Publications by authors named "Pim de Voogt"

123 Publications

Changes in drug use in European cities during early COVID-19 lockdowns - A snapshot from wastewater analysis.

Environ Int 2021 Mar 26;153:106540. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Environmental and Public Health Analytical Chemistry, Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Castellón, Spain; Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

The COVID-19 outbreak has forced countries to introduce severe restrictive measures to contain its spread. In particular, physical distancing and restriction of movement have had important consequences on human behaviour and potentially also on illicit drug use and supply. These changes can be associated with additional risks for users, in particular due to reduced access to prevention and harm reduction activities. Furthermore, there have been limitations in the amount of data about drug use which can be collected due to restrictions. To goal of this study was to obtain information about potential changes in illicit drug use impacted by COVID-19 restrictions. Wastewater samples were collected in seven cities in the Netherlands, Belgium, Spain and Italy at the beginning of lockdowns (March-May 2020). Using previously established and validated methods, levels of amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (METH), MDMA, benzoylecgonine (BE, the main metabolite of cocaine) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH, main metabolite of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)) were measured and compared with findings from previous years. Important differences in levels of consumed drugs were observed across the considered countries. Whilst for some substances and locations, marked decreases in consumption could be observed (e.g., 50% decrease in MDMA levels compared to previous years). In some cases, similar or even higher levels compared to previous years could be found. Changes in weekly patterns were also observed, however these were not clearly defined for all locations and/or substances. Findings confirm that the current situation is highly heterogeneous and that it remains very difficult to explain and/or predict the effect that the present pandemic has on illicit drug use and availability. However, given the current difficulty in obtaining data due to restrictions, wastewater analysis can provide relevant information about the situation at the local level, which would be hard to obtain otherwise.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2021.106540DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7997602PMC
March 2021

Application of wastewater-based epidemiology to investigate stimulant drug, alcohol and tobacco use in Lithuanian communities.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Feb 19;777:145914. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Antwerp, Belgium. Electronic address:

WBE was applied to evaluate illicit drug (i.e. amphetamine, cocaine, MDMA and methamphetamine), alcohol and tobacco use in three Lithuanian cities in 2018 and 2019. Considerable concentrations of methamphetamine and MDMA were found in the three locations, suggesting a specific Lithuanian consumption pattern. Yet, unexpected high concentrations of amphetamine (>4 μg/L) were detected in two samples of Kaunas in 2018. Through the use of chiral analysis and non-target and suspect drug precursor compound screening, these extreme values were confirmed to be the result of direct disposal of amphetamine in the sewers. Furthermore, substantial alcohol use was measured in the three investigated catchment populations of Lithuania with almost 4 standard drinks/day/inhabitant aged 15+ on average in 2019. For tobacco, an average of 5.6 cigarettes/day/inhabitant aged 15+ in 2019 was reported with large discrepancies between WBE figures and sales data, potentially highlighting illegal trade of tobacco products.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145914DOI Listing
February 2021

patRoon: open source software platform for environmental mass spectrometry based non-target screening.

J Cheminform 2021 Jan 6;13(1). Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Luxembourg Centre for Systems Biomedicine (LCSB), University of Luxembourg, L-4367, Belvaux, Luxembourg.

Mass spectrometry based non-target analysis is increasingly adopted in environmental sciences to screen and identify numerous chemicals simultaneously in highly complex samples. However, current data processing software either lack functionality for environmental sciences, solve only part of the workflow, are not openly available and/or are restricted in input data formats. In this paper we present patRoon, a new R based open-source software platform, which provides comprehensive, fully tailored and straightforward non-target analysis workflows. This platform makes the use, evaluation and mixing of well-tested algorithms seamless by harmonizing various common (primarily open) software tools under a consistent interface. In addition, patRoon offers various functionality and strategies to simplify and perform automated processing of complex (environmental) data effectively. patRoon implements several effective optimization strategies to significantly reduce computational times. The ability of patRoon to perform time-efficient and automated non-target data annotation of environmental samples is demonstrated with a simple and reproducible workflow using open-access data of spiked samples from a drinking water treatment plant study. In addition, the ability to easily use, combine and evaluate different algorithms was demonstrated for three commonly used feature finding algorithms. This article, combined with already published works, demonstrate that patRoon helps make comprehensive (environmental) non-target analysis readily accessible to a wider community of researchers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13321-020-00477-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7789171PMC
January 2021

Comparative field study on bioassay responses and micropollutant uptake of POCIS, Speedisk and SorbiCell polar passive samplers.

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2021 Feb 24;82:103549. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, Department of Freshwater and Marine Ecology, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands; KWR Water Research Institute, Nieuwegein, the Netherlands.

Routine water quality monitoring is generally performed with chemical analyses of grab samples, which has major limitations. First, snapshot samples will not give a good representation of the water quality. Second, it is not sufficient to analyze only a limited number of (priority) pollutants. These limitations can be circumvented by an alternative environmental risk assessment that combines time-integrated passive sampling (PS) with effect-based methods. This study aimed to select which of three polar PS devices was best suited for effect-based monitoring strategies. In the first part of this study, Speedisk, SorbiCell and POCIS polar PS devices were compared by simultaneous deployment at five sites. Chemical analyses of 108 moderately polar compounds (-1.82 < log D < 6.28) revealed that highest number of compounds, with the widest range of log K, log D and pKa, were detected in extracts of POCIS, followed by Speedisk. SorbiCell samplers accumulated the lowest numbers and concentrations of compounds, so they were not further investigated. In a follow-up study, bioassay responses were compared in extracts of POCIS and Speedisk devices deployed at eight sites. The passive sampler extracts were subjected to bioassays for non-specific toxicity, endocrine disruption, and antibiotics activities. More frequent and higher responses were induced by POCIS extracts, leading to more exceedances of effect-based trigger values for environmental risks. As POCIS outperformed Speedisk, it is better suited as PS device targeting polar compounds for semi-quantitative effect-based water quality monitoring.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2020.103549DOI Listing
February 2021

Influence of soil on the uptake of perfluoroalkyl acids by lettuce: A comparison between a hydroponic study and a field study.

Chemosphere 2020 Dec 11;260:127608. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Department of Environmental Science (ACES), Stockholm University, Sweden. Electronic address:

This study explores whether mechanistic understanding of plant uptake of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) derived from hydroponic experiments can be applied to soil systems. Lettuces (Lactuca sativa) were grown in outdoor lysimeters in soil spiked with 4 different concentrations of 13 PFAAs. PFAA concentrations were measured in soil, soil pore water, lettuce roots, and foliage. The PFAA uptake by the lettuce was compared with uptake measured in a hydroponic study. The foliage:pore water concentration ratios in the lysimeter were similar to the foliage:water concentration ratios from the hydroponic experiment. In contrast, the root:pore water concentration ratios in the lysimeter were 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than in the hydroponic study for PFAAs with 6 or more perfluorinated carbons. Hence, hydroponic studies can be expected to provide a good quantitative measure of PFAA transfer from soil to foliage if one accounts for soil:pore water partitioning and differences in transpiration rate. However, hydroponic studies will be of little value for estimating PFAA transfer from soil to roots because sorption to the root surface is greatly enhanced under hydroponic conditions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.127608DOI Listing
December 2020

Pilot-scale hybrid constructed wetlands for the treatment of cooling tower water prior to its desalination and reuse.

J Environ Manage 2020 Oct 24;271:110972. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Environmental Technology, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 17, 6700 EV, Wageningen, the Netherlands.

Cooling towers are responsible for a large part of the industrial fresh water withdrawal, and the reuse of cooling tower water (CTW) effluents can strongly lower industrial fresh water footprints. CTW requires desalination prior to being reused, but various CTW components, such as total organic carbon (TOC), conditioning chemicals and total suspended solids (TSS) hamper physico-chemical desalination technologies and need to be removed from the CTW. A cost-efficient and robust pre-treatment is thus required, which can be provided by constructed wetlands (CWs). The present study is the first study that determined the CTW pre-treatment efficiency of hybrid-CWs and the impact of winter season and biocides in the CTW on the pre-treatment efficiency. The most efficient CW flow type and dominant removal mechanisms for CW components hampering physico-chemical desalination were determined. Subsurface flow CWs removed PO, TSS and TOC as a result of adsorption and filtration. Vertical subsurface flow CWs (VSSF-CW) excelled in the removal of benzotriazole as a result of aerobic biodegradation. Horizontal subsurface flow CWs (HSSF-CW) allowed the denitrification of NO due to their anaerobic conditions. Open water CWs (OW-CWs) did not contribute to the removal of components that hamper physico-chemical desalination technologies, but do provide water storage options and habitat. The biological removal processes in the different CW flow types were negatively impacted by the winter season, but were not impacted by concentrations of the biocides glutaraldehyde and DBNPA that are relevant in practice. For optimal pre-treatment, a hybrid-CW, consisting of an initial VSSF-CW followed by an OW-CW and HSSF-CW is recommended. Future research should focus on integrating the hybrid-CW with a desalination technology, e.g. reverse osmosis, electrodialysis or capacitive ionization, to produce water that meets the requirements for use as cooling water and allow the reuse of CTW in the cooling tower itself.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.110972DOI Listing
October 2020

Sorption of surfactants onto sediment at environmentally relevant concentrations: independent-mode as unifying concept.

Environ Sci Process Impacts 2020 May 5;22(5):1266-1286. Epub 2020 Apr 5.

Krop-Consult, Conradstraat 7, 1505KA Zaandam, The Netherlands.

At low surfactant concentrations often non-linear sorption processes are observed when natural adsorbents like sediment or soil are involved. This sorption process is often explained by a Dual-Model (DM) model, which assumes sorption to an adsorbent to be based on a combined ionic-polar and non-polar sorption interaction term. An Independent-Mode (IM) model, however, could treat surfactant sorption as two independent sorption processes to which the non-polar and ionic-polar features of the surfactant molecule contribute differently. For both models the overall exact partition coefficient, K, and its corresponding total standard free enthalpy of adsorption, ΔG, are derived. We tested the outcome of both models against multiple published experimental sorption data sets by, (i) varying the organic carbon fraction, (ii) constructing sorption and partition isotherms over different concentration ranges, (iii) removing the organic carbon fraction, (iv) applying different types of mixtures of surfactants, and (v) explaining sorption hysteresis in desorption studies based on either continuous and successive washing steps. It turned out that only the IM model was able to explain the reported sorption phenomena. We also show that when one interaction is dominating, e.g. non-polar over ionic-polar, the ΔG of the IM model can be approximated by the sum of the different ΔG values, the ΔG of the DM model. The exact partition coefficient, K(C) (L kg) = dC (mmol kg)/dC (mmol L), is turning each sorption isotherm into a partition isotherm that provides the K values required in environmental risk assessment models.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9em00580cDOI Listing
May 2020

Enantiomeric profiling of quinolones and quinolones resistance gene qnrS in European wastewaters.

Water Res 2020 May 10;175:115653. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Bath, Bath, BA2 7AY, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) was applied for the first time in seven cities across Europe with the aim of estimating quinolones consumption via the analysis of human urinary metabolites in wastewater. This report is also the first pan-European study focussed on the enantiomeric profiling of chiral quinolones in wastewater. By considering loads of (fluoro)quinolones in wastewater within the context of human stereoselective metabolism, we identified cities in Southern Europe characterised by both high usage and direct disposal of unused ofloxacin. In Northern European cities, S-(-)-ofloxacin loads were predominant with respect to R-(+)-ofloxacin. Much more potent, enantiomerically pure S-(-)-ofloxacin was detected in wastewaters from Southern European cities, reflecting consumption of the enantiomerically pure antibiotic. Nalidixic acid, norfloxacin and lomefloxacin were detected in wastewater even though they were not prescribed according to official prescription data. S,S-(-)-moxifloxacin and S,S-(-)-moxifloxacin-N-sulphate were detected in wastewater due to metabolism of moxifloxacin. For the first time, average population-normalised ulifloxacin loads of 22.3 and 1.5 mg day 1000 people were reported for Milan and Castellón as a result of prulifloxacin metabolism. Enrichment of flumequine with first-eluting enantiomer in all the samples indicated animal metabolism rather than its direct disposal. Fluoroquinolone loads were compared with qnrS gene encoding quinolone resistance to correlate usage of fluoroquinolone and prevalence of resistance. The highest daily loads of the qnrS gene in Milan corresponded with the highest total quinolone load in Milan proving the hypothesis that higher usage of quinolones is linked with higher prevalence of quinolone resistance genes. Utrecht, with the lowest quinolones usage (low daily loads) had also one of the lowest daily loads of the qnrS gene. However, a similar trend was not observed in Oslo nor Bristol where higher qnrS gene loads were observed despite low quinolone usage.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2020.115653DOI Listing
May 2020

Non-target screening reveals the mechanisms responsible for the antagonistic inhibiting effect of the biocides DBNPA and glutaraldehyde on benzoic acid biodegradation.

J Hazard Mater 2020 03 10;386:121661. Epub 2019 Nov 10.

Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED), University of Amsterdam, P.O. Box 94248, 1092 GE, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

The desalination and reuse of discharged cooling tower water (CTW) as feed water for the cooling tower could lower the industrial fresh water withdrawal. A potential pre-treatment method before CTW desalination is the use of constructed wetlands (CWs). Biodegradation is an important removal mechanism in CWs. In the present study, the impact of the biocides 2,2-dibromo-2-cyanoacetamide (DBNPA) and glutaraldehyde on the biodegradation process by CW microorganisms was quantified in batch experiments in which benzoic acid was incubated with realistic CTW biocide concentrations. DBNPA had a stronger negative impact on the biodegradation than glutaraldehyde. The combination of DBNPA and glutaraldehyde had a lower impact on the biodegradation than DBNPA alone. UHPLC-qTOF-MS/MS non-target screening combined with data-analysis script 'patRoon' revealed two mechanisms behind this low impact. Firstly, the presence of glutaraldehyde resulted in increased DBNPA transformation to the less toxic transformation product 2-bromo-2-cyanoacetamide (MBNPA) and newly discovered 2,2-dibromopropanediamide. Secondly, the interaction between glutaraldehyde and DBNPA resulted in the formation of new products that were less toxic than DBNPA. The environmental fate and toxicity of these products are still unknown. Nevertheless, their formation can have important implications for the simultaneous use of the biocides DBNPA and glutaraldehyde for a wide array of applications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.121661DOI Listing
March 2020

Long-term exposure of activated sludge in chemostats leads to changes in microbial communities composition and enhanced biodegradation of 4-chloroaniline and N-methylpiperazine.

Chemosphere 2020 Mar 22;242:125102. Epub 2019 Oct 22.

Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Exposure history and adaptation of the inoculum to chemicals have been shown to influence the outcome of ready biodegradability tests. However, there is a lack of information about the mechanisms involved in microbial adaptation and the implication thereof for the tests. In the present study, we investigated the impact of a long-term exposure to N-methylpiperazine (NMP) and 4-chloroaniline (4CA) of an activated sludge microbial community using chemostat systems. The objective was to characterize the influence of adaptation to the chemicals on an enhanced biodegradation testing, following the OECD 310 guideline. Cultures were used to inoculate the enhanced biodegradability tests, in batch, before and after exposure to each chemical independently in chemostat culture. Composition and diversity of the microbial communities were characterised by 16s rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Using freshly sampled activated sludge, NMP was not degraded within the 28 d frame of the test while 4CA was completely eliminated. However, after one month of exposure, the community exposed to NMP was adapted and could completely degrade it. This result was in complete contrast with that from the culture exposed for 3 months to 4CA. Long term incubation in the chemostat system led to a progressive loss of the initial biodegradation capacity of the community, as a consequence of the loss of key degrading microorganisms. This study highlights the potential of chemostat systems to induce adaptation to a specific chemical, ultimately resulting in its biodegradation. At the same time, one should be critical of these observations as the dynamics of a microbial community are difficult to maintain in chemostat, as the loss of 4CA biodegradation capacity demonstrates.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.125102DOI Listing
March 2020

Spatio-temporal assessment of illicit drug use at large scale: evidence from 7 years of international wastewater monitoring.

Addiction 2020 01 23;115(1):109-120. Epub 2019 Oct 23.

Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, Zatisi, Czech Republic.

Background And Aims: Wastewater-based epidemiology is an additional indicator of drug use that is gaining reliability to complement the current established panel of indicators. The aims of this study were to: (i) assess spatial and temporal trends of population-normalized mass loads of benzoylecgonine, amphetamine, methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in raw wastewater over 7 years (2011-17); (ii) address overall drug use by estimating the average number of combined doses consumed per day in each city; and (iii) compare these with existing prevalence and seizure data.

Design: Analysis of daily raw wastewater composite samples collected over 1 week per year from 2011 to 2017.

Setting And Participants: Catchment areas of 143 wastewater treatment plants in 120 cities in 37 countries.

Measurements: Parent substances (amphetamine, methamphetamine and MDMA) and the metabolites of cocaine (benzoylecgonine) and of Δ -tetrahydrocannabinol (11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ -tetrahydrocannabinol) were measured in wastewater using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Daily mass loads (mg/day) were normalized to catchment population (mg/1000 people/day) and converted to the number of combined doses consumed per day. Spatial differences were assessed world-wide, and temporal trends were discerned at European level by comparing 2011-13 drug loads versus 2014-17 loads.

Findings: Benzoylecgonine was the stimulant metabolite detected at higher loads in southern and western Europe, and amphetamine, MDMA and methamphetamine in East and North-Central Europe. In other continents, methamphetamine showed the highest levels in the United States and Australia and benzoylecgonine in South America. During the reporting period, benzoylecgonine loads increased in general across Europe, amphetamine and methamphetamine levels fluctuated and MDMA underwent an intermittent upsurge.

Conclusions: The analysis of wastewater to quantify drug loads provides near real-time drug use estimates that globally correspond to prevalence and seizure data.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/add.14767DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6973045PMC
January 2020

A comparison of trends in wastewater-based data and traditional epidemiological indicators of stimulant consumption in three locations.

Addiction 2020 03 29;115(3):462-472. Epub 2019 Nov 29.

Population Health Sciences, University of Bristol, Canynge Hall, Bristol, UK.

Aims: To compare long-term trends in wastewater data with other indicators of stimulant use in three locations and to test the reliability of estimates based on 1 week of sampling.

Design: Comparison of trends in quantities ('loads') of stimulants or their metabolites in wastewater with trends in other indicators of stimulant use (e.g. treatment, police, population survey data).

Setting And Participants: Populations in Oslo (Norway), South-East Queensland (Australia) and Eindhoven (the Netherlands).

Measurements: Wastewater data were modelled for MDMA (3,4-methyl​enedioxy​methamphetamine), benzoylecgonine (a metabolite of cocaine), amphetamine and methamphetamine in Oslo; benzoylecgonine in Eindhoven; and methamphetamine in South-East Queensland. Choice of stimulants modelled in each region was primarily determined by availability of useable data.

Findings: In Oslo, wastewater data, driving under the influence of drugs statistics and seizure data all suggested increasing MDMA use between 2009 and 2017. In South-East Queensland, there was an estimated 31.1% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 29.4-32.9%] annual increase in daily loads of methamphetamine in wastewater between 2009 and 2016, compared with a 14.1% (95% CI = 10.9-17.3%) annual increase in seizures. Some of the increase in wastewater can be explained by increased purity. In Eindhoven, there was no evidence of a change in cocaine consumption from wastewater, but a reduction was observed in numbers in treatment for cocaine use from 2012 to 2017. In approximately half the cases examined in Oslo, credible intervals around estimates of annual average loads from a regression model versus estimates based on a single week of sampling did not overlap.

Conclusions: Long-term trends in loads of stimulants in wastewater appear to be broadly consistent with trends in other indicators of stimulant use in three locations. Wastewater data should be interpreted alongside epidemiological indicators and purity data. One week of wastewater sampling may not be sufficient for valid inference about drug consumption.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/add.14852DOI Listing
March 2020

Benzotriazole removal mechanisms in pilot-scale constructed wetlands treating cooling tower water.

J Hazard Mater 2020 02 24;384:121314. Epub 2019 Sep 24.

Department of Environmental Technology, Wageningen University & Research, P.O. Box 17, 6700 EV Wageningen, the Netherlands.

The reuse of discharged cooling tower water (CTW) in the cooling tower itself could reduce fresh water intake and help mitigating fresh water scarcity problems. However, this requires desalination prior to its reuse, and hindering fractions, such as conditioning chemicals, should be removed before desalination to obtain a higher desalination efficiency. Constructed wetlands (CWs) can provide such a pre-treatment. In this study, the mechanisms underlying the removal of conditioning chemical benzotriazole (BTA) in CWs was studied using an innovative approach of differently designed pilot-scale CWs combined with batch removal experiments with substrate from these CWs. By performing these combined experiments, it was possible to determine the optimal CW design for BTA removal and the most relevant BTA removal processes in CWs. Adsorption yielded the highest contribution, and the difference in removal between different CW types was linked to their capability to aerobically biodegrade BTA. This knowledge on the main removal mechanisms for BTA allows for a CW design tailored for BTA removal. In addition, the outcomes of this research show that performing batch experiments with CW substrate allows one to determine the relevant removal mechanisms for a given compound which results in a better understanding of CW removal processes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.121314DOI Listing
February 2020

Biodegradation of metformin and its transformation product, guanylurea, by natural and exposed microbial communities.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2019 Oct 10;182:109414. Epub 2019 Jul 10.

Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098, XH Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Metformin (MET) is a pharmaceutical product mostly biotransformed in the environment to a transformation product, guanylurea (GUA). In ready biodegradability tests (RBTs), however, contrasting results have been observed for metformin. The objective of this study was to measure the biodegradation of MET and GUA in RBTs, using activated sludge from the local wastewater treatment plant, either directly or after pre-exposure to MET, in a chemostat. The activated sludge community was cultivated in chemostats, in presence or absence of MET, for a period of nine months, and was used in RBT after one, three and nine months. The results of this study showed that the original activated sludge was able to completely remove MET (15 mg/l) and the newly produced GUA (50% of C) under the test conditions. Inoculation of the chemostat led to a rapid shift in the community composition and abundance. The community exposed to 1.5 mg/l of MET was still able to completely consume MET in the RBTs after one-month exposure, but three- and nine-months exposure resulted in reduced removal of MET in the RBTs. The ability of the activated sludge community to degrade MET and GUA is the result of environmental exposure to these chemicals as well as of conditions that could not be reproduced in the laboratory system. A MET-degrading strain belonging to the genus Aminobacter has been isolated from the chemostat community. This strain was able to completely consume 15 mg/l of MET within three days in the test. However, community analysis revealed that the fluctuation in relative abundance of this genus (<1%) could not be correlated to the fluctuation in biodegradation capacity of the chemostat community.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2019.109414DOI Listing
October 2019

Chemical and bioassay assessment of waters related to hydraulic fracturing at a tight gas production site.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Nov 24;690:636-646. Epub 2019 Jun 24.

Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; KWR Watercycle Research Institute, Nieuwegein, the Netherlands.

Publicly available chemical assessments of hydraulic fracturing related waters are generally based on shale gas practices in the U.S. There is a lack of information on hydraulic fracturing related gas development from EU countries and more generally on other types of extractions. This research fills this knowledge gap by presenting chemical and bioassay assessments of hydraulic fracturing related waters from a tight gas development in the Netherlands. Fracturing fluid, flowback water and groundwater from surrounding aquifers before and after the actual fracturing were analysed by means of high resolution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, the Ames test and three chemical activated luciferase gene expression bioassays aimed at determining genotoxicity, oxidative stress response and polyaromatic hydrocarbon contamination. After sample enrichment a higher number of peaks can be found in both fracturing fluid and flowback samples. No clear differences in chemical composition were shown in the groundwater samples before and after hydraulic fracturing. Preliminary environmental fate data of the tentatively identified chemicals points towards persistence in water. Clear genotoxic and oxidative stress responses were found in the fracturing fluid and flowback samples. A preliminary suspect screening resulted in 25 and 36 matches in positive and negative ionisation respectively with the 338 possible suspect candidates on the list. Extensive measures relating to the handling, transport and treatment of hydraulic fracturing related waters are currently in place within the Dutch context. The results of the present study provide a scientific justification for such measures taken to avoid adverse environmental and human health impacts.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.06.354DOI Listing
November 2019

Nontarget Screening Reveals Time Trends of Polar Micropollutants in a Riverbank Filtration System.

Environ Sci Technol 2019 07 18;53(13):7584-7594. Epub 2019 Jun 18.

Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics , University of Amsterdam , Science Park 904 , 1098 XH Amsterdam , The Netherlands.

The historic emissions of polar micropollutants in a natural drinking water source were investigated by nontarget screening with high-resolution mass spectrometry and open cheminformatics tools. The study area consisted of a riverbank filtration transect fed by the river Lek, a branch of the lower Rhine, and exhibiting up to 60-year travel time. More than 18,000 profiles were detected. Hierarchical clustering revealed that 43% of the 15 most populated clusters were characterized by intensity trends with maxima in the 1990s, reflecting intensified human activities, wastewater treatment plant upgrades and regulation in the Rhine riparian countries. Tentative structure annotation was performed using automated in silico fragmentation. Candidate structures retrieved from ChemSpider were scored based on the fit of the in silico fragments to the experimental tandem mass spectra, similarity to openly accessible accurate mass spectra, associated metadata, and presence in a suspect list. Sixty-seven unique structures (72 over both ionization modes) were tentatively identified, 25 of which were confirmed and included contaminants so far unknown to occur in bank filtrate or in natural waters at all, such as tetramethylsulfamide. This study demonstrates that many classes of hydrophilic organics enter riverbank filtration systems, persisting and migrating for decades if biogeochemical conditions are stable.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b01750DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6610556PMC
July 2019

Fate of a perfluoroalkyl acid mixture in an agricultural soil studied in lysimeters.

Chemosphere 2019 May 5;223:180-187. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Universiteit van Amsterdam, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, Science Park 904, 1098XH Amsterdam, the Netherlands; KWR Watercycle Research Institute, Nieuwegein, the Netherlands.

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are environmental contaminants of concern in both food and drinking water. PFAA fate in agricultural soil is an important determinant of PFAA contamination of groundwater and crops. The fate of C4-C14 perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and two perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs) in an agricultural soil was studied in a field lysimeter experiment. Soil was spiked with PFAAs at four different levels and crops were planted. PFAA concentrations in soil were measured at the beginning and end of the growing season. Lysimeter drainage water was collected and analysed. The concentrations of all PFAAs decreased in the surface soil during the growing season, with the decrease being negatively correlated with the number of fluorinated carbons in the PFAA molecule. PFAA transfer to the drainage water was also negatively correlated with the number of fluorinated carbons. For the C11-C14 PFCAs most of the decrease in soil concentration was attributed to the formation of non-extractable residues. For the remaining PFAAs leaching was the dominant removal process. Leaching was concentration dependent, with more rapid removal from the soils spiked with higher PFAA levels. Model simulations based on measured K values under-predicted removal by leaching. This was attributed to mixture effects that reduced PFAA sorption to soil.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.02.012DOI Listing
May 2019

Removal of polar organic micropollutants by pilot-scale reverse osmosis drinking water treatment.

Water Res 2019 01 1;148:535-545. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam, The Netherlands; KWR Watercycle Research Institute, Groningenhaven 7, 3433 PE Nieuwegein, The Netherlands.

The robustness of reverse osmosis (RO) against polar organic micropollutants (MPs) was investigated in pilot-scale drinking water treatment. Experiments were carried in hypoxic conditions to treat a raw anaerobic riverbank filtrate spiked with a mixture of thirty model compounds. The chemicals were selected from scientific literature data based on their relevance for the quality of freshwater systems, RO permeate and drinking water. MPs passage and the influence of permeate flux were evaluated with a typical low-pressure RO membrane and quantified by liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry. A strong inverse correlation between size and passage of neutral hydrophilic compounds was observed. This correlation was weaker for moderately hydrophobic MPs. Anionic MPs displayed nearly no passage due to electrostatic repulsion with the negatively charged membrane surface, whereas breakthrough of small cationic MPs could be observed. The passage figures observed for the investigated set of MPs ranged from less than 1%-25%. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between physicochemical properties and passage. The effects of permeate flux were more pronounced for small neutral MPs, which displayed a higher passage after a pressure drop.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2018.09.029DOI Listing
January 2019

Oligomers in polyethylene furanoate - identification and quantification approach via LC-UV LC-MS response ratio.

Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 2018 Nov 12;35(11):2244-2255. Epub 2018 Oct 12.

a Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics , Fraunhofer Institute for Process Engineering and Packaging IVV , Freising , Germany.

Polyethylene furanoate polymer is intended to be used as a food contact material. A PEF polymer sample was investigated for its oligomer composition by solvent extraction and using HRLC-MS. The 20 oligomers found were divided into four groups: group I contains cyclic oligomers consisting of furandicarboxylic acid and monoethylene glycol units, group II comprises cyclic oligomers consisting of furandicarboxylic acid, monoethylene glycol units and one diethylene glycol unit, group III are cyclic oligomers were two monoethylene glycol units are substituted by diethylene glycol units and group IV are linear oligomers consisting of furandicarboxylic acid and monoethylene glycol units. Oligomers of group I account for around 87% of the total oligomer content, group II oligomers 12% and group III oligomers 1%. The contribution of group IV oligomers is very small: less than 0.05%. MS-MS experiments showed similar fragmentation patterns for all oligomers. The results of this study demonstrate that oligomers are abundant in the PEF material and are potential migrants to foods that are in contact with the polymer. Oligomers of group I and group II have the same absorption maxima in UV detection which was used to develop a quantification approach for these oligomers using dimethyl 2,5-furandicarboxylate as external standard.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2018.1523576DOI Listing
November 2018

Direct injection analysis of polar micropollutants in natural drinking water sources with biphenyl liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

J Chromatogr A 2018 Sep 7;1569:53-61. Epub 2018 Jul 7.

Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands; KWR Watercycle Research Institute, Nieuwegein, The Netherlands.

A method for the trace analysis of polar micropollutants (MPs) by direct injection of surface water and groundwater was validated with ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography using a core-shell biphenyl stationary phase coupled to time-of-flight high-resolution mass spectrometry. The validation was successfully conducted with 33 polar MPs representative for several classes of emerging contaminants. Identification and quantification were achieved by semi-automated processing of full-scan and data-independent acquisition MS/MS spectra. In most cases good linearity (R ≥ 0.99), recovery (75% to 125%) and intra-day (RSD < 20%) and inter-day precision (RSD < 10%) values were observed. Detection limits of 9 to 83 ng/L and 9 to 93 ng/L could be achieved in riverbank filtrate and surface water, respectively. A solid-phase extraction was additionally validated to screen samples from full-scale reverse osmosis drinking water treatment at sub-ng/L levels and overall satisfactory analytical performance parameters were observed for RBF and reverse osmosis permeate. Applicability of the direct injection method is shown for surface water and riverbank filtrate samples from an actual drinking water source. Several targets linkable to incomplete removal in wastewater treatment and farming activities were detected and quantified in concentrations between 28 ng/L for saccharine in riverbank filtrate and up to 1 μg/L for acesulfame in surface water. The solid phase extraction method applied to samples from full-scale reverse osmosis drinking water treatment plant led to quantification of 8 targets between 6 and 57 ng/L in the feed water, whereas only diglyme was detected and quantified in reverse osmosis permeate. Our study shows that combining the chromatographic resolution of biphenyl stationary phase with the performance of time-of-flight high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry resulted in a fast, accurate and robust method to monitor polar MPs in source waters by direct injection with high efficiency.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2018.07.036DOI Listing
September 2018

Exposure to Environmental Contaminants and Lung Function in Adolescents-Is There a Link?

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 06 27;15(7). Epub 2018 Jun 27.

Department of Paediatrics and Neonatology, Westfriesgasthuis, Maelsonstraat 3, 1624 NP Hoorn, The Netherlands.

Dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF)), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and brominated flame retardants (BDEs) are well known toxic environmental contaminants. Their possible role in the incidence of respiratory disease is not yet well understood. Previous studies showed a negative effect on lung function in relation to prenatal and lactational dioxin exposure in pre-pubertal children. Effects of BDE exposure on the lung function have not previously been evaluated. As part of a longitudinal cohort study, the effects of perinatal dioxin (PCDD/F) exposure and serum PCDD/F, dl-PCB, and BDE levels on lung function in adolescents were assessed using spirometry, a body box, and diffusion measurements. Thirty-three children (born between 1986 and 1991) consented to the current follow-up study. Prenatal, lactational, and current dioxin, PCB, and BDE concentrations were determined using GC-MS. No relationship was seen between prenatal and lactational dioxin exposure, nor with current PCB body burden, and lung function. Indications of increasing airway obstruction were seen in relation to increasing current BDE exposure. This is a novel finding and certainly warrants further research.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071352DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6069052PMC
June 2018

Wastewater Analysis for Community-Wide Drugs Use Assessment.

Handb Exp Pharmacol 2018;252:543-566

Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Bath, UK.

Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) complements existing epidemiology-based estimation techniques and provides objective, evidence-based estimates of illicit drug use. After consumption, biomarkers - drugs and their metabolites - excreted to toilets and flushed into urban sewer networks can be measured in raw wastewater samples. The quantified loads can serve as an estimate for the collective consumption of all people contributing to the wastewater sample. This transdisciplinary approach, further explained in this chapter, has developed, matured and is now established for monitoring substances such as cocaine and amphetamine-type stimulants. Research currently underway is refining WBE to new applications including new psychoactive substances (NPS).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/164_2018_111DOI Listing
June 2019

A novel sample preparation procedure for effect-directed analysis of micro-contaminants of emerging concern in surface waters.

Talanta 2018 Aug 27;186:527-537. Epub 2018 Apr 27.

KWR Watercycle Research Institute, P.O. Box 1072, 3430 BB Nieuwegein, The Netherlands.

A novel sample preparation procedure relying on Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) combining different sorbent materials on a sequential-based cartridge was optimized and validated for the enrichment of 117 widely diverse contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) from surface waters (SW) and further combined chemical and biological analysis on subsequent extracts. A liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution tandem mass spectrometry LC-(HR)MS/MS protocol was optimized and validated for the quantitative analysis of organic CECs in SW extracts. A battery of in vitro CALUX bioassays for the assessment of endocrine, metabolic and genotoxic interference and oxidative stress were performed on the same SW extracts. Satisfactory recoveries ([70-130]%) and precision (< 30%) were obtained for the majority of compounds tested. Internal standard calibration curves used for quantification of CECs, achieved the linearity criteria (r > 0.99) over three orders of magnitude. Instrumental limits of detection and method limits of quantification were of [1-96] pg injected and [0.1-58] ng/L, respectively; while corresponding intra-day and inter-day precision did not exceed 11% and 20%. The developed procedure was successfully applied for the combined chemical and toxicological assessment of SW intended for drinking water supply. Levels of compounds varied from < 10 ng/L to < 500 ng/L. Endocrine (i.e. estrogenic and anti-androgenic) and metabolic interference responses were observed. Given the demonstrated reliability of the validated sample preparation method, the authors propose its integration in an effect-directed analysis procedure for a proper evaluation of SW quality and hazard assessment of CECs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2018.04.058DOI Listing
August 2018

Comparison of phosphodiesterase type V inhibitors use in eight European cities through analysis of urban wastewater.

Environ Int 2018 06 3;115:279-284. Epub 2018 Apr 3.

KWR Watercycle Research Institute, Chemical Water Quality and Health, P.O. Box 1072, 3430 BB Nieuwegein, The Netherlands; Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, P.O. Box 94248, 1090 GE Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

In this work a step forward in investigating the use of prescription drugs, namely erectile dysfunction products, at European level was taken by applying the wastewater-based epidemiology approach. 24-h composite samples of untreated wastewater were collected at the entrance of eight wastewater treatment plants serving the catchment within the cities of Bristol, Brussels, Castellón, Copenhagen, Milan, Oslo, Utrecht and Zurich. A validated analytical procedure with direct injection of filtered aliquots by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was applied. The target list included the three active pharmaceutical ingredients (sildenafil, tadalafil and vardenafil) together with (bio)transformation products and other analogues. Only sildenafil and its two human urinary metabolites desmethyl- and desethylsildenafil were detected in the samples with concentrations reaching 60 ng L. The concentrations were transformed into normalized measured loads and the estimated actual consumption of sildenafil was back-calculated from these loads. In addition, national prescription data from five countries was gathered in the form of the number of prescribed daily doses and transformed into predicted loads for comparison. This comparison resulted in the evidence of a different spatial trend across Europe. In Utrecht and Brussels, prescription data could only partly explain the total amount found in wastewater; whereas in Bristol, the comparison was in agreement; and in Milan and Oslo a lower amount was found in wastewater than expected from the prescription data. This study illustrates the potential of wastewater-based epidemiology to investigate the use of counterfeit medication and rogue online pharmacy sales.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2018.03.039DOI Listing
June 2018

Wastewater-based epidemiology generated forensic information: Amphetamine synthesis waste and its impact on a small sewage treatment plant.

Forensic Sci Int 2018 May 19;286:e1-e7. Epub 2018 Mar 19.

KWR Watercycle Research Institute, Chemical Water Quality and Health, P.O. Box 1072, 3430 BB Nieuwegein, The Netherlands; Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, P.O. Box 94248, 1090 GE Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Chemical analysis of domestic wastewater can reveal the presence of illicit drugs either consumed by a population or directly discharged into the sewer system. In the search for causes of a recent malfunctioning of a small domestic wastewater treatment plant aberrantly high loads of amphetamine were observed in the influent of the plant. Direct discharges of chemical waste from illegal production sites were suspected to be the cause. Illegal manufacturing of amphetamines creates substantial amounts of chemical waste. Here we show that fly-tipping of chemical waste originating from an amphetamine synthesis in the catchment of a small sewage treatment plant resulted in failure of the treatment process. Target analysis of drugs of abuse and non-target screening using high resolution mass spectrometry provided evidence for the presence of amphetamine produced from the precursor 1-phenylpropan-2-one by the Leuckart process through specific synthesis markers. Furthermore the identity and presence of the pre-precursor 3-oxo-2-phenylbutanamide was confirmed and a route specific marker was proposed. This is the first study that demonstrates that non-target screening of wastewater can identify intermediates, impurities and by products of the synthesis routes used in illegal manufacturing of amphetamine. The profiles of chemicals thus obtained can be used in tracking productions sites within the corresponding sewer catchment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2018.03.019DOI Listing
May 2018

Wastewater-based tracing of doping use by the general population and amateur athletes.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2018 Feb 15;410(6):1793-1803. Epub 2018 Jan 15.

KWR Watercycle Research Institute, P.O. Box 1072, 3430 BB, Nieuwegein, The Netherlands.

The present study investigates the applicability of the chemical analysis of wastewater to assess the use of doping substances by the general population and amateur athletes. To this end, an analytical methodology that can identify and quantify a list of 15 substances from the groups of anabolic steroids, weight loss products, and masking agents in wastewater has been developed. The method uses solid phase extraction to increase the detection sensitivity of the target analytes, expected to be present at very low concentrations (ng L range), and decrease possible matrix interferences. Instrumental analysis is performed by liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry, allowing data acquisition in both full scan and tandem MS mode. The method has been successfully validated at two concentration levels (50 and 200 ng L) with limits of quantification ranging between 0.7 and 60 ng L, intra- and inter-day precision expressed as relative standard deviation below 15%, procedural recoveries between 60 and 160% and matrix effects ranging from 45 to 121%. The stability of the analytes in wastewater was evaluated at different storage temperatures illustrating the importance of freezing the samples immediately after collection. The application of the method to 24-h composite wastewater samples collected at the entrance of three wastewater treatment plants and one pumping station while different sport events were taking place revealed the presence in wastewater, and hence the use, of the weight loss substances ephedrine, norephedrine, methylhexanamine, and 2,4-dinitrophenol. The use of these stimulants was visible just prior and during the event days and in greater amounts than anabolic steroids or masking agents. Graphical abstract Chemical analysis of untreated wastewater reveals the use of prohibited doping substances during amateur sport event.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-017-0835-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5807464PMC
February 2018

How to Adapt Chemical Risk Assessment for Unconventional Hydrocarbon Extraction Related to the Water System.

Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 2019;246:1-32

Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

We identify uncertainties and knowledge gaps of chemical risk assessment related to unconventional drillings and propose adaptations. We discuss how chemical risk assessment in the context of unconventional oil and gas (UO&G) activities differs from conventional chemical risk assessment and the implications for existing legislation. A UO&G suspect list of 1,386 chemicals that might be expected in the UO&G water samples was prepared which can be used for LC-HRMS suspect screening. We actualize information on reported concentrations in UO&G-related water. Most information relates to shale gas operations, followed by coal-bed methane, while only little is available for tight gas and conventional gas. The limited research on conventional oil and gas recovery hampers comparison whether risks related to unconventional activities are in fact higher than those related to conventional activities. No study analyzed the whole cycle from fracturing fluid, flowback and produced water, and surface water and groundwater. Generally target screening has been used, probably missing contaminants of concern. Almost half of the organic compounds analyzed in surface water and groundwater exceed TTC values, so further risk assessment is needed, and risks cannot be waived. No specific exposure scenarios toward groundwater aquifers exist for UO&G-related activities. Human errors in various stages of the life cycle of UO&G production play an important role in the exposure. Neither at the international level nor at the US federal and the EU levels, specific regulations for UO&G-related activities are in place to protect environmental and human health. UO&G activities are mostly regulated through general environmental, spatial planning, and mining legislation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/398_2017_10DOI Listing
January 2019

Enantiomeric profiling of chiral illicit drugs in a pan-European study.

Water Res 2018 03 1;130:151-160. Epub 2017 Dec 1.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Bath, Bath, BA2 7AY, UK. Electronic address:

The aim of this paper is to present the first study on spatial and temporal variation in the enantiomeric profile of chiral drugs in eight European cities. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) and enantioselective analysis were combined to evaluate trends in illicit drug use in the context of their consumption vs direct disposal as well as their synthetic production routes. Spatial variations in amphetamine loads were observed with higher use in Northern European cities. Enantioselective analysis showed a general enrichment of amphetamine with the R-(-)-enantiomer in wastewater indicating its abuse. High loads of racemic methamphetamine were detected in Oslo (EF = 0.49 ± 0.02). This is in contrast to other European cities where S-(+)-methamphetamine was the predominant enantiomer. This indicates different methods of methamphetamine synthesis and/or trafficking routes in Oslo, compared with the other cities tested. An enrichment of MDMA with the R-(-)-enantiomer was observed in European wastewaters indicating MDMA consumption rather than disposal of unused drug. MDA's chiral signature indicated its enrichment with the S-(+)-enantiomer, which confirms its origin from MDMA metabolism in humans. HMMA was also detected at quantifiable concentrations in wastewater and was found to be a suitable biomarker for MDMA consumption. Mephedrone was only detected in wastewater from the United Kingdom with population-normalised loads up to 47.7 mg 1000 people day. The enrichment of mephedrone in the R-(+)-enantiomer in wastewater suggests stereoselective metabolism in humans, hence consumption, rather than direct disposal of the drug. The investigation of drug precursors, such as ephedrine, showed that their presence was reasonably ascribed to their medical use.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2017.11.051DOI Listing
March 2018

Improving wastewater-based epidemiology to estimate cannabis use: focus on the initial aspects of the analytical procedure.

Anal Chim Acta 2017 Oct 18;988:27-33. Epub 2017 Aug 18.

Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat s/n, E-12071, Castellón, Spain. Electronic address:

Wastewater-based epidemiology is a promising and complementary tool for estimating drug use by the general population, based on the quantitative analysis of specific human metabolites of illicit drugs in urban wastewater. Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug and of high interest for epidemiologists. However, the inclusion of its main human urinary metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) in wastewater-based epidemiology has presented several challenges and concentrations seem to depend heavily on environmental factors, sample preparation and analyses, commonly resulting in an underestimation. The aim of the present study is to investigate, identify and diminish the source of bias when analysing THC-COOH in wastewater. Several experiments were performed to individually assess different aspects of THC-COOH determination in wastewater, such as the number of freeze-thaw cycles, filtration, sorption to different container materials and in-sample stability, and the most suitable order of preparatory steps. Results highlighted the filtration step and adjustment of the sample pH as the most critical parameters to take into account when analysing THC-COOH in wastewater. Furthermore, the order of these initial steps of the analytical procedure is crucial. Findings were translated into a recommended best-practice protocol and an inter-laboratory study was organized with eight laboratories that tested the performance of the proposed procedure. Results were found satisfactory with z-scores ≤ 2.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2017.08.011DOI Listing
October 2017