 variants, but not with DNMT3A and TET2 variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020004062DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8095141PMC
April 2021

Atrial fibrillation and left atrial size and function: a Mendelian randomization study.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 19;11(1):8431. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, P.O. Box 30.001, 9700 RB, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Atrial fibrillation (AF) patients have enlarged left atria (LA), but prior studies suggested enlarged atria as both cause and consequence of AF. The aim of this study is to investigate the causal association between AF and LA size and function. In the UK Biobank, all individuals with contoured cardiovascular magnetic resonance data were selected. LA maximal volume (LA max), LA minimal volume (LA min), LA stroke volume and LA ejection fraction were measured and indexed to body surface area (BSA). Two-sample Mendelian randomization analyses were performed using 84 of the known genetic variants associated with AF to assess the association with all LA size and function in individuals without prevalent AF. A total of 4274 individuals (mean age 62.0 ± 7.5 years, 53.2% women) were included. Mendelian randomization analyses estimated a causal effect between genetically determined AF and BSA-indexed LA max, LA min, and LA ejection fraction, but not between AF and LA stroke volume. Leave-one-out analyses showed that the causal associations were attenuated after exclusion of rs67249485, located near PITX2 gene. Our results suggest that AF causally increases LA size and decreases LA ejection fraction. The AF risk allele of rs67249485, located near the PITX2 gene, contributes strongly to these associations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-87859-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8055882PMC
April 2021

Focal pericoronary adipose tissue attenuation is related to plaque presence, plaque type, and stenosis severity in coronary CTA.

Eur Radiol 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, EB44, Hanzeplein 1, 9713, Groningen, GZ, Netherlands.

Objectives: To investigate the association of pericoronary adipose tissue mean attenuation (PCAT) with coronary artery disease (CAD) characteristics on coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA).

Methods: We retrospectively investigated 165 symptomatic patients who underwent third-generation dual-source CCTA at 70kVp: 93 with and 72 without CAD (204 arteries with plaque, 291 without plaque). CCTA was evaluated for presence and characteristics of CAD per artery. PCAT was measured proximally and across the most severe stenosis. Patient-level, proximal PCAT was defined as the mean of the proximal PCAT of the three main coronary arteries. Analyses were performed on patient and vessel level.

Results: Mean proximal PCAT was -96.2 ± 7.1 HU and -95.6 ± 7.8HU for patients with and without CAD (p = 0.644). In arteries with plaque, proximal and lesion-specific PCAT was similar (-96.1 ± 9.6 HU, -95.9 ± 11.2 HU, p = 0.608). Lesion-specific PCAT of arteries with plaque (-94.7 HU) differed from proximal PCAT of arteries without plaque (-97.2 HU, p = 0.015). Minimal stenosis showed higher lesion-specific PCAT (-94.0 HU) than severe stenosis (-98.5 HU, p = 0.030). Lesion-specific PCAT of non-calcified, mixed, and calcified plaque was -96.5 HU, -94.6 HU, and -89.9 HU (p = 0.004). Vessel-based total plaque, lipid-rich necrotic core, and calcified plaque burden showed a very weak to moderate correlation with proximal PCAT.

Conclusions: Lesion-specific PCAT was higher in arteries with plaque than proximal PCAT in arteries without plaque. Lesion-specific PCAT was higher in non-calcified and mixed plaques compared to calcified plaques, and in minimal stenosis compared to severe; proximal PCAT did not show these relationships. This suggests that lesion-specific PCAT is related to plaque development and vulnerability.

Key Points: • In symptomatic patients undergoing CCTA at 70 kVp, PCAT was higher in coronary arteries with plaque than those without plaque. • PCAT was higher for non-calcified and mixed plaques compared to calcified plaques, and for minimal stenosis compared to severe stenosis. • In contrast to PCAT measurement of the proximal vessels, lesion-specific PCAT showed clear relationships with plaque presence and stenosis degree.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-021-07882-1DOI Listing
April 2021

Improving patient identification for advanced cardiac imaging through machine learning-integration of clinical and coronary CT angiography data.

Int J Cardiol 2021 07 6;335:130-136. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Cardiology, Hanzeplein 1, 9700RB Groningen, the Netherlands; Turku PET Centre, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Kiinamyllynkatu 4-8, 20520 Turku, Finland; Department of Cardiology, Hart and Lung Division, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3508, GA, Utrecht, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background: Standard computed tomography angiography (CTA) outputs a myriad of interrelated variables in the evaluation of suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). But an important proportion of obstructive lesions does not cause significant myocardial ischemia. Nowadays, machine learning (ML) allows integration of numerous variables through complex interdependencies that optimize classification and prediction at the individual level. We evaluated ML performance in integrating CTA and clinical variables to identify patients that demonstrate myocardial ischemia through PET and those who ultimately underwent early revascularization.

Methods And Results: 830 patients with CTA and selective PET were analyzed. Nine clinical and 58 CTA variables were integrated through ensemble-boosting ML to identify patients with ischemia and those who underwent early revascularization. ML performance was compared against expert CTA interpretation, calcium score and clinical variables. While ML using all CTA variables achieved an AUC = 0.85, it was outperformed by expert CTA interpretation (AUC = 0.87, p < 0.01 for comparison), comparable to ML integration of CTA variables with clinical variables. However, the best performance was achieved by ML integration of expert CTA interpretation and clinical variables for both dependent variables (AUCs = 0.91 and 0.90, p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Machine learning integration of diagnostic CTA and clinical data may improve identification of patients with myocardial ischemia and those requiring early revascularization at the individual level. This could potentially aid in sparing the need for subsequent advanced imaging and better identifying patients in ultimate need for revascularization. While ML integrating all CTA variables did not outperform expert CTA interpretation, ML data integration from different sources consistently improves diagnostic performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2021.04.009DOI Listing
July 2021

Clinical outcomes after permanent polymer or polymer-free stent implantation in patients with diabetes mellitus: The ReCre8 diabetes substudy.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2021 Apr 3. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Objectives: The purpose of this analysis was to compare target-lesion failure (TLF) of a permanent polymer zotarolimus-eluting stent (PP-ZES) versus a polymer-free amphilimus-eluting stent (PF-AES) in diabetics.

Background: The improvement of outcomes with new-generation drug-eluting stent as seen in the general population is less pronounced among diabetics. The PF-AES introduces an elution-technology with potential enhanced performance in diabetics.

Methods: In this subanalysis of the ReCre8 trial, patients were randomized to either a PP-ZES or PF-AES after stratification for diabetes and troponin status. The primary device-oriented endpoint was TLF, a composite of cardiac death, target-vessel myocardial infarction and target-lesion revascularization.

Results: In the ReCre8 trial, 304 (20%) patients were diabetic and 96 (6%) had insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. There was no statistically significant difference between the two study arms regarding the primary endpoint (PP-ZES 7.2% vs. PF-AES 4.0%; p = .21), although the composite of net adverse clinical events was higher in the PP-ZES arm (15.7 vs. 8.0%; p = .035). Stent thrombosis was low in both groups with no cases in the PP-ZES arm and 1 case in the PF-AES arm (p = .32). Regarding insulin-treated diabetics, TLF was higher in the PP-ZES arm (14.9 vs. 2.1%; p = .022).

Conclusions: Diabetics could potentially benefit from a dedicated stent, releasing sirolimus with a lipophilic carrier (amphilimus-formulation). Future trials should confirm the potential benefit of a PF-AES in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.29685DOI Listing
April 2021

Telomere length is independently associated with all-cause mortality in chronic heart failure.

Heart 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK.

Objective: Patients with heart failure have shorter mean leucocyte telomere length (LTL), a marker of biological age, compared with healthy subjects, but it is unclear whether this is of prognostic significance. We therefore sought to determine whether LTL is associated with outcomes in patients with heart failure.

Methods: We measured LTL in patients with heart failure from the BIOSTAT-CHF Index (n=2260) and BIOSTAT-CHF Tayside (n=1413) cohorts. Cox proportional hazards analyses were performed individually in each cohort and the estimates combined using meta-analysis. Our co-primary endpoints were all-cause mortality and heart failure hospitalisation.

Results: In age-adjusted and sex-adjusted analyses, shorter LTL was associated with higher all-cause mortality in both cohorts individually and when combined (meta-analysis HR (per SD decrease in LTL)=1.16 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.24); p=2.66×10), an effect equivalent to that of being four years older. The association remained significant after adjustment for the BIOSTAT-CHF clinical risk score to account for known prognostic factors (HR=1.12 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.20); p=1.04×10). Shorter LTL was associated with both cardiovascular (HR=1.09 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.19); p=0.047) and non-cardiovascular deaths (HR=1.18 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.32); p=4.80×10). There was no association between LTL and heart failure hospitalisation (HR=0.99 (95% CI 0.92 to 1.07); p=0.855).

Conclusion: In patients with heart failure, shorter mean LTL is independently associated with all-cause mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2020-318654DOI Listing
March 2021

The Groningen electrocardiographic criteria for left ventricular hypertrophy: a sex-specific analysis.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 23;11(1):6662. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

The Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, 9700 RB, Groningen, The Netherlands.

The sensitivity of electrocardiogram (ECG) criteria to detect left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is low, especially in women. We determined sex-specific sensitivities of ECG-LVH criteria, and developed new criteria, using cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). Sensitivities of ECG-LVH criteria were determined in participants of the UK Biobank (N = 3632). LVH was defined when left ventricular mass was > 95% confidence interval (CI) according to age and sex. In a training cohort (75%, N = 2724), sex-specific ECG-LVH criteria were developed by investigating all possible sums of QRS-amplitudes in all 12 leads, and selecting the sum with the highest pseudo-R and area under the curve to detect LVH. Performance was assessed in a validation cohort (25%, N = 908), and association with blood pressure change was investigated in an independent cohort. Sensitivities of ECG-LVH criteria were low, especially in women. Newly developed Groningen-LVH criterion for women (Q + R + R + R + S + S + S + S) outperformed all ECG-LVH criteria with a sensitivity of 42% (95% CI 35-49%). In men, newly developed criterion ((R + R + S + S + S) × QRS duration) was equally sensitive as 12-lead sum with a sensitivity of 44% (95% CI 37-51%) and outperformed the other criteria. In an independent cohort, the Groningen-LVH criteria were strongest associated with change in systolic blood pressure. Our proposed CMR sex-specific Groningen-LVH criteria improve the sensitivity to detect LVH, especially in women. Further validation and its association with clinical outcomes is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-83137-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7988153PMC
March 2021

Age dependent associations of risk factors with heart failure: pooled population based cohort study.

BMJ 2021 03 23;372:n461. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Cardiovascular Research Center, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA

Objective: To assess age differences in risk factors for incident heart failure in the general population.

Design: Pooled population based cohort study.

Setting: Framingham Heart Study, Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-stage Disease Study, and Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

Participants: 24 675 participants without a history of heart failure stratified by age into young (<55 years; n=11 599), middle aged (55-64 years; n=5587), old (65-74 years; n=5190), and elderly (≥75 years; n=2299) individuals.

Main Outcome Measure: Incident heart failure.

Results: Over a median follow-up of 12.7 years, 138/11 599 (1%), 293/5587 (5%), 538/5190 (10%), and 412/2299 (18%) of young, middle aged, old, and elderly participants, respectively, developed heart failure. In young participants, 32% (n=44) of heart failure cases were classified as heart failure with preserved ejection fraction compared with 43% (n=179) in elderly participants. Risk factors including hypertension, diabetes, current smoking history, and previous myocardial infarction conferred greater relative risk in younger compared with older participants (P for interaction <0.05 for all). For example, hypertension was associated with a threefold increase in risk of future heart failure in young participants (hazard ratio 3.02, 95% confidence interval 2.10 to 4.34; P<0.001) compared with a 1.4-fold risk in elderly participants (1.43, 1.13 to 1.81; P=0.003). The absolute risk for developing heart failure was lower in younger than in older participants with and without risk factors. Importantly, known risk factors explained a greater proportion of overall population attributable risk for heart failure in young participants (75% 53% in elderly participants), with better model performance (C index 0.79 0.64). Similarly, the population attributable risks of obesity (21% 13%), hypertension (35% 23%), diabetes (14% 7%), and current smoking (32% 1%) were higher in young compared with elderly participants.

Conclusions: Despite a lower incidence and absolute risk of heart failure among younger compared with older people, the stronger association and greater attributable risk of modifiable risk factors among young participants highlight the importance of preventive efforts across the adult life course.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n461DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7986583PMC
March 2021

Translational insights from single-cell technologies across the cardiovascular disease continuum.

Trends Cardiovasc Med 2021 Mar 2. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Genetics, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Oncode Institute, Groningen, the Netherlands; Department of Cardiology, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. The societal health burden it represents can be reduced by taking preventive measures and developing more effective therapies. Reaching these goals, however, requires a better understanding of the pathophysiological processes leading to and occurring in the diseased heart. In the last 5 years, several biological advances applying single-cell technologies have enabled researchers to study cardiovascular diseases with unprecedented resolution. This has produced many new insights into how specific cell types change their gene expression level, activation status and potential cellular interactions with the development of cardiovascular disease, but a comprehensive overview of the clinical implications of these findings is lacking. In this review, we summarize and discuss these recent advances and the promise of single-cell technologies from a translational perspective across the cardiovascular disease continuum, covering both animal and human studies, and explore the future directions of the field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tcm.2021.02.009DOI Listing
March 2021

Heritability analyses of resting heart rate: Is it relevant?

Eur J Prev Cardiol 2020 Jan 20. Epub 2020 Jan 20.

Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2047487319900056DOI Listing
January 2020

Effect of metabolic genetic variants on long-term disease comorbidity in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 2;11(1):2794. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Epidemiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Underlying genetic determinants contribute to developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) future diseases. The present study aimed to identify which genetic variants are associated with the incident of the major T2D co-morbid disease. First, we conducted a discovery study by investigating the genetic associations of comorbid diseases within the framework of the Utrecht Cardiovascular Pharmacogenetic studies by turning information of > 25 years follow-up data of 1237 subjects whom were genotyped and included in the discovery study. We performed Cox proportional-hazards regression to examine associations between genetic variants and comorbid diseases including cardiovascular diseases (CVD), chronic eye disease, cancer, neurologic diseases and chronic kidney disease. Secondly, we replicated our findings in two independent cohorts consisting of 1041 subjects. Finally, we performed a meta-analysis by combining the discovery and two replication cohorts. We ascertained 390 (39.7%) incident cases of CVD, 182 (16.2%) of chronic eye disease, 155 (13.8%) of cancer, 31 (2.7%) of neurologic disease and 13 (1.1%) of chronic kidney disease during a median follow-up of 10.2 years. In the discovery study, we identified a total of 39 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with comorbid diseases. The replication study, confirmed that rs1870849 and rs8051326 may play a role in the incidence of chronic eye disease in T2D patients. Half of patients developed at least one comorbid disease, with CVD occurring most often and earliest followed by chronic eye disease. Further research is needed to confirm the associations of two associated SNPs with chronic eye disease in T2D.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-82276-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7854581PMC
February 2021

Coronary Artery Calcium and Cognitive Function in Dutch Adults: Cross-Sectional Results of the Population-Based ImaLife Study.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Feb 2;10(4):e018172. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Radiology University of Groningen Groningen The Netherlands.

Background The aim of this study was to investigate whether increased severity of coronary artery calcium (CAC), an imaging biomarker of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis, is associated with worse cognitive function independent of cardiovascular risk factors in a large population-based Dutch cohort with broad age range. Methods and Results A cross-sectional analysis was performed in 4988 ImaLife participants (aged 45-91 years, 58.3% women) without history of cardiovascular disease. CAC scores were obtained using nonenhanced cardiac computed tomography scanning. The CogState Brief Battery was used to assess 4 cognitive domains: processing speed, attention, working memory, and visual learning based on detection task, identification task, 1-back task, and 1-card-learning task, respectively. Differences in mean scores of each cognitive domain were compared among 4 CAC categories (0, 1-99, 100-399, ≥400) using analysis of covariates to adjust for classical cardiovascular risk factors. Age-stratified analysis (45-54, 55-64, and ≥65 years) was performed to assess whether the association of CAC severity with cognitive function differed by age. Overall, higher CAC was associated with worse performance on 1-back task after adjusting for classical cardiovascular risk factors, but CAC was not associated with the other cognitive tasks. Age-stratified analyses revealed that the association of CAC severity with working memory persisted in participants aged 45 to 54 years, while in the elderly this association lost significance. Conclusions In this Dutch population of ≥45 years, increased CAC severity was associated with worse performance of working memory, independent of classical cardiovascular risk factors. The inverse relationship of CAC score categories with working memory was strongest in participants aged 45 to 54 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.018172DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7955332PMC
February 2021

Variation in the SERPINA6/SERPINA1 locus alters morning plasma cortisol, hepatic corticosteroid binding globulin expression, gene expression in peripheral tissues, and risk of cardiovascular disease.

J Hum Genet 2021 Jun 20;66(6):625-636. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Centre for Global Health Research, Usher Institute, University of Edinburgh, Teviot Place, Edinburgh, EH8 9AG, Scotland.

The stress hormone cortisol modulates fuel metabolism, cardiovascular homoeostasis, mood, inflammation and cognition. The CORtisol NETwork (CORNET) consortium previously identified a single locus associated with morning plasma cortisol. Identifying additional genetic variants that explain more of the variance in cortisol could provide new insights into cortisol biology and provide statistical power to test the causative role of cortisol in common diseases. The CORNET consortium extended its genome-wide association meta-analysis for morning plasma cortisol from 12,597 to 25,314 subjects and from ~2.2 M to ~7 M SNPs, in 17 population-based cohorts of European ancestries. We confirmed the genetic association with SERPINA6/SERPINA1. This locus contains genes encoding corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) and α1-antitrypsin. Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analyses undertaken in the STARNET cohort of 600 individuals showed that specific genetic variants within the SERPINA6/SERPINA1 locus influence expression of SERPINA6 rather than SERPINA1 in the liver. Moreover, trans-eQTL analysis demonstrated effects on adipose tissue gene expression, suggesting that variations in CBG levels have an effect on delivery of cortisol to peripheral tissues. Two-sample Mendelian randomisation analyses provided evidence that each genetically-determined standard deviation (SD) increase in morning plasma cortisol was associated with increased odds of chronic ischaemic heart disease (0.32, 95% CI 0.06-0.59) and myocardial infarction (0.21, 95% CI 0.00-0.43) in UK Biobank and similarly in CARDIoGRAMplusC4D. These findings reveal a causative pathway for CBG in determining cortisol action in peripheral tissues and thereby contributing to the aetiology of cardiovascular disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s10038-020-00895-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8144017PMC
June 2021

Risk prediction of atrial fibrillation in the community combining biomarkers and genetics.

Europace 2021 May;23(5):674-681

Department of Cardiology, University Heart and Vascular Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg, Germany.

Aims: Classical cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs), biomarkers, and common genetic variation have been suggested for risk assessment of atrial fibrillation (AF). To evaluate their clinical potential, we analysed their individual and combined ability of AF prediction.

Methods And Results: In N = 6945 individuals of the FINRISK 1997 cohort, we assessed the predictive value of CVRF, N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and 145 recently identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) combined in a developed polygenic risk score (PRS) for incident AF. Over a median follow-up of 17.8 years, n = 551 participants (7.9%) developed AF. In multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models, NT-proBNP [hazard ratio (HR) of log transformed values 4.77; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.66-6.22; P < 0.001] and the PRS (HR 2.18; 95% CI 1.88-2.53; P < 0.001) were significantly related to incident AF. The discriminatory ability improved asymptotically with increasing numbers of SNPs. Compared with a clinical model, AF risk prediction was significantly improved by addition of NT-proBNP and the PRS. The C-statistic for the combination of CVRF, NT-proBNP, and the PRS reached 0.83 compared with 0.79 for CVRF only (P < 0.001). A replication in the Dutch Prevention of REnal and Vascular ENd-stage Disease (PREVEND) cohort revealed similar results. Comparing the highest vs. lowest quartile, NT-proBNP and the PRS both showed a more than three-fold increased AF risk. Age remained the strongest risk factor with a 16.7-fold increased risk of AF in the highest quartile.

Conclusion: The PRS and the established biomarker NT-proBNP showed comparable predictive ability. Both provided incremental predictive value over standard clinical variables. Further improvements for the PRS are likely with the discovery of additional SNPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/europace/euaa334DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8139818PMC
May 2021

The effect of feedback on cardiovascular risk factors on optimization of primary prevention: The PharmLines initiative.

Int J Cardiol Hypertens 2020 Sep 28;6:100042. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, The Department of Cardiology, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Background: It is unknown whether population based single assessment of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and feedback to individuals and general practitioners results in initiation of preventive cardiovascular pharmacotherapy in those at risk.

Methods: The population based cohort study Lifelines was linked to the IADB.nl pharmacy database to assess information on the initiation of preventive medication ( = 48,770). At the baseline visit, information on cardiovascular risk factors was collected and reported to the participants and their general practitioners. An interrupted-time-series-analysis was plotted, in which the start year of blood pressure and lipid lowering medication was displayed in years before or after the baseline visit. Subsequently, predictors of the initiation of pharmacotherapy were determined and possible reduction in cardiovascular events that could be achieved by optimal treatment of individuals at risk.

Results: Before the Lifelines baseline visit, 34% (out of 1,527, 95% Confidence interval (CI) 32%-36%) and 30% (out of 1,991, 95%CI 28%-32%) of the individuals at risk had a blood pressure or lipid lowering drug prescription, respectively. In those at risk, the use of blood pressure lowering medication, increased substantially during the year of the baseline visit. Treating individuals at increased risk (≥5% 10-year risk) with lipid or blood pressure lowering medication ( = 8515 and  = 6899) would have prevented 162 and 183 CVD events, respectively, in the upcoming five years.

Conclusion: Primary prevention of CVD in the general population appears suboptimal. Feedback of cardiovascular risk factors resulted in a substantial increase of blood pressure lowering medication and extrapolated health benefits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijchy.2020.100042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7803074PMC
September 2020

Sex-dimorphic genetic effects and novel loci for fasting glucose and insulin variability.

Nat Commun 2021 01 5;12(1):24. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Department of Biostatistics and Data Science, Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.

Differences between sexes contribute to variation in the levels of fasting glucose and insulin. Epidemiological studies established a higher prevalence of impaired fasting glucose in men and impaired glucose tolerance in women, however, the genetic component underlying this phenomenon is not established. We assess sex-dimorphic (73,089/50,404 women and 67,506/47,806 men) and sex-combined (151,188/105,056 individuals) fasting glucose/fasting insulin genetic effects via genome-wide association study meta-analyses in individuals of European descent without diabetes. Here we report sex dimorphism in allelic effects on fasting insulin at IRS1 and ZNF12 loci, the latter showing higher RNA expression in whole blood in women compared to men. We also observe sex-homogeneous effects on fasting glucose at seven novel loci. Fasting insulin in women shows stronger genetic correlations than in men with waist-to-hip ratio and anorexia nervosa. Furthermore, waist-to-hip ratio is causally related to insulin resistance in women, but not in men. These results position dissection of metabolic and glycemic health sex dimorphism as a steppingstone for understanding differences in genetic effects between women and men in related phenotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19366-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7785747PMC
January 2021

Discovering and Visualizing Disease-Specific Electrocardiogram Features Using Deep Learning: Proof-of-Concept in Phospholamban Gene Mutation Carriers.

Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2021 02 5;14(2):e009056. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, the Netherlands (R.R.v.d.L., K.T., M.N.B., J.F.v.d.H., M.J.C., R.J.H., P.v.d.H., P.A.D., F.W.A., R.v.E.).

Background: ECG interpretation requires expertise and is mostly based on physician recognition of specific patterns, which may be challenging in rare cardiac diseases. Deep neural networks (DNNs) can discover complex features in ECGs and may facilitate the detection of novel features which possibly play a pathophysiological role in relatively unknown diseases. Using a cohort of PLN (phospholamban) p.Arg14del mutation carriers, we aimed to investigate whether a novel DNN-based approach can identify established ECG features, but moreover, we aimed to expand our knowledge on novel ECG features in these patients.

Methods: A DNN was developed on 12-lead median beat ECGs of 69 patients and 1380 matched controls and independently evaluated on 17 patients and 340 controls. Differentiating features were visualized using Guided Gradient Class Activation Mapping++. Novel ECG features were tested for their diagnostic value by adding them to a logistic regression model including established ECG features.

Results: The DNN showed excellent discriminatory performance with a c-statistic of 0.95 (95% CI, 0.91-0.99) and sensitivity and specificity of 0.82 and 0.93, respectively. Visualizations revealed established ECG features (low QRS voltages and T-wave inversions), specified these features (eg, R- and T-wave attenuation in V2/V3) and identified novel PLN-specific ECG features (eg, increased PR-duration). The logistic regression baseline model improved significantly when augmented with the identified features (<0.001).

Conclusions: A DNN-based feature detection approach was able to discover and visualize disease-specific ECG features in PLN mutation carriers and revealed yet unidentified features. This novel approach may help advance diagnostic capabilities in daily practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCEP.120.009056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7892204PMC
February 2021

Erythrocytosis in the general population: clinical characteristics and association with clonal hematopoiesis.

Blood Adv 2020 12;4(24):6353-6363

Department of Hematology.

Erythrocytosis is a common reason for referral to hematology services and is usually secondary in origin. The aim of this study was to assess clinical characteristics and clonal hematopoiesis (CH) in individuals with erythrocytosis in the population-based Lifelines cohort (n = 147 167). Erythrocytosis was defined using strict (World Health Organization [WHO] 2008/British Committee for Standards in Hematology) and wide (WHO 2016) criteria. Individuals with erythrocytosis (strict criteria) and concurrent leukocytosis and/or thrombocytosis were 1:2 matched with individuals with isolated erythrocytosis and analyzed for somatic mutations indicative of CH (≥5% variant allele frequency). One hundred eighty five males (0.3%) and 223 females (0.3%) met the strict criteria, whereas 4868 males (7.6%) and 309 females (0.4%) met the wide criteria. Erythrocytosis, only when defined using strict criteria, was associated with cardiovascular morbidity (odds ratio [OR], 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.6), cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 2.2; 95% CI, 1.0-4.6), and all-cause mortality (HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2-2.6), independent of conventional risk factors. Mutations were detected in 51 of 133 (38%) evaluable individuals, with comparable frequencies between individuals with and without concurrent cytosis. The JAK2 V617F mutation was observed in 7 of 133 (5.3%) individuals, all having concurrent cytosis. The prevalence of mutations in BCOR/BCORL1 (16%) was high, suggesting aberrant epigenetic regulation. Erythrocytosis with CH was associated with cardiovascular morbidity (OR, 9.1; 95% CI, 1.2-68.4) in a multivariable model. Our data indicate that only when defined using strict criteria erythrocytosis is associated with cardiovascular morbidity (especially in the presence of CH), cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003323DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7757002PMC
December 2020

Temporal Evolution of Serum Concentrations of High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin During 1 Year After Acute Coronary Syndrome Admission.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 01 16;10(1):e017393. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Erasmus MCUniversity Medical Center Rotterdam Rotterdam The Netherlands.

Background Detailed insights in temporal evolution of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin following acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are currently missing. We aimed to describe and compare the post-ACS kinetics of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT), and to determine their intra- and interindividual variation in clinically stable patients. Methods and Results We determined hs-cTnI (Abbott) and hs-cTnT (Roche) in 1507 repeated blood samples, derived from 191 patients with ACS (median, 8/patient) who remained free from adverse cardiac events during 1-year follow-up. Post-ACS kinetics were studied by linear mixed-effect models. Using the samples collected in the 6- to 12-month post-ACS time frame, patients were then considered to have chronic coronary syndrome. We determined (differences between) the average hs-cTnI and average hs-cTnT concentration, and the intra- and interindividual variation for both biomarkers. Compared with hs-cTnT, hs-cTnI peaked higher (median 3506 ng/L versus 494 ng/L; <0.001) and was quicker below the biomarker-specific upper reference limit (16 versus 19 days; <0.001). In the post-6-month samples, hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT showed modest correlation (=0.60), whereas the average hs-cTnT concentration was 5 times more likely to be above the upper reference limit than hs-cTnI. The intraindividual variations of hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT were 14.0% and 18.1%, while the interindividual variations were 94.1% and 75.9%. Conclusions Hs-cTnI peaked higher after ACS and was quicker below the upper reference limit. In the post-6-month samples, hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT were clearly not interchangeable, and average hs-cTnT concentrations were much more often above the upper reference limit than hs-cTnI. For both markers, the within-patient variation fell largely below beween-patient variation. Registration URL: https://www.trialregister.nl; unique identifiers: NTR1698 and NTR1106.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.017393DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7955490PMC
January 2021

Data on sex differences in one-year outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients without ST-segment elevation.

Data Brief 2020 Dec 12;33:106521. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Department of Intensive care medicine, Maastricht University Medical Center, University Maastricht, Maastricht, the Netherlands.

Sex differences in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients are increasingly recognized. Although it has been found that post-resuscitated women are less likely to have significant coronary artery disease (CAD) than men, data on follow-up in these patients are limited. Data for this data in brief article was obtained as a part of the randomized controlled Coronary Angiography after Cardiac Arrest without ST-segment elevation (COACT) trial. The data supplements the manuscript "Sex differences in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients without ST-segment elevation: A COACT trial substudy" were it was found that women were less likely to have significant CAD including chronic total occlusions, and had worse survival when CAD was present. The dataset presented in this paper describes sex differences on interventions, implantable-cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) shocks and hospitalizations due to heart failure during one-year follow-up in patients successfully resuscitated after OHCA. Data was derived through a telephone interview at one year with the patient or general practitioner. Patients in this randomized dataset reflects a homogenous study population, which can be valuable to further build on research regarding long-term sex differences and to further improve cardiac care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2020.106521DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7691722PMC
December 2020

Associations of Observational and Genetically Determined Caffeine Intake With Coronary Artery Disease and Diabetes Mellitus.

J Am Heart Assoc 2020 12 8;9(24):e016808. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Department of Cardiology University Medical Center GroningenUniversity of Groningen Groningen the Netherlands.

Background Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychostimulant and is associated with lower risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, whether these associations are causal remains unknown. This study aimed to identify genetic variants associated with caffeine intake, and to investigate evidence for causal links with CAD or T2DM. In addition, we aimed to replicate previous observational findings. Methods and Results Observational associations were tested within UK Biobank using Cox regression analyses. Moderate observational caffeine intakes from coffee or tea were associated with lower risks of CAD or T2DM, with the lowest risks at intakes of 121 to 180 mg/day from coffee for CAD (hazard ratio [HR], 0.77 [95% CI, 0.73-0.82; <1×10]), and 301 to 360 mg/day for T2DM (HR, 0.76 [95% CI, 0.67-0.86]; =1.57×10). Next, genome-wide association studies were performed on self-reported caffeine intake from coffee, tea, or both in 407 072 UK Biobank participants. These analyses identified 51 novel genetic variants associated with caffeine intake at <1.67×10. These loci were enriched for central nervous system genes. However, in contrast to the observational analyses, 2-sample Mendelian randomization analyses using the identified loci in independent disease-specific cohorts yielded no evidence for causal links between genetically determined caffeine intake and the development of CAD or T2DM. Conclusions Mendelian randomization analyses indicate genetically determined higher caffeine intake might not protect against CAD or T2DM, despite protective associations in observational analyses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.016808DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7955399PMC
December 2020

Big Data and Artificial Intelligence: Opportunities and Threats in Electrophysiology.

Arrhythm Electrophysiol Rev 2020 Nov;9(3):146-154

Department of Cardiology, Division of Heart and Lungs, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

The combination of big data and artificial intelligence (AI) is having an increasing impact on the field of electrophysiology. Algorithms are created to improve the automated diagnosis of clinical ECGs or ambulatory rhythm devices. Furthermore, the use of AI during invasive electrophysiological studies or combining several diagnostic modalities into AI algorithms to aid diagnostics are being investigated. However, the clinical performance and applicability of created algorithms are yet unknown. In this narrative review, opportunities and threats of AI in the field of electrophysiology are described, mainly focusing on ECGs. Current opportunities are discussed with their potential clinical benefits as well as the challenges. Challenges in data acquisition, model performance, (external) validity, clinical implementation, algorithm interpretation as well as the ethical aspects of AI research are discussed. This article aims to guide clinicians in the evaluation of new AI applications for electrophysiology before their clinical implementation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15420/aer.2020.26DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7675143PMC
November 2020
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